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1.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(4): 755-763, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237475

RESUMO

The aim of this paper was to observe the toxic effect of Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets on the reproductive system of Ⅱ type collagen induced arthritis(CIA) male rats, and to explore the toxic mechanism preliminarily. Fifty SD rats were randomly divided into normal control group(Con), model group(CIA), Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets clinical equivalent dose groups of 1, 2, 4 times(9, 18, 36 mg·kg~(-1)), 10 rats in each group, and were given by gavage once a day for 42 days after the first immunization. The organ index of testis and epididymis were calculated on days 21 and 42. Histopathological and morphological changes of testis and epididymis were observed under optical microscope. Sperm count, sperm malformation rate and sperm kinetic parameters in epididymal tissues were observed by computer assisted sperm analysis(CASA). The concentration of testosterone(T), nitric oxide synthase(NOS) and aromatase(CYP19 A1) in serum were detected by ELISA. Immunohistochemistry was used to observe the expression of Bax and Bcl-2 related proteins in the apoptosis pathway of testis and epididymis. The results showed that, compared with Con group, CIA group significantly increased the rate of testicular spermatogenic tubule lesion and sperm malformation, decreased the average path speed, and no significant changes were observed in other groups. Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets at 4 times clinical equivalent dose can significantly reduce the testis index(P<0.01), each dose group can reduce the epididymis index(P<0.05). Each dose group of Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets could cause different degrees of damage to the testis and epididymis, the proportion of testicular histopathology lesions increased, the number of spermatogenic cells in the seminiferous tubules decreased, and so on. It could reduce the number of sperm, increase the rate of sperm deformity, make the parameters of sperm dynamics abnormal, and so on. Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets at 4 times dose could significantly reduce the content of serum sex hormone T and key enzyme of androgen synthesis(P<0.05 or P<0.01), but had no effect on CYP19 A1. The expression of Bax and Bcl-2 in testis and epididymis were increased by 2 and 4 times doses of Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets(P<0.05, P<0.01 or P<0.01). The results showed that 21 d administration of Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets at equal or higher doses could induce obvious toxic effect to the reproductive organs of CIA male rats, and lower the level of serum sex hormone T and the key enzyme of androgen synthesis, NOS. The mechanism of abnormal changes of Bax and Bcl-2 in Testis and epididymis is still to be elucidated.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/toxicidade , Genitália Masculina/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicosídeos/toxicidade , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Tripterygium/química , Animais , Artrite Experimental , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Espermatozoides/patologia , Comprimidos , Testículo/patologia
2.
Nat Prod Res ; 34(3): 398-404, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30602316

RESUMO

Two new phenolic glycosides, named lanatusosides C (1) and D (2), together with four known compounds (3-6), were isolated from the seeds of Citrullus lanatus. Among them, compounds 3 and 4 were isolated from Cucurbitaceae for the first time, and compound 5 was reported from this plant for the first time. Their structures were elucidated by means of extensive spectral analysis, including HR-ESI-MS, 1H and 13C NMR techniques. The isolated new compounds were evaluated for cytotoxic activity against HepG2 cell line, of which compound 1 demonstrated weak cytotoxicity against the tested cell line.


Assuntos
Citrullus/química , Glicosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Sementes/química , Cucurbitaceae , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Glicosídeos/química , Glicosídeos/toxicidade , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Fenóis/toxicidade
3.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 178: 112815, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639597

RESUMO

The carboxyl group is the functional group in both bile acids (BAs) and fatty acids (FAs) (BAFAs). Considering the functional correlation and the structural similarity of these compounds, a sensitive and efficient method was developed here for the first time to simultaneously profile BAFAs based on ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Through optimization of the chromatographic conditions, all BAFAs can be efficiently separated and quantified in 19 min with excellent peak shape. For comprehensive profiling of endogenous FAs without standards, a strategy was established to predict the retention times (RTs) of all theoretically possible FAs on the basis of the good multiple linear regression relationship between RT and FA carbon chain length and double bond number. High-resolution mass spectrometry was employed for the final confirmation of these predicted FAs. Twenty-eight FAs in rat serum were newly identified using this strategy. Though the regulation of collision energies (CEs) for highly abundant compounds, the problems of their poor quantification linearity and accuracy caused by MS signal saturation were solved, facilitating the simultaneous quantification of both high- and low-abundance BAFAs with good linearity and accuracy. The established UPLC-MS/MS method was further used to quantify BAFAs in rat serum and to explore the disturbance of BAFA metabolism in the Tripterygium glycoside-induced liver injury rat model. A total of 25 BAs and 55 FAs in rat serum were identified and quantified. Several BAFAs, including nordeoxycholic acid, taurodeoxycholic acid and some unsaturated FAs, were found to differ significantly in the control and model groups. These BAFAs are very promising biomarkers for the evaluation of Tripterygium glycoside-induced liver injury.


