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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4997, 2020 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020472

RESUMO

Despite a deeper molecular understanding, human glioblastoma remains one of the most treatment refractory and fatal cancers. It is known that the presence of macrophages and microglia impact glioblastoma tumorigenesis and prevent durable response. Herein we identify the dual function cytokine IL-33 as an orchestrator of the glioblastoma microenvironment that contributes to tumorigenesis. We find that IL-33 expression in a large subset of human glioma specimens and murine models correlates with increased tumor-associated macrophages/monocytes/microglia. In addition, nuclear and secreted functions of IL-33 regulate chemokines that collectively recruit and activate circulating and resident innate immune cells creating a pro-tumorigenic environment. Conversely, loss of nuclear IL-33 cripples recruitment, dramatically suppresses glioma growth, and increases survival. Our data supports the paradigm that recruitment and activation of immune cells, when instructed appropriately, offer a therapeutic strategy that switches the focus from the cancer cell alone to one that includes the normal host environment.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Glioma/metabolismo , Glioma/patologia , Interleucina-33/metabolismo , Animais , Neoplasias Encefálicas/mortalidade , Carcinogênese , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/mortalidade , Glioblastoma/patologia , Glioma/mortalidade , Humanos , Inflamação , Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Células Matadoras Naturais/patologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos SCID , Microglia , Análise de Sobrevida , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/patologia , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
2.
Anticancer Res ; 40(11): 6151-6158, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33109552

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Glioma is the most malignant tumour of the human brain still lacking effective treatment modalities. Betulin, a pentacyclic triterpene abundantly found in the birch bark, has been shown to demonstrate interesting anti-cancer activity towards many cancer cells. We determined the effects of acetylenic synthetic betulin derivatives (ASBDs) as anti-tumour agents on glioma cells in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: T98G and C6 glioma cell viability and proliferation were determined by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay and BrdU (bromo deoxyuridine) test, respectively. Cell-cycle progression and induction of apoptosis were investigated with flow cytometry. RESULTS: ASBDs significantly decreased glioma cell viability/survival and inhibited proliferation in a dose-dependent manner in vitro. Moreover, ASBDs were more cytotoxic than clinically used chemotherapeutics - temozolomide and cisplatin. CONCLUSION: ASBDs may be considered for further study as potent anti-tumour agents in glioma treatment.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Glioma/patologia , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Acetileno/química , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Humanos , Ratos , Temozolomida/farmacologia , Triterpenos/química
3.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 7791-7803, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33116501

RESUMO

Background: The synergistic effect of nanomaterials and chemotherapeutics provides a novel strategy for the treatment of tumors. Silver nanotriangles (AgNTs) exhibited some unique properties in nanomedicine. Studies on the synergy of silver-based nanomaterials and anti-tumor drugs against gliomas are rare. Materials and Methods: Chitosan-coated AgNTs were prepared, followed by characterization using transmission electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The anti-glioma effect of cyclophosphamide (CTX), 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), oxaliplatin (OXA), doxorubicin (DOX) or gemcitabine (GEM) combined with AgNTs in different glioma cell lines (U87, U251 and C6) was assessed by the MTT assay to screen out a drug with the most broad-spectrum and strongest synergistic anti-glioma activity. The intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and cell apoptosis were detected by flow cytometry. The possible underlying mechanisms of the synergy were further investigated with ROS scavenger and specific inhibitors of C-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 pathways. Results: The synthesized AgNTs were mainly triangular and truncated triangular with an average edge length of 125 nm. A synergistic anti-glioma effect of AgNTs combined with CTX was not observed, and the synergism between AgNTs and 5-FU was cell type-specific. AgNTs combined with OXA, DOX or GEM displayed synergistic effects in various glioma cell lines, and the combination of AgNTs and GEM showed the strongest synergistic activity. A decrease in cell viability, loss of the MMP and an increase in apoptosis rate induced by this synergy could be significantly attenuated by the ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine and JNK inhibitor SP600125. Conclusion: Our results suggested that the combination of AgNTs and GEM possessed broad-spectrum and potent synergistic anti-glioma activity, resulting from cell apoptosis mediated by a ROS-dependent mitochondrial pathway in which JNK might be involved.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Glioma/patologia , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanoestruturas/química , Prata/química , Prata/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Fluoruracila/farmacologia , Humanos , Proteínas Quinases JNK Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
4.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 7951-7965, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33116511

