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1.
Maturitas ; 145: 49-55, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541562

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) affects the body through pathways that exhibit positive as well as negative health effects such as immunoregulation and vitamin D production. Different vitamin D metabolites are associated with higher or lower concentrations of estrogens and may thus alter the female sex hormone balance. OBJECTIVE: To study whether exposure to UVR, as a modifiable lifestyle factor, is associated with levels of sex hormones (17ß-estradiol, estrone, estrone 3-sulfate, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate), gonadotropins (follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone) as well as sex hormone binding globulin in postmenopausal women, and thus investigate whether managing UVR exposure can influence the hormone balance, with potential benefits for the biological aging process. METHODS: The study included 580 postmenopausal women from six European countries, participating in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (2010-2014). Average UVR exposure during the month before blood sampling was estimated based on personal sun behavior and ambient levels. Hormone concentrations were measured in serum using state-of-the-art methods. Subsequently we applied linear mixed-effects models, including center as random intercept, hormone concentrations (one at a time) as outcome and UVR, age, skin type, body mass index, vitamin D from dietary sources, smoking, age at completed full-time education and season of blood sampling as fixed-effect predictors. RESULTS: One interquartile range increase in UVR exposure was associated with decreased levels of 17ß-estradiol (-15.6 pmol/L, 95 % Confidence Interval (CI): -27.69, -3.51) and estrone (-13.36 pmol/L, 95 % CI: -26.04, -0.68) and increased levels of follicle stimulating hormone (9.34IU/L, 95 % CI: 2.91, 15.77) and luteinizing hormone (13.86 IU/daL, 95 % CI: 2.48, 25.25). CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to UVR is associated with decreased estrogens and increased gonadotropins in postmenopausal women, a status associated with osteoporosis, lung function decline and other adverse health effects. This study indicates that managing UVR exposure has potential to influence the hormone balance and counteract adverse health conditions after menopause.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental , Hormônios/sangue , Pós-Menopausa/sangue , Globulina de Ligação a Hormônio Sexual/análise , Raios Ultravioleta , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
2.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 1: CD013211, 2021 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33482034

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Statins are one of the most prescribed classes of drugs worldwide. Atorvastatin, the most prescribed statin, is currently used to treat conditions such as hypercholesterolaemia and dyslipidaemia. By reducing the level of cholesterol, which is the precursor of the steroidogenesis pathway, atorvastatin may cause a reduction in levels of testosterone and other androgens. Testosterone and other androgens play important roles in biological functions. A potential reduction in androgen levels, caused by atorvastatin might cause negative effects in most settings. In contrast, in the setting of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), reducing excessive levels of androgens with atorvastatin could be beneficial. OBJECTIVES: Primary objective To quantify the magnitude of the effect of atorvastatin on total testosterone in both males and females, compared to placebo or no treatment. Secondary objectives To quantify the magnitude of the effects of atorvastatin on free testosterone, sex hormone binding globin (SHBG), androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) concentrations, free androgen index (FAI), and withdrawal due to adverse effects (WDAEs) in both males and females, compared to placebo or no treatment. SEARCH METHODS: The Cochrane Hypertension Information Specialist searched the following databases for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) up to 9 November 2020: the Cochrane Hypertension Specialised Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); MEDLINE; Embase; ;two international trials registries, and the websites of the US Food and Drug Administration, the European Patent Office and the Pfizer pharmaceutical corporation. These searches had no language restrictions. We also contacted authors of relevant articles regarding further published and unpublished work. SELECTION CRITERIA: RCTs of daily atorvastatin for at least three weeks, compared with placebo or no treatment, and assessing change in testosterone levels in males or females. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently screened the citations, extracted the data and assessed the risk of bias of the included studies. We used the mean difference (MD) with associated 95% confidence intervals (CI) to report the effect size of continuous outcomes,and the risk ratio (RR) to report effect sizes of the sole dichotomous outcome (WDAEs). We used a fixed-effect meta-analytic model to combine effect estimates across studies, and risk ratio to report effect size of the dichotomous outcomes. We used GRADE to assess the certainty of the evidence. MAIN RESULTS: We included six RCTs involving 265 participants who completed the study and their data was reported. Participants in two of the studies were male with normal lipid profile or mild dyslipidaemia (N = 140); the mean age of participants was 68 years. Participants in four of the studies were female with PCOS (N = 125); the mean age of participants was 32 years. We found no significant difference in testosterone levels in males between atorvastatin and placebo, MD -0.20 nmol/L (95% CI -0.77 to 0.37). In females, atorvastatin may reduce total testosterone by -0.27 nmol/L (95% CI -0.50 to -0.04), FAI by -2.59 nmol/L (95% CI -3.62 to -1.57), androstenedione by -1.37 nmol/L (95% CI -2.26 to -0.49), and DHEAS by -0.63 µmol/l (95% CI -1.12 to -0.15). Furthermore, compared to placebo, atorvastatin increased SHBG concentrations in females by 3.11 nmol/L (95% CI 0.23 to 5.99). We identified no studies in healthy females (i.e. females with normal testosterone levels) or children (under age 18). Importantly, no study reported on free testosterone levels. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We found no significant difference between atorvastatin and placebo on the levels of total testosterone in males. In females with PCOS, atorvastatin lowered the total testosterone, FAI, androstenedione, and DHEAS. The certainty of evidence ranged from low to very low for both comparisons. More RCTs studying the effect of atorvastatin on testosterone are needed.


