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1.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 45(9): 1009-1014, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33051413

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of HBV infection on PTEN expression, and to explore the possible molecular mechanisms. METHODS: HepG2 cells and HepG2.2.15 cells were cultured under suitable conditions for 48 hours, and the expressions of PTEN, Nrf2 and pGSK3ß in HepG2 and HepG2.2.15 cells were detected by Western blotting. After the blank plasmid (EV) and the plasmid pWXL-Nrf2 were transiently transfected into HepG2 and HepG2.2.15 cells, respectively, the HepG2 and HepG2.2.15 cells were treated with the selective inhibitor of GSK3ß (25 nmol/L LiCl). After 48 h, the expressions of Nrf2, pGSK3ß and PTEN in HepG2 and HepG2.2.15 cells were examined by Western blotting. RESULTS: Expression of PTEN was reduced and the levels of Nrf2 and pGSK3ß were increased in HepG2.2.15 cells compared with those in the HepG2 cells (all P<0.05). After transfection with pWXL-Nrf2, the protein expression of Nrf2 and pGSK3ß in cells were significantly increased while the protein expression of PTEN was decreased (all P<0.05). Furthermore, LiCl treatment up-regulated the protein expression of Nrf2 and pGSK3ß, and eventually suppressed the production of PTEN (all P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: HBV may down-regulate PTEN expression via Nrf2/GSK3ß signaling pathway, which may provide new ideas for the targeting therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Hepáticas , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2 , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/genética , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Humanos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais
2.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237153, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791516

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent neurodegenerative disease characterized by cognitive dysfunction and memory loss as the main symptoms. The deposition of amyloid beta (Aß) and tau hyperphosphorylation are hallmarks of AD and are major therapeutic targets. However, the exact etiology has not yet been fully elucidated; thus, no drug that cures the disease has been approved. JBPOS0101 is a phenyl carbamate compound that has been tested as a drug for epileptic diseases. In our previous study, we showed that JBPOS0101 attenuated the accumulation of Aß as well as the deficits in learning and memory in the 5xFAD mouse model. Here, we tested the dose effect (70 or 35 mg/kg) of JBPOS0101 on the memory defect and pathological markers and further investigated the underlying mechanisms in 5xFAD mice. In the behavior tests, JBPOS0101 treatment ameliorated deficits in learning and memory. Moreover, JBPOS0101 attenuated Aß accumulation and tau phosphorylation. The elevated phosphorylation levels of the active GSK3ß form (GSK3ß-y216) in 5xFAD, which are responsible for tau phosphorylation, decreased in the JBPOS0101-treated groups. Furthermore, the elevation of reactive astrocytes and microglia in 5xFAD mice was attenuated in JBPOS0101-treated groups. These data suggest that JBPOS0101 may be a new drug candidate to lessen amyloid- and tau-related pathology by regulating glial cells.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Proteínas tau/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Memória , Camundongos , Microglia/metabolismo , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico
3.
Life Sci ; 259: 118159, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763288

RESUMO

AIMS: Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) is one of the most common non-motor symptoms of advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). This study aimed to determine whether intranasal insulin has protective effects on cognition in the rat PD model induced by 6-hydroxylase dopamine (6-OHDA) through the insulin signaling pathway. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The rats were given intranasal insulin administration for six weeks after unilateral medial forebrain bundle (MFB) injection of 6-OHDA. Then a series of cognitive-behavioral tests, immunofluorescence, and immunoblotting was performed on the rats. KEY FINDINGS: The results demonstrated that the injection of 6-OHDA in the unilateral MFB damaged working memory and long-term habituation of rats in the T-maze rewarded alternation test and hole-board test. Besides, rats with unilateral 6-OHDA injury performed poorly in terms of escape latency and average speed during the hidden platform training phase rather than in the probe trial of the Morris Water Maze (MWM) test. Immunofluorescence results showed that unilateral 6-OHDA injury in MFB led to the massive death of ipsilateral-substantia nigra (SN) tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons. Western blot results further indicated that 6-OHDA-induced necrosis of ipsilateral-SN dopaminergic neurons reduced the levels of p-Akt (Ser473) and p-GSK3ß (Ser9) in the ipsilateral-hippocampus. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings provide a solid evidence base for the relationship between PD cognitive impairment and insulin signaling pathways.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/tratamento farmacológico , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Proteína Oncogênica v-akt/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença de Parkinson/complicações , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração Intranasal , Animais , Encéfalo/patologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/patologia , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença de Parkinson/psicologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
4.
Chem Biol Interact ; 328: 109144, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32653415

