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1.
Int Heart J ; 61(5): 1005-1013, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32999188

RESUMO

This study sought to evaluate clinical features, treatment patterns, and outcomes of patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIM) complicated by heart failure (HF). Thirty-two patients with IIM-HF admitted to the Peking Union Medical College Hospital between January 1999 and January 2018 were retrospectively reviewed, including 14 patients with polymyositis, 11 with dermatomyositis, and 7 with overlap syndrome. Survivors and no-survivors were compared on clinical characteristics and treatment. Although systemic symptoms were variable, all patients presented with elevated troponin I. Rapid atrial arrhythmia was the most frequent arrhythmia. Systolic dysfunction and restrictive diastolic dysfunction were typical presentations in echocardiography. Twenty-nine patients were followed up for a median of 2.8 years (0.1 month to 11 years). We recorded 13 deaths of cardiogenic cause, 1 of serious IIM, and 3 of infective complications. The median survival time from diagnosis of IIM-HF to all-cause mortality was 8.4 months (range from 1 month to 5 years). Both all-cause deaths and cardiogenic deaths were more reported in the methotrexate-alone group than in the combination therapy group (6/7 versus 3/10, P = 0.050; 5/6 versus 2/9, P = 0.041). Combination therapy including methotrexate (HR = 0.188, 95%CI 0.040-0.871, P = 0.033) and taking ß-receptor blockers (HR = 0.249, 95%CI 0.086-0.719, P = 0.010) was associated with reduced risk of all-cause deaths. In conclusion, elevated troponin I, atrial arrhythmia, and systolic and restrictive diastolic dysfunction are typical characteristics of IIM-HF. Combined immunosuppression that includes methotrexate and ß-receptor blockers seems to be important to improve survival.


Assuntos
Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Metotrexato/uso terapêutico , Miosite/tratamento farmacológico , Miosite/mortalidade , Adolescente , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Metilprednisolona/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miosite/complicações , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
3.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(709): 1870-1875, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026730

RESUMO

IgG4-related disease is a rare multi-organic inflammatory disease that frequently involves the ENT and head and neck areas. In these cases, salivary gland and lacrimal gland involvement is very common and includes enlargement, infiltration, and formation of pseudotumours. Diagnosis of IgG4 related disease remains a challenge and relies on several clinical, serological, radiological and histopathological criteria to differentiate from other diseases with similar clinical presentation. Histology reveals IgG4 positive lymphoplasmocytic infiltrates, storiform fibrosis and obliterative phlebitis. Glucocorticoids are the first line of treatment and can be combined with other immunosuppressants. The prognosis is favorable if treatment is initiated early. Recurrences are common. Delay in diagnosis can have severe multi-organic consequences.


Assuntos
Orelha , Doença Relacionada a Imunoglobulina G4/diagnóstico , Nariz , Faringe , Papel do Médico , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Doença Relacionada a Imunoglobulina G4/imunologia , Doença Relacionada a Imunoglobulina G4/patologia , Aparelho Lacrimal/patologia , Prognóstico , Glândulas Salivares/patologia
4.
Monaldi Arch Chest Dis ; 90(4)2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33059413

RESUMO

Knowledge of treatment regimens and outcomes for novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is evolving. Recent studies have reported mortality rates ranging from 39-50% among hospitalized patients with COVID-19. We report our experience ofmanagement and outcomes of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 at a large tertiary-care center in Midwestern United States. Of 658 patients presenting to our tertiary care center, 217 needed hospitalization, majority (77%) of whom were severely sick requiring admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). All received corticosteroids, and 78% of the patients received tocilizumab. More than two-thirds of the patients received anticoagulation and 80% of patients in the ICU had prone-positioning. The median duration of hospitalization was 12 days (interquartile range, 8 to16), median duration of intensive care unit stay was 7 days (interquartile range, 5 to 9) and requirement of mechanical ventilation was 6 days (interquartile range, 5 to 8) in our cohort. Of the 217 patients, 27 died (12% mortality). The majority of our patients received corticosteroids, tocilizumab, anticoagulation and prone positioning. While higher mortality rates of >30% have been reported in various studies among hospitalized patients with COVID-19, the majority of hospitalized patients in our cohort survived with a low mortality rate. The majority of our patients received corticosteroids, tocilizumab, anticoagulation and prone positioning. While higher mortality rates of >30% have been reported in various studies among hospitalized patients with COVID-19, the majority of hospitalized patients in our cohort survived with a low mortality rate.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Cuidados Críticos , Hospitalização , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Atenção Terciária à Saúde , Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Monofosfato de Adenosina/uso terapêutico , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Imunização Passiva , Meio-Oeste dos Estados Unidos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Respiração Artificial , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Atenção Terciária
5.
Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol ; 27(2): 131-133, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32874048