Assuntos
Ácidos e Sais Biliares/análise , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/diagnóstico , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Glicosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Glicosídeos/toxicidade , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Tripterygium/química
4.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(16): 3468-3477, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602911

RESUMO

Tripterygium wilfordii multiglycoside( GTW),an extract derived from T. wilfordii,has been used for rheumatoid arthritis and other immune diseases in China. However its potential hepatotoxicity has not been investigated completely. Firstly,the content of triptolid( TP) in GTW was 0. 008% confirmed by a LC method. Then after oral administration of GTW( 100,150 mg·kg-1) and TP( 12 µg·kg-1) in female Wistar rats for 24 h,it was found that 150 mg·kg-1 GTW showed more serious acute liver injury than 12 µg·kg-1 TP,with the significantly increased lever of serum ALT,AST,TBA,TBi L,TG and bile duct hyperplasia even hepatocyte apoptosis. The expression of mRNA and proteins of liver bile acid transporters such as BSEP,MRP2,NTCP and OATP were down-regulated significantly by GTW to inhibit bile acid excretion and absorption,resulting in cholestatic liver injury. Moreover,GTW was considered to be involved in hepatic oxidative stress injury,although it down-regulated SOD1 and GPX-1 mRNA expression without significant difference in MDA and GSH levels. In vitro,we found that TP was the main toxic component in GTW,which could inhibit cell viability up to 80% in Hep G2 and LO2 cells at the dose of 0. 1 µmol·L-1. Next a LC-MS/MS method was used to detect the concentration of triptolid in plasma from rats,interestingly,we found that the content of TP in GTW was always higher than in the same amount of TP,suggesting the other components in GTW may affect the TP metabolism. Finally,we screened the substrate of p-glycoprotein( p-gp) in Caco-2 cells treated with components except TP extrated from GTW,finding that wilforgine,wilforine and wilfordine was the substrate of p-gp. Thus,we speculated that wilforgine,wilforine and wilfordine may competitively inhibit the excretion of TP to bile through p-gp,leading to the enhanced hepatotoxity caused by GTW than the same amount of TP.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Diterpenos/toxicidade , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/toxicidade , Glicosídeos/toxicidade , Fenantrenos/toxicidade , Tripterygium/toxicidade , Animais , Células CACO-2 , Cromatografia Líquida , Compostos de Epóxi/toxicidade , Feminino , Humanos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
5.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(16): 3478-3485, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602912

RESUMO

Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets has good anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities,but its reproductive damage is significant. Previous studies of the research group have found that Cuscutae Semen flavonoids can improve spermatogenic cell damage caused by Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets by regulating spermatogenic cell cycle,apoptosis and related protein expression,but the mechanism of action at the gene level is still unclear. In this study,Illumina high-throughput sequencing platform was applied in transcriptional sequencing of spermatogenic cells of rats after the intervention of Cuscutae Semen flavonoids and Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets. Differentially expressed genes were screened out and the GO enrichment and KEGG pathway analysis of differentially expressed genes were conducted to explore the mechanism of Cuscutae Semen flavonoids in improving reproductive injury caused by Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets. The results showed that 794 up-regulated genes and 491 down-regulated genes were screened in Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets group compared with the blank group. Compared with Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets,440 up-regulated genes and 784 down-regulated genes were screened in the Cuscutae Semen flavonoids+Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets group. Among them,the gene closely related to reproductive function is DNMT3 L. Analysis of GO function and KEGG signaling pathway enrichment showed that the above differentially expressed genes were mainly enriched in cell,cell process,catalytic activity,binding,ovarian steroid synthesis,thyroid hormone and other functions and pathways. The thyroid hormone signaling pathway was the common enrichment pathway of the two control groups. In a word,Cuscutae Semen flavonoids has a good treatment effect on male reproductive damage caused by Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets. The mechanism may be closely related to up-regulation of DNMT3 L genes and intervention of thyroid hormone signaling pathway. At the same time,the discovery of many different genes provides valuable information for study on the mechanism of Cuscutae Semen flavonoids and Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets compatibility decreasing toxicity and increasing efficiency.


Assuntos
Cuscuta/química , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Genitália/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicosídeos/toxicidade , Tripterygium/toxicidade , Animais , DNA (Citosina-5-)-Metiltransferases/genética , Feminino , Genitália/patologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Masculino , Ratos , Sementes/química , Transdução de Sinais , Comprimidos , Hormônios Tireóideos/genética , Transcriptoma
6.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(16): 3486-3493, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602913