RESUMO

The debilitating nature of cognitive impairment in epilepsy and the potential of some traditional antiepileptics to further deteriorate cognitive function are areas of growing concern. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) deficiency has been linked to reduced seizure threshold as well as cognitive dysfunction. Here, we tested whether sitagliptin (SITA), by virtue of its neuroprotective properties, could alleviate both epilepsy and associated cognitive dysfunction in a rat model of kindling epilepsy. Chemical kindling was induced by subconvulsive doses of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) (30 mg/kg; i.p). SITA (50 mg/kg; p.o) was administered 1 h before PTZ injections. SITA conceivably attenuated PTZ hippocampal histological insult, preserved neuronal integrity and amended neurotransmitter perturbations in rat hippocampi paralleled with enhanced hippocampal GLP-1 levels as well as the downstream cAMP content and protein kinase A (PKA) activity. Moreover, SITA improved cognitive functioning of rats in the Morris water maze which was coupled with hampered hippocampal p(Ser404)-tau and ß-amyloid proteins. SITA replenished p(Ser9)-glycogen synthase kinase-3ß (GSK-3ß). It also opposed the boosted matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels associated with PTZ administration along with mitigation of both ß-secretase-1 (BACE1) immunoreactivity and receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) protein level in rat hippocampi. In conclusion, SITA subdues epileptic and cognitive upshots of PTZ kindling in rats, which might correspond to the modulation of BACE1, amyloidogenic/RAGE axis as well as GSK-3ß/MMP-9/BDNF signaling cascade. SITA effects are probably mediated via boosting GLP-1 and subsequently enhancing GLP-1/GLP-1R signaling.


Assuntos
Secretases da Proteína Precursora do Amiloide/metabolismo , Amiloide/metabolismo , Ácido Aspártico Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Transtornos Cognitivos/induzido quimicamente , Transtornos Cognitivos/metabolismo , Excitação Neurológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor para Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Fosfato de Sitagliptina/farmacologia , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Transtornos Cognitivos/patologia , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/metabolismo , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/patologia , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Masculino , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/metabolismo , Inibição Neural/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Neurotransmissores/metabolismo , Pentilenotetrazol , Ratos Wistar , Convulsões/induzido quimicamente , Convulsões/metabolismo , Convulsões/patologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Memória Espacial/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas tau/metabolismo
5.
Am J Chin Med ; 48(5): 1203-1220, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32668971

RESUMO

Lymph node migration results in poor prognoses for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients. Tricetin, a flavonoid derivative, regulates tumorigenesis activity through its antiproliferative and antimetastatic properties. However, the molecular mechanism of tricetin affecting the migration and invasion of NPC cells remains poorly understood. In this paper, we examined the antimetastatic properties of tricetin in human NPC cells. Our results demonstrated that tricetin at noncytotoxic concentrations (0-80 3M) noticeably reduced the migration and invasion of NPC cells (HONE-1, NPC-39, and NPC-BM). Moreover, tricetin suppressed the indicative protease, presenilin-1 (PS-1), as indicated by protease array. PS-1 was transcriptionally inhibited via the Akt signaling pathway but not mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways, such as the JNK, p38, and ERK1/2 pathways. In addition to upregulating GSK-3[Formula: see text] phosphorylation through Akt suppression, tricetin may downregulate the activity of PS-1. Overall, our study provides new insight into the role of tricetin-induced molecular regulation in the suppression of NPC metastasis and suggests that tricetin has prospective therapeutic applications for patients with NPC.


Assuntos
Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromonas/farmacologia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/genética , Presenilina-1/genética , Presenilina-1/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Expressão Gênica , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Humanos , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/patologia , Invasividade Neoplásica/genética
6.
Parasitol Res ; 119(7): 2217-2226, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32500370

