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1.
Phytomedicine ; 75: 153246, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32510336

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is of utmost significance to choose the bioactive components as quality markers for ensuring the effectiveness of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Nonetheless, some markers are able to assess effectively the quality of TCM without considering the pharmacological mechanisms and intrinsic chemical complexities. OBJECTIVE: This underscores the need to discover new and efficient markers which can assess both quality and mechanism of action. Herein, a strategy of bioactive-chemical quality marker combination was proposed to improve the level of the quality control of TCM by metabolomics coupled with chemometrics. METHODS: A four-step plan was followed. Firstly, acquisition of metabolic features and component characterization of different batches of pollen of Typha orientalis C.Presl were performed using UHPLC-Q-TOF/MS. Secondly, the direct inhibitory effects of pollen of T. orientalis on thrombin was assessed by using chromogenic substrate method together with HPLC. Thereafter, bioactive-chemical marker combination associated with anti-thrombin segregation was screened using supervised classifiers. Finally, quantitative assay and prediction-model of selected markers were established for guarantying the quality of pollen of T. orientalis. RESULTS: A total of 22 compounds were annotated based on comparison with previous work from pollen of T. orientalis by UHPLC-Q-TOF/MS. Citric acid and linolenic acid inhibited the thrombin activity with IC50 values, 0.52 ± 0.02 and 0.51 ± 0.02 mg/mL, respectively. A bioactive-chemical marker combination including citric acid, linolenic acid, typhaneoside, and isorhamnetin-3-O-neohesperidoside were discovered and selected as quality markers for evaluation of pollen of T. orientalis according to their capacity for inhibiting thrombin. CONCLUSION: The thrombin-based discovery strategy of bioactive-chemical marker combination was a powerful tool for screening the quality markers for evaluation of pollen of T. orientalis.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/análise , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Pólen/química , Trombina/antagonistas & inibidores , Typhaceae/química , Biomarcadores/análise , Biomarcadores Farmacológicos/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Flavonóis/análise , Glicosídeos/análise , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/normas , Metabolômica/métodos , Controle de Qualidade , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32169797

RESUMO

Daodi medicinal material (DMM), which is traditional Chinese herbal medicine that has been used for long periods and have gained credibility in clinical practice, is part of the Chinese culture. However, Zhongning Goji berries (ZNG), a DMM, are illegally adulterated in the market by adding non Zhongning goji berries (NZNG). Consequently, the development of biomarker(s) is necessary for proper identification of ZNG and NZNG. In this study, a nontargeted metabolomics approach based on ultra high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS) was used to find the differential composition between ZNG and NZNG. Using a combination of single-factor and multivariate statistical analyses, seven compounds with significant differences were discovered and identified, one of which was an unreported compound (a glycoside of pyrrolidine alkaloid). These compounds could be used as single biomarkers for receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. In particular, the binary logistic regression result showed that two sets of combinative biomarkers to distinguish ZNG from NZNG with good sensitivity and specificity. Moreover, there was a significant positive correlation between the two combinative biomarkers and the glycoside of pyrrolidine alkaloid. The results of this study provide new ideas on the developments of ZNG identification, authenticity control and against adulteration in the Chinese circulation market.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Lycium/química , Alcaloides/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Glicosídeos/análise , Análise Multivariada , Análise de Componente Principal , Controle de Qualidade , Curva ROC , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
3.
Biomed Chromatogr ; 34(4): e4807, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32020626