RESUMO

Introduction: Glioma is the primary malignant brain tumor with poor prognosis. Berberine (BBR) was the potential drug for anti-tumor in glioma cells. Based on its limitation of poor aqueous solubility and instability, little information of BBR nanoparticles is reported in glioma. Methods: Different solutions including 5% glucose, 1*PBS, ddH2O, 0.9% NaCl, cell culture medium were selected, and only 5% glucose and ddH2O exhibited BBR-related nanoparticles. After heating for a longer time or adding a higher concentration of glucose solution, BBR nanoparticles were detected by TEM analysis. The uptake of BBR-Glu or BBR-Water nanoparticles were detected by immunofluorescence analysis for BBR autofluorescence. Cell viability was measured by MTT assay and Western blotting analysis. Apoptosis was performed with flow cytometric analysis and was detected by cleaved caspase-3 immuno-fluorescent staining. Cell cycle was used by flow cytometric analysis. Cytoskeleton was observed by confocal analysis using the neuron specific Class III ß-tubulin and ß-tubulin antibodies. Mitochondrial-related proteins were detected by Western blotting analyses and mito-tracker staining in live cells. Mitochondrion structures were observed by TEM analysis. ROS generation and ATP production were detected by related commercial kits. The tracking of BBR-Glu or BBR-Water nanoparticles into blood-brain barrier was observed in primary tumor-bearing models. The fluorescence of BBR was detected by confocal analyses in brains and gliomas. Results: BBR-Glu nanoparticles became more homogenized and smaller with dose- and time-dependent manners. BBR-Glu nanoparticles were easily absorbed in glioma cells. The IC50 of BBR-Glu in U87 and U251 was far lower than that of BBR-Water. BBR-Glu performed better cytotoxicity, with higher G2/M phase arrest, decreased cell viability by targeting mitochondrion. In primary U87 glioma-bearing mice, BBR-Glu exhibited better imaging in brains and gliomas, indicating that more BBR moved across the blood-brain tumor barrier. Discussion: BBR-Glu nanoparticles have better solubility and stability, providing a promising strategy in glioma precision treatment.


Assuntos
Berberina/química , Berberina/farmacologia , Glioma/patologia , Glucose/química , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas/química , Animais , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Berberina/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico , Barreira Hematoencefálica/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Pontos de Checagem da Fase G2 do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Pontos de Checagem da Fase M do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo
5.
Anticancer Res ; 40(11): 6473-6484, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33109586

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is an intractable tumor that has a very poor prognosis despite intensive treatment with temozolomide plus radiotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Sixteen newly diagnosed patients with high-grade gliomas were enrolled in a phase II study of the α-type-1 DC vaccine. Briefly, DCs obtained from the culture of enriched monocytes in the presence of a cytokine cocktail, were pulsed with a cocktail of 5 synthetic peptides and cryopreserved until injection into patients. RESULTS: The amount of IL-12 produced by activated DCs was higher than that previously reported. Among 15 evaluable patients, 10 showed positive CTL responses to any peptides in an ELISPOT assay. After 6 years of observation, five patients were still alive, and two of these patients were relapse-free. Moreover, a significant survival-prolonging effect was verified in DC-treated glioma patients. CONCLUSION: Peptide-cocktail-pulsed α-type-1 DC vaccines have a potential therapeutic effect on survival when used in combination with the standard regimen, which is partly based on IL-12-IFN-γ-mediated T-cell activation.


