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1.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(16): 3468-3477, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602911

RESUMO

Tripterygium wilfordii multiglycoside( GTW),an extract derived from T. wilfordii,has been used for rheumatoid arthritis and other immune diseases in China. However its potential hepatotoxicity has not been investigated completely. Firstly,the content of triptolid( TP) in GTW was 0. 008% confirmed by a LC method. Then after oral administration of GTW( 100,150 mg·kg-1) and TP( 12 µg·kg-1) in female Wistar rats for 24 h,it was found that 150 mg·kg-1 GTW showed more serious acute liver injury than 12 µg·kg-1 TP,with the significantly increased lever of serum ALT,AST,TBA,TBi L,TG and bile duct hyperplasia even hepatocyte apoptosis. The expression of mRNA and proteins of liver bile acid transporters such as BSEP,MRP2,NTCP and OATP were down-regulated significantly by GTW to inhibit bile acid excretion and absorption,resulting in cholestatic liver injury. Moreover,GTW was considered to be involved in hepatic oxidative stress injury,although it down-regulated SOD1 and GPX-1 mRNA expression without significant difference in MDA and GSH levels. In vitro,we found that TP was the main toxic component in GTW,which could inhibit cell viability up to 80% in Hep G2 and LO2 cells at the dose of 0. 1 µmol·L-1. Next a LC-MS/MS method was used to detect the concentration of triptolid in plasma from rats,interestingly,we found that the content of TP in GTW was always higher than in the same amount of TP,suggesting the other components in GTW may affect the TP metabolism. Finally,we screened the substrate of p-glycoprotein( p-gp) in Caco-2 cells treated with components except TP extrated from GTW,finding that wilforgine,wilforine and wilfordine was the substrate of p-gp. Thus,we speculated that wilforgine,wilforine and wilfordine may competitively inhibit the excretion of TP to bile through p-gp,leading to the enhanced hepatotoxity caused by GTW than the same amount of TP.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Diterpenos/toxicidade , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/toxicidade , Glicosídeos/toxicidade , Fenantrenos/toxicidade , Tripterygium/toxicidade , Animais , Células CACO-2 , Cromatografia Líquida , Compostos de Epóxi/toxicidade , Feminino , Humanos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
2.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(16): 3478-3485, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602912

RESUMO

Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets has good anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities,but its reproductive damage is significant. Previous studies of the research group have found that Cuscutae Semen flavonoids can improve spermatogenic cell damage caused by Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets by regulating spermatogenic cell cycle,apoptosis and related protein expression,but the mechanism of action at the gene level is still unclear. In this study,Illumina high-throughput sequencing platform was applied in transcriptional sequencing of spermatogenic cells of rats after the intervention of Cuscutae Semen flavonoids and Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets. Differentially expressed genes were screened out and the GO enrichment and KEGG pathway analysis of differentially expressed genes were conducted to explore the mechanism of Cuscutae Semen flavonoids in improving reproductive injury caused by Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets. The results showed that 794 up-regulated genes and 491 down-regulated genes were screened in Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets group compared with the blank group. Compared with Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets,440 up-regulated genes and 784 down-regulated genes were screened in the Cuscutae Semen flavonoids+Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets group. Among them,the gene closely related to reproductive function is DNMT3 L. Analysis of GO function and KEGG signaling pathway enrichment showed that the above differentially expressed genes were mainly enriched in cell,cell process,catalytic activity,binding,ovarian steroid synthesis,thyroid hormone and other functions and pathways. The thyroid hormone signaling pathway was the common enrichment pathway of the two control groups. In a word,Cuscutae Semen flavonoids has a good treatment effect on male reproductive damage caused by Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets. The mechanism may be closely related to up-regulation of DNMT3 L genes and intervention of thyroid hormone signaling pathway. At the same time,the discovery of many different genes provides valuable information for study on the mechanism of Cuscutae Semen flavonoids and Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets compatibility decreasing toxicity and increasing efficiency.


Assuntos
Cuscuta/química , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Genitália/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicosídeos/toxicidade , Tripterygium/toxicidade , Animais , DNA (Citosina-5-)-Metiltransferases/genética , Feminino , Genitália/patologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Masculino , Ratos , Sementes/química , Transdução de Sinais , Comprimidos , Hormônios Tireóideos/genética , Transcriptoma
3.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(16): 3486-3493, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602913