RESUMO

Schistosoma is the causative agent of schistosomiasis, a common infectious disease distributed worldwide. Our previous phosphoproteomic analysis suggested that glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3), a conserved protein kinase in eukaryotes, is likely involved in protein phosphorylation of Schistosoma japonicum. Here, we aimed to identify the interacting partners of S. japonicum GSK3ß (SjGSK3ß) and to evaluate its role in parasite survival. Toward these ends, we determined the transcription levels of SjGSK3ß at different developmental stages and identified its interacting partners of SjGSK3ß by screening a yeast two-hybrid S. japonicum cDNA library. We further used RNA interference (RNAi) to inhibit the expression of SjGSK3ß in adult worms in vitro and examined the resultant changes in transcription of its putative interacting proteins and in worm viability compared with those of control worms. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain analysis indicated that SjGSK3ß is expressed throughout the life cycle of S. japonicum, with higher expression levels detected in the eggs and relatively higher expression level found in male worms than in female worms. By screening the yeast two-hybrid library, eight proteins were identified as potentially interacting with SjGSK3ß including cell division cycle 37 homolog (Cdc37), 14-3-3 protein, tegument antigen (I(H)A), V-ATPase proteolipid subunit, myosin alkali light chain 1, and three proteins without recognized functional domains. In addition, SjGSK3ß RNAi reduced the SjGSK3ß gene transcript level, leading to a significant decrease in kinase activity, cell viability, and worm survival. Collectively, these findings suggested that SjGSK3ß may interact with its partner proteins to influence worm survival by regulating kinase activity.


Assuntos
Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Helminto/metabolismo , Schistosoma japonicum/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/genética , Proteínas de Helminto/genética , Masculino , Ligação Proteica , Interferência de RNA , Schistosoma japonicum/enzimologia , Schistosoma japonicum/genética , Análise de Sobrevida , Técnicas do Sistema de Duplo-Híbrido
7.
Cancer Sci ; 111(9): 3210-3221, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32519357

RESUMO

Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the leading global cause of cancer-related death. Due to the lack of reliable diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers, the prognosis of NSCLC remains poor. Consequently, there is an urgent need to explore the mechanisms underlying this condition in order to identify effective biomarkers. G-protein-signaling modulator 2 (GPSM2) is widely recognized as a determinant of mitotic spindle orientation. However, its role in cancer, especially NSCLC, remains uncertain. In this study, we found that GPSM2 was downregulated in NSCLC tissues and was correlated with a poor prognosis. Furthermore, the knockdown of GPSM2 promoted NSCLC cell metastasis in vitro and in vivo and accelerated the process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Mechanistically, we showed that silencing GPSM2 induced cell metastasis and EMT through the ERK/glycogen synthase kinase-3ß/Snail pathway. These results confirm that GPSM2 plays an important role in NSCLC. Moreover, GPSM2, as an independent prognostic factor, could be a potential prognostic biomarker and drug target for NSCLC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Fatores de Transcrição da Família Snail/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Feminino , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Fatores de Transcrição da Família Snail/metabolismo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
8.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234691, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555658

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Therapeutic ultrasound (US) is a promising physical therapy modality for peripheral nerve regeneration. However, it is necessary to identify the most effective US parameters and clarify the underlying mechanisms before its clinical application. The intensity of US is one of the most important parameters. However, the optimum intensity for the promotion of peripheral nerve regeneration has yet to be determined. OBJECTIVES: To identify the optimum intensity of US necessary for the promotion of peripheral nerve regeneration after crush injuries in rats and to clarify the underlying mechanisms of US by mRNA expression analysis. METHODS: We inflicted sciatic nerve crush injuries on adult Lewis rats and performed ultrasound irradiation using 4 different US intensities: 0 (sham stimulation), 30, 140, and 250 mW/cm2 with frequency (5 days/week) and duration (5 min/day). We evaluated peripheral nerve regeneration by quantitative real-time PCR one week after injury. Histomorphometric analyses and motor function analysis were evaluated 3 weeks after injury. RESULTS: US stimulation enhanced re-myelination as well as sprouting of axons, especially at an intensity of 140 mW/cm2. mRNA expression revealed that US suppressed the expression of the inflammatory cytokines TNF and IL-6 and the axonal growth inhibitors SEMA3A and GSK3ß. CONCLUSIONS: An intensity of 140 mW/cm2 was optimal to support regeneration of the sciatic nerve after a crush injury in rats by, in part, the suppression of pro-inflammatory and nerve growth inhibitor gene expression.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/genética , Regeneração Nervosa , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/fisiopatologia , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/terapia , Semaforina-3A/genética , Terapia por Ultrassom , Animais , Citocinas/metabolismo , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Masculino , Bainha de Mielina/metabolismo , Compressão Nervosa , Regeneração Nervosa/genética , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/diagnóstico por imagem , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ratos Endogâmicos Lew , Nervo Isquiático/lesões , Nervo Isquiático/patologia , Nervo Isquiático/fisiopatologia , Nervo Isquiático/ultraestrutura , Semaforina-3A/metabolismo
9.
Adv Gerontol ; 33(2): 273-281, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32593241

