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1.
Brain Nerve ; 71(10): 1071-1079, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588051

RESUMO

Next generation sequencing (NGS) technology has dramatically influenced the field of omics studies, such as genomics and transcriptomics. It is now possible to access a significant number of previously known and novel genomic variants through NGS. Although the effective manipulation and accurate interpretation of the inordinate amount of data may pose a considerable challenge, it enables us to identify specific genes responsible for causing or influencing the susceptibility to a plethora of diseases. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common etiology of dementia in the elderly (approximately 60-70%). The current research trend of AD genetics focuses on the analysis of rare variants (allelic frequency <1%) instead of common variants (allelic frequency >1%) to identify AD-associated genes/variants. A number of genes (such as TREM2, ABCA7, SORL1) that carry rare pathogenic variants have reportedly conferred susceptibility to AD with stronger genetic risk effects (odds ratio >2.0). Here, we are going to introduce a small part of the latest many attractive findings about AD genetic researches.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Alelos , Frequência do Gene , Testes Genéticos , Genômica , Humanos , Proteínas Relacionadas a Receptor de LDL/genética , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Receptores Imunológicos/genética
2.
Braz Oral Res ; 33: e058, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432925

RESUMO

Cementum is the mineralized tissue covering the tooth root that functions in tooth attachment and post-eruptive adjustment of tooth position. It has been reported to be highly similar to bone in several respects but remains poorly understood in terms of development and regeneration. Here, we investigate whether cementocytes, the residing cells in cellular cementum, have the potential to be protagonist in cementum homeostasis, responding to endocrine signals and directing local cementum metabolism. Cells from healthy erupted human teeth were isolated using sequential collagenase/EDTA digestions, and maintained in standard cell culture conditions. A cementocyte-like cell line was cloned (HCY-23, for human cementocyte clone 23), which presented a cementocyte compatible gene expression signature, including the expression of dentin matrix protein 1 ( DMP1 ), sclerostin ( SOST ), and E11/gp38/podoplanin ( E11 ). In contrast, these cells did not express the odontoblast/dentin marker dentin sialoprotein ( DSPP ). HCY-23 cells produced mineral-like nodules in vitro under differentiation conditions, and were highly responsive to inorganic phosphate (Pi). Within the limits of the present study, it can be concluded that cementocytes are phosphate-responsive cells, and have the potential do play a key role in periodontal homeostasis and regeneration.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Cemento Dentário/citologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas/análise , Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas/genética , Linhagem Celular , Cemento Dentário/metabolismo , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/análise , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/genética , Feminino , Imunofluorescência , Expressão Gênica , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/análise , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Dente Molar/citologia , Fosfatos/farmacologia , Fosfoproteínas/análise , Fosfoproteínas/genética , Sialoglicoproteínas/análise , Sialoglicoproteínas/genética , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
3.
Gastroenterology ; 157(3): 838-850.e6, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31163177

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Little is known about mechanisms of perineural invasion (PNI) by pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDAs) or other tumors. Annexin A2 (ANXA2) regulates secretion of SEMA3D, an axon guidance molecule, which binds and activates the receptor PLXND1 to promote PDA invasion and metastasis. We investigated whether axon guidance molecules promote PNI and metastasis by PDA cells in mice. METHODS: We performed studies in a dorsal root ganglion (DRG) invasion system, wild-type C57BL/6 mice (controls), mice with peripheral sensory neuron-specific disruption of PlxnD1 (PLAC mice), LSL-KRASG12D/+;LSL-TP53R172H/+;PDX-1-CRE+/+ (KPC) mice, and KPC mice crossed with ANXA2-knockout mice (KPCA mice). PDA cells were isolated from KPC mice and DRG cells were isolated from control mice. Levels of SEMA3D or ANXA2 were knocked down in PDA cells with small hairpin and interfering RNAs and cells were analyzed by immunoblots in migration assays, with DRGs and with or without antibodies against PLXND1. PDA cells were injected into the pancreas of control and PLAC mice, growth of tumors was assessed, and tumor samples were analyzed by histology. DRG cells were incubated with SEMA3D and analyzed by live imaging. We measured levels of SEMA3D and PLXND1 in PDA specimens from patients with PNI and calculated distances between tumor cells and nerves. RESULTS: DRG cells increase the migration of PDC cells in invasion assays; knockdown of SEMA3D in PDA cells or antibody blockade of PLXND1 on DRG cells reduced this invasive activity. In mice, orthotopic tumors grown from PDA cells with knockdown of SEMA3D, and in PLAC mice, orthotopic tumors grown from PDA cells, had reduced innervation and formed fewer metastases than orthotopic tumors grown from PDA cells in control mice. Increased levels of SEMA3D and PLXND1 in human PDA specimens associated with PNI. CONCLUSIONS: DRG cells increase the migratory and invasive activities of pancreatic cancer cells, via secretion of SEMA3D by pancreatic cells and activation of PLXND1 on DRGs. Knockdown of SEMA3D and loss of neural PLXND1 reduces innervation of orthotopic PDAs and metastasis in mice. Increased levels of SEMA3D and PLXND1 in human PDA specimens associated with PNI. Strategies to disrupt the axon guidance pathway mediated by SEMA3D and PLXND1 might be developed to slow progression of PDA.