RESUMO

Periplocae Cortex, named Xiang-Jia-Pi in China, has been widely used to treat autoimmune diseases, especially rheumatoid arthritis. However, the in vivo substances of Periplocae Cortex remain unknown yet. In this study, an ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry was used for profiling the chemical components and related metabolites of Periplocae Cortex. A total of 98 constituents were identified or tentatively characterized in Periplocae Cortex: 42 C21 steroidal glycosides, 10 cardiac glycosides, 23 organic acids, 4 aldehydes, 7 triterpenes, and 12 other types. Among them, 18 components were unambiguously identified by comparison with reference standards. In addition, 176 related xenobiotics (34 prototypes and 142 metabolites) were screened out and characterized in rats' biosamples (plasma, urine, bile, and feces) after the oral administration of Periplocae Cortex. Moreover, the metabolic fate of periplocoside S-4a, a C21 steroidal glycoside, was proposed for the first time. In summary, phase II reactions (methylation, glucuronidation, and sulfation), phase I reactions (hydrolysis reactions, oxygenation, and reduction), and their combinations were the predominant metabolic reactions of Periplocae Cortex in rat. It is the first report to reveal the in vivo substances and metabolism feature of Periplocae Cortex. This study also provided meaningful information for further pharmacodynamics study of Periplocae Cortex, as well as its quality control research.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/análise , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Periploca/química , Administração Oral , Aldeídos/análise , Aldeídos/química , Animais , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Glicosídeos/análise , Glicosídeos/química , Masculino , Casca de Planta/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Triterpenos/análise , Triterpenos/química
4.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228641, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32053630

RESUMO

The use of plant tissue analysis as a tool for attaining low cyanogenic glucoside levels in cassava roots, has hardly been investigated. Just as the quality of crops is improved through the use of plant tissue analysis, the same can probably be done to consistently attain the lowest possible cyanogenic glucoside levels in cassava roots. High levels of cyanogenic glucosides in consumed fresh cassava roots or in their products have the potential of causing cyanide intoxication, hence the need to lower them. An experiment was thus conducted to assess the occurrence of meaningful relationships between plant nutritional status and cyanogenic glucoside production in cassava roots. Total hydrogen cyanide (HCN) levels in cassava roots were used to assess cyanogenic glucoside production. Using NPK fertiliser application to induce changes in plant nutritional status, the main objective of the study was investigated using the following sub-objectives; (1) to determine the effects of increased NPK fertiliser application on cassava root HCN levels; (2) and to show the occurrence of relationships between changes in nutrient levels in plant 'indicator tissue' and HCN levels in cassava roots. The study was a field experiment laid out as a split-plot in a randomized complete block design with three replicates. It was repeated in two consecutive years, with soil nutrient deficiencies only being corrected in the second year. The varieties Salanga, Kalinda, Supa and Kiroba were used in the experiment, while the NPK fertiliser treatments included; a control with no fertiliser applied; a moderate NPK treatment (50 kg N + 10 kg P + 50 kg K /ha); and a high NPK treatment (100 kg N + 25 kg P + 100 kg K /ha). A potassium only treatment (50 kg K/ha) was also included, but mainly for comparison. The root HCN levels of Salanga, Kalinda and Kiroba were significantly influenced by NPK fertiliser application in at least one of the two field experiments, while those of Supa remained uninfluenced. Changes in plant nutritional status in response to fertiliser application were thus shown to influence cyanogenic glucoside production. The results of the multiple linear regression analysis for the first field experiment, generally showed that the root HCN levels of some cassava varieties could have been 'reduced' by decreasing concentrations of nitrogen, potassium and magnesium in plants, or by improving plant calcium concentrations along with NPK fertiliser application. However, in the second field experiment (with corrected soil nutrient deficiencies) the regression analysis generally showed that the root HCN levels of some cassava varieties could have been 'reduced' by improving either one or a combination of the nutrients phosphorous, zinc and potassium in plants along with NPK fertiliser application. Although the results obtained in the two experiments had been contradicting due to slight differences in how they were conducted, the study had nonetheless demonstrated the occurrence of meaningful relationships between plant nutritional status and cyanogenic glucoside production; confirming the possible use of plant tissue analysis in predicting fertiliser needs for the consistent attainment of low cyanogenic glucosides in cassava roots.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes , Glucosídeos/análise , Cianeto de Hidrogênio/análise , Manihot/química , Nitrilos/análise , Raízes de Plantas/química , Agricultura , Produtos Agrícolas/química , Cianetos/análise , Glicosídeos/análise , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Modelos Lineares , Nitrogênio/análise , Fósforo/análise , Potássio/análise , Solo
5.
Food Chem ; 317: 126406, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32097823

RESUMO

In this study, 50 tomato landraces grown in Turkey were investigated in terms of their secondary metabolite profiles. Each accession was planted in 2016 and 2017 in 3 replicates in an open field. In this study, color, pH and brix of the fruit samples were measured and an unbiased LCMS-based metabolomics approach was applied. Based on Principal Components Analysis (PCA) and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) of the relative abundance levels of >250 metabolites, it could be concluded that fruit size was the most influential to the biochemical composition, rather than the geographical origin of accessions. Results indicated substantial biodiversity in various metabolites generally regarded as key to fruit quality aspects, including sugars; phenolic compounds like phenylpropanoids and flavonoids; alkaloids and glycosides of flavour-related volatile compounds. The phytochemical data provides insight into which Turkish accessions might be most promising as starting materials for the tomato processing and breeding industries.