Assuntos
Atorvastatina/farmacologia , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/farmacologia , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/sangue , Testosterona/sangue , Idoso , Androgênios/sangue , Androstenodiona/sangue , Atorvastatina/efeitos adversos , Viés , Sulfato de Desidroepiandrosterona/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Placebos/farmacologia , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/tratamento farmacológico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores Sexuais , Globulina de Ligação a Hormônio Sexual/análise , Globulina de Ligação a Hormônio Sexual/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 183(6): R167-R183, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33105105

RESUMO

Overt hypogonadism in men adversely affects body composition and metabolic health, which generally improve upon testosterone (TS) therapy. As obese men often display lower serum TS levels, in particular when they present with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) or type 2 diabetes (T2DM), there have been claims that androgen therapy prevents or reverses obesity and improves metabolic health. This has contributed to the increase in TS prescriptions during the past two decades. In this narrative review, based on findings from larger observational studies and randomized controlled intervention trials, we evaluate whether low TS predicts or predisposes to obesity and its metabolic consequences, and whether obese men with low TS are truly hypogonadal. We further describe the mechanisms underlying the bi-directional relationships of TS levels with obesity and metabolic health, and finally assess the evidence for TS therapy in men with obesity, MetS and/or T2DM, considering efficacy, safety concerns and possible alternative approaches. It is concluded that low serum sex hormone-binding globulin and total TS levels are highly prevalent in obese men, but that only those with low free TS levels and signs or symptoms of hypogonadism should be considered androgen deficient. These alterations are reversible upon weight loss. Whether low TS is a biomarker rather than a true risk factor for metabolic disturbances remains unclear. Considering the limited number of sound TS therapy trials have shown beneficial effects, the modest amplitude of these effects, and unresolved safety issues, one cannot in the present state-of-the-art advocate TS therapy to prevent or reverse obesity-associated metabolic disturbances. Instead, the focus should remain on lifestyle measures and management of obesity-related consequences.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal/métodos , Hipogonadismo/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome Metabólica/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Testosterona/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Humanos , Hipogonadismo/sangue , Hipogonadismo/complicações , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/complicações , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Globulina de Ligação a Hormônio Sexual/análise , Testosterona/sangue , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr ; 88: 104040, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32200187

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Age-related differences of sex hormones are traditionally considered detrimental to certain diseases particularly in middle-aged and elderly males, however, it is imprudent to conclude without elucidating the influences of other age-related pathophysiology apart from reproductive aging. We sought to examine serum testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels from different decades of life and their associations with the prevalence of diabetes in each respective decade. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 6296 males participated in this multicenter cross-sectional study, aged between 40-79 years. Information on diabetes and associated risk factors were obtained by questionnaires. Serum total testosterone (TT), SHBG and calculated free testosterone (fT) were determined. RESULTS: Age-related stable level of TT even with significantly lower level of fT did not result in a higher age-related odds of diabetes. Whereas, age-related higher SHBG level was associated with a lower age-related odds of diabetes [-5.88 % (p = 0.038), -14.28 % (p = 0.003) and -23.53 % (p = 0.001) for males aged 50-59, 60-69, 70-79 years, respectively]. Also, the combined age-related differences of TT and SHBG levels were found associated with a lower age-related odds of diabetes [-2.21 % (p = 0.040), -8.16 % (p = 0.025) and -14.37 % (p = 0.002) for males aged 50-59, 60-69, 70-79 years, respectively]. CONCLUSIONS: The differences in hormonal levels of each age group category showed a negative association with the prevalence of diabetes in middle-aged and elderly males, however, this association could be deterred in the presence of obesity.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Globulina de Ligação a Hormônio Sexual , Testosterona , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Globulina de Ligação a Hormônio Sexual/análise , Testosterona/sangue
5.
Georgian Med News ; (298): 105-109, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32141860