RESUMO

The analysis of experiments and clinical data about research of neurobiological effects of chinese herbal medicine, which is used by Alzheimer`s disease treatment, was presented in given overview. The rats with injection of Aß1-42 or Aß25-35 peptides, or ibotenic acid, or streptozotocin as well as the natural line of mice SAMP8 with the phenotype of accelerated aging and other were used as the experimental models of Alzheimer`s disease. Various neurobiological effects of various herbal decoctions in the cells of hippocampus were demonstrated - the inhibition of amyloid ß peptides aggregation, increasing of neurons quantity with normal morphology and decreasing of apoptotic cells, decreasing of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) production, decreasing of reactive expression level of RAGE and increasing reactive expression level of LRP-1, decreasing of tau protein phosphorylation at Thr231 and Ser422, inhibition of expression of GSK-3ß and CDK-5, decreasing of activation and inflammation of microglia, production of 15 types of N-glycans in the cerebral cortex layers, which are absent in experimental animals. The improvement of memorization and training abilities was established.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteínas tau/metabolismo
10.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 398: 115028, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32360636

RESUMO

NADPH oxidase (NOX) has been identified as a crucial contender of oxidative damage in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the capability of diapocynin, a NOX inhibitor, to offer neuroprotection in AD models is still a matter of debate. Hence, the current work is dedicated to investigate the influence of diapocynin on cognitive impairment prompted by ovariectomy combined with D-galactose injection in rats (an AD animal model), and to elucidate the signaling mechanisms regulating diapocynin-induced effects. Female rats were exposed to ovariectomy or sham operation. Ovariectomized rats were injected intraperitoneally with D-galactose (150 mg/kg/day) for 70 days and, on day 43, they were orally treated with diapocynin (10 mg/kg/day) for 28 days. Diapocynin amended cognitive functions as confirmed using novel object recognition and Morris water maze tests along with histopathological improvement. It caused a prominent decrement in ß-secretase, p-tau, and amyloid ß, contrary to α-secretase elevation in hippocampus and hampered neuroinflammation and oxidative stress, manifested by declined levels of NOX1, tumor necrosis factor-α, and nuclear factor-kappa B p65. In addition, diapocynin augmented synaptophysin, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and phospho-cAMP response element binding protein and enhanced protein expression of phosphorylated forms of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), glycogen synthase kinase-3ß (GSK-3ß), protein kinase B (Akt), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2, ERK kinase kinase (Raf-1), and ERK kinase (MEK) 1/2, while inhibiting those of c-Jun and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). In conclusion, diapocynin attenuated memory impairment and AD-like anomalies via activating Raf-1/MEK/ERK and PI3K/Akt/GSK-3ß, while inhibiting JNK/c-Jun signaling cascades.


Assuntos
Acetofenonas/farmacologia , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos de Bifenilo/farmacologia , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Galactose/metabolismo , Nootrópicos/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
11.
J Pharmacol Sci ; 143(3): 199-208, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32414690

RESUMO

The optimum strategy for heart failure (HF) treatment has yet to be elucidated. This study intended to test the benefit of a combination of valsartan (VAL) and perifosine (PER), a specific AKT inhibitor, in protecting against pressure overload induced mouse HF. Mouse were subjected to aortic banding (AB) surgery to establish HF models and then were given vehicle (HF), VAL (50 mg/kg/d), PER (30 mg/kg/d) or combination of VAL and PER for 4 weeks. Mouse with sham surgery treated with VEH were used for control (VEH). VAL or PER treatment could significantly alleviate mouse heart weight, attenuate cardiac fibrosis and improve cardiac function. The combination treatment of VAL and PER presented much better benefit compared with VAL or PER group respectively. PER treatment significantly inhibited AKT/GSK3ß/mTORC1 signaling. Besides the classic AT1 inhibition, VAL treatment significantly inhibited MAPK (ERK1/2) signaling. Furthermore, VAL and PER treatment could markedly prevent neonatal rat cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and the activation of neonatal rat cardiac fibroblast. Combination of VAL and PER also presented superior beneficial effects than single treatment of VAL or PER in vitro experiments respectively. This study presented that the combination of valsartan and PER may be a potential treatment for HF prevention.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/prevenção & controle , Fosforilcolina/análogos & derivados , Pressão/efeitos adversos , Valsartana/administração & dosagem , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Quimioterapia Combinada , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/patologia , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Tamanho do Órgão , Fosforilcolina/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 399: 115073, 2020 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32454056