RESUMO

The aim of this paper was to observe the toxic effect of Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets( TG) on the reproductive system of Ⅱ type collagen induced arthritis( CIA) male rats,and to explore the toxic mechanism preliminarily. Fifty SD rats were randomly divided into normal control group( Con),model group( CIA),Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets clinical equivalent dose groups of 1,2,4 times( 9,18,36 mg·kg-1),10 rats in each group,and were given by gavage once a day for 42 days after the first immunization.The organ indexes of uterine and ovarian were calculated on days 21 and 42. Histopathological and morphological changes of uterine and ovarian were observed under optical microscope. The concentration of estradiol( E2),follicle-stimulating hormone( FSH),luteinizing hormone( LH),17α-hydroxylase( CYP17 A1) and cytochrome P450 19 A1( CYP19 A1) in serum were detected by ELISA. Immunohistochemistry was used to observe the expression of Bax and Bcl-2 related proteins in the apoptosis pathway of uterus and ovary. The results showed that compared with the Con group,CIA group could reduce the number of uterine glands( P<0.05),but no significant changes were observed in other groups. Compared with the CIA group,there were no significant changes in the coefficients of uterus and ovary in the Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets groups. The number of uterine glands,total follicles in the ovary,mature follicles and corpus luteum,the distribution of blood vessels and mitochondria had a certain inhibitory trend,and also slightly increased the number of atresia follicles,but the histopathological quantitative indicators were not statistically different. Except that 2 times clinical dose of Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets could significantly reduce the content of CYP19 A1( P<0. 05) after 42 d administration,there were no significant changes in serum estrogen E2,FSH,LH and estrogen synthesis key enzymes CYP17 A1 in each administration group. Medium and high doses of Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets could increase the expression of apoptotic protein Bax in uterine and ovarian tissues( P<0. 05,P<0. 01),and all the administration groups could inhibit the expression of apoptotic inhibiting protein Bcl-2( P <0. 05,P<0. 01,P<0.001),42 d was more obvious than 21 d. In conclusion,4 times and less than 4 times Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets did not cause obvious toxicity and histopathological changes in the reproductive organs of CIA rats,but it could reduce the level of serum estrogen synthesis key enzyme CYP19 A1 and affect the content of apoptosis-related proteins Bax and Bcl-2 in uterus and ovary tissues. The relevant mechanism needs further study.


Assuntos
Artrite Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/toxicidade , Genitália Feminina/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicosídeos/toxicidade , Tripterygium/química , Animais , Apoptose , Aromatase/metabolismo , Artrite Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Feminino , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Comprimidos
7.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(16): 3494-3501, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602914

RESUMO

The aim of this paper was to compare the performance of acute liver injury in mice induced by Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets from 6 different manufacturers,and to explore the toxicity mechanism from the perspective of oxidative stress and apoptosis preliminarily. Male or female mice were randomly divided into normal group,Zhejiang group,Hunan group,Hubei group,Shanghai group,Jiangsu group and Fujian group. Mice in Tripgerygium Glycosides Tablets groups were given 16 times the clinical equivalent dose( 300 mg·kg-1) Tripgerygium Glycosides Tablets by oral administration for one time,mice were executed in 24 h after lavaged.Then the visceral brain coefficient of the organ was calculated. Histopathological changes of liver were observed by hematoxylin-eosin staining. Td T-mediated d UTP nick-end labeling was used to detect the apoptosis of the liver cells and the protein content of oxidative stress related factors in liver homogenate. Nuclear transcription factor E2-related factor( Nrf2) and heme oxygenase-1( HO-1) as well as mitochondrial mediated apoptosis-related protein expression levels of Bax and Bcl-2 in hepatic tissue were measured by Western blot.Within 24 hours of administration,6 male mice in Jiangsu group and 2 female mice in Zhejiang group were dying; compared with normal ones,liver coefficients of mice in Zhejiang,Shanghai,Jiangsu and Hunan groups were significantly increased,thymus coefficients in the first two groups were significantly reduced,as well as the lung coefficients of Fujian group mice,the rest was normal. In addition to Hubei group,serum AST,ALT or ALP levels of mice were increased,while TBi L were not being affected. Histopathological changes and apoptosis of liver cells were observed in all mice,and the degree of severity was ranked as Jiangsu,Zhejiang,Shanghai,Hunan,Hubei and Fujian group. All Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets increased the MDA and reduced the content of T-SOD,CAT or GSH in liver tissue while inhibited Nrf2,HO-1 and Bcl-2,increased the protein expression level of Bax( except Hunan group). Tripgerygium Glycosides Tablets from 6 manufacturers all resulted in liver function damage and liver histopathological changes,especially in Jiangsu,Hubei and Fujian,and the mechanism may related to inhibit Nrf2/HO-1 oxidative stress pathway and activate Bax/Bcl-2 apoptosis pathway to mediate lipid peroxidation and induce liver cell apoptosis. Triptolide A may be one of the main toxic components of Tripgerygium Glycosides Tablets that causing drug-induced liver injury. This study was conducted on normal mice with super dose medication,so the relevant results are for reference only.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/toxicidade , Glicosídeos/toxicidade , Tripterygium/toxicidade , Animais , Apoptose , Feminino , Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Camundongos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Comprimidos , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
8.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(16): 3502-3511, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602915