RESUMO

The long-term androgen deficiency (AD) in men with hypothyroidism is an important problem due to the fact that it leads to concomitant cardiac pathology, which remains the leading cause of mortality in the world. The presence of different points of view on the problem of AD and its effect on the risk factors for cardiovascular disease in patients with hypothyroidismattracts attention. The aim of the study is to assess the clinical signs of age-related androgen deficiency and their association with cardiovascular risk factors in men with hypothyroidism. 84 patients were examined, 38 of them - with hypothyroidism and age-related androgen deficiency, 46 patients with hypothyroidism and normal testosterone levels. The control group was formed of 20 men without hypothyroidism. The lipid and carbohydrate metabolism status, the presence and type of obesity, the level of depression, daily blood pressure monitoring were determined. AD was verified by decrease the total testosterone concentration in serum (<12 nmol/L). The level of total testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin in serum were determined by radioimmunoassay analysis. The decrease of testosterone level in men with hypothyroidism is accompanied by an increase in the frequency of abdominal obesity, triglycerides and glucoseescape, and is associated with subclinical depression. In men with hypothyroidism and AD, the average blood pressure in the daytime significantly exceeds the similar rates in patients with hypothyroidism and normal levels of testosterone. The presence of androgen deficiency negatively affects the risk factors of cardiovascular disease in men with hypothyroidism.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Hipotireoidismo/sangue , Globulina de Ligação a Hormônio Sexual/análise , Testosterona/deficiência , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Hipotireoidismo/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Testosterona/sangue
6.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(2): e1921610, 2020 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32083688

RESUMO

Importance: Diet may play a role in testicular function, but data on how adherence to different diet patterns influences human testicular function are scarce. Objective: To determine whether adherence to specific dietary patterns is associated with testicular function in young men. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study included 2935 young Danish men unselected regarding fertility status who were enrolled from April 1, 2008, through May 31, 2017. Data were analyzed from July 1, 2017, to January 30, 2019. Exposures: Dietary patterns identified with principal component analysis based on responses to a validated food frequency questionnaire. Main Outcomes and Measures: Standard semen quality assessment; serum concentrations of testosterone, free testosterone, estradiol, inhibin B, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and sex hormone-binding globulin; and testicular volume measured with ultrasonography. Results: Among the 2935 participants included in the analysis, median age was 19 (interquartile range, 19-20) years and 2290 (78.0%) had normal body mass index. The 4 dietary patterns identified included Western, prudent, open-sandwich (a traditional Danish eating pattern), and vegetarianlike. The greatest adherence to the prudent pattern was associated with the highest total sperm count (median, 167 [95% CI, 146-183] million), followed by adherence to vegetarianlike (median, 151 [95% CI, 134-168] million) and open-sandwich (median, 146 [95% CI, 131-163] million) patterns. Adherence to the Western pattern was associated with the lowest total sperm count (median, 122 [95% CI, 109-138] million), which was significantly lower than sperm count in the other 3 diet patterns. After adjusting for confounders, the median total sperm count for men in the highest quintile of adherence to the Western pattern was 26 million lower (95% CI, -42 to -9 million) than for men in the lowest quintile of adherence to this pattern. Conversely, the median total sperm count of men in the highest quintile of adherence to the prudent pattern was 43 million (95% CI, 23-63 million) higher than that of men in the lowest quintile. Men with the highest adherence to the Western pattern had a lower median ratio of inhibin B to follicle-stimulating hormone (-12 [95% CI, -20 to -3]) and higher median ratio of free testosterone to luteinizing hormone (10 [95% CI, 2-19]) compared with men with lowest adherence to this pattern. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional study, adherence to generally healthy diet patterns was associated with better semen quality, with potentially more favorable fertility potential among adult men.


Assuntos
Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Hormônios Gonadais/sangue , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Testículo , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Análise do Sêmen , Globulina de Ligação a Hormônio Sexual/análise , Testículo/diagnóstico por imagem , Testículo/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(3)2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31793624

RESUMO

CONTEXT: SHBG, a homodimeric glycoprotein produced by hepatocytes has been shown to be associated with metabolic disorders. Whether circulating SHBG levels are predictive of later risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) remains unknown. In this study, we prospectively investigated the association between SHBG and NAFLD progression through a community-based cohort comprising 3389 Chinese adults. METHODS: NAFLD was diagnosed using abdominal ultrasonography. Serum SHBG levels were measured by chemiluminescent enzyme immunometric assay, and their relationship with NAFLD development and regression was investigated after a mean follow-up of 3.09 years using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: Basal SHBG was negatively associated with NAFLD development, with a fully adjusted odds ratio (OR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI) of 0.22 (0.12-0.40) (P < .001). In contrast, basal SHBG was positively associated with NAFLD regression, with a fully adjusted OR of 4.83 (2.38-9.81) (P < .001). Multiple-stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that SHBG concentration was an independent predictor of NAFLD development (OR, 0.28 [0.18-0.45]; P < .001) and regression (OR, 3.89 [2.43-6.22]; P < .001). In addition, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curves were 0.764 (95% CI, 0.740-0.787) and 0.762 (95% CI, 0.738-0.785) for the prediction models of NAFLD development and regression, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Serum SHBG concentration is associated with the development and regression of NAFLD; moreover, it can be a potential biomarker for predicting NAFLD progression, and also a novel preventive and therapeutic target for NAFLD.