Assuntos
Frutas/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Alcaloides/análise , Alcaloides/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida , Análise por Conglomerados , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Glicosídeos/análise , Glicosídeos/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Espectrometria de Massas , Metabolômica/métodos , Metabolômica/estatística & dados numéricos , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/metabolismo , Análise de Componente Principal , Metabolismo Secundário , Turquia
6.
J Chromatogr A ; 1619: 460917, 2020 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32037073

RESUMO

A method for sample pretreatment using liquid-liquid chromatography combined with a conventional liquid chromatography was developed for quantitative determination of trace chemical component in traditional Chinese medicine. The main effective component, wilforlide A, in the traditional Chinese medicinal herb Tripterygium wilfordii as well as in its Chinese patent medicine glycosides tablets was successfully determined after sample pretreatment by liquid-liquid chromatography. A biphasic solvent system n-hexane-ethyl acetate-ethanol-water (6:4:6:4, v/v) was screened for crude sample treatment by liquid-liquid chromatography. The collection time of eluted fractions containing target component could be well predicted using a continuous-stirred tank reactors model after determination of its retention time. Then, quantitative analysis of wilforlide A in Tripterygium wilfordii as well as in its tablets could be successfully determined by conventional reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography with UV detector. Under the optimized conditions, the method showed good linearity (R2 = 0.9999) for wilforlide A in the range of 0.01 mg mL-1 -0.10 mg mL-1. The limit of detection and limit of quantity were 1.35 ng mL-1 and 4.50 ng mL-1, respectively. The average recovery rate, intra-day and inter-day precisions of wilforlide A were 96.43%, 0.67% and 1.14%, respectively. Compared with previous studies, the present method showed advantages of complete recovery of target component in the sample pretreatment and good repeatability.


Assuntos
Química Farmacêutica/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Glicosídeos/análise , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/normas , Ácido Oleanólico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Oleanólico/análise , Tripterygium/química
7.
J Food Sci ; 85(3): 824-833, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078757

RESUMO

The crude flavonoid extract of pollen (CFP) of four species of honeybee pollens were extracted with ethanol, and the total flavonoid contents ranged from 3.4 to 14.5 mg rutin/g dry weight. The antioxidant activities of the CFPs were evaluated from both chemical and cytological aspects. Comprehensive antioxidant scores were determined based on these two evaluation systems. The results showed that canola CFP had the highest antioxidant capacity among the four CFPs. A cytotoxicity assay was conducted to assess the safety threshold of the CFPs, and canola CFP was proved to be the least toxic to vascular endothelial cell. Of the four tested CFPs, this research suggests that canola CFP is the most promising natural antioxidant. In addition, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis detected seven flavonoid glycosides in the hydrolysates of the four CFPs. Among them, quercetin and kaempferol were present in all four honeybee pollen extracts, but there were significant differences between their contents. A correlation analysis revealed a strong correlation between the content of quercetin in the pollen extract and the extract's antioxidant activity. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Many varieties of honeybee pollen are commercially available. The results of this study help guide consumers to choose honeybee pollens that have a better antioxidant effect. This report can also provide guidance and data in support of the development of honeybee pollen health products.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Pólen/química , Animais , Abelhas , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Flavonoides/análise , Glicosídeos/análise , Quempferóis/análise , Quercetina/análise , Rutina/análise
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931331