RESUMO

The aim of this paper was to compare the properties of Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets and Tripterygium wilfordii Tablets from dose-effect-toxicity on type Ⅱ collagen-induced arthritis( CIA) in rats. SD rats were randomly divided into eight groups,including normal group,model group,Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets groups( 1 times equivalent dose 0.009 g·kg-1,4 times equivalent dose 0.036 g·kg-1,16 times equivalent dose 0.144 g·kg-1),Tripterygium wilfordii Tablets groups( 1 times equivalent dose 0.007 5 mg·kg-1,4 times equivalent dose 0.030 mg·kg-1,16 times equivalent dose 0.120 mg·kg-1). Beginning on the first immunization,Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets and Tripterygium wilfordii Tablets administered intraperitoneally once a day. After the second immunization,the symptoms such as redness and swelling of joints were observed,and the clinical score and incidence of arthritis were evaluated. HE and Masson staining were used to examine the histopathological changes of joints. The expression level of anti-type Ⅱ collagen antibody Ig G in serum was detected by ELISA,routine testing of blood components,the concentration of ALP( alkaline phosphatase),ALT( alanine aminotransferase),AST( aspartate aminotransferase),GGT( gamma-glutamyltransferase),TBi L( total bilirubin),CRE( creatinine) and UREA( urea) in serum were detected by enzymatic assay. The rate of sperm deformity in the epididymis was evaluated under light microscope. The extent of damage to the testis and ovarian tissue was assessed by HE staining. Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets and Tripterygium wilfordii Tablets attenuated the inflammation,redness,swelling and deformity of joints and reduced the clinical score and incidence of arthritis in CIA rats. Meanwhile,it also exhibited obvious reduction in all pathological features such as joint synovitis,pannus,cartilage erosion and bone destruction. Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets and Tripterygium wilfordii Tablets reduced Ig G in a dose-dependent manner,and Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets is better than Tripterygium wilfordii Tablets( P<0.05 or P<0.01). The high doses of Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets and Tripterygium wilfordii Tablets could significantly increase the organ coefficient of liver and spleen and reduced RBC and HGB in CIA rats( P<0.01),and severity leading to death. Gastric mucosal injury and morphological changes of liver and kidney were not observed in CIA rats of Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets and Tripterygium wilfordii Tablets treatment group. The 4 and 16 times doses of Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets and Tripterygium wilfordii Tablets could significantly increase serum ALT,GGT and decrease CRE( P<0.05 or P<0.01). Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets and Tripterygium wilfordii Tablets could increase the sperm deformity rate and damage the testicular seminiferous tubules of CIA male rats. Severity increased with dose and time increasing. The effect of Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets( 16 times) is more significant than Tripterygium wilfordii Tablets( 16 times). Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets and Tripterygium wilfordii Tablets significantly delayed onset of arthritis and inhibited the paw edema and arthritic score. Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets and Tripterygium wilfordii Tablets also caused male reproductive damage,high dose affected hematopoiesis,and maximum dose leading to death. Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets and Tripterygium wilfordii Tablets all depended on dose-effect-toxicity manner. Anti-arthritis effect of Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets is better than Tripterygium wilfordii Tablets,but the toxicity of Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets maximum dose is more obvious. The relevant conclusions of our study will provide experimental references for clinical rational use of drugs,and further clinical studies are needed to confirm our conclusions.


Assuntos
Artrite Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/toxicidade , Glicosídeos/administração & dosagem , Glicosídeos/toxicidade , Tripterygium/toxicidade , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Comprimidos
9.
J Food Sci ; 84(7): 1986-1991, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31192461

RESUMO

Cassava leaves are a valuable source of protein but the cyanogenic potential limits their use as food and feed. Four different treatments were investigated to detoxify cassava leaves. Thermal (55 °C for 6 hr), sodium bicarbonate (0.4% NaHCO3 , 55 °C for 6 hr), enzymatic (0.32% Multifect® GC Extra, 4 hr), and ultrasonic treatments (500 W, 35 kHz, 55 °C, 0.25 hr) reduced the total cyanide (µg HCN equivalents per g fresh leaf or ppm) content by 90%, 93%, 82%, and 84% while the cyanide content reduction in the respective controls was 85%, 90%, 79%, and 84%, respectively. The sodium bicarbonate treatment was found to be the most effective treatment. Therefore, it was further optimized by varying time and temperature. A significant effect on the cyanide content was observed by changing the incubation time while no significant effect of temperature was noticed. Nevertheless, extended incubation time during sodium bicarbonate treatment reduced ascorbic acid content by 7% and 39% when leaves were incubated with sodium bicarbonate for 0.5 hr and 48 hr, respectively. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Cyanogenic glucosides are the major toxic compound in cassava leaves, which limits their use as food and feed. The methods proposed in this study can be used to detoxify cassava leaves, which are generally considered as an inferior by-product. Hence, detoxified cassava leaves may contribute to fulfil world protein demand in an eco-sustainable way.