Assuntos
Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Globulina de Ligação a Hormônio Sexual/análise , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , China/epidemiologia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/sangue , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Razão de Chances , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
8.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol ; 198: 105570, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31883924

RESUMO

So far, there have been no analyses of correlations between the level of water-soluble vitamins in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and hormone and lipid profiles as well as carbohydrate metabolism. The unpopular concept that PCOS may also be conditioned by a chronic infection leads to a suspicion that water-soluble vitamins may be involved in the struggle against PCOS. This is why the aim of this research was to determine whether there are any indications that could confirm this hypothesis. The study included 64 women of Caucasian race: 50 patients aged 29.52 ±â€¯7.01 years with PCOS, diagnosed according to the Rotterdam criteria. The control group consisted of 14 women aged 30.23 ±â€¯6.3 years with correct BMI. HPLC Infinity1260 Binary LC (Agilent Technologies, Waldbronn, Germany) was used to analyze nine vitamins. The vitamins were separated using the gradient method, a buffer of 25 mM HK2PO4 with pH equal to 7.0, and 100 % methanol buffer. The acquired results were compared using Statistica 12.0 (Statsoft, Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA). Non-parametric tests were used: Mann-Whitney tests for comparisons between groups (PCOS and control group, CG), in which p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Subsequently, we performed a correlation matrix of the biochemical parameters of blood with vitamins at p ≤ 0.05. Higher concentrations of ascorbic acid were observed in PCOS. The content of the remaining vitamins was higher in the control group, and the statistical differences were significant in reference to thiamine, riboflavin, pyridoxine and folic acid in comparison to the control group. A significant positive correlation was observed between vitamin C and testosterone/insulin, another between riboflavin and androstenedione/testosterone, next between biotin and thyrotropic hormone (TSH), between pantothenic acid and dehydroepiandrosteron (DHEA-SO4), and finally between pyridoxine and androstenedione. A negative correlation was observed in the case of niacin with sex hormone binding protein (SHBG) and high density lipoprotein (HDL). Water-soluble vitamins play an important role in the therapy of women with PCOS through the reduction of antioxidative stress and low-intensity inflammation caused by various factors, including chronic infection.


Assuntos
Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Hormônios/sangue , Lipídeos/química , Lipoproteínas HDL/sangue , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/sangue , Vitaminas/sangue , Adulto , Androstenodiona/sangue , Antioxidantes/química , Desidroepiandrosterona/sangue , Feminino , Ácido Fólico/sangue , Humanos , Piridoxina/sangue , Globulina de Ligação a Hormônio Sexual/análise , Solubilidade , Tiamina/sangue , Tireotropina/sangue , Vitamina B 6/sangue , Água/química , Adulto Jovem
9.
Cancer Causes Control ; 31(2): 161-171, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31865473

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic evidence regarding the role of endogenous sex hormones in endometrial cancer etiology remains inconsistent. The objective of this study was to investigate if circulating levels of endogenous estrone, estradiol, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), testosterone, and androstenedione are associated with endometrial cancer risk. METHODS: We conducted a population-based case-control study of 522 incident endometrial cancer cases and 976 population controls, in Alberta, Canada from 2002 to 2006. Study participants completed in-person interviews and provided fasting blood samples. Sex hormone levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. RESULTS: Higher levels of androstenedione were associated with increased endometrial cancer risk (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.04-2.02). Endometrial cancer risk in pre- and peri-menopausal women was reduced for the highest versus lowest quartiles of estrone (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.22-0.88) and estradiol (OR 0.30, 95% CI 0.14-0.65), but in post-menopausal women, the endometrial cancer risk was increased for the highest versus lowest quartile of androstenedione (OR 1.82, 95% CI 1.25-2.65). In addition, endometrial cancer risk in normal/underweight women was decreased for the highest versus lowest quartile of serum SHBG (OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.19-0.84). CONCLUSIONS: Overall, positive associations were found for androstenedione concentrations, while sub-group analyses revealed = inverse associations with estrogens and SHBG. Results of this study provide empirical evidence for the role of circulating sex hormones in endometrial cancer etiology and highlight the importance of modifiable factors that contribute to changes in sex hormone concentration levels.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Endométrio/epidemiologia , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Globulina de Ligação a Hormônio Sexual/análise , Idoso , Alberta/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Risco
10.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol ; 197: 105528, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712118