RESUMO

The aim of this paper was to observe the toxic effect of Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets( TG) on the reproductive system of Ⅱ type collagen induced arthritis( CIA) male rats,and to explore the toxic mechanism preliminarily. Fifty SD rats were randomly divided into normal control group( Con),model group( CIA),Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets clinical equivalent dose groups of 1,2,4 times( 9,18,36 mg·kg-1),10 rats in each group,and were given by gavage once a day for 42 days after the first immunization.The organ indexes of uterine and ovarian were calculated on days 21 and 42. Histopathological and morphological changes of uterine and ovarian were observed under optical microscope. The concentration of estradiol( E2),follicle-stimulating hormone( FSH),luteinizing hormone( LH),17α-hydroxylase( CYP17 A1) and cytochrome P450 19 A1( CYP19 A1) in serum were detected by ELISA. Immunohistochemistry was used to observe the expression of Bax and Bcl-2 related proteins in the apoptosis pathway of uterus and ovary. The results showed that compared with the Con group,CIA group could reduce the number of uterine glands( P<0.05),but no significant changes were observed in other groups. Compared with the CIA group,there were no significant changes in the coefficients of uterus and ovary in the Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets groups. The number of uterine glands,total follicles in the ovary,mature follicles and corpus luteum,the distribution of blood vessels and mitochondria had a certain inhibitory trend,and also slightly increased the number of atresia follicles,but the histopathological quantitative indicators were not statistically different. Except that 2 times clinical dose of Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets could significantly reduce the content of CYP19 A1( P<0. 05) after 42 d administration,there were no significant changes in serum estrogen E2,FSH,LH and estrogen synthesis key enzymes CYP17 A1 in each administration group. Medium and high doses of Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets could increase the expression of apoptotic protein Bax in uterine and ovarian tissues( P<0. 05,P<0. 01),and all the administration groups could inhibit the expression of apoptotic inhibiting protein Bcl-2( P <0. 05,P<0. 01,P<0.001),42 d was more obvious than 21 d. In conclusion,4 times and less than 4 times Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets did not cause obvious toxicity and histopathological changes in the reproductive organs of CIA rats,but it could reduce the level of serum estrogen synthesis key enzyme CYP19 A1 and affect the content of apoptosis-related proteins Bax and Bcl-2 in uterus and ovary tissues. The relevant mechanism needs further study.


Assuntos
Artrite Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/toxicidade , Genitália Feminina/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicosídeos/toxicidade , Tripterygium/química , Animais , Apoptose , Aromatase/metabolismo , Artrite Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Feminino , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Comprimidos
4.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(16): 3494-3501, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602914

RESUMO

The aim of this paper was to compare the performance of acute liver injury in mice induced by Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets from 6 different manufacturers,and to explore the toxicity mechanism from the perspective of oxidative stress and apoptosis preliminarily. Male or female mice were randomly divided into normal group,Zhejiang group,Hunan group,Hubei group,Shanghai group,Jiangsu group and Fujian group. Mice in Tripgerygium Glycosides Tablets groups were given 16 times the clinical equivalent dose( 300 mg·kg-1) Tripgerygium Glycosides Tablets by oral administration for one time,mice were executed in 24 h after lavaged.Then the visceral brain coefficient of the organ was calculated. Histopathological changes of liver were observed by hematoxylin-eosin staining. Td T-mediated d UTP nick-end labeling was used to detect the apoptosis of the liver cells and the protein content of oxidative stress related factors in liver homogenate. Nuclear transcription factor E2-related factor( Nrf2) and heme oxygenase-1( HO-1) as well as mitochondrial mediated apoptosis-related protein expression levels of Bax and Bcl-2 in hepatic tissue were measured by Western blot.Within 24 hours of administration,6 male mice in Jiangsu group and 2 female mice in Zhejiang group were dying; compared with normal ones,liver coefficients of mice in Zhejiang,Shanghai,Jiangsu and Hunan groups were significantly increased,thymus coefficients in the first two groups were significantly reduced,as well as the lung coefficients of Fujian group mice,the rest was normal. In addition to Hubei group,serum AST,ALT or ALP levels of mice were increased,while TBi L were not being affected. Histopathological changes and apoptosis of liver cells were observed in all mice,and the degree of severity was ranked as Jiangsu,Zhejiang,Shanghai,Hunan,Hubei and Fujian group. All Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets increased the MDA and reduced the content of T-SOD,CAT or GSH in liver tissue while inhibited Nrf2,HO-1 and Bcl-2,increased the protein expression level of Bax( except Hunan group). Tripgerygium Glycosides Tablets from 6 manufacturers all resulted in liver function damage and liver histopathological changes,especially in Jiangsu,Hubei and Fujian,and the mechanism may related to inhibit Nrf2/HO-1 oxidative stress pathway and activate Bax/Bcl-2 apoptosis pathway to mediate lipid peroxidation and induce liver cell apoptosis. Triptolide A may be one of the main toxic components of Tripgerygium Glycosides Tablets that causing drug-induced liver injury. This study was conducted on normal mice with super dose medication,so the relevant results are for reference only.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/toxicidade , Glicosídeos/toxicidade , Tripterygium/toxicidade , Animais , Apoptose , Feminino , Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Camundongos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Comprimidos , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
5.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(16): 3502-3511, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602915