RESUMO

Ptaquiloside (PTA) is an illudane glycoside partly responsible for the carcinogenicity of bracken ferns (Pteridium sp.). The PTA analogues ptesculentoside (PTE) and caudatoside (CAU) have similar biochemical reactivity. However, both compounds are highly under-investigated due to the lack of analytical standards and appropriate methods. This study presents a robust method for preparation of analytical standards of PTE, CAU, PTA, the corresponding hydrolysis products: pterosins G, A and B, and an LC-MS based method for simultaneous quantification of the six compounds in bracken. The chromatographic separation of analytes takes 5 min. The observed linear range of quantification was 20-500 µg/L for PTA and pterosin B, and 10-250 µg/L for the remaining compounds (r > 0.999). The limits of detection were 0.08-0.26 µg/L for PTE, CAU and PTA and 0.01-0.03 µg/L for the pterosins, equivalent to 2.0-6.5 µg/g and 0.25-0.75 µg/g in dry weight, respectively. The method was applied on 18 samples of dried fern leaves from 6 continents. Results demonstrated high variation in concentrations of PTE, CAU and PTA with levels prior to hydrolysis up to 3,900, 2,200 and 2,100 µg/g respectively. This is the first analytical method for simultaneous and direct measurement of all six compounds. Its application demonstrated that bracken ferns contain significant amounts of PTE and CAU relative to PTA.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Glicosídeos , Indanos , Pteridium/química , Sesquiterpenos , Glicosídeos/análise , Glicosídeos/química , Indanos/análise , Indanos/química , Limite de Detecção , Modelos Lineares , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Sesquiterpenos Policíclicos/análise , Sesquiterpenos Policíclicos/química , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sesquiterpenos/análise , Sesquiterpenos/química
9.
Food Chem ; 314: 126180, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954937

RESUMO

The antioxidant activity of sugarcane molasses ethanol extract (ME) and its fraction (ME-RBF) was evaluated using ABTS, ORAC 6.0 and CAA assays and ME-RBF demonstrated 26-fold, 12-fold and 2-fold higher values, respectively than ME. Likewise, total polyphenol and flavonoid concentration in ME-RBF are more than 10-fold higher than ME, that suggested antioxidant activity is correlated with polyphenol composition. Quantitative analysis of 13 polyphenols (chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, sinapic acid, syringic acid, vanillin, homoorientin, orientin, vitexin, swertisin, diosmin, apigenin, tricin and diosmetin) was carried out by LCMS. MS/MS analysis allowed the tentative identification of seven apigenin-C-glycosides, three methoxyluteolin-C-glycosides and three tricin-O-glycosides some of which have not been reported in sugarcane before to the best of our knowledge. The results demonstrated that sugarcane molasses can be used as potential source of polyphenols that can be beneficial to health.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Melaço/análise , Polifenóis/análise , Saccharum/química , Antioxidantes/química , Glicosídeos/análise , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
10.
Biomed Chromatogr ; 34(4): e4794, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31944362

RESUMO

Just as natural saponins transform into aglycones, secondary glycosides and their derivatives using biotransformation technology, steroidal saponins may also undergo similar transformation after stir-frying. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the variations and the reasons for these variations in the contents of steroidal saponins in Fructus Tribuli (FT) during a stir-frying treatment. Stir-fried FT was processed in different time-temperature conditions. An UHPLC-MS/MS method was established and fully validated for quantitative analysis. In addition, the simulation processing products of tribuluside A, terrestroside B, terrestrosin K, terrestrosin D and 25R-tribulosin were determined by qualitative analysis using UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS. The established UHPLC-MS/MS method provides a rapid, flexible, and reliable method for the quality assessment of FT. The present study revealed that furostanol saponins with a C22-OH group could transform into corresponding furostanol saponins with a C-20-C-22 double bond (FSDB) via dehydroxylation. Additionally, FSDB could be successively converted into its secondary glycosides via a deglycosylation reaction. The transformation of spirostanol saponins into corresponding aglycones via deglycosylation led to a decrease in spirostanol saponins and an increase in aglycones. The results of this research provided scientific evidence of variation and structural transformation among steroidal saponins. These findings might be helpful for elucidating the processing mechanism of FT.