RESUMO

Long-term studies investigating hormone-dependent cancers and reproductive health often require prolonged frozen storage of serum which assumes that the steroid molecules and measurements are stable over that time. Previous studies of reproducibility of circulating steroids have relied upon flawed historical rather than contemporaneous controls. We measured serum testosterone (T), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), estradiol (E2) and estrone (E1) in 150 randomly selected serum samples by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) from men 70 years or older (mean age 77 years) in the CHAMP study. The original measurements in 2009 were repeated 10 years later using the identical serum aliquot (having undergone 2-4 freeze-thaw cycles in the interim) in 2019 together with another never-thawed aliquot of the same serum sample. The results of all three sets of measurements were evaluated by Passing-Bablok regression and Bland-Altman difference analysis. Serum androgens (T, DHT) and estrogens (E2, E1) measured by LC-MS display excellent reproducibility when stored for 10 years at -80 C without thawing. Serum T and DHT displayed high level of reproducibility across all three sets of measurements. Multiple freeze-thaw cycles over those storage conditions do not significantly affect serum T, DHT and E1 concentrations but produce a modest increase (21%) in serum E2 measurements.


Assuntos
Androgênios/sangue , Di-Hidrotestosterona/sangue , Estradiol/sangue , Estrona/sangue , Secções Congeladas/estatística & dados numéricos , Globulina de Ligação a Hormônio Sexual/análise , Testosterona/sangue , Idoso , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino
11.
Int J Cancer ; 146(3): 759-768, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30968961

RESUMO

Alcohol consumption is associated with higher risk of breast cancer (BC); however, the biological mechanisms underlying this association are not fully elucidated, particularly the extent to which this relationship is mediated by sex hormone levels. Circulating concentrations of estradiol, testosterone, their free fractions and sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG), were examined in 430 incident BC cases and 645 matched controls among alcohol-consuming postmenopausal women nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Mediation analysis was applied to assess whether individual hormone levels mediated the relationship between alcohol intake and BC risk. An alcohol-related hormonal signature, obtained by partial least square (PLS) regression, was evaluated as a potential mediator. Total (TE), natural direct and natural indirect effects (NIE) were estimated. Alcohol intake was positively associated with overall BC risk and specifically with estrogen receptor-positive tumors with respectively TE = 1.17(95%CI: 1.01,1.35) and 1.36(1.08,1.70) for a 1-standard deviation (1-SD) increase of intake. There was no evidence of mediation by sex steroids or SHBG separately except for a weak indirect effect through free estradiol where NIE = 1.03(1.00,1.06). However, an alcohol-related hormonal signature negatively associated with SHBG and positively with estradiol and testosterone was associated with BC risk (odds ratio [OR] = 1.25 [1.07,1.47]) for a 1-SD higher PLS score, and had a statistically significant NIE accounting for a mediated proportion of 24%. There was limited evidence of mediation of the alcohol-BC association by individual sex hormones. However, a hormonal signature, reflecting lower levels of SHBG and higher levels of sex steroids, mediated a substantial proportion of the association.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Pós-Menopausa/sangue , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estradiol/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Globulina de Ligação a Hormônio Sexual/análise , Testosterona/sangue
12.
Phytother Res ; 34(3): 634-639, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31828857

RESUMO

The aim of this trial was to evaluate the effect of a standardised Trigonella foenum-graecum (Fenugreek) extract on the symptoms of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) using a double-blind randomised placebo controlled design. The study recruited 100 healthy males aged between 45 and 80 years with symptoms of BPH who recorded a minimum score of eight on the International Prostate Symptom Score. Participants were randomised to an oral dose of either 600mg Trigonella foenum-graceum per day or placebo for 12 weeks. The primary outcome measure was the International Prostate Symptom Score total and subdomain scores. The secondary outcomes were serum levels of the hormones (testosterone, free testosterone, and sex hormone binding globulin) prostate-specific antigen, and safety markers. The results indicated that Trigonella foenum-graceum did not have an effect on improving the symptoms of BPH. Hormone levels, safety markers, and prostate-specific antigen remained unchanged and within normal limits after 12 weeks, which adds to the safety profile of this specialised extract.


Assuntos
Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Antígeno Prostático Específico/análise , Hiperplasia Prostática/tratamento farmacológico , Trigonella/química , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Demografia , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Extratos Vegetais/química , Hiperplasia Prostática/fisiopatologia , Qualidade de Vida , Globulina de Ligação a Hormônio Sexual/análise , Testosterona/sangue , Sistema Urinário/fisiopatologia
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396852