RESUMO

The aim of this paper was to compare the properties of Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets and Tripterygium wilfordii Tablets from dose-effect-toxicity on type Ⅱ collagen-induced arthritis( CIA) in rats. SD rats were randomly divided into eight groups,including normal group,model group,Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets groups( 1 times equivalent dose 0.009 g·kg-1,4 times equivalent dose 0.036 g·kg-1,16 times equivalent dose 0.144 g·kg-1),Tripterygium wilfordii Tablets groups( 1 times equivalent dose 0.007 5 mg·kg-1,4 times equivalent dose 0.030 mg·kg-1,16 times equivalent dose 0.120 mg·kg-1). Beginning on the first immunization,Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets and Tripterygium wilfordii Tablets administered intraperitoneally once a day. After the second immunization,the symptoms such as redness and swelling of joints were observed,and the clinical score and incidence of arthritis were evaluated. HE and Masson staining were used to examine the histopathological changes of joints. The expression level of anti-type Ⅱ collagen antibody Ig G in serum was detected by ELISA,routine testing of blood components,the concentration of ALP( alkaline phosphatase),ALT( alanine aminotransferase),AST( aspartate aminotransferase),GGT( gamma-glutamyltransferase),TBi L( total bilirubin),CRE( creatinine) and UREA( urea) in serum were detected by enzymatic assay. The rate of sperm deformity in the epididymis was evaluated under light microscope. The extent of damage to the testis and ovarian tissue was assessed by HE staining. Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets and Tripterygium wilfordii Tablets attenuated the inflammation,redness,swelling and deformity of joints and reduced the clinical score and incidence of arthritis in CIA rats. Meanwhile,it also exhibited obvious reduction in all pathological features such as joint synovitis,pannus,cartilage erosion and bone destruction. Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets and Tripterygium wilfordii Tablets reduced Ig G in a dose-dependent manner,and Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets is better than Tripterygium wilfordii Tablets( P<0.05 or P<0.01). The high doses of Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets and Tripterygium wilfordii Tablets could significantly increase the organ coefficient of liver and spleen and reduced RBC and HGB in CIA rats( P<0.01),and severity leading to death. Gastric mucosal injury and morphological changes of liver and kidney were not observed in CIA rats of Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets and Tripterygium wilfordii Tablets treatment group. The 4 and 16 times doses of Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets and Tripterygium wilfordii Tablets could significantly increase serum ALT,GGT and decrease CRE( P<0.05 or P<0.01). Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets and Tripterygium wilfordii Tablets could increase the sperm deformity rate and damage the testicular seminiferous tubules of CIA male rats. Severity increased with dose and time increasing. The effect of Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets( 16 times) is more significant than Tripterygium wilfordii Tablets( 16 times). Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets and Tripterygium wilfordii Tablets significantly delayed onset of arthritis and inhibited the paw edema and arthritic score. Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets and Tripterygium wilfordii Tablets also caused male reproductive damage,high dose affected hematopoiesis,and maximum dose leading to death. Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets and Tripterygium wilfordii Tablets all depended on dose-effect-toxicity manner. Anti-arthritis effect of Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets is better than Tripterygium wilfordii Tablets,but the toxicity of Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets maximum dose is more obvious. The relevant conclusions of our study will provide experimental references for clinical rational use of drugs,and further clinical studies are needed to confirm our conclusions.


Assuntos
Artrite Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/toxicidade , Glicosídeos/administração & dosagem , Glicosídeos/toxicidade , Tripterygium/toxicidade , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Comprimidos
6.
J Food Sci ; 84(7): 1986-1991, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31192461

RESUMO

Cassava leaves are a valuable source of protein but the cyanogenic potential limits their use as food and feed. Four different treatments were investigated to detoxify cassava leaves. Thermal (55 °C for 6 hr), sodium bicarbonate (0.4% NaHCO3 , 55 °C for 6 hr), enzymatic (0.32% Multifect® GC Extra, 4 hr), and ultrasonic treatments (500 W, 35 kHz, 55 °C, 0.25 hr) reduced the total cyanide (µg HCN equivalents per g fresh leaf or ppm) content by 90%, 93%, 82%, and 84% while the cyanide content reduction in the respective controls was 85%, 90%, 79%, and 84%, respectively. The sodium bicarbonate treatment was found to be the most effective treatment. Therefore, it was further optimized by varying time and temperature. A significant effect on the cyanide content was observed by changing the incubation time while no significant effect of temperature was noticed. Nevertheless, extended incubation time during sodium bicarbonate treatment reduced ascorbic acid content by 7% and 39% when leaves were incubated with sodium bicarbonate for 0.5 hr and 48 hr, respectively. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Cyanogenic glucosides are the major toxic compound in cassava leaves, which limits their use as food and feed. The methods proposed in this study can be used to detoxify cassava leaves, which are generally considered as an inferior by-product. Hence, detoxified cassava leaves may contribute to fulfil world protein demand in an eco-sustainable way.