Assuntos
Culinária/métodos , Frutas/química , Saponinas/análise , Esteroides/análise , Tribulus/química , Glicosídeos/análise , Limite de Detecção , Modelos Lineares , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Saponinas/química , Esteroides/química
11.
J Chromatogr Sci ; 57(10): 901-909, 2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31609449

RESUMO

We established an efficient method using high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) combined with preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (prep-HPLC) for isolating and purifying phenolic glycoside isomers. The method involves a rapid and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography-under voltage(UPLC-UV) technique using a sub-2 µm core-shell particle column for qualitative and quantitative analysis of four phenolic glycoside isomers from Idesia polycarpa Maxim. leaves. The partially purified samples from ethyl acetate extraction of ethanol extracts of I. polycarpa Maxim. leaves were obtained by HSCCC with a two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water solution (3:5:3:5, v/v/v/v) to obtain fractions I and II, which contain two phenolic glycoside isomers. The two fractions were further isolated by prep-HPLC to yield compounds 1, 2, 3, and 4 with purities of 98.29%, 98.71%, 98.49% and 98.52%, and total recoveries of 93.5%, 72.2%, 75.5% and 88.3%, respectively. Compound 1 was first isolated from I. polycarpa Maxim., while compound 2 was reported to be a new phenolic glycoside, which is 1-[(6'-O-(Z)-p-coumaroyl)-ß-D-glucopyranosyl]-oxy-2-phenol. The chemical structures of the four phenolic glycoside isomers were analyzed and confirmed by UPLC, UV, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR), 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR), 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance (13C NMR) and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (2D NMR) spectra. This study opens prospects for broad industrial applications of HSCCC/prep-HPLC for the isolation and purification of isomers.


Assuntos
Distribuição Contracorrente/métodos , Glicosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/química , Salicaceae/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Glicosídeos/análise , Glicosídeos/química , Isomerismo , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/química , Folhas de Planta/química
12.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 412(2): 321-333, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31786643

RESUMO

The high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-QTOF-MS/MS) technique is a powerful tool for compound identification in complex natural products. However, untargeted MS/MS data analysis needs skillful experience and sometimes neglects minor compounds, which are co-eluted with major ones or overshadowed by the matrix. Flavonoids are the main bioactive components in Scutellaria barbata, and the total flavonoid content is 47.02 ± 3.23 mg QE/g DW. Although some flavonoid aglycones and their O-glycosides have been found in S. barbata, comprehensive profiling of flavonoids is unknown. Therefore, we report a flavonoid aglycone-oriented data-mining strategy for efficient and targeted profiling of flavonoids in S. barbata. The strategy includes four steps: (1) HPLC-QTOF-MS analysis of S. barbata; (2) construction of a flavonoid aglycone-based database according to biosynthetic pathway analysis and reported data; (3) extraction of through flavonoid aglycone-based ion chromatography; (4) identification of targeted flavonoids by MS/MS analysis. As a result, 45 flavonoids, including 24 flavones, 1 flavonol, 13 flavanones, and 7 flavanonols, were unambiguously or tentatively identified, while 20 of them were reported in S. barbata for the first time. Moreover, 14 available flavonoids were sensitively, precisely, and accurately determined by standard calibration curves, with limit of detection at 0.06 to 1.55 µg/g, limit of quantification at 0.16 to 3.70 µg/g, relative standard deviation (RSD) less than 9.0% for intra- and inter-day variations, and recovery at 92.6-108.1%. The matrix did not obviously suppress or enhance the ionization of 14 flavonoids, and finally their contents ranging from 0.04 to 4.49 mg/g in S. barbata were successfully achieved. Collectively, our results demonstrate that an efficient, reliable, and valuable strategy has been provided to rapidly and sensitively screen, profile, and quantify chemical components of complex natural products. Graphical abstract.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Mineração de Dados , Flavonoides/análise , Glicosídeos/análise , Scutellaria/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Limite de Detecção , Padrões de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
13.
J Mass Spectrom ; 55(1): e4484, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31786817