Assuntos
Vacinas Anticâncer/administração & dosagem , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Glioma/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Vacinas Anticâncer/imunologia , Polaridade Celular/imunologia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Glioma/imunologia , Glioma/patologia , Humanos , Interferon gama/genética , Interleucina-12/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monócitos/imunologia , Monócitos/patologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/imunologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Vacinação/métodos
6.
Anticancer Res ; 40(11): 6513-6515, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33109591

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Previously, we identified predictors of survival after irradiation of grade II-IV cerebral gliomas. In this supplementary analysis, survival was calculated in a more appropriate way than the original study. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Ten factors were re-evaluated for survival in patients of the original study including pre-radiotherapy seizures. In the original study, survival was calculated from the end of the last radiotherapy course (primary or re-irradiation). After re-review, this approach was considered inappropriate. Survival should have always been calculated from the first radiotherapy course, as done in this supplementary analysis. RESULTS: On multivariate analysis, WHO-grade II (p=0.006) and upfront resection (p=0.001) were associated with better survival. Unifocal glioma was significant on univariate analysis (p=0.001), where a trend could be identified for age ≤59 years (p=0.057) and seizures (p=0.060). CONCLUSION: The findings of this supplementary analysis regarding the identification of prognostic factors for survival agree with the results of the original study.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/radioterapia , Glioma/radioterapia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/radioterapia , Prognóstico , Idoso , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/cirurgia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Glioma/patologia , Glioma/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/cirurgia , Reirradiação/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
Br J Radiol ; 93(1115): 20200661, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877208

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the performance of pretreatment structural and arterial spin labelling (ASL) MRI in predicting p53 mutation in patients with high-grade gliomas (HGGs). METHODS: Pre-treatment structural and ASL MRI were performed in 57 patients with histologically confirmed HGGs and information of p53 status. Whole-lesion histogram analysis of cerebral blood flow (CBF) images of the enhancing tumour and the peritumoral oedema in the HGGs were performed. Visually AcceSAble Rembrandt Images features were used as qualitative analysis. The differences of ASL histogram parameters and Visually AcceSAble Rembrandt Images features between HGGs with or without p53 mutation were analyzed with post hoc correction for multiple comparisons. LASSO regression was performed to select the optimal features that could predict p53 mutation, followed by receiver operating characteristic analysis to determine the predictive efficacy. RESULTS: A total of 33 HGGs with p53 mutation and 24 without p53 mutation were included. HGGs with mutant p53 showed lower CBFpercentile5 and CBFuniformity of the enhancing tumour (p < 0.05) and higher prevalence of the qualitative MRI feature of enhancing tumour crossing midline (ETCM) (p < 0.05) as compared with HGGs with wild-type p53. LASSO regression showed that the CBFuniformity of the enhancing tumour and ETCM were predictive features for p53 mutation. CBFuniformity showed an acceptable performance in predicting p53 mutation (area under the curve = 0.721), when combined with the feature of ETCM, its predictive efficacy was significantly improved (area under the curve = 0.814, p = 0.012). CONCLUSION: An integrated pre-treatment structural and ASL MRI can help to predict p53 mutation in HGGs.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Imagem Ecoplanar/métodos , Genes p53/genética , Glioma/genética , Mutação , Adulto , Área Sob a Curva , Edema Encefálico/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Encefálicas/irrigação sanguínea , Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Feminino , Glioma/irrigação sanguínea , Glioma/diagnóstico por imagem , Glioma/patologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Período Pré-Operatório , Curva ROC , Marcadores de Spin , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/análise
8.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239325, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946483

RESUMO

Mutation in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1R132H) occurs in various types of cancer, including low and high grade gliomas. Despite high incidence indicating its central role in tumor initiation and progression there are no targeted therapies directed against this oncogene available in the clinic. This is due to the limited understanding of the role of IDH1R132H in carcinogenesis, which is further propagated by the lack of appropriate experimental models. Moreover, proper in vitro models for analysis of gliomagenesis are required. In this study, we employed a Tet On system to generate human induced neural stem cells with doxycycline-inducible IDH1R132H. Equivalent expression of both forms of IDH1 in the presented model remains similar to that described in tumor cells. Additional biochemical analyses further confirmed tightly controlled gene regulation at protein level. Formation of a functional mutant IDH1 enzyme was supported by the production of D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D2HG). All samples tested for MGMT promoter methylation status, including parental cells, proved to be partially methylated. Analysis of biological effect of IDH1R132H revealed that cells positive for oncogene showed reduced differentation efficiency and viability. Inhibition of mutant IDH1 with selective inhibitor efficiently suppressed D2HG production as well as reversed the effect of mutant IDH1 protein on cell viability. In summary, our model constitutes a valuable platform for studies on the molecular basis and the cell of origin of IDH-mutant glioma (e.g. by editing P53 in these cells and their derivatives), as well as a reliable experimental model for drug testing.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/genética , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Glioma/patologia , Isocitrato Desidrogenase/genética , Mutação , Células-Tronco Neurais/citologia , Diferenciação Celular , Linhagem Celular , Humanos
9.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239475, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32976545