RESUMO

The aim was to report a case of central retinal vein prethrombosis (CRVP), responsive to systemic steroids. An 18-year-old male presented with right sudden blurred vision and central scotoma for 2 days. Right best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) measured 6/36, and fundoscopy revealed vascular congestion and blurred disc margins. Fluorescein angiography (FA) showed CRVP secondary to retinal vasculitis. Systemic oral prednisone was started. Six months later, right BCVA was 6/6, FA showed reduced vascular congestion, and retinal vasculitis and residual optic disc hyperfluorescence resolved. CRVP should be considered in young patients with sudden central scotoma. Early systemic steroids might be effective in the treatment of "active" retinal vasculitis.


Assuntos
Vasculite Retiniana , Oclusão da Veia Retiniana , Administração Oral , Adolescente , Diagnóstico Precoce , Angiofluoresceinografia , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Oftalmoscopia , Prednisona/uso terapêutico , Vasculite Retiniana/complicações , Vasculite Retiniana/diagnóstico , Vasculite Retiniana/tratamento farmacológico , Oclusão da Veia Retiniana/diagnóstico , Oclusão da Veia Retiniana/tratamento farmacológico , Oclusão da Veia Retiniana/etiologia , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia
6.
Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol ; 27(2): 134-138, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32874049

RESUMO

Nodular posterior scleritis represents a small percentage of all cases of posterior scleritis. Because of the scarcity of nodular posterior scleritis, it may be confused or even misdiagnosed as an intraocular tumor or posterior uveitis. Here, we are reporting a case of nodular posterior scleritis in a 25-year-old medically free male. Furthermore, we reviewed previously reported cases of nodular posterior scleritis. Our patient presented with a choroidal mass of about one disc diameter in size. In addition, the patient had exudative retinal detachment and chorioretinal folds. B scan ultrasonography showed subretinal fluid, macular nodular thickening and underlying echolucent area along with medium internal reflectivity on A scan. Fluorescein angiography revealed early pinpoint areas of hyperfluorescence and late pooling under the detached retina. Indocyanine green angiography demonstrated early diffuse hypofluorescence corresponding to the area of detachment and late multiple pinpoint spots of hyperfluorescence. After intravenous methylprednisolone 1 g for 3 days followed by a course of oral prednisolone along with mycophenolate mofetil, the patient experienced rapid recovery with improvement in vision and complete resolution of subretinal fluid. On further follow-up, the patient regained 20/20 vision. Nodular posterior scleritis is a rare unilateral disease with strong female predominance. Multimodal imaging should be employed to confirm the diagnosis. The disease must be diagnosed correctly to avoid any unnecessary diagnostic work-up and aggressive management. Most cases carry excellent prognosis with no recurrence.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Coroide/diagnóstico , Melanoma Amelanótico/diagnóstico , Descolamento Retiniano/diagnóstico , Esclerite/diagnóstico , Administração Oral , Adulto , Antibióticos Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Coroide/tratamento farmacológico , Corantes/administração & dosagem , Quimioterapia Combinada , Angiofluoresceinografia , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Verde de Indocianina/administração & dosagem , Infusões Intravenosas , Masculino , Melanoma Amelanótico/tratamento farmacológico , Metilprednisolona/uso terapêutico , Imagem Multimodal , Ácido Micofenólico/uso terapêutico , Prednisolona/uso terapêutico , Descolamento Retiniano/tratamento farmacológico , Esclerite/tratamento farmacológico , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica
7.
Medwave ; 20(7): e7998, 2020 Aug 19.
Artigo em Espanhol, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876623

