Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 5.926
Filtrar
1.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 5029-5032, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019116

RESUMO

We have recently reported encapsulating an antitumor iron chelator, Dp44mT (Di-2-pyridylketone-4,4dimethyl-3-thiosemicarbazone), in nanoparticles (NPs) of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA). In this paper, we examine the effectiveness of this nano-formulation, referred to as Dp44mT-NPs, against several cancer cell lines in vitro; specifically, we evaluate the cytotoxicity of this formulation in glioma (U87, U251), breast (MCF7), and colorectal (HT29) cancer cell lines. Cell viability results from treatment of glioma cells with Dp44mT-NPs for 24-72 hrs revealed that these NPs were highly toxic towards these malignant cells with very low IC50 values (<100 nM). Although addition of a PEG (poly(ethylene glycol)) layer to the surface of NPs reduced their toxicity in glioma cells, they remained highly toxic towards these cells (IC50 of 135-210 nM). Dp44mT-NPs were also toxic towards breast MCF7 and colorectal HT29 cells, but at higher dosages (IC50 >1 µM) compared to glioma cells. Addition of PEG to these NPs, again lowered their toxicity in these cells. Varying the percentage of PEG on NPs resulted in changes in their cytotoxicity, highlighting the necessity of further optimization of this parameter. This study, overall, demonstrates the therapeutic potential of Dp44mT-NPs against different malignant cells, with particularly promising results in highly-aggressive glioma tumor cells.


Assuntos
Glioma , Nanopartículas , Tiossemicarbazonas , Glioma/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Polietilenoglicóis , Tiossemicarbazonas/farmacologia
2.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238238, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881880

RESUMO

The prognosis for patients with glioblastoma (GB) remains grim. Concurrent temozolomide (TMZ) radiation-the cornerstone of glioma control-extends the overall median survival of GB patients by only a few months over radiotherapy alone. While these survival gains could be partly attributed to radiosensitization, this benefit is greatly minimized in tumors expressing O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), which specifically reverses O6-methylguanine lesions. Theoretically, non-O6-methylguanine lesions (i.e., the N-methylpurine adducts), which represent up to 90% of TMZ-generated DNA adducts, could also contribute to radiosensitization. Unfortunately, at concentrations attainable in clinical practice, the alkylation capacity of TMZ cannot overwhelm the repair of N-methylpurine adducts to efficiently exploit these lesions. The current therapeutic application of TMZ therefore faces two main obstacles: (i) the stochastic presence of MGMT and (ii) a blunted radiosensitization potential at physiologic concentrations. To circumvent these limitations, we are developing a novel molecule called NEO212-a derivatization of TMZ generated by coupling TMZ to perillyl alcohol. Based on gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography analyses, we determined that NEO212 had greater tumor cell uptake than TMZ. In mouse models, NEO212 was more efficient than TMZ at crossing the blood-brain barrier, preferentially accumulating in tumoral over normal brain tissue. Moreover, in vitro analyses with GB cell lines, including TMZ-resistant isogenic variants, revealed more potent cytotoxic and radiosensitizing activities for NEO212 at physiologic concentrations. Mechanistically, these advantages of NEO212 over TMZ could be attributed to its enhanced tumor uptake presumably leading to more extensive DNA alkylation at equivalent dosages which, ultimately, allows for N-methylpurine lesions to be better exploited for radiosensitization. This effect cannot be achieved with TMZ at clinically relevant concentrations and is independent of MGMT. Our findings establish NEO212 as a superior radiosensitizer and a potentially better alternative to TMZ for newly diagnosed GB patients, irrespective of their MGMT status.