RESUMO

Microglial in vivo production of pro-inflammatory cytokines is central to the pathogenesis of multiple neurological disorders including depression, with a rising role of Wnt/ß-catenin signaling as potential regulator of microglia-mediated neuro-inflammation. This study aimed at investigating the hippocampal expression of the Wnt/ß-catenin pathway in chronic mild stress (CMS)-exposed rats and the effects of Lithium (Li) on the expression of this pathway as a method to identify a plausible link between exposure to chronic stress, microglial activation, and neuroinflammation. METHODS: The effect of chronic administration of Li was investigated on behavioral changes, hippocampal expression of Wnt-DVL-GSK3ß-ß-catenin signaling pathway, and microglial activation in CMS-exposed male Wistar rats RESULTS: CMS induced a depressive-like behavior associated with increased pro-inflammatory microglial activation and reduced hippocampal expression of the Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway. Chronic Li treatment ameliorated stress induced-behavioral changes, reduced microglial activation and enhanced the hippocampal expression of Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway. CONCLUSION: This work highlights that Li-induced inhibition of GSK-3ß with subsequent accumulation of ß-catenin could impede pro-inflammatory microglia activation which is a key pathological hallmark associated with depression. Wnt/ß-catenin signaling represents a promising therapeutic target, not only for alleviation of depression, but also for a wide array of neurological disorders.


Assuntos
Citocinas/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Lítio/farmacologia , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Via de Sinalização Wnt/efeitos dos fármacos , beta Catenina/metabolismo , Animais , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Masculino , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Microglia/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
13.
Toxicology ; 438: 152442, 2020 05 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32278051

RESUMO

Bisphenol A (BPA) is a well-known endocrine disruptor used to manufacture polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins. BPA exposure especially occupational perinatal exposure to has been linked to numerous adverse effects for the offspring. Available data have shown that perinatal exposure to BPA contributes to neurodegenerative pathological changes; however, the potential mechanisms remain unclear. This study attempted to investigate the long-term consequences of perinatal exposure to BPA on the offspring mouse brain. The pregnant mice were given either a vehicle control or BPA (2, 10, 100 µg/kg/d) from day 6 of gestation until weaning (P6-PND21, foetal and neonatal exposure). At 3, 6 and 9 months of age, the neurotoxic effects in the offspring in each group were investigated. We found that the spine density but not the dendritic branches in the hippocampus were noticeably reduced at 6 and 9 months of age. Meanwhile, p-Tau, the characteristic protein for tauopathy, was dramatically increased in both the hippocampus and cortex at 3-9 months of age. Mechanically, the balance of kinase and protein phosphatase, which plays critical roles in p-Tau regulation, was disturbed. It indicated that GSK3ß and CDK5, two critical kinases, were activated in most of the BPA perinatal exposure group, while protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), one of the important phosphatases, regulated p-Tau expression through its demethylation, methylation and phosphorylation. Taken together, the present study may be translatable to the human occupational BPA exposure due to a similar exposure level. BPA perinatal exposure causes long-term adverse effects on the mouse brain and may be a risk factor for tauopathies, and the CDK5/GSK3ß/PP2A axis might be a promising therapeutic target for BPA-induced neurodegenerative pathological changes.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Córtex Cerebral/efeitos dos fármacos , Quinase 5 Dependente de Ciclina/metabolismo , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/etiologia , Fenóis/toxicidade , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Proteína Fosfatase 2/metabolismo , Proteínas tau/metabolismo , Animais , Córtex Cerebral/enzimologia , Córtex Cerebral/patologia , Espinhas Dendríticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Espinhas Dendríticas/enzimologia , Espinhas Dendríticas/patologia , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Hipocampo/enzimologia , Hipocampo/patologia , Masculino , Exposição Materna , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/enzimologia , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/patologia , Fosforilação , Gravidez
14.
Toxicology ; 438: 152461, 2020 05 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32278788