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has rapidly spread throughout the world causing significant mortality in high risk patients with severe manifestations. To date, Remdesivir has been the only antiviral authorized by FDA as therapy for emergency use. One of the potential complications of this infection is cytokine storm, which optimal treatment remains unknown. We present the case of a 48-year-old man with no past medical history who presented to the hospital with dyspnea, cough, subjective fever, and diarrhea for 10 days. Nasopharyngeal PCR was positive for SARS-CoV-2. His respiratory status rapidly worsened to the point of requiring supplemental oxygen by high flow nasal cannula with FiO2 of 80%. Chest computed tomography showed confluent ground glass opacities in upper lobes accompanied by patchy airspace opacities in lower lobes bilaterally. He was started on hydroxychloroquine, which was switched to Remdesivir when it became available. Then, methylprednisolone was initiated for suspected cytokine storm. The patients oxygenation improved significantly over the following days and he was discharged home with no oxygen supplementation and saturating 96% on room air. Our case illustrates the role of Remdesivir for the treatment of severe COVID-19 pneumonia. We also observed a possible clinical benefit of corticosteroids in the context of suspected cytokine storm. Further studies are needed to evaluate this therapeutic strategy.


Assuntos
Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Monofosfato de Adenosina/uso terapêutico , Alanina/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/etiologia , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Metilprednisolona/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico
8.
Monaldi Arch Chest Dis ; 90(3)2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32885626

RESUMO

'Tree-in-bud' (TIB) appearance in computed tomography (CT) chest is most commonly a manifestation of infection. We here describe an unusual cause of TIB during the COVID-19 pandemic. A young male patient who had a history of fever, cough, and respiratory distress presented in the emergency department. As these symptoms matched with coronavirus infection, the COVID-19 test was done, which was found negative. He was then moved to the intensive care unit where he developed severe acute respiratory distress syndrome and was put on mechanical ventilation. Further workup did not reveal any source of infection, as all his cultures were negative, but his CT chest showed a tree-in-bud appearance. After obtaining a detailed history from his friends, the patient was found a chronic abuser of inhaled cocaine and treated with intravenous steroids. Subsequently, he was weaned from the ventilator and discharged from the intensive care unit after becoming asymptomatic.


Assuntos
Fumar Cocaína/efeitos adversos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Lesão Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/complicações , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Lesão Pulmonar/etiologia , Lesão Pulmonar/terapia , Masculino , Metilprednisolona/uso terapêutico , Pandemias , Respiração Artificial , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/etiologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/terapia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
9.
Front Immunol ; 11: 2086, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32983161

RESUMO

Immunosuppressive therapies increase the susceptibility of patients to infections. The current pandemic with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) compels clinicians to develop recommendations for successful clinical management and surveillance of immunocompromised patients at high risk for severe disease progression. With only few case studies published on SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients with rheumatic diseases, we report a 25-year-old male who developed moderate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with fever, mild dyspnea, and no major complications despite having received high-dose prednisolone, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab for the treatment of highly active, life-threatening eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA).


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Síndrome de Churg-Strauss/complicações , Síndrome de Churg-Strauss/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Ciclofosfamida/uso terapêutico , Granulomatose com Poliangiite/complicações , Granulomatose com Poliangiite/tratamento farmacológico , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Adulto , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Prednisolona/uso terapêutico , RNA Viral/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Front Immunol ; 11: 2132, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32983172

RESUMO

In December 2019, a novel coronavirus, COVID-19, was discovered to be the causal agent of a severe respiratory infection named SARS-CoV-2, and it has since been recognized worldwide as a pandemic. There are still numerous doubts concerning its pathogenesis and particularly the underlying causes of the various clinical courses, ranging from severe manifestations to asymptomatic forms, including acute respiratory distress syndrome. The major factor responsible for acute respiratory distress syndrome is the so-called "cytokine storm," which is an aberrant response from the host immune system that induces an exaggerated release of proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines. In this review, we will discuss the role of cytokine storm in COVID-19 and potential treatments with which counteract this aberrant response, which may be valuable in the clinical translation.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Quimiocinas/sangue , Quimiocinas/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/farmacologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Proteína Antagonista do Receptor de Interleucina 1/uso terapêutico , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Receptores de Interleucina-6/antagonistas & inibidores , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/tratamento farmacológico
12.
Int Heart J ; 61(5): 1070-1074, 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921673