Assuntos
Dacarbazina/análogos & derivados , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Glioma/tratamento farmacológico , Radiossensibilizantes/uso terapêutico , Temozolomida/uso terapêutico , Animais , Barreira Hematoencefálica/efeitos dos fármacos , Barreira Hematoencefálica/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Dacarbazina/análise , Dacarbazina/metabolismo , Dacarbazina/farmacologia , Dacarbazina/uso terapêutico , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Glioma/patologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , O(6)-Metilguanina-DNA Metiltransferase/metabolismo , Radiossensibilizantes/análise , Radiossensibilizantes/metabolismo , Radiossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Temozolomida/análise , Temozolomida/metabolismo , Temozolomida/farmacologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
3.
Anticancer Res ; 40(10): 5427-5436, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988864

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: The tetrazolium-based MTT cytotoxicity assay is well established for screening putative anti-cancer agents. However, it has limitations including lack of reproducibility with glioma cells treated with polyphenols. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a flow cytometric assay with the anthraquinone, DRAQ7, was a better alternative than the colorimetric MTT assay for measuring cell viability. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two glioma cell lines (IPSB-18, U373) and 1 pancreatic cancer cell line (AsPC-1) were treated with 4 polyphenols, namely red grape seed extract, red clover extract, anthocyanin-rich extract and curcumin. Cell viability was assessed using MTT assay and DRAQ7 staining. RESULTS: Limitations of MTT assay included lack of sensitivity and interference with the structure and absorbance spectra of polyphenols. Also, DMSO was toxic to glioma cells. Microscopic observations of cells treated with polyphenols confirmed the range of IC50 values evaluated by DRAQ7, but not by the MTT assay. CONCLUSION: DRAQ7 is a better alternative than MTT for measuring viability of glioma cells treated with brightly coloured polyphenols.


Assuntos
Antraciclinas/farmacologia , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Glioma/tratamento farmacológico , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Antraciclinas/química , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Glioma/patologia , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Sais de Tetrazólio/química , Tiazóis/química
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(38): e22238, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957367

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Systematic evaluation of the effectiveness and safety of combined procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine for treating recurrent high-grade glioma. METHODS: Electronic databases including PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library Central Register of Controlled Trials, WanFang, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) were used to search for studies related to the utilization of combined procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine as a therapeutic method for recurrent high-grade glioma. Literature screening, extraction of data, and evaluation of high standard studies were conducted by 2 independent researchers. The robustness and strength of the effectiveness and safety of combined procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine as a therapeutic methodology for recurrent high-grade glioma was assessed based on the odds ratio (OR), mean differences (MDs), and 95% confidence interval (CI). RevMan 5.3 software was used for carrying out the statistical analysis. RESULTS: These results obtained in this study will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. CONCLUSION: Evidently, the conclusion of this study will provide an assessment on whether combined procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine provides an effective and safe form of treatment for recurrent high-grade glioma. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION NUMBER: INPLASY202080078.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Glioma/tratamento farmacológico , Metanálise como Assunto , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Adolescente , Adulto , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Glioma/patologia , Humanos , Lomustina/efeitos adversos , Lomustina/uso terapêutico , Gradação de Tumores , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Procarbazina/efeitos adversos , Procarbazina/uso terapêutico , Vincristina/efeitos adversos , Vincristina/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3883, 2020 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753598

RESUMO

Temozolomide (TMZ) is an oral alkylating agent used for the treatment of glioblastoma and is now becoming a chemotherapeutic option in patients diagnosed with high-risk low-grade gliomas. The O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) is responsible for the direct repair of the main TMZ-induced toxic DNA adduct, the O6-Methylguanine lesion. MGMT promoter hypermethylation is currently the only known biomarker for TMZ response in glioblastoma patients. Here we show that a subset of recurrent gliomas carries MGMT genomic rearrangements that lead to MGMT overexpression, independently from changes in its promoter methylation. By leveraging the CRISPR/Cas9 technology we generated some of these MGMT rearrangements in glioma cells and demonstrated that the MGMT genomic rearrangements contribute to TMZ resistance both in vitro and in vivo. Lastly, we showed that such fusions can be detected in tumor-derived exosomes and could potentially represent an early detection marker of tumor recurrence in a subset of patients treated with TMZ.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Metilases de Modificação do DNA/genética , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/genética , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Rearranjo Gênico , Glioma/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Temozolomida/farmacologia , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Adutos de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Adutos de DNA/metabolismo , Metilação de DNA , Metilases de Modificação do DNA/metabolismo , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Glioma/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/prevenção & controle , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , RNA-Seq , Temozolomida/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto , Adulto Jovem
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(28): e21147, 2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32664146