Assuntos
Cianetos/química , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Glicosídeos/química , Manihot/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Biocatálise , Cianetos/toxicidade , Enzimas/química , Glicosídeos/toxicidade , Temperatura Alta , Manihot/toxicidade , Folhas de Planta/toxicidade , Bicarbonato de Sódio/química , Ultrassom
7.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 131: 110531, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31136780

RESUMO

1-O-(4-hydroxymethylphenyl)-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (MPG) is a phenolic glycoside that exists in Moringa oleifera seeds with various health benefits, whereas its hepatoprotective effect is lacking clarification. Herein, MPG was isolated from Moringa oleifera seeds, and its hepatoprotection against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in L02 cells and ICR mice was investigated. Toxicity studies showed that MPG did not induce significant changes in organ coefficients and histological analysis, as well as exhibited no cytotoxicity. In vitro studies indicated that MPG substantially increased cell viability and intracellular SOD activities, and significantly inhibited LDH leakage in CCl4-treated cells. In vivo studies demonstrated that MPG significantly alleviated CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in mice, as indicated by diagnostic indicators of hepatic injury, as well as the histopathological analysis. Moreover, MPG reduced the lipid peroxidation levels and regulated the inflammatory cytokines. Notably, MPG substantially suppressed the significant elevation of ROS production in hepatocytes of mice intoxicated with CCl4. Moreover, TUNEL assay demonstrated that MPG obviously inhibited hepatic apoptosis induced by CCl4. Altogether, these results suggested that MPG has excellent liver-protecting effects against hepatocytotoxicity induced by CCl4 in mice and L02 cells, which can be further developed as a valuable functional food additive or drug for the treatment of hepatic injury.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Moringa oleifera/química , Sementes/química , Administração Oral , Animais , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/toxicidade , Tetracloreto de Carbono/toxicidade , Linhagem Celular , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Glicosídeos/administração & dosagem , Glicosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Glicosídeos/toxicidade , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
Phytomedicine ; 58: 152855, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30851581

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Tripterygium glycosides (TG) is the main active extractive of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F and is widely used in clinical practice to treat inflammatory diseases (including inflammatory bowel disease). However, due to its severe toxicity, TG is restricted to the treatment of many diseases. Therefore, it is necessary to study a new method to obtain the attenuated and synergistic extracts from TG. PURPOSE: Tripterygium glycosides-n2 (TG-n2) was obtained from TG by a new preparation method. In this study, we aimed to investigate the difference in the chemical compositions between TG and TG-n2, further explored its toxicity and therapeutic effects on DSS-induced colitis in mice. METHODS: The major chemical compositions of TG and TG-n2 were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC). Subsequently, acute toxicity test was applied to evaluate the toxicity difference between TG and TG-n2. Dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute colitis model was used to explore the therapeutic effect of TG and TG-n2 and their potential mechanisms of action. RESULTS: We found that the chemical compositions of TG-n2 is different from TG. The main difference is the ratio of triptriolide (T11) / triptolide (T9). Acute toxicity test proved that TG-n2 was less toxic than TG. Base on this, further studies showed that TG-n2 has a similar therapeutic effect as compared to TG on attenuating the symptoms of colitis, such as diarrhea, bloody stools, body weight loss, colonic atrophy, histopathological changes, inhibiting cytokines secretion and reducing absolute lymph number. In addition, TG and TG-n2 can increase the apoptosis of T lymphocyte in vivo. Further investigated showed that TG and TG-n2 could increase the expressions of Bax and p62 on CD3-positive T cells. CONCLUSION: This study showed that oral administration of TG-n2 is safer than TG. Moreover, the attenuated TG-n2 has the similar therapeutic effect on treating experimental colitis in mice when compared to TG. Its mechanism may be related to activating the expression of Bax in T cells and inducing T cells autophagy to regulate the survival of T lymphocytes in colitis mice, thus reducing inflammation in colon.


Assuntos
Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Tripterygium/química , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo/patologia , Sulfato de Dextrana/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Glicosídeos/química , Glicosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Glicosídeos/toxicidade , Homeostase , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 125: 225-232, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30615957

RESUMO

Potential toxicity of cyanogenic glycosides arises from enzymatic degradation to produce hydrogen cyanide. Information on the metabolism of cyanogenic glycosides is available from in vitro, animal and human studies. In the absence of ß-glucosidase enzymes from the source plant material, two processes appear to contribute to the production of cyanide from cyanogenic glycosides; the proportion of the glycoside dose that reaches the large intestine, where most of the bacterial hydrolysis occurs, and the rate of hydrolysis of cyanogenic glycosides to cyanohydrin and cyanide. Some cyanogenic glycosides, such as prunasin, are actively absorbed in the jejunum by utilising the epithelial sodium-dependent monosaccharide transporter (SGLT1). The rate of cyanide production from cyanogenic glycosides due to bacterial ß-glycosidase activity depends on; the sugar moiety in the molecule and the stability of the intermediate cyanohydrin following hydrolysis by bacterial ß-glucosidase. Cyanogenic glycosides with a gentiobiose sugar, amygdalin, linustatin, and neolinustatin, undergo a two stage hydrolysis, with gentiobiose initially being hydrolysed to glucose to form prunasin, linamarin and lotaustralin, respectively. While the overall impact of these metabolic factors is difficult to predict, the toxicity of cyanogenic glycosides will be less than the toxicity suggested by their theoretical hydrocyanic acid equivalents.