RESUMO

We report a case of lethal myocarditis and myositis after pembrolizumab treatment for advanced upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma. A 69-year-old man underwent pembrolizumab therapy as a second-line treatment. He had myalgia and a slightly elevated creatinine kinase (CK) on the day of the second administration of pembrolizumab. Five days later, the patient was admitted with severe fatigue and an abnormal gait. Physical examination revealed reduced muscle reflexes and proximal muscle weakness. An electrocardiogram (ECG) demonstrated a wide QRS complex ventricular rhythm. A marked elevation of cardiac enzymes, including CK, myoglobin, and cardiac troponin I, was detected. Myocardial biopsy revealed inflammatory cell infiltration and the partial impairment of myocardial tissue. The electromyogram was normal, but inflammation in myofibers was noted in a muscle biopsy. Myocarditis and myositis as immune-related adverse events (irAEs) were suspected, and the patient began intravenous steroid therapy and plasma exchange. However, the patient underwent cardiac arrest three days after admission and began extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and intra-aortic balloon pumping therapy. Despite steroid pulse therapy, the patient demonstrated no sign of improvement and subsequently died 17 days after admission. Immune-mediated myocarditis is a rare but fatal irAE of an immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI). The present case suggests that myositis precedes myocarditis. Therefore, if myositis is suspected, subsequent myocarditis may need attention. In conclusion, we found that myositis and myocarditis developed in a patient with advanced urothelial carcinoma after pembrolizumab treatment. A routine follow-up of CK and cardiac troponin I, as well as an ECG, should be performed to identify any possible ICI-induced myocarditis and myositis quickly.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Miocardite/induzido quimicamente , Miosite/induzido quimicamente , Idoso , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/secundário , Creatina Quinase/sangue , Creatina Quinase Forma MB/sangue , Ecocardiografia , Eletromiografia , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea , Evolução Fatal , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Parada Cardíaca , Humanos , Balão Intra-Aórtico , Pelve Renal , Neoplasias Hepáticas/secundário , Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundário , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Miocardite/sangue , Miocardite/diagnóstico por imagem , Miocardite/patologia , Miocárdio/patologia , Mioglobina/sangue , Miosite/sangue , Miosite/patologia , Miosite/fisiopatologia , Troca Plasmática , Troponina I/sangue
13.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239401, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960899

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effects of a short course of methyl-prednisolone pulses (MP) during the second week of disease (week-2) in patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia. METHODS: Comparative observational study using data collected from routine care at Hospital Universitario Cruces, Barakaldo, Bizkaia, Spain in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. We compared patients who received week-2-MP (125-250 mg/d x3) with those who did not, with the end-points time to death and time to death or endotracheal intubation. RESULTS: We included 242 patients with COVID-19 pneumonia and elevated inflammatory markers at admission. Sixty-one patients (25%) received week-2-MP. Twenty-two patients (9%) died and 31 (12.8%) suffered death or intubation. The adjusted HRs for death and death or intubation for patients in the week-2-MP group were 0.35 (95%CI 0.11 to 1.06, p = 0.064) and 0.33 (95%CI 0.13 to 0.84, p = 0.020), respectively. These differences were specifically seen in the subcohort of patients with a SpO2/FiO2 at day 7 lower than 353 (adjusted HR 0.31, 95% CI 0.08 to 1.12, p = 0.073 and HR 0.34, 95%CI 0.12 to 0.94, p = 0.038, respectively) but not in patients with higher SpO2/FiO2. Patients receiving out-of-week-2-MP, non-pulse glucocorticoids or no glucocorticoids had an increased adjusted risk for both outcomes compared with week-2-MP group: HR 5.04 (95% CI 0.91-27.86), HR 10.09 (95% CI 2.14-47.50), HR 4.14 (95% CI 0.81-21.23), respectively, for death; HR 7.38 (95% CI 1.86-29.29), HR 13.71 (95% CI 3.76-50.07), HR 3.58 (95% CI 0.89-14.32), respectively, for death or intubation. These differences were significant only in the subgroup with low SpO2/FiO2. CONCLUSIONS: Week-2-MP are effective in improving the prognosis of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia with features of inflammatory activity and respiratory deterioration entering the second week of disease. The recognition of this high-risk population should prompt early use of MP at this point.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Metilprednisolona/administração & dosagem , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Idoso , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Inflamação , Intubação Intratraqueal , Masculino , Metilprednisolona/farmacologia , Metilprednisolona/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxigênio/sangue , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Risco , Fatores de Risco , Espanha , Fatores de Tempo
15.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 695, 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32962639