RESUMO

Qixianqingming granules (QXQM) comprise a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula that was developed based on the combination of TCM theory and clinical practice. This formula has been proven to effectively treat asthma. In this study, an analytical procedure using ultraperformance liquid chromatography, coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry, was established for the rapid separation and sensitive identification of the chemical components in QXQM and its metabolites in serum of rats. Seventy-two compounds were systematically identified in QXQM, including flavonoids, terpenoids, anthraquinones, phenylethanoid glycosides, stilbenes, alkaloids, and organic acids. Thirteen prototype compounds and 29 metabolites were detected in the serum of rats. The results provided fundamental information for further studying the mechanisms and clinical application of QXQM.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacocinética , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Alcaloides/análise , Alcaloides/metabolismo , Animais , Antraquinonas/análise , Antraquinonas/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/metabolismo , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Glicosídeos/análise , Glicosídeos/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Estilbenos/análise , Estilbenos/metabolismo , Terpenos/análise , Terpenos/metabolismo
14.
Biomed Chromatogr ; 34(3): e4754, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31777094

RESUMO

A rapid, highly sensitive, and specific analytical method using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-triple quadruple MS was developed to quantitatively measure 18 chemical constituents in Huangqi Jianzhong Tang (HQJZ), a famous traditional Chinese medicine formula. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Waters ACQUITY UPLC HSS T3 column (2.1 mm × 100 mm, 1.8 µm) with a gradient mobile phase (A: 0.1% aqueous formic acid and B: acetonitrile) at a flow rate of 0.25 mL/min. The chromatographic peaks of 18 components were identified by comparing with the reference compounds. Multiple reaction monitoring was employed for quantitative analysis of the components. Seven batches of HQJZ samples were analyzed with a good linear regression relationship (R2 , .9978-.9993), precisions [relative standard deviation (RSD), 0.90%-3.60%], repeatability (RSD, 2.50%-4.00%), stability (RSD, 1.00%-4.00%), and recovery (96.10%-104.30%). Based on this established method, the present study offered a highly sensitive, specific, and rapid determination method for identification of 18 compounds, which greatly promoted the systemic quality control of HQJZ.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Flavonoides/análise , Glicosídeos/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Glicosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Modelos Lineares , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
15.
Nat Prod Res ; 34(4): 558-562, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30388891

RESUMO

Methanol extract of Indigofera hirsuta, was evaluated for its antiradical potential and capacity in inhibiting lipoxygenase and aldose/aldehyde reductase enzymes. The ethyl acetate fraction derived from the methanol extract partition, showed the greatest antioxidant capacity, while the butanol was the strongest inhibitor of lipoxygenase enzyme. All fractions (diethyl ether, ethyl acetate, butanol and the aqueous residue) exhibited strong inhibition capacity of both aldose/aldehyde reductase enzymes, which comes in agreement with the ethnomedicinal plant utilization as an antidiabetic agent. LC-DAD-MS(ESI+) fraction analysis verified the findings above, leading to a conclusion regarding the biological activities attributed to the main compounds. Phytochemical analysis led to the identification of an indolic dimer, cinnamic acids, phenolics, flavonoid glycosides, a cyclic polyol, the rare sugar 1-methyl-ß-D-glucopyranoside and glycerol. Many of these compounds were isolated for the first time in Indigofera species while the indolic dimer was isolated for the first time in the Fabaceae family.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores Enzimáticos/isolamento & purificação , Indigofera/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Aldeído Redutase/antagonistas & inibidores , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Flavonoides/análise , Glicosídeos/análise , Humanos , Inibidores de Lipoxigenase , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química
16.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 247: 112273, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586692