Assuntos
Cianetos/química , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Glicosídeos/química , Manihot/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Biocatálise , Cianetos/toxicidade , Enzimas/química , Glicosídeos/toxicidade , Temperatura Alta , Manihot/toxicidade , Folhas de Planta/toxicidade , Bicarbonato de Sódio/química , Ultrassom
10.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 131: 110531, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31136780

RESUMO

1-O-(4-hydroxymethylphenyl)-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (MPG) is a phenolic glycoside that exists in Moringa oleifera seeds with various health benefits, whereas its hepatoprotective effect is lacking clarification. Herein, MPG was isolated from Moringa oleifera seeds, and its hepatoprotection against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in L02 cells and ICR mice was investigated. Toxicity studies showed that MPG did not induce significant changes in organ coefficients and histological analysis, as well as exhibited no cytotoxicity. In vitro studies indicated that MPG substantially increased cell viability and intracellular SOD activities, and significantly inhibited LDH leakage in CCl4-treated cells. In vivo studies demonstrated that MPG significantly alleviated CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in mice, as indicated by diagnostic indicators of hepatic injury, as well as the histopathological analysis. Moreover, MPG reduced the lipid peroxidation levels and regulated the inflammatory cytokines. Notably, MPG substantially suppressed the significant elevation of ROS production in hepatocytes of mice intoxicated with CCl4. Moreover, TUNEL assay demonstrated that MPG obviously inhibited hepatic apoptosis induced by CCl4. Altogether, these results suggested that MPG has excellent liver-protecting effects against hepatocytotoxicity induced by CCl4 in mice and L02 cells, which can be further developed as a valuable functional food additive or drug for the treatment of hepatic injury.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Moringa oleifera/química , Sementes/química , Administração Oral , Animais , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/toxicidade , Tetracloreto de Carbono/toxicidade , Linhagem Celular , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Glicosídeos/administração & dosagem , Glicosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Glicosídeos/toxicidade , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 172: 149-166, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31048141

RESUMO

Dianthrone derivatives are minor constituents of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. (PM). These derivatives are potential hepatotoxic components in PM. Fraction D6 contains many dianthrone derivatives and was successfully enriched using an efficient three-step approach. An effective and reliable high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique coupled with ultraviolet detection (UV) and a linear ion trap FT-ICR hybrid mass spectrometry (HPLC-UV/LTQ-FT-ICR-MS) method were successfully developed to separate and identify the dianthrones of the fraction D6. The characteristic diagnostic fragment ions and characteristic fragmentation pathway of the seven dianthrone standards, namely, Polygonumnolide B1 (S1), Polygonumnolide C3 (S2), Polygonumnolide C2 (S3), Polygonumnolide E (S4), Polygonumnolide A1 (S5), Polygonumnolide A2 (S6) and cis-emodin dianthrones (S7), were compared with unknown compounds in fraction D6, and 45 dianthrone derivatives were characterized or tentatively identified. Of these derivatives, 32 new dianthrone derivatives were tentatively characterized in PM. Therefore, LTQ-FT-ICR-MS combined with a selective enrichment method provided a powerful means for analyzing dianthrone derivatives. This study provides a meaningful basis for correcting some mistakes in previous studies, as well as further quality control and pharmacological and toxicological research.


Assuntos
Antracenos/análise , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/análise , Fallopia multiflora/química , Glicosídeos/análise , Antracenos/toxicidade , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/normas , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/toxicidade , Fallopia multiflora/toxicidade , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Glicosídeos/toxicidade , Raízes de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas/toxicidade , Controle de Qualidade
12.
Phytomedicine ; 58: 152855, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30851581

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Tripterygium glycosides (TG) is the main active extractive of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F and is widely used in clinical practice to treat inflammatory diseases (including inflammatory bowel disease). However, due to its severe toxicity, TG is restricted to the treatment of many diseases. Therefore, it is necessary to study a new method to obtain the attenuated and synergistic extracts from TG. PURPOSE: Tripterygium glycosides-n2 (TG-n2) was obtained from TG by a new preparation method. In this study, we aimed to investigate the difference in the chemical compositions between TG and TG-n2, further explored its toxicity and therapeutic effects on DSS-induced colitis in mice. METHODS: The major chemical compositions of TG and TG-n2 were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC). Subsequently, acute toxicity test was applied to evaluate the toxicity difference between TG and TG-n2. Dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute colitis model was used to explore the therapeutic effect of TG and TG-n2 and their potential mechanisms of action. RESULTS: We found that the chemical compositions of TG-n2 is different from TG. The main difference is the ratio of triptriolide (T11) / triptolide (T9). Acute toxicity test proved that TG-n2 was less toxic than TG. Base on this, further studies showed that TG-n2 has a similar therapeutic effect as compared to TG on attenuating the symptoms of colitis, such as diarrhea, bloody stools, body weight loss, colonic atrophy, histopathological changes, inhibiting cytokines secretion and reducing absolute lymph number. In addition, TG and TG-n2 can increase the apoptosis of T lymphocyte in vivo. Further investigated showed that TG and TG-n2 could increase the expressions of Bax and p62 on CD3-positive T cells. CONCLUSION: This study showed that oral administration of TG-n2 is safer than TG. Moreover, the attenuated TG-n2 has the similar therapeutic effect on treating experimental colitis in mice when compared to TG. Its mechanism may be related to activating the expression of Bax in T cells and inducing T cells autophagy to regulate the survival of T lymphocytes in colitis mice, thus reducing inflammation in colon.