RESUMO

Purpose: This study was conducted to develop the 'College-based Lifestyle Modification Program' (College-based LMP) for young adult women with irregular menstruation and examine its effects after intervention. Methods: The College-based LMP consisted of small group education, individual physical exercise counseling/training, individual diet counseling, and feedback and support. Participants were comprised of 38 females who reported less than 10 irregular menstruations in a year and were randomly assigned to the experimental and control groups. The primary outcome variables consisted of menstrual cycle index (MCI), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), and androgenic profile (testosterone-T, free androgen index-FAI), while the outcome variables included premenstrual symptoms (PMS), menstrual volume, body composition parameters, glycemic parameters (fasting blood sugar-FBS, insulin, HOMA-IR), sleep duration, perceived stress, and nutrient intake.. Results: There were no significant differences in primary outcome variables (MCI, SHBG, T, and FAI). In the variables, there were no significant differences except for the partial domain of PMS (symptoms of depression and anxiety) and sleep duration. Conclusions: The study was significant in that it demonstrated the importance of lifestyle, which could provide ordinary young adult women with healthy menstruation. The College-based LMP needs to be elaborated with further studies.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde , Distúrbios Menstruais , Adulto , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Promoção da Saúde/normas , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Distúrbios Menstruais/terapia , Globulina de Ligação a Hormônio Sexual/análise , Serviços de Saúde para Estudantes/métodos , Serviços de Saúde para Estudantes/normas , Adulto Jovem
14.
BMC Pediatr ; 19(1): 414, 2019 11 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31690265

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with many chronic diseases including cortisol rhythm disorder and low testosterone. Furthermore, studies on obese children are quite limited and no concordance results have been obtained, especially for boys in puberty. Moreover, the sample sizes of previous studies were small, and were not representative. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey including 1148 boys aged 6-14 years, they were divided into overweight/obesity (OW/OB) group and normal weight (NW) group. Puberty status was assessed according to Tanner scale and testicular volume. Serum levels of pregnenolone, 17-OH progesterone, corticosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and androstenedione were detected by LC-MS. Serum free testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels were measured by chemiluminescence immunoassay. RESULTS: The 17-OH progesterone, DHEA, androstenedione and free testosterone levels of OW/OB boys at prepubertal stage or at the age 6 = < 10 years group were higher than those of the NW boys (all the P values were < 0.01). Furthermore, androstenedione and free testosterone levels were lower in OW/OB boys at late puberty, and the trend continued at the post pubertal stage for FT (P < 0.01-0.05). DHEA, androstenedione, and FT levels persisted to be higher at the 10~ < 12 years in OW/OB boys but not for 17-OH progesterone. FT level was lower in the OW/OB group at the 12~ < 15 years group. The SHBG levels in the OW/OB boys were lower than those in the NW ones at the 6~12 years group, and prepubertal to early pubertal stage. CONCLUSIONS: Premature adrenarche is more likely in OW/OB boys. More attention should be given to the lower androgen levels of OW/OB boys at late pubertal and post pubertal stages.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/sangue , Obesidade Pediátrica/sangue , Puberdade/sangue , 17-alfa-Hidroxiprogesterona/sangue , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Androstenodiona/sangue , Criança , Corticosterona/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Desidroepiandrosterona/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Sobrepeso/sangue , Pregnenolona/sangue , Puberdade Precoce/sangue , Globulina de Ligação a Hormônio Sexual/análise , Testículo/anatomia & histologia , Testosterona/sangue
15.
Nutrients ; 11(11)2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694190

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Flavonoids potentially exert anti-cancer effects, as suggested by their chemical structures and supported by animal studies. In observational studies, however, the association between flavonoids and breast cancer, and potential underlying mechanisms, remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between flavonoid intake and sex hormone levels using timed blood samples in follicular and luteal phases in the Nurses' Health Study II among premenopausal women. METHODS: Plasma concentrations of estrogens, androgens, progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), DHEA sulfate (DHEAS), prolactin, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were measured in samples collected between 1996 and 1999. Average flavonoid were calculated from semiquantitative food frequency questionnaires collected in 1995 and 1999. We used generalized linear models to calculate geometric mean hormone concentrations across categories of the intake of flavonoids and the subclasses. RESULTS: Total flavonoid intake generally was not associated with the hormones of interest. The only significant association was with DHEAS (p-trend = 0.02), which was 11.1% (95% confidence interval (CI): -18.6%, -3.0%) lower comparing the highest vs. lowest quartile of flavonoid intake. In subclass analyses, the highest (vs. lowest) quartile of flavan-3-ol intake was associated with significantly lower DHEAS concentrations (-11.3% with 95% CI: -18.3%, -3.7%, p-trend = 0.01), and anthocyanin intake was associated with a significant inverse trend for DHEA (-18.0% with 95% CI: -27.9%, -6.7%, p-trend = 0.003). CONCLUSION: Flavonoid intake in this population had limited impact on most plasma sex hormones in premenopausal women. Anthocyanins and flavan-3-ols were associated with lower levels of DHEA and DHEAS.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Flavonoides/análise , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Pré-Menopausa/sangue , Prolactina/sangue , Globulina de Ligação a Hormônio Sexual/análise , Adulto , Androgênios/sangue , Antocianinas/análise , Desidroepiandrosterona/sangue , Sulfato de Desidroepiandrosterona/sangue , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Estrogênios/sangue , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
16.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 104(12): 6301-6315, 2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390027