RESUMO

Diffusion-weighted MRI makes it possible to quantify subvoxel brain microstructure and to reconstruct white matter fiber trajectories with which structural connectomes can be created. However, at the border between cerebrospinal fluid and white matter, or in the presence of edema, the obtained MRI signal originates from both the cerebrospinal fluid as well as from the white matter partial volume. Diffusion tractography can be strongly influenced by these free water partial volume effects. Thus, including a free water model can improve diffusion tractography in glioma patients. Here, we analyze how including a free water model influences structural connectivity estimates in healthy subjects as well as in brain tumor patients. During a clinical study, we acquired diffusion MRI data of 35 glioma patients and 28 age- and sex-matched controls, on which we applied an open-source deep learning based free water model. We performed deterministic as well as probabilistic tractography before and after free water modeling, and utilized the tractograms to create structural connectomes. Finally, we performed a quantitative analysis of the connectivity matrices. In our experiments, the number of tracked diffusion streamlines increased by 13% for high grade glioma patients, 9.25% for low grade glioma, and 7.65% for healthy controls. Intra-subject similarity of hemispheres increased significantly for the patient as well as for the control group, with larger effects observed in the patient group. Furthermore, inter-subject differences in connectivity between brain tumor patients and healthy subjects were reduced when including free water modeling. Our results indicate that free water modeling increases the similarity of connectivity matrices in brain tumor patients, while the observed effects are less pronounced in healthy subjects. As the similarity between brain tumor patients and healthy controls also increased, connectivity changes in brain tumor patients may have been overestimated in studies that did not perform free water modeling.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética , Glioma/patologia , Água/química , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Conectoma/métodos , Aprendizado Profundo , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Substância Branca/patologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Life Sci ; 260: 118411, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32918978

RESUMO

AIMS: Cell adhesion mediated-drug resistance (CAM-DR) is one of main reasons for. the limitation to chemotherapy, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear in glioma. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of CAM-DR induced by Fibronectin (Fn). Besides, we studied the reversal effect of Oroxylin A, a natural flavonoid extracted from Scutellaria radix, on Temozolomide (TMZ) insensitivity of glioma cells. MAIN METHODS: Human Fn protein was used to mimic cell adhesion model and investigate its effect on the insensitivity of glioma cells to TMZ. Moreover, Oroxylin A was studied regarding its reversal effect on TMZ insensitivity of glioma via multiple molecular biological methods such as MTT, cell apoptosis assay, siRNA transfection, western blot, immunofluorescence assay. KEY FINDINGS: Fn could decrease the apoptosis-inducing effect of TMZ and led to the CAM-DR in glioma cells. Further studies showed that up-regulations of IP3R1 and intracellular Ca2+ level induced the activation of AKT kinase which increased the phosphorylation of GSK-3ß and subsequently caused the entry of ß-catenin into the nucleus. Knocking down IP3R1 significantly improved the sensitivity of glioma cells to TMZ. Meanwhile, after treatment with low-toxic concentration of Oroxylin A, the apoptosis induced by TMZ under Fn condition increased dramatically. Furthermore, our results revealed that Oroxylin A markedly inhibited the expression of IP3R1 and the activation of AKT/ß-catenin pathway. SIGNIFICANCE: Oroxylin A could reverse the insensitivity of TMZ via suppressing IP3R1/AKT/ß-catenin pathway and it might be helpful for enhancing the anti-cancer effect of TMZ in glioma.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibronectinas/efeitos adversos , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glioma/tratamento farmacológico , Temozolomida/farmacologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/farmacologia , Apoptose , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Proliferação de Células , Feminino , Glioma/etiologia , Glioma/metabolismo , Glioma/patologia , Humanos , Receptores de Inositol 1,4,5-Trifosfato/genética , Receptores de Inositol 1,4,5-Trifosfato/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto , beta Catenina/genética , beta Catenina/metabolismo
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(38): e22238, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957367