RESUMO

The α-Synuclein (α-syn) and tau have synergistic effects on neurodegenerative diseases induced by environmental factors or genetic mutation. Thus, we investigated the role of α-syn and tau in neurodegeneration induced by chronic methamphetamine (METH) exposure (1.0∼20.0 mg/kg/d body weight, for 14 consecutive days). Here, we present a mice model with evidences of α-syn and tau participating in toxicology in chronic METH. METH increased α-syn level in the stratum oriens, pyramidal layer, stratum radiatum and stratum moleculare of hippocampal CA1, CA2 and CA3, polymorph layer of hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG), and substantia nigra (SN). The subcellular locations of the upregulated α-syn were mainly found in mitochondria and axons. The METH upregulated α-syn may directly induce mitochondrial damage, myelin sheath destruction, and synaptic failure. Also, the excess α-syn might indirectly promote tau phosphorylation through tau kinase GSK3ß and CDK5, leading to microtubule depolymerization and eventually fusion deficit of autophagosome and lysosome. In the in vitro experiment, the autophagic vacuoles failed to fuse with the lysosome. The neuropathology induced by both the direct and indirect effects of α-syn could be alleviated by α-syn knockout. Taking together, these results indicate that the α-syn mediates the neurodegenerative process induced by chronic METH and that reducing α-syn might be a potential approach to protect the toxic effects of METH and also be, to a broader view, of therapeutic value in neurodegenerative diseases.


Assuntos
Hipocampo/metabolismo , Degeneração Neural , Neurônios/metabolismo , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/prevenção & controle , Substância Negra/metabolismo , alfa-Sinucleína/deficiência , Animais , Autofagia , Axônios/metabolismo , Axônios/ultraestrutura , Células Cultivadas , Quinase 5 Dependente de Ciclina/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Hipocampo/ultraestrutura , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Lisossomos/ultraestrutura , Masculino , Metanfetamina , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/ultraestrutura , Neurônios/ultraestrutura , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/genética , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/metabolismo , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/patologia , Fosforilação , Substância Negra/ultraestrutura , Fatores de Tempo , alfa-Sinucleína/genética , Proteínas tau/metabolismo
15.
J Acupunct Meridian Stud ; 13(3): 94-103, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32278077

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Perimenopausal depression is caused by the impaired function of the ovarium before menopause and with a series of symptoms. Electroacupuncture (EA) therapy has been demonstrated to improve clinically depression. However, the mechanism underlying its therapeutic activity remains unknown. This study aimed to investigat the effects of EA treatment on the hippocampal neural proliferation through Wnt signaling pathway. METHODS: Chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) combined with bilateral ovariectomy (OVX) were used to establish a rat model of perimenopausal depression. The open field test (OFT) and sucrose preference test (SPT) were used to assess depression-like behaviors in rats. ELISAs were used to measure estrogen (E2), luteinizing hormone (LH) and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) levels in the serum. RT-PCR and Western blot assay were utilized for measuring the mRNA expressions and protein expressions of GSK-3ß/ß-catenin. RESULTS: Four-week EA treatment at three points including "Shenshu" (BL23), "Baihui" (GV20) and "Sanyinjiao" (SP6) simultaneously ameliorated depression-like behaviors in rats with CUMS and OVX, whereas rescued the decreased serum level of E2 and prevented the increased serum levels of GnRH and LH. EA treatment ameliorated CUMS and OVX-induced alterations of glycogen synthase kinase-3ß (GSK-3ß) and ß-catenin mRNA levels, ß-catenin and phosphorylated ß-catenin (p-ß-catenin) protein levels. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that EA treatment promoted hippocampal neural proliferation in perimenopausal depression rats via activating the Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway, indicating that EA may represent an efficacious therapy for perimenopausal depression.


Assuntos
Depressão/terapia , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Neurônios/citologia , Perimenopausa/psicologia , Via de Sinalização Wnt , beta Catenina/metabolismo , Animais , Proliferação de Células , Depressão/etiologia , Depressão/genética , Depressão/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Eletroacupuntura , Feminino , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/genética , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Hipocampo/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Neurônios/metabolismo , Perimenopausa/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , beta Catenina/genética
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32348172