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels are associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. However, prospective data on the association between SHBG levels and CVD events are sparse, with conflicting results. OBJECTIVES: To examine associations between serum SHBG, total testosterone (TT), and incident CVD and CVD-related mortality in middle-aged to elderly men. DESIGN AND METHODS: Data on 2563 community-dwelling men (35 to 80 years) were obtained from participants in the Men Androgen Inflammation Lifestyle Environment and Stress cohort. The analytic sample included 1492 men without baseline (2002 to 2007) CVD and with fasted morning serum SHBG and TT available at both baseline and follow-up (2007 to 2010) and without medications affecting TT or SHBG. Associations of baseline SHBG and TT, with incident CVD and CVD mortality, were analyzed using logistic regression for incident CVD and Cox proportional hazard regression for CVD mortality, adjusting for established CVD risk factors. RESULTS: In multivariable models, elevated baseline SHBG and lower baseline TT were independently associated with incident CVD (SHBG: OR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.15 to 2.06 per SD increase in SHBG, P = 0.003; TT: OR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.52 to 0.97 per SD decrease in TT; P = 0.03). A decrease in TT between time points was associated with incident CVD (OR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.56 to 0.92; P = 0.01). Neither SHBG nor TT was significantly associated with all-age CVD mortality [hazard ratio (HR), 0.69; 95% CI, 0.29 to 1.63; P = 0.40; and HR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.28 to 1.26; P = 0.18, respectively]. CONCLUSIONS: Among all men and men >65 years, elevated SHBG and lower TT were independently associated with both a greater risk of CVD and an increased CVD mortality risk.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Mortalidade/tendências , Globulina de Ligação a Hormônio Sexual/análise , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Austrália/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
17.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 104(12): 6049-6059, 2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415086

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Studies suggest that female reproductive hormones are under circadian regulation, although methodological differences have led to inconsistent findings. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether circulating levels of reproductive hormones exhibit circadian rhythms. DESIGN: Blood samples were collected across ∼90 consecutive hours, including 2 baseline days under a standard sleep-wake schedule and ∼50 hours of extended wake under constant routine (CR) conditions. SETTING: Intensive Physiological Monitoring Unit, Brigham and Women's Hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Seventeen healthy premenopausal women (22.8 ± 2.6 years; nine follicular; eight luteal). INTERVENTIONS: Fifty-hour CR. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Plasma estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4), LH, FSH, SHBG, melatonin, and core body temperature. RESULTS: All hormones exhibited significant 24-hour rhythms under both standard sleep-wake and CR conditions during the follicular phase (P < 0.05). In contrast, only FSH and SHBG were significantly rhythmic during the luteal phase. Rhythm acrophases and amplitudes were similar between standard sleep-wake and CR conditions. The acrophase occurred in the morning for P4; in the afternoon for FSH, LH, and SHBG; and during the night for E2. CONCLUSIONS: Our results confirm previous reports of ∼24-hour rhythms in many female reproductive hormones in humans under ambulatory conditions but demonstrate that these hormones are under endogenous circadian regulation, defined as persisting in the absence of external time cues. These results may have important implications for the effects of circadian disruption on reproductive function.


Assuntos
Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Estradiol/sangue , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/sangue , Hormônio Luteinizante/sangue , Progesterona/sangue , Adulto , Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Feminino , Fase Folicular/fisiologia , Humanos , Melatonina/sangue , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Globulina de Ligação a Hormônio Sexual/análise , Globulina de Ligação a Hormônio Sexual/metabolismo , Sono/fisiologia , Vigília/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 109: 104382, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374371

RESUMO

Depressive and anxiety disorders substantially contribute to the global burden of disease, particularly in poor countries. Higher prevalence rates for both disorders among women indicate sex hormones may be integrated in the pathophysiology of these disorders. The Kshetriya Gramin Financial Services study surveyed a random sample of 4160 households across 876 villages in rural Tamil Nadu, India. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was conducted to quantify depressive (K6-D) and anxiety (K6-A) symptoms. Alongside, hair samples for sex hormone profiling were collected from a subsample of 2105 women aged 18-85 years. Importantly, 5.9%, 14.8%, and 46.3% of samples contained non-detectable hormone levels for dehydroepiandrosterone, progesterone, and testosterone, respectively. Our primary analysis imputes values for the non-detectable sample and we check robustness of results when non-detectable values are dropped. In this cohort of women from rural India, higher depressive symptomatology is associated with lower levels of dehydroepiandrosterone and higher depressive and anxiety symptoms are associated with higher levels of testosterone. Progesterone shows no clear association with either depressive or anxiety symptoms. These results support a potential protective effect of higher endogenous dehydroepiandrosterone levels. An important caveat on the potential negative effect of hair testosterone levels on women's mental health is that the testosterone analysis is sensitive to how non-detectable values are treated.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/metabolismo , Depressão/metabolismo , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/análise , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Androgênios/análise , Transtornos de Ansiedade/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Desidroepiandrosterona/análise , Sulfato de Desidroepiandrosterona/análise , Depressão/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/metabolismo , Estradiol/análise , Feminino , Cabelo/química , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Progesterona/análise , População Rural , Globulina de Ligação a Hormônio Sexual/análise , Testosterona/análise , Saúde da Mulher
19.
Environ Res ; 177: 108630, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421446