Assuntos
Glicosídeos/metabolismo , Nitrilos/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Glicosídeos/análise , Glicosídeos/química , Glicosídeos/toxicidade , Humanos , Cianeto de Hidrogênio/análise , Cianeto de Hidrogênio/química , Cianeto de Hidrogênio/toxicidade , Hidrólise , Cinética , Masculino , Nitrilos/análise , Nitrilos/química , Nitrilos/toxicidade
10.
J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) ; 103(2): 695-703, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30698299

RESUMO

Amygdalin is one of the most studied secondary metabolites of Prunus genus. It is a cyanogenic glycoside which was initially obtained from the bitter almonds seeds and is a major component of the seeds of plants, such as apricots, almonds, peaches, apples and other rosaceous plants. The views of scientists on the use of amygdalin have been contradictory for many years, partly because toxicokinetics and metabolism of amygdalin still have not been adequately explored. The present in vivo study was designed to reveal whether pure amygdalin intramuscularly injected or apricot seeds oral consumption induce changes in overall health status of rabbit as a biological model. A total of 60 adult rabbits were randomly divided into five groups. The control group received no amygdalin while the two experimental groups E1 and E2 received a daily intramuscular injection of amygdalin at doses 0.6 and 3.0 mg/kg bw. The experimental groups E3 and E4 were fed crushed bitter apricot seeds (Prunus armeniaca L.), at doses 60 and 300 mg/kg bw, mixed with commercial feed for rabbits. Blood collection was carried out after 14 days. Biochemical, haematological and antioxidant enzymes activity analysis were performed and statistically evaluated. A short-term amygdalin administration had negligible impact on biochemical parameters-mainly level of urea, bilirubin, cholesterol. Haematological profile of rabbits was influenced very slightly-non-significant platelet count and platelet percentage increase, erythrocytes count and haemoglobin decrease. SOD activity of rabbits decreased significantly (p > 0.05) after apricot seeds consumption (102.3 U/ml) in comparison to control (117.4 U/ml). Differences might be connected to diverse metabolism by different administration routes and at the same time by the presence of other substances in apricot seeds (phytosterols, polyphenols, fatty acids). However, a short-term consumption had only slight effect on health status of rabbits and at recommended doses did not represent risk for their health.


Assuntos
Amigdalina/toxicidade , Ração Animal/análise , Glicosídeos/toxicidade , Prunus armeniaca/química , Coelhos , Sementes/química , Amigdalina/química , Animais , Feminino , Glicosídeos/química , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória
11.
Molecules ; 23(8)2018 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30072644

RESUMO

Four new constituents, as 5, 7-dihydroxy-4'-methoxyflavonol-3-O-ß-d-arabinopyranosyl-(2''→1''')-O-ß-d-arabinopyrnosyl-2'''-O-3'''', 7''''-dimethylnonan-1''''-oate (1), 5-hydroxy-7, 4'-dimethoxyflavone-5-O-α-d-arabinopyranosyl-(2"→1''')-O-α-d-arabinopyranosyl-2'''-O-3'''', 7''''-dimethylnonan-1''''-oate (2), 5-hydroxy-7, 4'-dimethoxyflavone-5-O-ß-d-arabinofuranosyl-(2"→1''')-O-ß-d-arabinopyranosyl-2'''-O-lanost-5-ene (3) and 4',4''-diferuloxy feruloyl-O-α-d-arabinopyranosyl-(2a→1b)-O-α-d-arabinopyranosyl-(2b→1c)-O-α-d-arabinopyranosyl-(2c→1d)-O-α-d-arabinopyranosyl-(2d→1e)-O-α-d-arabinopyranosyl-2e-3''', 7'''-dimethylnonan-1'''-oate (4), along with three known compounds (5⁻7) were isolated from Oryza sativa leaves and straw. The structures of new and known compounds were elucidated by 1D (¹H and 13C NMR) and 2D NMR spectral methods, viz: COSY, HMBC, and HSQC aided by mass techniques and IR spectroscopy. The cytotoxicity of these constituents was assessed by using (RAW 264.7) mouse macrophage cell line, and allelopathic effects of compounds (1⁻7) on the germination and seedling growth characteristics such as seedling length and root length of barnyardgrass (Echinochloa oryzicola) were evaluated. Significant inhibitory activity was exhibited by compounds comprising flavone derivatives such as (1⁻3) on all of seed germination characteristics. The allelopathic effect of flavone derivatives were more pronounced on seedling length and root length than the germination characteristics. The higher concentration of flavone derivatives showed stronger inhibitory effects, whereas the lower concentrations showed stimulatory effects in some cases.