RESUMO

Reactive oxygen species such as hydrogen peroxide have been implicated in causing metabolic dysfunction such as insulin resistance. Heme groups, either by themselves or when incorporated into proteins, have been shown to scavenge peroxide and demonstrate protective effects in various cell types. Thus, we hypothesized that a metalloporphyrin similar in structure to heme, Fe(III)tetrakis(4-benzoic acid)porphyrin (FeTBAP), would be a peroxidase mimetic that could defend cells against oxidative stress. After demonstrating that FeTBAP has peroxidase activity with reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) and NADH as reducing substrates, we determined that FeTBAP partially rescued C2C12 myotubes from peroxide-induced insulin resistance as measured by phosphorylation of AKT (S473) and insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1, Y612). Furthermore, we found that FeTBAP stimulates insulin signaling in myotubes and mouse soleus skeletal muscle to about the same level as insulin for phosphorylation of AKT, IRS-1, and glycogen synthase kinase 3ß (S9). We found that FeTBAP lowers intracellular peroxide levels and protects against carbonyl formation in myotubes exposed to peroxide. Additionally, we found that FeTBAP stimulates glucose transport in myotubes and skeletal muscle to about the same level as insulin. We conclude that a peroxidase mimetic can blunt peroxide-induced insulin resistance and also stimulate insulin signaling and glucose transport, suggesting a possible role of peroxidase activity in regulation of insulin signaling.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Mimetismo Biológico , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/toxicidade , Resistência à Insulina , Insulina/farmacologia , Metaloporfirinas/farmacologia , Mioblastos Esqueléticos/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Peroxidases/farmacologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Proteínas Substratos do Receptor de Insulina/metabolismo , Camundongos , Mioblastos Esqueléticos/metabolismo , Mioblastos Esqueléticos/patologia , Fosforilação , Carbonilação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
17.
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 36(1): 33-41, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32314722

RESUMO

Objective To investigate the role of PI3K/AKT pathway in the proliferation of SW620Lgr5+ colon cancer stem cells (CSCs) in inflammatory environment. Methods The expression level of Lgr5 in SW620, SW480, HT29 and HCT116 human colon cancer cells were analyzed by Western blot analysis. SW620 cells were selected to analyze the proportion of Lgr5+ cells by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS). The cells were cultured in serum-free medium (SFM) to form spheroid cells. Furthermore, Lgr5+ CSCs were isolated from the spheroid cells by FACS system. The biological characteristics of Lgr5+ CSCs were assessed by the colony formation assay and 5-FU chemotherapy sensitivity assay. The inflammatory microenvironment of Lgr5+ CSCs was established with TNF-α and the optimum conditions of TNF-α were analyzed using CCK-8 assay. CSCs were treated with PI3K/AKT pathway inhibitor MK2206. The experimental cells were divided into a blank control group, MK2206 group, TNF-α group and TNF-α combined with MK2206 group. The cell proliferation and apoptosis of each group were detected by colony formation assay and annexin V-FITC/PI double labeling assay. Finally, Western blot analysis was used to analyze the protein expression of AKT, phospho-AKT(p-AKT), GSK-3ß and p-GSK-3ß. Results The expression of Lgr5 in the SW620 cells was significantly higher than that in the other colon cancer cells. FACS showed 6.9% of SW620 cells were Lgr5+. After cultured in SFM, the proportion of Lgr5+ in SW620 spheroid cells increased to 34.5%. The proliferation ability and drug resistance were significantly enhanced in SW620Lgr5+ CSCs compared with SW620 cells. The treatment of 1 ng/mL TNF-α for 24 hours promoted the most remarkably increase of the viability of SW620Lgr5+ CSCs. Compared with the control group, TNF-α significantly increased the colony forming ability of SW620Lgr5+ CSCs. MK2206 statistically decreased the colony forming ability of SW620Lgr5+ CSCs, and increased its apoptosis rate. In addition, MK2206 significantly decreased the colony forming ability of SW620Lgr5+ CSCs compared with the TNF-α treatment group. TNF-α treatment increased the phosphorylation of AKT and GSK-3ß in SW620Lgr5+ CSCs, but the phosphorylation was inhibited by MK2206. Conclusion TNF-α activates PI3K/AKT pathway to promote the proliferation of SW620Lgr5+ CSCs.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/farmacologia , Apoptose , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Humanos , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G , Esferoides Celulares , Microambiente Tumoral
18.
Nat Cell Biol ; 22(4): 389-400, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32231305