Assuntos
Anexina A2/metabolismo , Orientação de Axônios , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/metabolismo , Movimento Celular , Gânglios Espinais/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Semaforinas/metabolismo , Animais , Anexina A2/deficiência , Anexina A2/genética , Orientação de Axônios/genética , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/genética , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/secundário , Comunicação Celular , Gânglios Espinais/patologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Genes p53 , Genes ras , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Humanos , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/deficiência , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Camundongos da Linhagem 129 , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Invasividade Neoplásica , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/deficiência , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Crescimento Neuronal , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Fenótipo , Semaforinas/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Transativadores/genética , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
4.
Arch Virol ; 164(9): 2309-2314, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31172288

RESUMO

The surface (SU) and transmembrane (TM) glycoproteins of many retroviruses are linked by disulphide bonds, and the interaction of SU with a cellular receptor results in disulphide bond isomerisation triggered by the CXXC motif in SU. This reaction leads to the fusion of viral and host cell membranes. In this work, we show that the cysteine at amino acid position 212 in the CAIC motif of the SU glycoprotein of bovine leukaemia virus has a free thiol group. A C-to-A mutation at position 212, either individually or in combination with a C-to-A mutation at position 215, was found to inhibit the maturation process, suggesting its involvement in the formation of the covalent bond with TM.


Assuntos
Cisteína/metabolismo , Leucose Enzoótica Bovina/virologia , Vírus da Leucemia Bovina/genética , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/química , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Internalização do Vírus , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Bovinos , Sequência Conservada , Cisteína/genética , Vírus da Leucemia Bovina/química , Vírus da Leucemia Bovina/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Leucemia Bovina/fisiologia , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Mutação
5.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(8): 1217-1222, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31235932

RESUMO

Variants in the triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) have been associated with increased risk for sporadic, late-onset Alzheimer's disease. Here we show that germline knockout of Trem2 or the TREM2R47H variant reduces microgliosis around amyloid-ß plaques and facilitates the seeding and spreading of neuritic plaque tau aggregates. These findings demonstrate a key role for TREM2 and microglia in limiting the development of peri-plaque tau pathologies.


Assuntos
Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Placa Amiloide/genética , Placa Amiloide/metabolismo , Receptores Imunológicos/genética , Receptores Imunológicos/metabolismo , Tauopatias/genética , Tauopatias/metabolismo , Proteínas tau/genética , Proteínas tau/metabolismo , Animais , Córtex Cerebral/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Microglia/patologia
6.
Med Mycol J ; 60(2): 29-37, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155569

RESUMO

We previously reported that Candida albicans responded to mild heat stress in a range of temperature elevations simulating fever, and concluded that mild heat stress increases susceptibility to antifungal drugs. In this study, we show that mild heat stress causes a morphological change in hyphae during the process of biofilm formation. We found that mild heat stress extended the period of hyphal stage maintenance in C. albicans biofilm. Although the rate of hyphal change from yeast form to hyphal form reached the maximum within 3 hr, later, almost every cell quickly reverted to the yeast growth phase within 6 hr at 37°C but not at 39°C, or under mild heat stress. Electron microscopy using a smart specimen preparation technique revealed that mild heat stress significantly increased the thickness of the inner cell wall accompanied by a decrease in density of the outer cell wall in the hyphae of C. albicans biofilm. To identify the gene responsible for the morphological changes associated with mild heat stress, we performed microarray gene expression analysis. Eleven genes were upregulated and 17 genes were downregulated under mild heat stress in biofilm cells. The increased PHR1 gene expression in response to mild heat stress was confirmed in quantitative RT-PCR analysis. The mutant upregulated PHR1 expression showed the same sensitivity against antifungal drug micafungin as dependent on mild heat stress. Our findings point to possible therapeutic effects of hyperthermia as well as to the effect of fever during infections.