Assuntos
Glicosídeos/toxicidade , Macrófagos/citologia , Oryza/química , Feromônios/farmacologia , Polifenóis/toxicidade , Animais , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética Nuclear de Carbono-13 , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/química , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicosídeos/química , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Feromônios/química , Picratos/química , Raízes de Plantas/anatomia & histologia , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Brotos de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Brotos de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Polifenóis/química , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Células RAW 264.7 , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento
12.
Chin J Nat Med ; 16(7): 499-504, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30080648

RESUMO

Two previously undescribed steroidal compounds, 16, 23-epoxy-22, 26-epimino-cholest-22(N), 23, 25(26)-trien-3ß-ol-3-O-ß-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-ß-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-ß-D-galactopyranoside (1) and 26-O-ß-D-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-5α-furost-20(22)-en-3ß, 26-diol (2), together with 7 known ones including 26-O-ß-D-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-5, 20(22)-dien-furost-3ß, 26-diol (3), (25R)-5-en-spirost-3ß-ol-O-ß-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-[α-L-rhmanopyranosyl-(1→2)]-ß-D-galactopyranoside (4), funkioside D (5), aspidistrin (6), tigogenin-3-O-ß-D-lucotrioside (7), desglucolanatigonin II (8), and degalactotigonin (9), were isolated from Solanum lyratum Thunb. Their cytotoxic activities were tested in two cancer cell lines by MTT method. One of the steroidal glycosides (6) showed significant cytotoxic activity against gastric cancer SGC7901 and liver cancer BEL-7402 cells.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/toxicidade , Antineoplásicos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos/toxicidade , Glicosídeos/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Solanum/química , Esteróis/toxicidade , Alcaloides/química , Alcaloides/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicosídeos/química , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Estrutura Molecular , Fitosteróis/química , Fitosteróis/isolamento & purificação , Fitosteróis/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/química , Plantas Medicinais/química , Esteróis/química , Esteróis/farmacologia
13.
J Sep Sci ; 41(16): 3328-3338, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29957847

RESUMO

Genkwa Flos, a famous traditional Chinese medicine has been reported to have significant hepatotoxicity. A high-throughput and reliable method was established to explore potential toxic components by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a Q Exactive high-performance benchtop quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometer. A total of 68 compounds including 22 chemical components and 46 metabolites were tentatively identified based on the accurately measured mass value, retention time, and fragmentation pattern. Besides, the metabolic pathways of main components in Genkwa Flos were also illustrated. The results indicated that hydroxylation, demethylation, methylation, glucuronidation, sulfation, cysteine conjugation, and glutathione conjugation participated in the metabolic reactions of Genkwa Flos. Moreover, 12 Genkwa Flos chemical components and 26 metabolites were detected in cell lysate, which were considered as the bound components to HL-7702 cells. In view of cell affinity theory, these compounds were preliminarily deduced to be potential toxic ingredients for the hepatotoxicity induced by Genkwa Flos. The results demonstrated that the developed method was a very feasible and efficient approach for the components identification even in the complex matrix. In conclusion, this study will provide a deep insight into the toxic substances of Genkwa Flos and lay a chemical basis for in-depth toxic studies on Genkwa Flos hepatotoxicity.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/toxicidade , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cumarínicos/sangue , Cumarínicos/metabolismo , Cumarínicos/toxicidade , Diterpenos/sangue , Diterpenos/metabolismo , Diterpenos/toxicidade , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/metabolismo , Flavonoides/sangue , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Flavonoides/toxicidade , Glicosídeos/sangue , Glicosídeos/metabolismo , Glicosídeos/toxicidade , Humanos , Lignanas/sangue , Lignanas/metabolismo , Lignanas/toxicidade , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Estrutura Molecular , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
14.
Curr Drug Metab ; 19(7): 605-627, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29512444

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tripterigium wilfordii glycosides (TWG) demonstrate paramount bioactive effectiveness in the management of many autoimmune diseases. However, its side effects on the hepatic, nephrotic, reproductive, and cardiovascular systems have limited its immense therapeutic potentials. Triptolide (TP) and Celastrol (CL), the leading bioactive as well as toxic constituents of TWG, have been widely studied. This review aims to summarize the key mechanisms that TWG trigger the toxic reactions and the precautionary measures that could prevent and reduce such reactions. METHOD: We undertook a systemic search of bibliographic databases for peer-reviewed research literature about the toxic mechanisms and pharmacokinetic profiles of TWG. The key points of screened papers were described and combined together to make up whole. RESULTS: Totally 125 papers were referred in this paper, the majority were from Chinese academic associations. It has been reported that reactive oxygen species generation, mitochondrial respiratory chain inhibition, and metabolizing enzyme inhibition are the leading factors of the toxic reactions. The bioactive effects and toxicities of TWG are closely related to its metabolic profiles. It has been confirmed that TP and CL inhibit CYP450 and the transporters. This paper reviews and summarizes the pharmacokinetic parameters of TWG. Antioxidants, polymeric micelle and topical nanoparticle formulations have exhibited potentials in toxicity circumvention. CONCLUSION: A thorough understanding of the pharmacokinetic and toxicological characteristics of TWG combined with further in-depth study will enhance the efficacy and safety in using TWG, which would augment and improve its clinical application in the future.