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the widespread outbreak of novel coronavirus diseases 2019(COVID-19), more and more death cases were reported, however, limited data are available for the patients who died. We aimed to explore the clinical characteristics of deaths with COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS: We abstracted and analyzed epidemiological, demographic, clinical, and laboratory data from 83 death cases with COVID-19 pneumonia in East Hospital of Wuhan University Renmin Hospital, between January 26, 2020, and February 28, 2020. RESULTS: Of the 83 deaths, none was the medical staff. The mean age was 71.8 years (SD 13.2; range, 34-97 years) and 53(63.9%) were male. The median from onset to admission was 10 days (IQR 7-14: range, 2-43 days), to death was 17 days (IQR 14-21: range, 6-54 days). Most deaths (66[80%]) had underlying comorbid diseases, the most of which was hypertension [47(57%)]. The main initial symptoms of these 83 deaths were shortness of breath(98.8%), fever(94%), and myalgia or fatigue(90.4%). Laboratory analyses showed the lymphocytopenia in 69(83%) deaths, hypoalbuminemia in 77(93%) deaths, the elevation of lactate dehydrogenase in 79(95%) deaths, procalcitonin in 69(83%) deaths and C-reactive protein in 79(95%) deaths. All 83 patients received antiviral treatment, 81(97.6%) deaths received antibiotic therapy, 54(65.1%) deaths received glucocorticoid therapy, and 20(24.1%) patients received invasive mechanical ventilation. CONCLUSION: Most of the deaths with COVID-19 pneumonia were elderly patients with underlying comorbid diseases, especially those over 70 years of age. The time of death after the onset of the disease was mostly 15-21 days. More care should be given to the elderly in further prevention and control strategies of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Fadiga , Feminino , Febre/virologia , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Hospitalização , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Pró-Calcitonina/sangue , Respiração Artificial , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
Emerg Med Clin North Am ; 38(4): 807-818, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32981619

RESUMO

Sepsis care has evolved significantly since the initial early goal-directed therapy (EGDT) trials. Early fluid resuscitation, source control, and antibiotic therapy remain cornerstones of care but overall understanding is more nuanced, particularly regarding fluid selection, vasopressors, and inotropic support. Timely nutrition therapy and ventilatory support tend to receive less attention but also are important. Recent research has explored immunomodulation, ß-blockade, and vitamin supplementation. A renewed emphasis on early, aggressive resuscitation reaffirms the importance of emergency medicine providers knowledgeable and skilled in sepsis management.


Assuntos
Ressuscitação/métodos , Sepse/terapia , Angiotensina II/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Ácido Ascórbico/uso terapêutico , Glicemia/análise , Pressão Sanguínea , Cardiomiopatias/etiologia , Cardiomiopatias/terapia , Cardiotônicos/uso terapêutico , Estado Terminal , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Nutrição Enteral , Hidratação , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Escores de Disfunção Orgânica , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Respiração Artificial , Vasoconstritores/uso terapêutico
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(39): e22299, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991435