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Systematic evaluation of the effectiveness and safety of combined procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine for treating recurrent high-grade glioma. METHODS: Electronic databases including PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library Central Register of Controlled Trials, WanFang, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) were used to search for studies related to the utilization of combined procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine as a therapeutic method for recurrent high-grade glioma. Literature screening, extraction of data, and evaluation of high standard studies were conducted by 2 independent researchers. The robustness and strength of the effectiveness and safety of combined procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine as a therapeutic methodology for recurrent high-grade glioma was assessed based on the odds ratio (OR), mean differences (MDs), and 95% confidence interval (CI). RevMan 5.3 software was used for carrying out the statistical analysis. RESULTS: These results obtained in this study will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. CONCLUSION: Evidently, the conclusion of this study will provide an assessment on whether combined procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine provides an effective and safe form of treatment for recurrent high-grade glioma. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION NUMBER: INPLASY202080078.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Glioma/tratamento farmacológico , Metanálise como Assunto , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Adolescente , Adulto , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Glioma/patologia , Humanos , Lomustina/efeitos adversos , Lomustina/uso terapêutico , Gradação de Tumores , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Procarbazina/efeitos adversos , Procarbazina/uso terapêutico , Vincristina/efeitos adversos , Vincristina/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
12.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238406, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886667

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In cancer treatment an attempt has been made to pharmacologically regulate the proteasome functions, thus the aim was to test whether 20S proteasome chymotrypsin-like (ChT-L) activity has a role in glial brain tumors. Furthermore, we analyzed the correlation between proteasome activity and IL-8, CCL2, NF-κB1 and NF-κB2 concentrations, which impact on brain tumors has already been indicated. METHODS: Plasma 20S proteasome ChT-L activity was assayed using the fluorogenic peptide substrate Suc-Leu-Leu-Val-Tyr-AMC in the presence of SDS. IL-8, CCL2, NF-κB1 and NF-κB2 concentration was analyzed with the use of ELISA method. Immunohistochemistry for IDH1-R132H was done on 5-microns-thick formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor sections with the use of antibody specific for the mutant IDH1-R132H protein. Labelled streptavidin biotin kit was used as a detection system. RESULTS: Brain tumor patients had statistically higher 20S proteasome ChT-L activity (0.649 U/mg) compared to non-tumoral individuals (0.430 U/mg). IDH1 wild-type patients had statistically higher 20S proteasome ChT-L activity (1.025 U/mg) compared to IDH1 mutants (0.549 U/mg). 20S proteasome ChT-L activity in brain tumor patients who died as the consequence of a tumor (0.649) in the following 2 years was statistically higher compared to brain tumor patients who lived (0.430 U/mg). In brain tumor patients the 20S proteasome ChT-L activity positively correlated with IL-8 concentration. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated 20S proteasome ChT-L activity was related to the increased risk of death in glial brain tumor patients. A positive correlation between 20S proteasome ChT-L activity and IL-8 concentration may indicate the molecular mechanisms regulating glial tumor biology. Thus research on proteasomes may be important and should be carried out to verify if this protein complexes may represent a potential therapeutic target to limit brain tumor invasion.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Glioma/metabolismo , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Biometria , Quimiocina CCL2/metabolismo , Quimotripsina/metabolismo , Cisteína Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Feminino , Glioma/patologia , Humanos , Interleucina-8/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Neuroglia/metabolismo , Neuroglia/patologia , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/sangue , Proteólise , Serina Endopeptidases/sangue
13.
Anticancer Res ; 40(9): 4895-4905, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878777