Assuntos
Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Tripterygium/química , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo/patologia , Sulfato de Dextrana/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Glicosídeos/química , Glicosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Glicosídeos/toxicidade , Homeostase , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 125: 225-232, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30615957

RESUMO

Potential toxicity of cyanogenic glycosides arises from enzymatic degradation to produce hydrogen cyanide. Information on the metabolism of cyanogenic glycosides is available from in vitro, animal and human studies. In the absence of ß-glucosidase enzymes from the source plant material, two processes appear to contribute to the production of cyanide from cyanogenic glycosides; the proportion of the glycoside dose that reaches the large intestine, where most of the bacterial hydrolysis occurs, and the rate of hydrolysis of cyanogenic glycosides to cyanohydrin and cyanide. Some cyanogenic glycosides, such as prunasin, are actively absorbed in the jejunum by utilising the epithelial sodium-dependent monosaccharide transporter (SGLT1). The rate of cyanide production from cyanogenic glycosides due to bacterial ß-glycosidase activity depends on; the sugar moiety in the molecule and the stability of the intermediate cyanohydrin following hydrolysis by bacterial ß-glucosidase. Cyanogenic glycosides with a gentiobiose sugar, amygdalin, linustatin, and neolinustatin, undergo a two stage hydrolysis, with gentiobiose initially being hydrolysed to glucose to form prunasin, linamarin and lotaustralin, respectively. While the overall impact of these metabolic factors is difficult to predict, the toxicity of cyanogenic glycosides will be less than the toxicity suggested by their theoretical hydrocyanic acid equivalents.


Assuntos
Glicosídeos/metabolismo , Nitrilos/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Glicosídeos/análise , Glicosídeos/química , Glicosídeos/toxicidade , Humanos , Cianeto de Hidrogênio/análise , Cianeto de Hidrogênio/química , Cianeto de Hidrogênio/toxicidade , Hidrólise , Cinética , Masculino , Nitrilos/análise , Nitrilos/química , Nitrilos/toxicidade
14.
J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) ; 103(2): 695-703, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30698299

RESUMO

Amygdalin is one of the most studied secondary metabolites of Prunus genus. It is a cyanogenic glycoside which was initially obtained from the bitter almonds seeds and is a major component of the seeds of plants, such as apricots, almonds, peaches, apples and other rosaceous plants. The views of scientists on the use of amygdalin have been contradictory for many years, partly because toxicokinetics and metabolism of amygdalin still have not been adequately explored. The present in vivo study was designed to reveal whether pure amygdalin intramuscularly injected or apricot seeds oral consumption induce changes in overall health status of rabbit as a biological model. A total of 60 adult rabbits were randomly divided into five groups. The control group received no amygdalin while the two experimental groups E1 and E2 received a daily intramuscular injection of amygdalin at doses 0.6 and 3.0 mg/kg bw. The experimental groups E3 and E4 were fed crushed bitter apricot seeds (Prunus armeniaca L.), at doses 60 and 300 mg/kg bw, mixed with commercial feed for rabbits. Blood collection was carried out after 14 days. Biochemical, haematological and antioxidant enzymes activity analysis were performed and statistically evaluated. A short-term amygdalin administration had negligible impact on biochemical parameters-mainly level of urea, bilirubin, cholesterol. Haematological profile of rabbits was influenced very slightly-non-significant platelet count and platelet percentage increase, erythrocytes count and haemoglobin decrease. SOD activity of rabbits decreased significantly (p > 0.05) after apricot seeds consumption (102.3 U/ml) in comparison to control (117.4 U/ml). Differences might be connected to diverse metabolism by different administration routes and at the same time by the presence of other substances in apricot seeds (phytosterols, polyphenols, fatty acids). However, a short-term consumption had only slight effect on health status of rabbits and at recommended doses did not represent risk for their health.


Assuntos
Amigdalina/toxicidade , Ração Animal/análise , Glicosídeos/toxicidade , Prunus armeniaca/química , Coelhos , Sementes/química , Amigdalina/química , Animais , Feminino , Glicosídeos/química , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória
15.
Parasit Vectors ; 11(1): 614, 2018 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30501613

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis is the main vector of American visceral leishmaniasis, a disease caused by parasites of the genus Leishmania. Adults of this insect feed on blood (females only) or sugar from plant sources, but their digestion of carbohydrates is poorly studied. Beta-glycosides as esculin and amygdalin are plant compounds and release toxic compounds as esculetin and mandelonitrile when hydrolyzed. Beta-glucosidase and trehalase are essential enzymes in sand fly metabolism and participate in sugar digestion. It is therefore possible that the toxic portions of these glycosides, released during digestion, affect sand fly physiology and the development of Leishmania. RESULTS: We tested the oral administration to sand flies of amygdalin, esculin, mandelonitrile, and esculetin in the sugar meal. These compounds significantly decreased the longevity of Lutzomyia longipalpis females and males. Lutzomyia longipalpis adults have significant hydrolytic activities against esculin and feeding on this compound cause changes in trehalase and ß-glucosidase activities. Female trehalase activity is inhibited in vitro by esculin. Esculin is naturally fluorescent, so its ingestion may be detected and quantified in whole insects or tissue samples stored in methanol. Mandelonitrile neither affected the amount of sugar ingested by sand flies nor showed repellent activity. Our results show that mandelonitrile significantly reduces the viability of L. amazonensis, L. braziliensis, L. infantum and L. mexicana, in a concentration-dependent manner. Esculetin caused a similar effect, reducing the number of L. infantum and L. mexicana. Female L. longipalpis fed on mandelonitrile had a reduction in the number of parasites and prevalence of infection after seven days of infection with L. mexicana, either by counting in a Neubauer chamber or by qPCR assays. CONCLUSIONS: Glycosides have significant effects on L. longipalpis longevity and metabolism and also affect the development of parasites in culture and inside the insect. These observations might help to conceptualize new vector control strategies using transmission blocking sugar baits.