RESUMO

High-grade gliomas (HGGs) are a rapidly progressive and highly recurrent group of primary brain tumors. Despite aggressive surgical resection with chemoradiotherapy, prognoses remained poor. Valproic acid (VPA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor has shown the potential to inhibit glioma cell growth in vitro through several diverse mechanisms. However clinical studies regarding the effect of VPA on HGGs are limited. This study aimed to investigate whether using VPA in patients with HGGs under temozolomide (TMZ) would lead to a better overall survival (OS).We used the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research database to conduct this population-based cohort study. A total of 2379 patients with HGGs under TMZ treatment were included and were further classified into VPA (n = 1212, VPA ≥ 84 defined daily dose [DDD]) and non-VPA (n = 1167, VPA < 84 DDD) groups. Each patient was followed from 1998 to 2013 or until death. A Cox proportional hazard regression was performed to evaluate the effect of VPA and OS.The VPA group had a longer mean OS time compared with the non-VPA group (OS: 50.3 ±â€Š41.0 vs 42.0 ±â€Š37.2 months, P < .001). In patients between 18 and 40 years old, the difference is most significant (OS: 70.5 ±â€Š48.7 vs 55.1 ±â€Š46.0, P = .001). The adjusted hazard ratio is 0.81 (95% confidence interval, 0.72-0.91) for the VPA group relative to the non-VPA group.VPA at over 84 DDD improved OS in HGGs TMZ treatment.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Glioma/tratamento farmacológico , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Vigilância da População/métodos , Temozolomida/uso terapêutico , Ácido Valproico/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/mortalidade , Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Seguimentos , Glioma/diagnóstico , Glioma/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 3347-3362, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32494134

RESUMO

Introduction: Temozolomide (TMZ) is the first-line chemotherapeutic option to treat glioma; however, its efficacy and clinical application are limited by its drug resistance properties. Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1)-targeted therapy causes G2/M arrest and increases the sensitivity of glioma to TMZ. Therefore, to limit TMZ resistance in glioma, an angiopep-2 (A2)-modified polymeric micelle (A2PEC) embedded with TMZ and a small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting PLK1 (siPLK1) was developed (TMZ-A2PEC/siPLK). Materials and Methods: TMZ was encapsulated by A2-PEG-PEI-PCL (A2PEC) through the hydrophobic interaction, and siPLK1 was complexed with the TMZ-A2PEC through electrostatic interaction. Then, an angiopep-2 (A2) modified polymeric micelle (A2PEC) embedding TMZ and siRNA targeting polo-like kinase 1 (siPLK1) was developed (TMZ-A2PEC/siPLK). Results: In vitro experiments indicated that TMZ-A2PEC/siPLK effectively enhanced the cellular uptake of TMZ and siPLK1 and resulted in significant cell apoptosis and cytotoxicity of glioma cells. In vivo experiments showed that glioma growth was inhibited, and the survival time of the animals was prolonged remarkably after TMZ-A2PEC/siPLK1 was injected via their tail vein. Discussion: The results demonstrate that the combination of TMZ and siPLK1 in A2PEC could enhance the efficacy of TMZ in treating glioma.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Glioma/tratamento farmacológico , Nanopartículas/química , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/administração & dosagem , Temozolomida/administração & dosagem , Temozolomida/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Endocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Endossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Endossomos/metabolismo , Pontos de Checagem da Fase G2 do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Inativação Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Temozolomida/farmacologia , Distribuição Tecidual/efeitos dos fármacos , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Pharm Res ; 37(6): 91, 2020 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32385723