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Nicotinamide phosphoribosyl-transferase (NAMPT) is a rate-limiting enzyme in the pathway synthesizing nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD (+)) from nicotinamide (NAM). Glioma tissues exhibit up-regulated NAMPT expression associated with a poor prognosis of patients. To determine if NAMPT can be a molecular therapeutic target, we investigated the effects of short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated NAMPT down-regulation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We designed shRNA to NAMPT and transfected to T98G cells. The characteristics of these cells were analyzed. RESULTS: The NAMPT shRNA-transfected cells exhibited delayed cell growth. However, there was no difference in the increase of sensitivity to temozolomide (TMZ) or X-ray irradiation between the NAMPT and scramble shRNA-transfected cells. The expression of NAMPT in the NAMPT shRNA-transfected cells increased with cell passage. Additionally, the shRNA-mediated transfection was associated with enhanced expression of quinolinic acid phosphoribo-syltransferase (QPRT). CONCLUSION: shRNA-mediated NAMPT down-regulation may not decrease the NADt to a sufficient level to increase TMZ/radiation sensitivity.


Assuntos
Citocinas/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo , Glioma/enzimologia , Nicotinamida Fosforribosiltransferase/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Citocinas/genética , Glioma/metabolismo , Glioma/patologia , Humanos , NAD/metabolismo , Nicotinamida Fosforribosiltransferase/genética , Pentosiltransferases/genética , Pentosiltransferases/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Temozolomida/farmacologia
14.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238238, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881880

RESUMO

The prognosis for patients with glioblastoma (GB) remains grim. Concurrent temozolomide (TMZ) radiation-the cornerstone of glioma control-extends the overall median survival of GB patients by only a few months over radiotherapy alone. While these survival gains could be partly attributed to radiosensitization, this benefit is greatly minimized in tumors expressing O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), which specifically reverses O6-methylguanine lesions. Theoretically, non-O6-methylguanine lesions (i.e., the N-methylpurine adducts), which represent up to 90% of TMZ-generated DNA adducts, could also contribute to radiosensitization. Unfortunately, at concentrations attainable in clinical practice, the alkylation capacity of TMZ cannot overwhelm the repair of N-methylpurine adducts to efficiently exploit these lesions. The current therapeutic application of TMZ therefore faces two main obstacles: (i) the stochastic presence of MGMT and (ii) a blunted radiosensitization potential at physiologic concentrations. To circumvent these limitations, we are developing a novel molecule called NEO212-a derivatization of TMZ generated by coupling TMZ to perillyl alcohol. Based on gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography analyses, we determined that NEO212 had greater tumor cell uptake than TMZ. In mouse models, NEO212 was more efficient than TMZ at crossing the blood-brain barrier, preferentially accumulating in tumoral over normal brain tissue. Moreover, in vitro analyses with GB cell lines, including TMZ-resistant isogenic variants, revealed more potent cytotoxic and radiosensitizing activities for NEO212 at physiologic concentrations. Mechanistically, these advantages of NEO212 over TMZ could be attributed to its enhanced tumor uptake presumably leading to more extensive DNA alkylation at equivalent dosages which, ultimately, allows for N-methylpurine lesions to be better exploited for radiosensitization. This effect cannot be achieved with TMZ at clinically relevant concentrations and is independent of MGMT. Our findings establish NEO212 as a superior radiosensitizer and a potentially better alternative to TMZ for newly diagnosed GB patients, irrespective of their MGMT status.


Assuntos
Dacarbazina/análogos & derivados , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Glioma/tratamento farmacológico , Radiossensibilizantes/uso terapêutico , Temozolomida/uso terapêutico , Animais , Barreira Hematoencefálica/efeitos dos fármacos , Barreira Hematoencefálica/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Dacarbazina/análise , Dacarbazina/metabolismo , Dacarbazina/farmacologia , Dacarbazina/uso terapêutico , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Glioma/patologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , O(6)-Metilguanina-DNA Metiltransferase/metabolismo , Radiossensibilizantes/análise , Radiossensibilizantes/metabolismo , Radiossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Temozolomida/análise , Temozolomida/metabolismo , Temozolomida/farmacologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
15.
Anticancer Res ; 40(10): 5427-5436, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988864