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Luohanguo (LHG), a traditional Chinese medicine, could clear heat, moisten the lung, soothe the throat, restore the voice, and lubricate intestine and open the bowels. LHG has been utilized for the treatment of sore throats and hyperglycemia in folk medicine as a homology of medicine and food. The hypoglycemic pharmacology of LHG has attracted considerable attention, and mogrosides have been considered to be active ingredients against diabetes mellitus. We have found that these mogrosides could be metabolized into their secondary glycosides containing 1-3 glucose residues in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) rats in previous studies. These metabolites may be the antidiabetic components of LHG in vivo. Thus far, no reports have been found on reducing blood glucose of mogrosides containing 1-3 glucose residues. AIMS OF THE STUDY: The aim of this study was to confirm that mogrosides containing 1-3 glucose residues were the active components of LHG for antidiabetic effects and to understand their potential mechanisms of action. MATERIALS AND METHODS: First, the special fraction of mogrosides containing 1-3 glucose residues was separated from a 50% ethanol extract of LHG, and the chemical components were identified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and named low-polar Siraitia grosvenorii glycosides (L-SGgly). Second, the antidiabetic effects of L-SGgly were evaluated by HFD/STZ-induced (high-fat diet and streptozocin) obese T2DM rats by indexing fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting insulin (FINS), and insulin resistance, and then compared with other fractions in the separation process. The changes in serum lipid levels were also detected. Finally, possible mechanisms of antidiabetic activity of L-SGgly were identified as increasing GLP-1 levels and activating liver AMPK in T2DM rats. RESULTS: The chemical analysis of L-SGgly showed that they contain 11-oxomogroside V, mogroside V, mogroside III, mogroside IIE, mogroside IIIA1, mogroside IIA1, and mogroside IA1, respectively. The total content of the mogrosides in L-SGgly was 54.4%, including 15.7% mogroside IIA1 and 12.6% mogroside IA1. L-SGgly showed excellent effects on obese T2DM rats compared with the other fractions of LHG extract, including significantly reducing the levels of FBG (p < 0.001) and modifying insulin resistance (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, they could significantly decrease the content of triglyceride (p < 0.01), total cholesterol (p < 0.01), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p < 0.01) and free fatty acid (p < 0.001) and increase the content of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p < 0.001) in serum of T2DM rats. Moreover, L-SGgly can significantly increase (p < 0.01) GLP-1 levels and decrease (p < 0.01) IL-6 levels in T2DM rat serum. AMPK-activating activity in T2DM rats was also upregulated by L-SGgly, but no statistical significance was shown. CONCLUSION: L-SGgly, fractions separated from LHG extract, were verified to have obvious anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic effects on T2DM rats. Furthermore, L-SGgly regulated insulin secretion in T2DM rats by increasing GLP-1 levels. These findings provide an explanation for the antidiabetic role of LHG.


Assuntos
Cucurbitaceae/química , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Hipolipemiantes/farmacologia , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Administração Oral , Animais , Glicemia/análise , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicemia/metabolismo , Fracionamento Químico , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/análise , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/isolamento & purificação , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/metabolismo , Glicosídeos/análise , Glicosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Glicosídeos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/análise , Hipoglicemiantes/isolamento & purificação , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Hipolipemiantes/análise , Hipolipemiantes/isolamento & purificação , Hipolipemiantes/uso terapêutico , Insulina/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/etiologia , Ratos , Estreptozocina/toxicidade , Triterpenos/análise , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Triterpenos/uso terapêutico
17.
J Food Sci ; 85(1): 96-104, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31872872

RESUMO

Juçara fruit pomace is one of the most abundant byproducts of the pulp-making process, generally discarded despite their attractive nutritional content. In this sense, this study aimed to investigate the potential of juçara fruit pomace as an alternative source of starch and natural dyes. Starch extracted from juçara seed (JS) was characterized in approximate composition, crystallinity, thermal profile, morphology, and equilibrium moisture data. Total phenolic content, anthocyanins content, and in vitro antioxidant capacity were assessed for the juçara seedless pomace (JSP). JSP is rich in monomeric anthocyanins (7.19 to 7.23 mg cyanidin 3-O-glycoside/g dry matter [dm]), presents high antioxidant potential, elevated dietary fibers (72.7% dm), considerable amount of lipids (12.8% dm), low protein content, and ash traces. JS is a rich carbon source (76.91% fibers [dm]; 12.21% amylaceous reserve). Being high in carbohydrates, mainly starch, it can be classified as high starch content flour (juçara seed starch-flour [JSS-F]). JSS-F presented B-type crystallinity and conventional starch-like thermal stability. JSS-F exhibited type III sorption isotherm behavior and the Gugghenheim-Anderson-DeBoer model adequately represented the moisture equilibrium data. As a nutritive source of bioactive compounds and starch, juçara pomace should be regarded as a coproduct to be explored as an alternative natural ingredient to food, pharmaceutical, and chemical industries. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Juçara agroindustrial residues (pomace and seeds) are a promising source of antioxidants and unconventional starch, which are usually discarded after depulping, representing approximately 74% of the fruits. Juçara pomace can be used to produce flour with marketing potential due to their functional properties and nutritional value. This flour can be incorporated directly into formulations or be used in extraction processes to obtain components of interest, for example, anthocyanins, to be used as a natural food dye. Starch can be extracted from juçara seeds, presenting adequate technological properties for partial replacement of conventional starches.