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Bevacizumab (BCZ) is a recombinant monoclonal antibody that inhibits the biological activity of the vascular endothelial growth factor, which has an important role in angiogenesis for tumoral growth and progression. In this way, our objective was to develop chitosan-coated lipid-core nanocapsules functionalized with BCZ by an organometallic complex using gold-III. METHODS: The formulation was produced and characterized in relation to physicochemical characteristics. Furthermore, the antitumoral and antiangiogenic activities were evaluated against C6 glioma cell line and chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM), respectively. RESULTS: Final formulation showed nanometric size, narrow polydispersity, positive zeta potential and gold clusters size lower than 2 nm. BCZ in aqueous solution (0.01-0.10 µmol L-1) did not show cytotoxic activity in vitro against C6 glioma cell line; although, MLNC-Au-BCZ showed cytotoxicity with a median inhibition concentration of 30 nmol L-1 of BCZ. Moreover, MLNC-Au-BCZ demonstrated cellular internalization dependent on incubation time and BCZ concentration. BCZ solution did not induce significant apoptosis as compared to MLNC-Au-BCZ within 24 h of treatment. CAM assay evidenced potent antiangiogenic activity for MLNC-Au-BCZ, representing a decrease of 5.6 times in BCZ dose comparing to BCZ solution. CONCLUSION: MLNC-Au-BCZ is a promising product for the treatment of solid tumors.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/química , Bevacizumab/química , Quitosana/química , Glioma/tratamento farmacológico , Ouro/química , Lipídeos/química , Nanocápsulas/química , Inibidores da Angiogênese/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Bevacizumab/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular , Embrião de Galinha , Membrana Corioalantoide/efeitos dos fármacos , Complexos de Coordenação/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Hexoses/química , Humanos , Lectinas de Plantas/química , Polissorbatos/química , Proteínas de Soja/química , Propriedades de Superfície , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
10.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 2999-3022, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32431498

RESUMO

High-grade gliomas are still characterized by a poor prognosis, despite recent advances in surgical treatment. Chemotherapy is currently practiced after surgery, but its efficacy is limited by aspecific toxicity on healthy cells, tumour cell chemoresistance, poor selectivity, and especially by the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Thus, despite the large number of potential drug candidates, the choice of effective chemotherapeutics is still limited to few compounds. Malignant gliomas are characterized by high infiltration and neovascularization, and leaky BBB (the so-called blood-brain tumour barrier); surgical resection is often incomplete, leaving residual cells that are able to migrate and proliferate. Nanocarriers can favour delivery of chemotherapeutics to brain tumours owing to different strategies, including chemical stabilization of the drug in the bloodstream; passive targeting (because of the leaky vascularization at the tumour site); inhibition of drug efflux mechanisms in endothelial and cancer cells; and active targeting by exploiting carriers and receptors overexpressed at the blood-brain tumour barrier. Within this concern, a suitable nanomedicine-based therapy for gliomas should not be limited to cytotoxic agents, but also target the most important pathogenetic mechanisms, including cell differentiation pathways and angiogenesis. Moreover, the combinatorial approach of cell therapy plus nanomedicine strategies can open new therapeutical opportunities. The major part of attempted preclinical approaches on animal models involves active targeting with protein ligands, but, despite encouraging results, a few number of nanomedicines reached clinical trials, and most of them include drug-loaded nanocarriers free of targeting ligands, also because of safety and scalability concerns.