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: The tetrazolium-based MTT cytotoxicity assay is well established for screening putative anti-cancer agents. However, it has limitations including lack of reproducibility with glioma cells treated with polyphenols. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a flow cytometric assay with the anthraquinone, DRAQ7, was a better alternative than the colorimetric MTT assay for measuring cell viability. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two glioma cell lines (IPSB-18, U373) and 1 pancreatic cancer cell line (AsPC-1) were treated with 4 polyphenols, namely red grape seed extract, red clover extract, anthocyanin-rich extract and curcumin. Cell viability was assessed using MTT assay and DRAQ7 staining. RESULTS: Limitations of MTT assay included lack of sensitivity and interference with the structure and absorbance spectra of polyphenols. Also, DMSO was toxic to glioma cells. Microscopic observations of cells treated with polyphenols confirmed the range of IC50 values evaluated by DRAQ7, but not by the MTT assay. CONCLUSION: DRAQ7 is a better alternative than MTT for measuring viability of glioma cells treated with brightly coloured polyphenols.


Assuntos
Antraciclinas/farmacologia , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Glioma/tratamento farmacológico , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Antraciclinas/química , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Glioma/patologia , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Sais de Tetrazólio/química , Tiazóis/química
16.
BMC Neurol ; 20(1): 310, 2020 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32819307

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Age is associated with the prognosis of glioma patients, but there is no uniform standard of age-group classification to evaluate the prognosis of glioma patients. In this study, we aimed to establish an age group classification for risk stratification in glioma patients. METHODS: 1502 patients diagnosed with gliomas at Nanfang Hospital between 2000 and 2018 were enrolled. The WHO grade of glioma was used as a dependent variable to evaluate the effect of age on risk stratification. The evaluation model was established by logistic regression, and the Akaike information criterion (AIC) value of the model was used to determine the optimal cutoff points for age-classification. The differences in gender, WHO grade, pathological subtype, tumor cell differentiation, tumor size, tumor location, and molecular markers between different age groups were analyzed. The molecular markers included GFAP, EMA, MGMT, P53, NeuN, Oligo2, EGFR, VEGF, IDH1, Ki-67, PR, CD3, H3K27M, TS, and 1p/19q status. RESULTS: The proportion of men with glioma was higher than that of women with glioma (58.3% vs 41.7%). Analysis of age showed that appropriate classifications of age group were 0-14 years old (pediatric group), 15-47 years old (youth group), 48-63 years old (middle-aged group), and ≥ 64 years old (elderly group).The proportions of glioblastoma and large tumor size (4-6 cm) increased with age (p = 0.000, p = 0.018, respectively). Analysis of the pathological molecular markers across the four age groups showed that the proportion of patients with larger than 10% area of Ki-67 expression or positive PR expression increased with age (p = 0.000, p = 0.017, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Appropriate classifications of the age group for risk stratification are 0-14 years old (pediatric group), 15-47 years old (young group), 48-63 years old (middle age group) and ≥ 64 years old (elderly group). This age group classification is effective in evaluating the risk of glioblastoma in glioma patients.


Assuntos
Fatores Etários , Neoplasias Encefálicas/classificação , Glioma/classificação , Medição de Risco , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Glioma/patologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Adulto Jovem
18.
Life Sci ; 258: 118152, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735881

RESUMO

AIMS: Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are the source of tumors and play a key role in the resistance of cancer to therapies. To improve the current therapies against CSCs, in this work we developed a novel system of electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofibers containing hydroxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs-OH) and all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The nanofiber membranes were forged by electrospinning, and the physical and chemical properties of the nanofiber membranes were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, XRD and Raman etc. The photothermal properties of nanofiber membranes and their effects on CSCs differentiation and cytotoxicity were investigated. Finally, the anti-tumor effect of nanofiber membranes in vivo was evaluated. KEY FINDINGS: The nanofibers formed under optimal conditions were smooth without beads. The nanofibrous membranes with MWCNTs-OH could increase temperature of the medium under near-infrared (NIR) illumination to suppress the viability of glioma stem cells (GSCs). Meanwhile, the added ATRA could further induce the differentiation of GSCs to destroy their stemness and reduce their resistance to heat treatment. Compared with no NIR irradiation, after 2min NIR irradiation, the membranes reduced the in-vitro viability of GSCs by 13.41%, 14.83%, and 26.71% after 1, 2, and 3 days, respectively. After 3 min daily illumination for 3 days, the viability of GSCs was only 22.75%, and similar results were observed in vivo. SIGNIFICANCE: These results showed efficiently cytotoxicity to CSCs by combining heat therapy and differentiation therapy. The nanofiber membranes if inserted at the site after surgical tumor removal, may hinder tumor recurrence.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/terapia , Glioma/terapia , Nanofibras/uso terapêutico , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Tretinoína/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Glioma/patologia , Humanos , Hipertermia Induzida/métodos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Nanofibras/química , Nanotubos de Carbono/química , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/prevenção & controle , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Poliésteres/química , Poliésteres/uso terapêutico , Tretinoína/administração & dosagem
19.
Brain Tumor Pathol ; 37(4): 136-144, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32761533