Assuntos
Glicosídeos/toxicidade , Controle de Insetos/métodos , Insetos Vetores/enzimologia , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Leishmania/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Psychodidae/enzimologia , Psychodidae/parasitologia , Acetonitrilos/toxicidade , Amigdalina/toxicidade , Animais , Esculina/toxicidade , Feminino , Glicosídeos/administração & dosagem , Leishmaniose/prevenção & controle , Leishmaniose/transmissão , Masculino , Trealase/efeitos dos fármacos , Umbeliferonas/administração & dosagem , Umbeliferonas/toxicidade , beta-Glucosidase/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
ACS Chem Biol ; 13(12): 3236-3242, 2018 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30480427

RESUMO

Heparanase is a mammalian endoglycosidase that cleaves heparan sulfate (HS) polysaccharides and contributes to remodelling of the extracellular matrix and regulation of HS-binding protein bioavailabilities. Heparanase is upregulated in malignant cancers and inflammation, aiding cell migration and the release of signaling molecules. It is established as a highly druggable extracellular target for anticancer therapy, but current compounds have limitations, because of cost, production complexity, or off-target effects. Here, we report the synthesis of a novel, targeted library of single-entity glycomimetic clusters capped with simple sulfated saccharides. Several dendrimer HS glycomimetics display low nM IC50 potency for heparanase inhibition equivalent to comparator compounds in clinical development, and potently inhibit metastasis and growth of human myeloma tumor cells in a mouse xenograft model. Importantly, they lack anticoagulant activity and cytotoxicity, and also inhibit angiogenesis. They provide a new candidate class for anticancer and wider therapeutic applications, which could benefit from targeted heparanase inhibition.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Materiais Biomiméticos/uso terapêutico , Dendrímeros/uso terapêutico , Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Glucuronidase/antagonistas & inibidores , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Angiogênese/síntese química , Inibidores da Angiogênese/farmacologia , Inibidores da Angiogênese/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Angiogênese/toxicidade , Animais , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/toxicidade , Materiais Biomiméticos/síntese química , Materiais Biomiméticos/farmacologia , Materiais Biomiméticos/toxicidade , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Dendrímeros/síntese química , Dendrímeros/farmacologia , Dendrímeros/toxicidade , Inibidores Enzimáticos/síntese química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/toxicidade , Fator 2 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/antagonistas & inibidores , Glicosídeos/síntese química , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Glicosídeos/uso terapêutico , Glicosídeos/toxicidade , Heparitina Sulfato/química , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
17.
Biomolecules ; 8(4)2018 10 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30360548

RESUMO

An increasing occurrence of resistance in insect pests and high mammal toxicity exhibited by common pesticides increase the need for new alternative molecules. Among these alternatives, bioinsecticides are considered to be environmentally friendly and safer than synthetic insecticides. Particularly, plant extracts have shown great potential in laboratory conditions. However, the lack of studies that confirm their mechanisms of action diminishes their potential applications on a large scale. Previously, we have reported the insect growth regulator and insecticidal activities of secondary metabolites isolated from plants of the Calceolaria genus. Herein, we report an in silico study of compounds isolated from Calceolaria against acetylcholinesterase, prophenoloxidase, and ecdysone receptor. The molecular docking results are consistent with the previously reported experimental results, which were obtained during the bioevaluation of Calceolaria extracts. Among the compounds, phenylethanoid glycosides, such as verbascoside, exhibited good theoretical affinity to all the analyzed targets. In light of these results, we developed an index to evaluate potential multitarget insecticides based on docking scores.


Assuntos
Calceolariaceae/química , Simulação por Computador , Inibidores Enzimáticos/toxicidade , Glicosídeos/toxicidade , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Acetilcolinesterase/química , Animais , Drosophila melanogaster/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Glucosídeos/química , Glicosídeos/química , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Praguicidas/química , Fenóis/química , Receptores de Esteroides/química
18.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2018: 7804135, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30210656

RESUMO

The use in folk medicine of Baccharis trimera and recent studies on DNA damage by oxidative stress mechanisms have motivated this study. We investigated the biotoxicological effects of trimeroside from this plant. Aqueous extract from aerial parts of B. trimera was fractioned by flash chromatography for further isolation by thin-layer chromatography. The novel nor-monoterpene glycoside, trimeroside, and three flavonoids, cirsimaritin, luteolin and quercetin, were isolated. The genotoxic and mutagenic potential of trimeroside was determined by Salmonella/microsome (TA98 and TA100), comet assay, and cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assay (CBMN-cyt) in HepG2 cells. We also screened trimeroside into different human tumoral cell lines by sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. Mutagenicity was detected in TA100 strain with metabolic activation. Genotoxic effects were not observed in HepG2 by comet assay. However, a decrease in the nuclear index division in the 2.0 mg·mL-1 concentration and an increase of nucleoplasmic bridges in the 1.5 mg·mL-1 concentration were detected by CBMN-cyt assay indicating cytotoxic and mutagenic effects. In SRB assay, trimeroside showed weak antiproliferative activity against the cell lines.