Assuntos
Barreira Hematoencefálica/patologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Nanopartículas/química , Animais , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Glioma/classificação , Glioma/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Nanomedicina
11.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 2563-2582, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32368041

RESUMO

Gliomas are the most common tumor of the central nervous system. However, the presence of the brain barrier blocks the effective delivery of drugs and leads to the treatment failure of various drugs. The development of a nanoparticle drug delivery system (NDDS) can solve this problem. In this review, we summarized the brain barrier (including blood-brain barrier (BBB), blood-brain tumor barriers (BBTB), brain-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCB), and nose-to-brain barrier), NDDS of glioma (such as passive targeting systems, active targeting systems, and environmental responsive targeting systems), and NDDS efficacy improvement strategies and deficiencies. The research prospect of drug-targeted delivery systems for glioma is also discussed.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Glioma/tratamento farmacológico , Nanopartículas/química , Animais , Barreira Hematoencefálica/patologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Vias de Administração de Medicamentos , Humanos
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(20): 11085-11096, 2020 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358191

RESUMO

Glioblastoma (GBM) is the deadliest adult brain cancer, and all patients ultimately succumb to the disease. Radiation therapy (RT) provides survival benefit of 6 mo over surgery alone, but these results have not improved in decades. We report that radiation induces a glioma-initiating cell phenotype, and we have identified trifluoperazine (TFP) as a compound that interferes with this phenotype conversion. TFP causes loss of radiation-induced Nanog mRNA expression, and activation of GSK3 with consecutive posttranslational reduction in p-Akt, Sox2, and ß-catenin protein levels. TFP did not alter the intrinsic radiation sensitivity of glioma-initiating cells (GICs). Continuous treatment with TFP and a single dose of radiation reduced the number of GICs in vivo and prolonged survival in syngeneic and patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) mouse models of GBM. Our findings suggest that the combination of a dopamine receptor antagonist with radiation enhances the efficacy of RT in GBM by preventing radiation-induced phenotype conversion of radiosensitive non-GICs into treatment-resistant, induced GICs (iGICs).


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Dopamina/farmacologia , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Receptores Dopaminérgicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Trifluoperazina/farmacologia , Animais , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/radioterapia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Antagonistas de Dopamina/uso terapêutico , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Glioblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Glioblastoma/patologia , Glioblastoma/radioterapia , Glioma/tratamento farmacológico , Glioma/metabolismo , Glioma/patologia , Glioma/radioterapia , Quinase 3 da Glicogênio Sintase/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Tolerância a Radiação , Fatores de Transcrição SOXB1 , Trifluoperazina/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto , beta Catenina
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(18): 9964-9972, 2020 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32312817

RESUMO

Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation is a common genetic abnormality in human malignancies characterized by remarkable metabolic reprogramming. Our present study demonstrated that IDH1-mutated cells showed elevated levels of reactive oxygen species and higher demands on Nrf2-guided glutathione de novo synthesis. Our findings showed that triptolide, a diterpenoid epoxide from Tripterygium wilfordii, served as a potent Nrf2 inhibitor, which exhibited selective cytotoxicity to patient-derived IDH1-mutated glioma cells in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, triptolide compromised the expression of GCLC, GCLM, and SLC7A11, which disrupted glutathione metabolism and established synthetic lethality with reactive oxygen species derived from IDH1 mutant neomorphic activity. Our findings highlight triptolide as a valuable therapeutic approach for IDH1-mutated malignancies by targeting the Nrf2-driven glutathione synthesis pathway.


Assuntos
Diterpenos/farmacologia , Glioma/tratamento farmacológico , Isocitrato Desidrogenase/genética , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Fenantrenos/farmacologia , Sistema y+ de Transporte de Aminoácidos/genética , Animais , Vias Biossintéticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Compostos de Epóxi/farmacologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glioma/genética , Glioma/patologia , Glutamato-Cisteína Ligase/genética , Glutationa/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , Mutação/genética , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Mutações Sintéticas Letais/genética , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
14.
Anticancer Res ; 40(4): 2059-2064, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32234897