RESUMO

There is increasing evidence that several metals are endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). In utero development and adolescence are critical windows of susceptibility to EDC exposure. With the exception of a few heavy metals, few human studies have evaluated the impact of metal exposure on pubertal development. Our aim was to investigate measures of in utero and peripubertal metal exposure in relation to reproductive hormone levels and sexual maturation and progression among girls from the Early Life Exposure in Mexico to Environmental Toxicants (ELEMENT) cohorts. We measured urinary concentrations of aluminum (Al), arsenic (As), barium (Ba), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), antimony (Sb), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn) in samples collected from women during their third trimester of pregnancy and from their female children at 8-13 years (n = 132). We measured serum testosterone, estradiol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), inhibin B, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) at age 8-13, and assessed Tanner stages for sexual maturation (breast, pubic hair development, and menarche status), at two time points (8-13, 14-18 years). We used linear regression to independently examine in utero and peripubertal metal concentrations as predictors of peripubertal hormones. In a longitudinal analysis using generalized estimation equations, we evaluated Tanner stage and menarche progression in relation to individual in utero and peripubertal metal concentrations. We found that higher in utero Zn was associated with increased inhibin B. Several metals at 8-13 years were associated with higher DHEA-S and estradiol, while Ni was positively but Cu was negatively associated with testosterone. In utero Ni, Al, and Cd were associated with slower progression of breast development after adjustment for child age and BMI z-score. For example, an IQR increase in in utero Al exposure was associated with 0.82 times lower odds of progressing to a higher Tanner stage for breast development per year (95% CI: 0.68, 0.99). Peripubertal concentrations of Ba and Al were also associated with being at a higher pubic hair Tanner stage and menarche at 8-13, but lower odds of progressing to the next stage at 14-18 years. We used Bayesian kernel machine regression (BKMR) to model the joint effect of multiple metals while accounting for correlated exposures, as well as potential non-linear relationships between metals and outcomes of interest, which yielded results similar to individual analyses. These findings suggest that female reproductive development may be vulnerable to the effects of metal exposure, and using both Tanner stages and hormone levels may provide clues about underlying mechanisms in two sensitive periods of development.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos/efeitos adversos , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Metais Pesados/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Maturidade Sexual , Adolescente , Teorema de Bayes , Criança , Cidades , Sulfato de Desidroepiandrosterona/sangue , Disruptores Endócrinos/urina , Estradiol/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Inibinas/sangue , Metais Pesados/urina , México , Gravidez , Globulina de Ligação a Hormônio Sexual/análise , Testosterona/sangue
20.
Arch Endocrinol Metab ; 63(4): 417-426, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365630

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations among visceral adiposity index (VAI), lipid accumulation product (LAP), body fat percentage (%), and android/gynoid ratio (A/G ratio) in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and verify if the parameters representative of visceral obesity correlate with and exhibit the same frequency as body composition variables; anthropometric indices; and metabolic, hormonal, and inflammatory parameters. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study that included 94 women with PCOS. Hormonal, metabolic, and inflammatory parameters were analyzed in all women. Free androgen index (FAI) and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR), as well as LAP, VAI, and anthropometric indices, were calculated. The regions of interest (ROIs) in body composition and body composition indices were evaluated using a dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Overall, 32 variables were selected as markers of body fat distribution. RESULTS: Among the 32 markers evaluated, 29 correlated with LAP, whereas 25 correlated with VAI, 19 with body fat (%), and 30 with A/G ratio. Additionally, some markers correlated with the four adiposity indices evaluated: ROIs, except for total mass and leg fat (%); body composition (body mass index, waist circumference, and hip circumference) indices; fasting insulin; and C-reactive protein. CONCLUSION: LAP and VAI may be sensitive measures for screening and preventing metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in PCOS, with LAP being more sensitive than VAI, and the A/G ratio may be more sensitive than body fat percentage.


Assuntos
Distribuição da Gordura Corporal , Gordura Intra-Abdominal , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/análise , Composição Corporal , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Insulina/sangue , Produto da Acumulação Lipídica , Sobrepeso/sangue , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Globulina de Ligação a Hormônio Sexual/análise , Testosterona/sangue , Adulto Jovem
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