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a condition characterized by a hyperinflammatory state and persistent macrophage activation, resulting in reactive phagocytosis of the hematopoietic elements. In children, it is usually a hereditary disorder, while in adults it is usually acquired secondary to viral infections, collagenoses, or tumors. Although accounting for 10% of hematologic malignancies, HLH is rarely associated with multiple myeloma (MM) and other plasmacytic dyscrasias. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 64-year-old Brazilian man seeked medical care with a 3-month history of intermittent fever, weight loss, night sweats, and progressive anemic symptoms. DIAGNOSIS: Total blood count showed severe bicytopenia (normocytic-normochromic anemia and thrombocytopenia), biochemical exams showed elevation of creatinine, as well as monoclonal peak in serum protein electrophoresis, high IgA dosage, and serum immunofixation with IgA kappa paraprotein. Bone marrow biopsy showed 30% of monoclonal and phenotypically anomalous plasmocytes, confirming the diagnosis of MM. Diagnosis of HLH was established by the presence of clinical and laboratory criteria: fever, splenomegaly, cytopenias, hypofibrinogenemia, hyperferritinemia, elevation of triglycerides, and several figures of erythrophagocytosis in bone marrow aspirate. INTERVENTIONS: The patient experienced pulse therapy with methylprednisolone for hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, followed by initial therapy for multiple myeloma with cyclophosphamide and dexamethasone. OUTCOMES: Once the diagnosis of MM and secondary hemophagocytic syndrome was established, the patient had a rapid clinical deterioration despite the established therapeutic measures, evolving with cardiovascular failure, acute liver failure, acute disseminated intravascular coagulation, worsening renal dysfunction requiring dialysis support, respiratory dysfunction, and lowering of consciousness, characterizing rapid multiple organ dysfunction, ultimately leading to the death of the patient. INNOVATION: Here, we aimed to describe the sixth reported case of HLH associated with MM, according to cases cataloged in the PubMed database, and the first case evaluated by 18-fluordeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18-FDG-PETCT). CONCLUSION: Our case report seeks to provide support for a better clinical and laboratory characterization of this rare paraneoplastic entity associated with MM, and aims to call the attention of hematologists and intensivists to this condition that falls within the scope of the differential diagnosis of rapid onset multiple organ failure in patients with plasmacytic neoplasms.


Assuntos
Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/tratamento farmacológico , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/etiologia , Mieloma Múltiplo/complicações , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Anemia/sangue , Anemia/etiologia , Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/uso terapêutico , Medula Óssea/patologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Ciclofosfamida/administração & dosagem , Ciclofosfamida/uso terapêutico , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Evolução Fatal , Febre/diagnóstico , Febre/etiologia , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/sangue , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/diagnóstico , Masculino , Metilprednisolona/administração & dosagem , Metilprednisolona/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mieloma Múltiplo/metabolismo , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/complicações , Paraproteinemias/sangue , Plasmócitos/patologia , Esplenomegalia/diagnóstico , Esplenomegalia/etiologia , Trombocitopenia/sangue , Trombocitopenia/etiologia , Perda de Peso
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(39): e22341, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991448

RESUMO

RATIONALE: The Goodpasture syndrome is an extremely rare disease, with renal and pulmonary manifestations, and is mediated by anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) antibodies. Renal pathological changes are mainly characterized by glomerular crescent formation and linear immunofluorescent staining for immunoglobulin G on the GBM. There are few reports on the atypical course of the syndrome involving serum-negative anti-GBM antibodies. Therefore, we present a case of Goodpasture syndrome that presented with nephrotic-range proteinuria and was seronegative for anti-GBM antibodies. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 38-year-old Chinese man presented with a lung lesion that was discovered by physical examination a month prior to presentation. The chief concern was occasional hemoptysis without fever, cough, chest pain, and edema. DIAGNOSES: Laboratory testing revealed that the urinary protein level and urine erythrocyte count were 7.4 g/24 hours and 144/high-power field (HPF), respectively. Serological testing for anti-GBM antibodies was negative. Chest computed tomography revealed multiple exudative lesions in both lungs, indicating alveolar infiltration and hemorrhage. Electronic bronchoscopy and pathological examination of the alveolar lavage fluid indicated no abnormalities. However, kidney biopsy suggested cellular crescent formation and segmental necrosis of the globuli, with linear IgG and complement C3 deposition on the GBM. These findings were consistent with the diagnosis of anti-GBM antibody nephritis. INTERVENTIONS: The patient underwent 7 sessions of double filtration plasmapheresis. He was also administered with intravenous methylprednisolone and cyclophosphamide. After renal function stabilization, he was discharged under an immunosuppressive regimen comprising of glucocorticoids and cyclophosphamides. OUTCOMES: Three months later, follow-up examination revealed that the 24-hour urine protein had increased to 13 g. Furthermore, the urine erythrocyte count was 243/HPF. After a 6-month follow-up, the patient achieved partial remission, with a proteinuria level of 3.9 g/24 hours and a urine erythrocyte count of 187/HPF. LESSONS: This extremely rare case of Goodpasture syndrome manifested with seronegativity for anti-GBM antibodies and nephrotic-range proteinuria. Our findings emphasize the importance of renal biopsy for the clinical diagnosis of atypical cases. Furthermore, because renal involvement achieved only partial remission despite therapy, early detection and active treatment of the Goodpasture syndrome is necessary to improve the prognosis of patients.