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Prolonged use of glucocorticoids (GC) in glioma treatment can lead to adrenal insufficiency (AI) and subsequent steroid dependence due to suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. This is challenging to diagnose due to its nonspecific clinical symptoms erroneously ascribed to treatment. This study aimed to evaluate the risk factors predisposing patients with gliomas to develop AI. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Charts in the neuro-oncology clinic from July 2018 to March 2019 were reviewed. Inclusion criteria included >18 y/o with WHO Grade II-IV gliomas, and secondary AI. Demographic profile, tumor characteristics, and treatment profile were compared. RESULTS: The majority of patients were started on high dose dexamethasone at >8 mg daily, and were on dexamethasone for 4-8 months. The minimum dose needed to prevent symptoms was 0.5 mg to 2 mg daily. The majority received standard radiation doses ranging from 54-60 Gy. Most patients had radiation exposure to the HPA axis within the prescription isodose levels. CONCLUSION: Prolonged steroid dependency can result from chronic GC use in patients with glioma. Dose and duration of GC are risk factors for its development. Radiation exposure to the HPA axis may also be a contributing factor.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Adrenal/tratamento farmacológico , Glioma/tratamento farmacológico , Glucocorticoides/efeitos adversos , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/efeitos dos fármacos , Insuficiência Adrenal/induzido quimicamente , Insuficiência Adrenal/patologia , Adulto , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Glioma/complicações , Glioma/patologia , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/patologia , Fatores de Risco , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/patologia
15.
Biochim Biophys Acta Rev Cancer ; 1873(2): 188353, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32112817

RESUMO

Glioma is the most common primary malignant tumor in the human brain. Although there are a variety of treatments, such as surgery, radiation and chemotherapy, glioma is still an incurable disease. Super-enhancers (SEs) are implicated in the control of tumor cell identity, and they promote oncogenic transcription, which supports tumor cells. Inhibition of the SE complex, which is required for the assembly and maintenance of SEs, may repress oncogenic transcription and impede tumor growth. In this review, we discuss the unique characteristics of SEs compared to typical enhancers, and we summarize the recent advances in the understanding of their properties and biological role in gene regulation. Additionally, we highlight that SE-driven lncRNAs, miRNAs and genes are involved in the malignant phenotype of glioma. Most importantly, the application of SE inhibitors in different cancer subtypes has introduced new directions in glioma treatment.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glioma/genética , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Carcinogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinogênese/genética , Glioma/tratamento farmacológico , Glioma/patologia , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , Oncogenes/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Cancer Cell ; 37(3): 308-323.e12, 2020 03 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32142668

RESUMO

Diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPGs) are aggressive pediatric brain tumors for which there is currently no effective treatment. Some of these tumors combine gain-of-function mutations in ACVR1, PIK3CA, and histone H3-encoding genes. The oncogenic mechanisms of action of ACVR1 mutations are currently unknown. Using mouse models, we demonstrate that Acvr1G328V arrests the differentiation of oligodendroglial lineage cells, and cooperates with Hist1h3bK27M and Pik3caH1047R to generate high-grade diffuse gliomas. Mechanistically, Acvr1G328V upregulates transcription factors which control differentiation and DIPG cell fitness. Furthermore, we characterize E6201 as a dual inhibitor of ACVR1 and MEK1/2, and demonstrate its efficacy toward tumor cells in vivo. Collectively, our results describe an oncogenic mechanism of action for ACVR1 mutations, and suggest therapeutic strategies for DIPGs.


Assuntos
Receptores de Ativinas Tipo I/química , Receptores de Ativinas Tipo I/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Glioma/patologia , Mutação , Receptores de Ativinas Tipo I/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores de Ativinas Tipo I/metabolismo , Animais , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas/genética , Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Feminino , Glioma/tratamento farmacológico , Glioma/genética , Histonas/genética , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Lactonas/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos Transgênicos , Neoplasias Experimentais/genética , Neoplasias Experimentais/patologia , Neuroglia/metabolismo , Neuroglia/patologia , Oligodendroglia/patologia , Receptor alfa de Fator de Crescimento Derivado de Plaquetas/genética , Receptor alfa de Fator de Crescimento Derivado de Plaquetas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição SOXC/genética , Fatores de Transcrição SOXC/metabolismo
17.
Nanotechnology ; 31(25): 255601, 2020 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32126545