Assuntos
Biofilmes , Candida albicans/citologia , Candida albicans/fisiologia , Parede Celular/patologia , Febre/microbiologia , Temperatura Alta , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Candida albicans/genética , Candida albicans/ultraestrutura , Candidíase/terapia , Parede Celular/ultraestrutura , Regulação para Baixo/genética , Farmacorresistência Fúngica/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica/genética , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Hifas , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Micafungina/farmacologia , Microscopia Eletrônica , Fatores de Tempo
7.
Soft Matter ; 15(22): 4525-4540, 2019 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31099376

RESUMO

The complex-type glycan shields of eukaryotic cells have a core layer of mannose residues buried under tiers of sugars that end with sialic acid (SA) residues. We investigate if the self-latching of mannose residues, earlier reported in pure monolayer studies, also manifests in the setting of a complex-type glycan shield. Would distal SA residues impede access to the mannose core? The interactions of mannobiose-, SA-, and lactose-coated probes with the complex-type VSV-G glycan shield on an HIV pseudovirus were studied with force-spectroscopy and gold-nanoparticle solutions. In force spectroscopy, the sugar probes can be forced to sample the depths of the glycan shield, whereas with sugar-coated nanoparticles, only interactions permitted by freely-diffusive contact occur. Deep-indentation mechanics was performed to verify the inferred structure of the engineered virus and to isolate the glycan shield layer for subsequent interaction studies. The adhesion between the sugar-probes and complex-type glycan shield was deconvoluted by comparing against the cross- and self- adhesions between the sugars in pure monolayers. Results from complementing systems were consistent with mannobiose-coated probes latching to the mannose core in the glycan shield, unhindered by the SA and distal sugars, with a short-range 'brittle' release of adhesion resulting in tightly coated viruses. SA-Coated probes, however, adhere to the terminal SA layer of a glycan shield with long-range and mechanically 'tough' adhesions resulting in large-scale virus aggregation. Lactose-coated probes exhibit ill-defined adherence to sialic residues. The selection and positioning of sugars within a glycan shield can influence how carbohydrate surfaces of different composition adhere.


Assuntos
HIV-1/química , Manose/química , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/química , Ácido N-Acetilneuramínico/química , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/química , Células HEK293 , HIV-1/genética , HIV-1/metabolismo , Humanos , Manose/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Ácido N-Acetilneuramínico/metabolismo , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/genética , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/metabolismo
8.
Neuron ; 103(2): 250-265.e8, 2019 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31122677

RESUMO

Activity-dependent myelination is thought to contribute to adaptive neurological function. However, the mechanisms by which activity regulates myelination and the extent to which myelin plasticity contributes to non-motor cognitive functions remain incompletely understood. Using a mouse model of chemotherapy-related cognitive impairment (CRCI), we recently demonstrated that methotrexate (MTX) chemotherapy induces complex glial dysfunction for which microglial activation is central. Here, we demonstrate that remote MTX exposure blocks activity-regulated myelination. MTX decreases cortical Bdnf expression, which is restored by microglial depletion. Bdnf-TrkB signaling is a required component of activity-dependent myelination. Oligodendrocyte precursor cell (OPC)-specific TrkB deletion in chemotherapy-naive mice results in impaired cognitive behavioral performance. A small-molecule TrkB agonist rescues both myelination and cognitive impairment after MTX chemotherapy. This rescue after MTX depends on intact TrkB expression in OPCs. Taken together, these findings demonstrate a molecular mechanism required for adaptive myelination that is aberrant in CRCI due to microglial activation.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Cognitivos/patologia , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Metotrexato/uso terapêutico , Bainha de Mielina/metabolismo , Animais , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/genética , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Córtex Cerebral/efeitos dos fármacos , Córtex Cerebral/metabolismo , Channelrhodopsins/genética , Channelrhodopsins/metabolismo , Transtornos Cognitivos/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Proteínas Luminescentes/genética , Proteínas Luminescentes/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Bainha de Mielina/patologia , Bainha de Mielina/ultraestrutura , Células Precursoras de Oligodendrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Orgânicos/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , Recognição (Psicologia)/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Ureia/análogos & derivados , Ureia/metabolismo
9.
Molecules ; 24(9)2019 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31067702