Assuntos
Baccharis/química , Cicloexenos/toxicidade , Glicosídeos/toxicidade , Animais , Ensaio Cometa , Cicloexenos/química , Cicloexenos/isolamento & purificação , Dano ao DNA , Glicosídeos/química , Glicosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Células HT29 , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Células KB , Camundongos , Testes para Micronúcleos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Testes de Toxicidade
19.
Molecules ; 23(8)2018 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30072644

RESUMO

Four new constituents, as 5, 7-dihydroxy-4'-methoxyflavonol-3-O-ß-d-arabinopyranosyl-(2''→1''')-O-ß-d-arabinopyrnosyl-2'''-O-3'''', 7''''-dimethylnonan-1''''-oate (1), 5-hydroxy-7, 4'-dimethoxyflavone-5-O-α-d-arabinopyranosyl-(2"→1''')-O-α-d-arabinopyranosyl-2'''-O-3'''', 7''''-dimethylnonan-1''''-oate (2), 5-hydroxy-7, 4'-dimethoxyflavone-5-O-ß-d-arabinofuranosyl-(2"→1''')-O-ß-d-arabinopyranosyl-2'''-O-lanost-5-ene (3) and 4',4''-diferuloxy feruloyl-O-α-d-arabinopyranosyl-(2a→1b)-O-α-d-arabinopyranosyl-(2b→1c)-O-α-d-arabinopyranosyl-(2c→1d)-O-α-d-arabinopyranosyl-(2d→1e)-O-α-d-arabinopyranosyl-2e-3''', 7'''-dimethylnonan-1'''-oate (4), along with three known compounds (5⁻7) were isolated from Oryza sativa leaves and straw. The structures of new and known compounds were elucidated by 1D (¹H and 13C NMR) and 2D NMR spectral methods, viz: COSY, HMBC, and HSQC aided by mass techniques and IR spectroscopy. The cytotoxicity of these constituents was assessed by using (RAW 264.7) mouse macrophage cell line, and allelopathic effects of compounds (1⁻7) on the germination and seedling growth characteristics such as seedling length and root length of barnyardgrass (Echinochloa oryzicola) were evaluated. Significant inhibitory activity was exhibited by compounds comprising flavone derivatives such as (1⁻3) on all of seed germination characteristics. The allelopathic effect of flavone derivatives were more pronounced on seedling length and root length than the germination characteristics. The higher concentration of flavone derivatives showed stronger inhibitory effects, whereas the lower concentrations showed stimulatory effects in some cases.


Assuntos
Glicosídeos/toxicidade , Macrófagos/citologia , Oryza/química , Feromônios/farmacologia , Polifenóis/toxicidade , Animais , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética Nuclear de Carbono-13 , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/química , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicosídeos/química , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Feromônios/química , Picratos/química , Raízes de Plantas/anatomia & histologia , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Brotos de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Brotos de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Polifenóis/química , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Células RAW 264.7 , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento
20.
Chin J Nat Med ; 16(7): 499-504, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30080648

RESUMO

Two previously undescribed steroidal compounds, 16, 23-epoxy-22, 26-epimino-cholest-22(N), 23, 25(26)-trien-3ß-ol-3-O-ß-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-ß-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-ß-D-galactopyranoside (1) and 26-O-ß-D-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-5α-furost-20(22)-en-3ß, 26-diol (2), together with 7 known ones including 26-O-ß-D-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-5, 20(22)-dien-furost-3ß, 26-diol (3), (25R)-5-en-spirost-3ß-ol-O-ß-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-[α-L-rhmanopyranosyl-(1→2)]-ß-D-galactopyranoside (4), funkioside D (5), aspidistrin (6), tigogenin-3-O-ß-D-lucotrioside (7), desglucolanatigonin II (8), and degalactotigonin (9), were isolated from Solanum lyratum Thunb. Their cytotoxic activities were tested in two cancer cell lines by MTT method. One of the steroidal glycosides (6) showed significant cytotoxic activity against gastric cancer SGC7901 and liver cancer BEL-7402 cells.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/toxicidade , Antineoplásicos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos/toxicidade , Glicosídeos/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Solanum/química , Esteróis/toxicidade , Alcaloides/química , Alcaloides/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicosídeos/química , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Estrutura Molecular , Fitosteróis/química , Fitosteróis/isolamento & purificação , Fitosteróis/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/química , Plantas Medicinais/química , Esteróis/química , Esteróis/farmacologia
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