Assuntos
Euterpe/química , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Amido/análise , Antocianinas/análise , Antocianinas/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Farinha/análise , Frutas/química , Glicosídeos/análise , Glicosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Valor Nutritivo , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Sementes/química , Amido/isolamento & purificação , Resíduos/análise
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706183

RESUMO

The reported methods for the estimation of CG are indirect, long and tedious uses solvent extraction which results in lower recoveries due to several co-eluted components. The present study aims to develop and validate a high throughput method for the analysis of cyanogenic glycosides (CG) in flaxseed using extractive silylation. The experimental procedure comprised of preparation of trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatives of CG, their quantitation through gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and further characterization by LC-MS/MS. Different validation parameters determined in the experiment include the relative standard deviation both inter-day and intraday less than 5%, recovery in the range of 79.9-112.7%, limit of detection 4.72-6.43 µg/mL and limit of quantitation 14.31-19.50 µg/mL. Combinations of silylation reagent were screened in a central composite experimental design in order to examine their effect on the extraction recovery. Finally, the developed method was applied successfully to quantify CG in various flaxseed cultivars. Advantages of the extractive silylation are simple preparation, short reaction times and the combination of extraction and silylation in one step which indicate that the method has the potential to sensitively and accurately determine CG where large numbers of samples are being routinely analysed.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Gasosa/métodos , Linho/química , Glicosídeos/análise , Silanos/química , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Glicosídeos/química , Glicosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Limite de Detecção , Modelos Lineares , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
19.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(15): 3312-3315, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602888

RESUMO

Phytochemical investigation of the flowers of Hosta plantaginea led to isolate of one new flavonoid glycoside,plantanone C( 1) by silica gel,Sephadex LH-20,and RP-HPLC column chromatographies. Its structure was extensively determined on basis of HR-ESI-MS and NMR spectroscopic data. Compound 1 exhibited moderate antioxidant activity against DPPH radical scavenging activity,with an IC50 value of 240. 2 µmol·L~(-1).


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Glicosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Hosta/química , Antioxidantes/análise , Flavonoides/análise , Flores/química , Glicosídeos/análise
20.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(39): 10853-10862, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31496237

RESUMO

Leptosperin (methyl syringate ß-d-gentiobioside) is abundantly found in manuka honey, which is widely used because of its antibacterial and possible anti-inflammatory activities. The aim of this study was to examine the molecular mechanism underlying the metabolism of leptosperin. Five phytochemicals (leptosperin, methyl syringate (MSYR), glucuronate conjugate of MSYR (MSYR-GA), sulfonate conjugate of MSYR (MSYR-S), and syringic acid (SYR)) were separately incubated with HepG2 and Caco-2 cells. After incubation, we found that the concentration of MSYR decreased, whereas the concentrations of SYR, MSYR-GA, and MSYR-S increased. By profiling with inhibitors and carboxylesterases (CES1, 2), we found that the conversion from MSYR to SYR was mediated by CES1. Lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 cells restored MSYR-GA to MSYR possibly by the secreted ß-glucuronidase. All of the mice administered with leptosperin, MSYR, or manuka honey showed higher MSYR (13.84 ± 11.51, 14.29 ± 9.19, or 6.66 ± 2.30 nM) and SYR (1.85 ± 0.66, 6.01 ± 1.20, or 8.16 ± 3.10 nM) levels in the plasma compared with that of the vehicle controls (3.33 ± 1.45 (MSYR) and 1.85 ± 0.66 (SYR) nM). The findings of our study indicate that the unique metabolic pathways of these compounds may account for possible functionalities of manuka honey.


Assuntos
Ácido Gálico/análogos & derivados , Glicosídeos/metabolismo , Mel/análise , Animais , Células CACO-2 , Feminino , Flores/química , Ácido Gálico/análise , Ácido Gálico/metabolismo , Glicosídeos/análise , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Leptospermum/química , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR
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