Assuntos
Doença Antimembrana Basal Glomerular/complicações , Doença Antimembrana Basal Glomerular/imunologia , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Proteinúria/etiologia , Administração Intravenosa , Adulto , Assistência ao Convalescente , Doença Antimembrana Basal Glomerular/diagnóstico , Doença Antimembrana Basal Glomerular/terapia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/etnologia , Complemento C3/metabolismo , Ciclofosfamida/administração & dosagem , Ciclofosfamida/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Hemoptise/diagnóstico , Hemorragia/etiologia , Hemorragia/patologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/metabolismo , Imunossupressores/administração & dosagem , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Rim/patologia , Glomérulos Renais/metabolismo , Glomérulos Renais/patologia , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Metilprednisolona/administração & dosagem , Metilprednisolona/uso terapêutico , Nefrite/diagnóstico , Nefrite/imunologia , Plasmaferese/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 68(10): 2291-2293, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-795111

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a form of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that has been declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO). Ocular manifestations related to COVID-19 are uncommon with conjunctivitis being reported in a few cases. We report a unique case of vasculitic retinal vein occlusion (RVO) secondary to COVID-19 in a 52-year-old patient who presented with the diminution of vision in the left eye 10 days after he tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. All investigations for vasculitis were negative. This case supports the mechanism of thrombo-inflammatory state secondary to the "cytokine-storm" as the pathogenesis for systemic manifestations of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Infecções Oculares Virais/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Vasculite Retiniana/virologia , Oclusão da Veia Retiniana/virologia , Administração Oral , Inibidores da Angiogênese/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Infecções Oculares Virais/diagnóstico , Infecções Oculares Virais/tratamento farmacológico , Angiofluoresceinografia , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Injeções Intravítreas , Masculino , Metilprednisolona/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Ranibizumab/uso terapêutico , Vasculite Retiniana/diagnóstico , Vasculite Retiniana/tratamento farmacológico , Oclusão da Veia Retiniana/diagnóstico , Oclusão da Veia Retiniana/tratamento farmacológico , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/antagonistas & inibidores
20.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(17): 9208-9215, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-790184

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In December 2019, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection broke out in Wuhan, China. However, we still lack a comprehensive understanding of this emerging virus. In this manuscript, we collected relevant articles and reviewed the characteristics about SARS-CoV-2. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed an online search on PubMed and Web of Science with the keywords COVID-19, 2019-nCoV and SARS-CoV-2, and summarized the epidemiology, virology, clinical features and treatments of SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: We retrieved 157 published papers about SARS-CoV-2 from January, 2020 to April, 2020. We found that SARS-CoV-2 was a kind of virus with low mortality rate and high infectivity. This virus can enter human cells through angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in alveoli and activate immune response in human body. SARS-CoV-2 infection can be classified as asymptomatic, mild, common, severe, and critical. We summarized antiviral drugs against SARS-CoV-2, such as remdesivir, hydroxychloroquine and favipiravir. Because the vaccine of SARS-CoV-2 is developing, more clinical studies are needed to verify the safety and efficacy of these treatments. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 is a novel coronavirus that has caused a global pandemic. We should pay more attention to prevent SARS-CoV-2 and try to control it sooner.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Monofosfato de Adenosina/uso terapêutico , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Imunização Passiva , Imunoterapia , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia
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