RESUMO

In mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs), chemical blockade of Gsk3α/ß and Mek1/2 (2i) instructs a self-renewing ground state whose endogenous inducers are unknown. Here we show that the axon guidance cue Netrin-1 promotes naive pluripotency by triggering profound signalling, transcriptomic and epigenetic changes in mESCs. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Netrin-1 can substitute for blockade of Gsk3α/ß and Mek1/2 to sustain self-renewal of mESCs in combination with leukaemia inhibitory factor and regulates the formation of the mouse pluripotent blastocyst. Mechanistically, we reveal how Netrin-1 and the balance of its receptors Neo1 and Unc5B co-regulate Wnt and MAPK pathways in both mouse and human ESCs. Netrin-1 induces Fak kinase to inactivate Gsk3α/ß and stabilize ß-catenin while increasing the phosphatase activity of a Ppp2r2c-containing Pp2a complex to reduce Erk1/2 activity. Collectively, this work identifies Netrin-1 as a regulator of pluripotency and reveals that it mediates different effects in mESCs depending on its receptor dosage, opening perspectives for balancing self-renewal and lineage commitment.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Receptores de Netrina/genética , Netrina-1/genética , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética , Via de Sinalização Wnt/genética , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Embrião de Mamíferos , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/genética , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Quinase 1 de Adesão Focal/genética , Quinase 1 de Adesão Focal/metabolismo , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/antagonistas & inibidores , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/genética , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Humanos , Isoenzimas/antagonistas & inibidores , Isoenzimas/genética , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Fator Inibidor de Leucemia/genética , Fator Inibidor de Leucemia/metabolismo , MAP Quinase Quinase 1/antagonistas & inibidores , MAP Quinase Quinase 1/genética , MAP Quinase Quinase 1/metabolismo , MAP Quinase Quinase 2/antagonistas & inibidores , MAP Quinase Quinase 2/genética , MAP Quinase Quinase 2/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos SCID , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Murinas/citologia , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Murinas/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Receptores de Netrina/metabolismo , Netrina-1/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/citologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/metabolismo , Proteína Fosfatase 2/genética , Proteína Fosfatase 2/metabolismo , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo , beta Catenina/genética , beta Catenina/metabolismo
19.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 36(4): 763-771, 2020 Apr 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32347070

RESUMO

The recombinant adenoviruses expressing miR-22 (Ad-miR-22) was constructed and the effect of Ad-miR-22 on insulin signal pathway and glucose uptake in HepG2 cells was analyzed. MiR-22 gene was amplified by PCR from human hepatocytes and cloned into the pAdTrack-CMV vector to generate the shuttle plasmid pAdT-22. The positive colonies were confirmed by PCR and sequencing. The resultant shuttle plasmid was linearized with Pme I, followed by co-transformation into competent BJ5183 cells containing an adenoviral backbone plasmid (pAdEasy-1) to create the recombinant plasmid pAd-miR-22. After digested with Pac I, the linearized pAd-miR-22 was transfected into 293A packaging cell line to generate recombinant adenoviruses Ad-miR-22. HepG2 cells were infected with Ad-miR-22 or control Ad-GFP (adenoviruses expressing green fluorescent protein), and then the miR-22 expression levels were analyzed by qPCR. The result shows that adenovirus-mediated overexpression of miR-22 significantly decreased insulin-induced glucose uptake in HepG2 cells. Moreover, overexpression of miR-22 markedly decreased insulin-induced phosphorylation of GSK-3ß. miR-22 also increased the mRNA levels of gluconeogenic genes in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, Western blotting results indicate that the protein expression of SIRT1 decreased in Ad-miR-22 infected HepG2 cells as compared with Ad-GFP infected HepG2 cells. In summary, overexpressing of miR-22 significantly increased gluconeogenesis while decreased glucose uptake in HepG2 cells. The effect of miR-22 on glucose metabolism may be mediated by SIRT1.


Assuntos
Adenoviridae , Glucose , MicroRNAs , Adenoviridae/genética , Glucose/metabolismo , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transfecção
20.
Arch Med Res ; 51(2): 124-134, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111496

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inflammation plays an important role in promoting neurofibroma progression, and macrophages are key inflammatory cells in neurofibroma. AIM OF THIS STUDY: We attempted to clarify the detailed mechanism of infiltrating macrophages promoting neurofibroma progression. METHODS: We performed IHC and Western blot assays to detect the expression levels of OCT3/4, Nanog and SOX2 in tissues and cells. A colony/sphere formation assay was used to analyze cell stemness. MTT, colony formation assay and xenograft tumor model were used to detect cell growth. The transwell system was used to examine macrophage infiltration. RESULTS: We demonstrated increased macrophage infiltration in neurofibroma tissues accompanied by increased stem cell-like markers. Moreover, Nf1-mutated SW10 cells possessed a stronger capacity to recruit macrophages, which in turn facilitated neurofibroma growth. Mechanistically, the infiltrating macrophages induced neurofibroma cell stem cell transition by modulating PI3K/AKT/GSK3ß signaling, which then enhanced neurofibroma cell viability in vivo and in vitro. CONCLUSION: Our results revealed a new mechanism of infiltrating macrophages contributing to neurofibroma progression, and targeting this newly identified signaling may help to treat neurofibroma.


Assuntos
Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Neurofibroma/genética , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Animais , Proliferação de Células , Humanos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Transdução de Sinais
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