RESUMO

Oncogenic gene fusions have been reported in diffuse gliomas and may serve as potential therapeutic targets. Here, using next-generation sequencing analysis (Illumina TruSight Tumor 170 panel), we analyzed a total of 356 diffuse gliomas collected from 2017 to 2019 to evaluate clinical, pathological, and genetic features of gene fusion. We found 53 cases of glioblastomas harboring the following oncogenic gene fusions: MET (n = 18), EGFR (n = 14), FGFR (n = 12), NTRK (n = 5), RET (n = 2), AKT3 (n = 1), and PDGFRA fusions (n = 1). Gene fusions were consistently observed in both IDH-wildtype and IDH-mutant glioblastomas (8.8% and 9.4%, p = 1.000). PTPRZ1-MET fusion was the only fusion that genetically resembled secondary glioblastomas (i.e., high frequency of IDH mutation, ATRX loss, TP53 mutation, and absence of EGFR amplification), whereas other gene fusion types were similar to primary glioblastomas (i.e., high frequency of IDH-wildtype, TERT mutation, EGFR amplification, and PTEN mutation). In IDH-wildtype glioblastoma patients, multivariable analysis revealed that the PTPRZ1-MET fusion was associated with poor progression-free survival (HR [95% CI]: 5.42 (1.72-17.05), p = 0.004). Additionally, we described two novel cases of CCDC6-RET fusion in glioma. Collectively, our findings indicate that targetable gene fusions are associated with aggressive biological behavior and can aid the clinical treatment strategy for glioma patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Fusão Gênica/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Glioblastoma/genética , Glioma/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-met/genética , Proteínas Tirosina Fosfatases Classe 5 Semelhantes a Receptores/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/genética , Feminino , Glioblastoma/mortalidade , Glioblastoma/patologia , Glioma/mortalidade , Glioma/patologia , Humanos , Isocitrato Desidrogenase/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-ret/genética , Taxa de Sobrevida
20.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1272: 117-132, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32845505

RESUMO

Malignant gliomas are the most common tumors in the central nervous system (CNS) and, unfortunately, are also the most deadly. The lethal nature of malignant gliomas is due in large part to their unique and distinctive ability to invade the surrounding neural tissue. The invasive and dispersive nature of these tumors makes them particularly challenging to treat, and currently there are no effective therapies for malignant gliomas. The brain tumor microenvironment plays a particularly important role in mediating the invasiveness of gliomas, and, therefore, understanding its function is key to developing novel therapies to treat these deadly tumors. A defining aspect of the tumor microenvironment of gliomas is the unique composition of the extracellular matrix that enables tumors to overcome the typically inhibitory environment found in the CNS. One conspicuous component of the glioma tumor microenvironment is the neural-specific ECM molecule, brain-enriched hyaluronan binding (BEHAB)/brevican (B/b). B/b is highly overexpressed in gliomas, and its expression in these tumors contributes importantly to the tumor invasiveness and aggressiveness. However, B/b is a complicated protein with multiple splice variants, cleavage products, and glycoforms that contribute to its complex functions in these tumors and provide unique targets for tumor therapy. Here we review the role of B/b in glioma tumor microenvironment and explore targeting of this protein for glioma therapy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Brevicam/metabolismo , Movimento Celular , Glioma/patologia , Microambiente Tumoral , Humanos , Invasividade Neoplásica
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