RESUMO

PM2.5 is particulate matter with a diameter of 2.5 µm or less. Airway macrophages are the key players regulating PM2.5-induced inflammation. High molecular weight hyaluronan (HMW-HA) has previously been shown to exert protective effects on PM2.5-induced acute lung injury and inflammation. However, little is known about the detailed mechanism. In this study, we aimed to determine whether HMW-HA alleviates PM2.5-induced pulmonary inflammation by modulating macrophage polarization. The levels of M1 biomarkers TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6, CXCL1, CXCL2, NOS2 and CD86, as well as M2 biomarkers IL-10, MRC1, and Arg-1 produced by macrophages were measured by ELISA, qPCR, and flow cytometry. In addition, the amount of M1 macrophages in lung tissues was examined by immunofluorescence of CD68 and NOS2. We observed a decline in PM2.5-induced M1 polarization both in macrophages and lung tissues when HMW-HA was administered simultaneously. Meanwhile, western blot analysis revealed that PM2.5-induced JNK and p38 phosphorylation was suppressed by HMW-HA. Furthermore, in vitro and in vivo studies showed that co-stimulation with HMW-HA and PM2.5 promoted the expression and release of IL-10, but exhibited limited effects on the transcription of MRC1 and ARG1. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that HMW-HA ameliorates PM2.5-induced lung inflammation by repressing M1 polarization through JNK and p38 pathways and promoting the production of pro-resolving cytokine IL-10.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Hialurônico/administração & dosagem , Interleucina-10/genética , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/genética , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/patologia , Animais , Arginase/genética , Biomarcadores , Polaridade Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/genética , Humanos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/patologia , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Peso Molecular , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Pneumonia/induzido quimicamente , Pneumonia/genética , Pneumonia/patologia , Ratos
10.
Dis Markers ; 2019: 8282414, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31089399

RESUMO

Objective: The synaptic adhesion-like molecule (SALM) family is largely restricted to neural tissues and is involved in the regulation of neurite outgrowth and synapse formation. However, the expression of SALM3 in gastric cancer (GC) and its clinical significance remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prognostic value of SALM3 in patients with GC. Patients and Methods: Expression of SALM3 was validated by tissue microarrays from 730 GC patients and statistically assessed for correlations with the clinical parameters and the prognosis of the patients. The transcriptional and survival data of SALM3 in GC patients were also mined through the Oncomine and Kaplan-Meier Plotter databases. Results: SALM3 is overexpressed in the tumor cells and fibroblasts of clinical GC tissues, and a high level of SALM3 was significantly associated with tumor invasive characteristics. Cox proportional hazards univariate and multivariate regression analyses revealed SALM3 expression in tumor cells or stroma as an independent prognostic factor in the overall survival rate of GC patients. Furthermore, the survival of GC patients with high SALM3 expression in both tumor cells and fibroblasts was significantly poorer than that of the other groups. Oncomine and Kaplan-Meier Plotter analyses further confirmed high levels of SALM3 expression in GC, and high levels of SALM3 expression were associated with shorter survival in patients. Conclusion: SALM3 may be a prognostic factor for GC and may potentially be a high-priority therapeutic target.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia
11.
Mol Vis ; 25: 222-236, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31057322

RESUMO

Purpose: Glaucoma is characterized by optic nerve damage and retinal ganglion cell loss. The glycoprotein neuromedin B-associated (Gpnmb) gene is well-known to be involved in the glaucoma disease process. The purpose of this study is to identify a downstream gene through which Gpnmb affects the glaucoma phenotypes using a systems genetics approach. Methods: Retinal gene expression data for the BXD recombinant inbred (RI) strains (n=75) have previously been generated in our laboratory for a glaucoma study, and these data were used for genetic and bioinformatics analysis. Expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) mapping and genetic correlation methods were used to identify a gene downstream of Gpnmb. Gene-set enrichment analysis was used to evaluate gene function and to construct coexpression networks. Results: The level of Gpnmb expression is associated with a highly statistically significant cis-eQTL. Stanniocalcin 1 (Stc1) has a significant trans-eQTL mapping to the Gpnmb locus. The expression of Gpnmb and Stc1 is highly correlated in the retina and other tissues, as well as with glaucoma-related phenotypes. Gene Ontology and pathway analysis showed that Stc1 and its covariates are highly associated with apoptosis, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial activity. A generated gene network indicated that Gpnmb and Stc1 are directly connected to and interact with other genes with similar biologic functions. Conclusions: These results suggest that Stc1 may be a downstream candidate of Gpnmb, and that both genes interact with other genes in a network to develop glaucoma pathogenesis through mechanisms such as apoptosis and oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Proteínas do Olho/genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Glaucoma/genética , Glicoproteínas/genética , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Animais , Apoptose , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Proteínas do Olho/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Ontologia Genética , Glaucoma/metabolismo , Glaucoma/patologia , Glicoproteínas/metabolismo , Humanos , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Estresse Oxidativo , Fenótipo , Mapeamento de Interação de Proteínas , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Transdução de Sinais
13.
Acta Neurol Scand ; 140(3): 169-176, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31070779

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Up to 40% of patients with epilepsy become drug resistant (DRE). Genetic factors are likely to play a role. While efforts have focused on the transporter and target hypotheses, neither of them fully explains the pan-pharmacoresistance seen in DRE. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, we developed and used a phenotyping algorithm for the identification of DRE, responders, and epilepsy-free controls that were sequenced using a gene panel developed by the Pharmacogenomics Research Network (PGRN), which includes 82 genes involved in drug response. We tested the transporter hypothesis of DRE, the association between drug resistance and variants in the ATP-binding cassette family of genes previously associated with DRE, and also investigated potential new genetic factors. RESULTS: In the analysis of DRE vs controls, NTRK2 was significantly associated with DRE (rs76950094; P = 1.19 × 10-7 and gene-based P-value = 1.67 × 10-4 ). NTRK2 encodes TrkB, which is involved in the development and maturation of the central nervous system, and increased activation of TrkB signaling is suggested to promote epilepsy. CONCLUSION: Although the role of NTRK2 in DRE needs to be elucidated, these results support alternative mechanisms underlying DRE, complementary to the existing hypotheses, that should be evaluated.


Assuntos
Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/genética , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Receptor trkB/genética , Adulto , Algoritmos , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/classificação , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fenótipo
14.
Oncology ; 97(1): 26-37, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31071716

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Normally, activation of tropomyosin-related kinase (TRK) receptors by neurotrophins (NTs) stimulates intracellular pathways involved in cell survival and proliferation. Dysregulation of NT/TRK signaling may affect neoplasm prognosis. Data on NT and TRK expression in melanomas are limited, and it is unclear whether NT/TRK signaling pathways are involved in the origin and progression of this neoplasm. METHODS: We examined whether NT/TRK expression differs across different cutaneous melanoma grades and subtypes, and whether it is associated with melanoma prognosis and survival. A cross-sectional study was performed in which the expression of TrkA, TrkB, nerve growth factor (NGF), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was analyzed by immunohistochemistry of 154 melanoma samples. We investigated NT/TRK expression associations with prognostic factors for melanoma, relapse-free survival (RFS), and overall survival (OS). RESULTS: Of the 154 melanoma samples, 77 (55.4%) were TrkA immunopositive, 81 (58.3%) were TrkB immunopositive, 113 (81.3%) were BDNF immunopositive, and 104 (75.4%) were NGF immunopositive. We found NT/TRK expression associated strongly with several clinical prognostic factors, including the tumor-node-metastasis stage (p < 0.001), histological subtype (p < 0.001), and Clark level (p < 0.05), as well as with a worse OS (p < 0.05 for all, except TrkB) and RFS (p < 0.05 for all). CONCLUSIONS: Our results show strong associations of NT/TRK expression with melanoma stage progression and a poor prognosis.


Assuntos
Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/genética , Melanoma/genética , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Fatores de Crescimento Neural/genética , Receptor trkA/genética , Receptor trkB/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Melanoma/imunologia , Melanoma/patologia , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fator de Crescimento Neural/genética , Fatores de Crescimento Neural/imunologia , Prognóstico , Receptor trkA/imunologia , Receptor trkB/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais , Neoplasias Cutâneas/imunologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Cancer Sci ; 110(7): 2237-2246, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31127873

RESUMO

Glycoprotein NMB (GPNMB) is highly expressed in many types of malignant tumors and thought to be a poor prognostic factor in those cancers, including breast cancer. Glycoprotein NMB is a type IA transmembrane protein that has a long extracellular domain (ECD) and a short intracellular domain (ICD). In general, the ECD of a protein is involved in protein-protein or protein-carbohydrate interactions, whereas the ICD is important for intracellular signaling. We previously reported that GPNMB contributes to the initiation and malignant progression of breast cancer through the hemi-immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (hemITAM) in its ICD. Furthermore, we showed that the tyrosine residue in hemITAM is involved in induction of the stem-like properties of breast cancer cells. However, the contribution of the ECD to its tumorigenic function has yet to be fully elucidated. In this study, we focused on the region, the so-called kringle-like domain (KLD), that is conserved among species, and made a deletion mutant, GPNMB(ΔKLD). Enhanced expression of WT GPNMB induced sphere and tumor formation in breast epithelial cells; in contrast, GPNMB(ΔKLD) lacked these activities without affecting its molecular properties, such as subcellular localization, Src-induced tyrosine phosphorylation at least in overexpression experiments, and homo-oligomerization. Additionally, GPNMB(ΔKLD) lost its cell migration promoting activity, even though it reduced E-cadherin expression. Although the interaction partner binding to KLD has not yet been identified, we found that the KLD of GPNMB plays an important role in its tumorigenic potential.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/química , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Mutação , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Caderinas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular , Sequência Conservada , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Kringles , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Camundongos , Transplante de Neoplasias
16.
J Clin Pathol ; 72(7): 460-467, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31072837

RESUMO

The neurotrophic tyrosine receptor kinase (NTRK) gene family encodes three tropomyosin receptor kinases (TRKA, TRKB, TRKC) that contribute to central and peripheral nervous system development and function. NTRK gene fusions are oncogenic drivers of various adult and paediatric tumours. Several methods have been used to detect NTRK gene fusions including immunohistochemistry, fluorescence in situ hybridisation, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, and DNA- or RNA-based next-generation sequencing. For patients with TRK fusion cancer, TRK inhibition is an important therapeutic target. Following the FDA approval of the selective TRK inhibitor, larotrectinib, as well as the ongoing development of multi-kinase inhibitors with activity in TRK fusion cancer, testing for NTRK gene fusions should become part of the standard diagnostic process. In this review we discuss the biology of NTRK gene fusions, and we present a testing algorithm to aid detection of these gene fusions in clinical practice and guide treatment decisions.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/genética , Fatores de Crescimento Neural/genética , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/genética , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/genética , Algoritmos , Humanos , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/antagonistas & inibidores , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/enzimologia , Fatores de Crescimento Neural/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor trkA/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor trkA/genética , Receptor trkB/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor trkB/genética , Receptor trkC/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor trkC/genética
17.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2121, 2019 05 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31073183

RESUMO

Pulmonary immune control is crucial for protection against pathogens. Here we identify a pathway that promotes host responses during pulmonary bacterial infection; the expression of CD200 receptor (CD200R), which is known to dampen pulmonary immune responses, promotes effective clearance of the lethal intracellular bacterium Francisella tularensis. We show that depletion of CD200R in mice increases in vitro and in vivo infectious burden. In vivo, CD200R deficiency leads to enhanced bacterial burden in neutrophils, suggesting CD200R normally limits the neutrophil niche for infection. Indeed, depletion of this neutrophil niche in CD200R-/- mice restores F. tularensis infection to levels seen in wild-type mice. Mechanistically, CD200R-deficient neutrophils display significantly reduced reactive oxygen species production (ROS), suggesting that CD200R-mediated ROS production in neutrophils is necessary for limiting F. tularensis colonisation and proliferation. Overall, our data show that CD200R promotes the antimicrobial properties of neutrophils and may represent a novel antibacterial therapeutic target.


Assuntos
Francisella tularensis/patogenicidade , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Tularemia/imunologia , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Francisella tularensis/imunologia , Humanos , Fragmentos Fc das Imunoglobulinas , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/microbiologia , Pulmão/patologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/microbiologia , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Neutrófilos/microbiologia , Cultura Primária de Células , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/imunologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Tularemia/microbiologia
18.
J Immunol Res ; 2019: 7026067, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30949517

RESUMO

Aim: The RelB gene plays an important role in guiding the progression of arthritis. We have previously demonstrated that the expression of the RelB gene is decreased significantly in bone marrow DCs of CD38-/- mice. In this study, we demonstrate that the cluster of the differentiation (CD38) gene could be a potentially therapeutic target for autoimmune arthritis. Method: Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) models were generated with both the wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 and CD38-/- mice. The expression of the RelB gene and maturation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DCs) from the WT and CD38-/- mice were detected. Antigen-specific T cell responses, joint damage, and expression of proinflammatory cytokines were assessed. The effects of the Nuclear Factor Kappa B (NF-κB) transcription factor and its mechanisms were characterized. Results: We demonstrated that in CD38-/- mice, the expression of the RelB gene and major histocompatibility complex II (MHC II) was decreased, accompanied with the inhibited T cell reaction in a mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) in bone marrow-derived DCs. Compared to the serious degeneration of the cartilage and the enlarged gap of the cavum articular in WT CIA mice, joint pathological changes of the CD38-/- CIA mice revealed marked attenuation, while the joint structures were well preserved. The preserved effects were observed by the inhibition of proinflammatory cytokines and promotion of anti-inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, decreased phosphorylation of NF-κB was also observed in CD38-/- CIA mice. Conclusion: We demonstrate that CD38 could regulate CIA through NF-κB and this regulatory molecule could be a novel target for the treatment of autoimmune inflammatory joint disease.


Assuntos
ADP-Ribosil Ciclase 1/genética , Artrite Experimental/fisiopatologia , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , ADP-Ribosil Ciclase 1/imunologia , Animais , Artrite Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Autoimunes/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Diferenciação Celular , Colágeno , Citocinas/imunologia , Regulação para Baixo , Genes MHC da Classe II , Masculino , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , NF-kappa B/genética , Fosforilação , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Fator de Transcrição RelB/genética , Fator de Transcrição RelB/imunologia
19.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi ; 36(5): 480-483, 2019 May 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31030438

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To delineate the clinical and genetic features of a Chinese boy suspected for Niemann-Pick disease type C. METHODS: The patient underwent clinical examination and was subjected to next generation sequencing. Suspected mutations were validated by Sanger sequencing. Potential impact of the novel mutation was predicted by SIFT, PolyPhen-2 and MutationTaster software. RESULTS: The child has featured hepatosplenomegaly, increased direct bilirubin, jaundiced skin and liver damage. DNA sequencing showed that he has carried compound heterozygous mutations of NPC1 gene, namely c.2728GG (p.P90R), which were inherited from his mother and father, respectively. The c.2728G>A (p.G910S) mutation was previously reported, while the c.269C>G (p.P90R) was a novel mutation. CONCLUSION: The child has suffered from Niemann-Pick disease type C due to mutations of NPC1 gene. Above finding has enriched the spectrum of NPC1 mutations and provided a basis for genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Doença de Niemann-Pick Tipo C , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Bilirrubina , Criança , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação , Doença de Niemann-Pick Tipo C/genética
20.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 312, 2019 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30947697

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The tumour microenvironment is a critical regulator of malignant cancer progression. While endothelial cells have been widely studied in the context of tumour angiogenesis, their role as modulators of cancer cell invasion and migration is poorly understood. METHODS: We have investigated the influence of endothelial cells on the invasive and migratory behaviour of human cancer cells in vitro. RESULTS: Upon exposure to culture supernatants of endothelial cells, distinct cancer cells, such as SK-BR-3 cells, showed significantly increased invasion and cell migration concomitant with changes in cell morphology and gene expression reminiscent of an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Interestingly, the pro-migratory effect on SK-BR-3 cells was significantly enhanced by supernatants obtained from subconfluent, proliferative endothelial cells rather than from confluent, quiescent endothelial cells. Systematically comparing the supernatants of subconfluent and confluent endothelial cells by quantitative MS proteomics revealed eight candidate proteins that were secreted at significantly higher levels by confluent endothelial cells representing potential inhibitors of cancer cell migration. Among these proteins, nidogen-1 was exclusively expressed in confluent endothelial cells and was found to be necessary and sufficient for the inhibition of SK-BR-3 cell migration. Indeed, SK-BR-3 cells exposed to nidogen-1-depleted endothelial supernatants showed increased promigratory STAT3 phosphorylation along with increased cell migration. This reflects the situation of enhanced SK-BR-3 migration upon stimulation with conditioned medium from subconfluent endothelial cells with inherent absence of nidogen-1 expression. CONCLUSION: The identification of nidogen-1 as an endothelial-derived inhibitor of migration of distinct cancer cell types reveals a novel mechanism of endothelial control over cancer progression.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/fisiologia , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/fisiologia , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Invasividade Neoplásica/patologia , Fosforilação , Cultura Primária de Células , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo
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