RESUMO

To enhance the therapeutic efficiency and reduce side effects from drug delivery and chemotherapy, image-guided nanoscale systems have attracted tremendous attention in recent decades. In this study, we developed a novel method to fabricate a colchicine/gadolinium-loaded tubulin self-assembly nanocarrier (Col-Gd@Tub NC) for the image-guided chemotherapy of glioma. The Col-Gd@Tub NCs were spontaneously formed via tubulin self-assembly and were subsequently functionalized by colchicine and gadolinium elements. These resultant Col-Gd@Tub NCs with a diameter of 45 nm exhibited uniform particle size distribution and favorable stability without any leakage of gadolinium in water. Meanwhile, the introduction of gadolinium endowed Col-Gd@Tub NCs with high T 1-weighted MRI performance in vitro. After tail vein injection, Col-Gd@Tub NCs exhibited excellent MRI contrast capability and relatively long circulation time (∼12 h) and were finally cleared out from the bladder. More significantly, the binding colchicine still exerted an anti-tumor effect after the Col-Gd@Tub NCs were taken up by the tumor cells. These results show that the Col-Gd@Tub NCs may be served as a versatile nanoscale platform for the integration of biomedical imaging probes and therapeutic molecules for tumor therapy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Colchicina/administração & dosagem , Gadolínio/química , Glioma/tratamento farmacológico , Tubulina (Proteína)/química , Animais , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Colchicina/química , Colchicina/farmacologia , Difusão Dinâmica da Luz , Feminino , Glioma/diagnóstico por imagem , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Camundongos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Tamanho da Partícula , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
18.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 1499-1515, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32189965

RESUMO

Purpose: Some chemotherapeutics have been shown to induce both the release of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and the production of type I interferon (IFN-I), leading to immunogenic cell death (ICD). However, the standard chemotherapy drug for glioma, temozolomide (TMZ), cannot induce ICD as it cannot activate IFN-I signaling. Moreover, inefficient delivery of immunostimulants across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is the main obstacle to overcome in order to induce local immune responses in the brain. Methods: A new oligonucleotide nanoformulation (Au@PP)/poly(I:C)) was constructed by coating gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with methoxypolyethylene glycol (mPEG)-detachable (d)-polyethyleneimine (PEI) (Au@PP) followed by inducing the formation of electrostatic interactions with polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)). Intracranial GL261 tumor-bearing C57BL/6 mice were used to explore the therapeutic outcomes of Au@PP/poly(I:C) plus TMZ in vivo. The anti-tumor immune response in the brain induced by this treatment was analyzed by RNA sequencing and immunohistochemical analyses. Results: Au@PP/poly(I:C) induced IFN-I production after endocytosis into glioma cells in vitro. Additionally, Au@PP/poly(I:C) was efficiently accumulated in the glioma tissue after intranasal administration, which allowed the nanoformulation to enter the brain while bypassing the BBB. Furthermore, Au@PP/poly(I:C) plus TMZ significantly improved the overall survival of the tumor-bearing mice compared with group TMZ only. RNA sequencing and immunohistochemical analyses revealed efficient immune response activation and T lymphocyte infiltration in the Au@PP/poly(I:C) plus TMZ group. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that intranasal administration of Au@PP/poly(I:C) combined with TMZ induces ICD, thereby stimulating an in situ immune response to inhibit glioma growth.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/imunologia , Glioma/tratamento farmacológico , Glioma/imunologia , Nanopartículas Metálicas/administração & dosagem , Nanopartículas Metálicas/uso terapêutico , Administração Intranasal , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Ouro/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Interferon Tipo I/metabolismo , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Poli I-C/síntese química , Poli I-C/química , Polietilenoglicóis/síntese química , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Polietilenoimina/síntese química , Polietilenoimina/química , Análise de Sobrevida , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Temozolomida/farmacologia , Temozolomida/uso terapêutico
19.
Toxicology ; 435: 152413, 2020 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32109525