Assuntos
Glicosídeos , Tripterygium , Animais , Glicosídeos/farmacocinética , Glicosídeos/toxicidade , Humanos
15.
Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol ; 40(2): 173-178, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29355053

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Harpagoside (HAR) is an active component of Scrophularia ningpoensis (SN), which has anti-inflammatory and anti-immune effects. SN is used widely in China to treat various diseases. Recently, SN has been used as a traditional Chinese medicine injection and used clinically. However, allergic responses to these injections are frequently reported. AIM: We examined whether the main component of SN, HAR, is associated with the allergic reaction to SN. METHODS: This study assessed the effects of HAR in mice and mast cell activation to characterize its anaphylactic effects and underlying mechanisms. Mice hindpaw swelling, serum allergy factor detection, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and degranulation assays were performed to measure allergic mediators both in vivo and in vitro. RESULTS: The present study indicated that HAR induced paw swelling, interleukin-6, inositol triphosphate, tumor necrosis factor-α, and histamine increases in mice. Our in vitro data also showed that HAR induced ß-hexosaminidase, inositol triphosphate, and interleukin-6 release, leading to mast cell degranulation. In contrast, neither C48/80 nor HAR induced local anaphylaxis in STOCK KitW-sh/HNihrJaeBsmJNju mice. CONCLUSIONS: HAR is a potential sensitization compound in SN, and these results provide information for the safe clinical use of SN.


Assuntos
Anafilaxia/induzido quimicamente , Anafilaxia/imunologia , Glicosídeos/toxicidade , Imunoglobulina E/imunologia , Piranos/toxicidade , Anafilaxia/patologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Camundongos
16.
Molecules ; 22(8)2017 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28767079

RESUMO

Three new sesquiterpene glycosides, possessing a rare aglycone with a sulfonyl between C-1 and C-15 positions, named 3-(3'E-7'R,8'-dihydroxy-4',8'-dimethyl-3'-nonenyl)-2,5-dihydro-1,1-dioxo-thiophen 7'-O-ß-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-ß-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-ß-d-glucopyranoside (1), 3-(3'E-7'R,8'-dihydroxy-4',8'-dimethyl-3'-nonenyl)-2,5-dihydro-1,1-dioxo-thiophen 7'-O-ß-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-ß-d-glucopyranoside (2), and 3-(3'E-7'R,8'-dihydroxy-4',8'-dimethyl-3'-nonenyl)-2,5-dihydro-1,1-dioxo-thiophen 7'-O-ß-d-glucopyranosyl-6'-O-acetyl-(1→4)-O-ß-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-ß-d-glucopyranoside (3), respectively, were isolated from the rhizomes of Trillium tschonoskii. Their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic data, including HR-ESI-MS, IR, 1D and 2D NMR. The cytotoxic properties of the three compounds were investigated using human hepatic L02 cells.


Assuntos
Glicosídeos/química , Rizoma/química , Sesquiterpenos/química , Trillium/química , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Descoberta de Drogas , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Glicosídeos/toxicidade , Hepatócitos/citologia , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Estrutura Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/química , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Sesquiterpenos/toxicidade , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
17.
PLoS One ; 12(7): e0181646, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28746366

RESUMO

1,3,4-Thiadiazole and sugar-derived molecules have proven to be promising agrochemicals with growth promoting, insecticidal and fungicidal activities. In the research field of agricultural fungicide, applying union of active group we synthesized a new set of 1,3,4-thiadiazole xylofuranose derivatives and all of the compounds were characterized by 1H NMR and HRMS. In precise toxicity measurement, some of compounds exhibited more potent fungicidal activities than the most widely used commercial fungicide Chlorothalonil, promoting further research and development. Based on our experimental data, 3D-QSAR (three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship) was established and investigated using comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA) techniques, helping to better understand the structural requirements of lead compounds with high fungicidal activity and environmental compatibility.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais/química , Glicosídeos/química , Nucleosídeos/química , Relação Quantitativa Estrutura-Atividade , Tiadiazóis/química , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fungicidas Industriais/síntese química , Fungicidas Industriais/toxicidade , Glicosídeos/síntese química , Glicosídeos/toxicidade , Ligações de Hidrogênio , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Modelos Químicos , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Nucleosídeos/síntese química , Nucleosídeos/toxicidade , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Especificidade da Espécie , Eletricidade Estática , Tiadiazóis/síntese química , Tiadiazóis/toxicidade
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28638871

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Kidney tonifying - spleen strengthening method being one of the modalities for treatment of astheno-oligozoospermia is currently commonly used in the clinical setting. To investigate the mechanism of YiShenJianPi (YSJP) Recipe, used in Traditional Chinese Medicine to benefit "the kidney" and strengthen "the spleen". MATERIALS AND METHODS: Oligoasthenozoospermia, male BALB/c mice were randomly divided into normal control, disease model, positive control, low-dosage and high-dosage groups. Oligoasthenozoospermia was induced by tripterygium glucosides intragastric administration before treatment started. Through using computer-aided sperm analysis to test the changes in sperm quality, utilizing flow cytometry to test the percentage of sperm with normal mitochondrial transmembrane potential (JC-1 + %), utilizing X-ray microscopy to observe epididymal sperm ultra-microstructure placing special emphasis and photographing the differences in mitochondria of the flagellum region. RESULTS: Compared with DM, sperm quality of the treated mice was significantly better (P<0.05, respectively). Compared with PC, the LD group had significantly better quality sperms, while the parameters in the HD group were numerically better. Compared with NC, all other groups had significantly lower percentage of sperms with normal mitochondrial membrane potential. In PC, LD and HD groups, the percentage of sperms with normal mitochondrial membrane potential was significantly higher than that of D. The 9+9+2 mitochondrial sheath structure was complete in NC but damaged in DM. In the treatment groups, this structure was fairly clear. CONCLUSION: YSJP improved semen quality with oligoasthenozoospermia by improving sperm mitochondrial membrane potential and restoring sperm mitochondrial ultrastructure.


Assuntos
Astenozoospermia/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Tripterygium/toxicidade , Animais , Astenozoospermia/induzido quimicamente , Astenozoospermia/fisiopatologia , Glicosídeos/toxicidade , Humanos , Masculino , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Motilidade Espermática , Espermatozoides/citologia , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
J Diet Suppl ; 14(5): 521-541, 2017 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28156165

RESUMO

The present work is aimed at studying acute oral toxicity (AOT), subchronic oral toxicity, mutagenicity, and genotoxicity of furostanol glycosides-based standardized fenugreek seed extract (Fenu-FG) using the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guidelines. The AOT and subchronic (90-day repeated dose) toxicity studies were performed on Wistar rats as per OECD 423 and OECD 408 guidelines, respectively. The mutagenicity (reverse mutation assay, Ames test) and genotoxicity (mammalian chromosome aberration test) were assessed in vitro using OECD 471 and OECD 473 guidelines, respectively. At an acute oral limit dose of 2,000 mg/kg, Fenu-FG did not show any mortality or treatment-related adverse signs. Ninety days of subchronic oral administration of Fenu-FG (250, 500, or 1,000 mg/kg) in rats did not induce any treatment-related significant changes with respect to body weight, hematology, blood biochemistry, urinalysis, gross pathology, or histopathology. The no-observed-adverse-effect-level of Fenu-FG was 1,000 mg/kg/day. Furthermore, Fenu-FG did not demonstrate mutagenic potential up to a concentration of 5,000 µg/plate (Ames test) and did not induce structural chromosome aberrations up to 2,000 µg/ml (in human lymphocyte cells in vitro). In conclusion, Fenu-FG was found safe during preclinical safety assessments.


Assuntos
Glicosídeos/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Sementes/química , Esteróis/toxicidade , Trigonella/toxicidade , Animais , Testes de Mutagenicidade , Nível de Efeito Adverso não Observado , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Testes de Toxicidade Subaguda , Testes de Toxicidade Subcrônica
20.
Chemosphere ; 174: 478-489, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28189893

RESUMO

Toxigenicity of cyanobacteria is widely associated with production of several well-described toxins that pose recognized threats to human and ecosystem health as part of both freshwater eutrophication, and episodic blooms in freshwater and coastal habitats. However, a preponderance of evidence indicates contribution of additional bioactive, and potentially toxic, metabolites. In the present study, the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo was used as a model of vertebrate development to identify, and subsequently isolate and characterize, teratogenic metabolites from two representative strains of C. raciborskii. Using this approach, three chemically related carotenoids - and specifically the xanthophyll glycosides, myxol 2'-glycoside (1), 4-ketomyxol 2'-glycoside (2) and 4-hydroxymyxol 2'-glycoside (3) - which are, otherwise, well known pigment molecules from cyanobacteria were isolated as potently teratogenic compounds. Carotenoids are recognized "pro-retinoids" with retinoic acid, as a metabolic product of the oxidative cleavage of carotenoids, established as both key mediator of embryo development and, consequently, a potent teratogen. Accordingly, a comparative toxicological study of chemically diverse carotenoids, as well as apocarotenoids and retinoids, was undertaken. Based on this, a working model of the developmental toxicity of carotenoids as pro-retinoids is proposed, and the teratogenicity of these widespread metabolites is discussed in relation to possible impacts on aquatic vertebrate populations.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/toxicidade , Glicosídeos/toxicidade , Teratogênios/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Cianobactérias/química , Embrião não Mamífero/efeitos dos fármacos , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/efeitos dos fármacos , Eutrofização , Água Doce , Tretinoína , Peixe-Zebra
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