RESUMO

DNA interstrand cross-links (ICLs) are essential for the antitumor activity of chloroethylnitrosoureas (CENUs). Commonly, CENUs resistance is mainly considered to be associated with O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) within tumors. Bypassing the MGMT-mediated resistance, to our knowledge, herein, we first utilized a novel glycolytic inhibitor, 3-bromopyruvate (3-BrPA), to increase the cytotoxic effects of l,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU) to human glioma cells based on the hypothesis that blocking energy metabolism renders tumor cells more sensitive to chemotherapy. We found 3-BrPA significantly increased the cell killing by BCNU in human glioma SF763 and SF126 cell lines. Significantly decreased levels of extracellular lactate, cellular ATP and glutathione (GSH) were observed after 3-BrPA treatment, and the effects were more remarkable with 3-BrPA in combination with BCNU. Considering that the role of ATP and GSH in drug efflux, DNA damage repair and drug inactivation, we determined the effect of 3-BrPA on the formation of dG-dC ICLs induced by BCNU using stable isotope dilution high-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). As expected, the levels of lethal dG-dC ICLs induced by BCNU were obviously enhanced after 3-BrPA pretreatment. Based on these results, 3-BrPA and related glycolytic inhibitors may be promising to enhance the cell killing effect and reverse the clinical chemoresistance of CENUs and related antitumor agents.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/farmacologia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Carmustina/farmacologia , Dano ao DNA , Glioma/tratamento farmacológico , Glicólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Piruvatos/farmacologia , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Metilases de Modificação do DNA/metabolismo , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/metabolismo , Resistência a Medicamentos , Glioma/metabolismo , Glioma/patologia , Glutationa/metabolismo , Humanos , O(6)-Metilguanina-DNA Metiltransferase/metabolismo , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/metabolismo
20.
Oncol Rep ; 43(3): 807-816, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32020219

RESUMO

Gliomas are the most common neoplasm of the human central nervous system. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the most serious types of gliomas. Although considerable progress has been made in the development of cancer therapeutic agents, several antineoplastic drugs fail to penetrate the blood­brain barrier (BBB), resulting in a low survival rate of glioma patients. Recent studies have revealed that the traditional Chinese medicine Buxus microphylla contains the main active component Cyclovirobuxine D (CVB­D), which can cross the BBB with a novel delivery system. However, it remains unclear whether CVB­D exerts anticancer effects against GBM and low­grade glioma (LGG). The aim of the present study was to explore the feasibility of CVB­D as a new effective agent in the treatment of GBM and LGG. The ability of CVB­D to inhibit GBM and LGG cell proliferation was detected by CCK8 assay. Flow cytometry was used to detect cell cycle progression and apoptosis induction by Annexin V­FITC/PI assay. The expression levels of the apoptosis­associated proteins, namely cleaved caspase­3 and Bax/Bcl­2, were detected by western blot analysis. The mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) was detected by Rh123 dyed fluorescence micrograph. Hoechst staining was used to observe the morphological characteristics of the apoptotic cells. The scratch test was used to evaluate the migration of GBM and LGG cells. The results indicated that CVB­D reduced cell viability of T98G and Hs683 cells. Flow cytometry demonstrated that CVB­D­treated cells were arrested at the S phase of their cell cycle. The expression levels of the apoptosis­associated proteins were increased in CVB­D­treated cells. Rh123 and Hoechst staining indicated morphological changes and mitochondrial membrane potential changes of the cells undergoing apoptosis. The data confirmed that CVB­D inhibited cell proliferation by arresting the cell cycle of GBM and LLG cells and that it promoted the induction of cell apoptosis by altering the mitochondrial membrane potential. The findings of the present study indicate the potential value of CVB­D in the treatment of glioma.


Assuntos
Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Glioblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Glioma/tratamento farmacológico , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/genética , Barreira Hematoencefálica/efeitos dos fármacos , Buxus/química , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Glioblastoma/genética , Glioblastoma/patologia , Glioma/genética , Glioma/patologia , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Gradação de Tumores , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA