Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 4.214
Filtrar
1.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) ; 68(1): 91-95, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902904

RESUMO

Magnolia Flower is a crude drug used for the treatment of headaches, toothaches, and nasal congestion. Here, we focused on Magnolia kobus, one of the botanical origins of Magnolia Flower, and collected the flower parts at different growth stages to compare chemical compositions and investigate potential inhibitory activities against interleukin-2 (IL-2) production in murine splenic T cells. After determining the structures, we examined the inhibitory effects of the constituents of the bud, the medicinal part of the crude drug, against IL-2 production. We first extracted the flower parts of M. kobus from the bud to fallen bloom stages and analysed the chemical compositions to identify the constituents characteristic to the buds. We found that the inhibitory activity of the buds against IL-2 production was more potent than that of the blooms. We isolated two known compounds, tiliroside (1) and syringin (2), characteristic to the buds from the methanol (MeOH) extract of Magnolia Flower. Moreover, we examined the inhibitory activities of both compounds against IL-2 production and found that tiliroside (1) but not syringin (2), showed strong inhibitory activity against IL-2 production and inhibited its mRNA expression. Thus, our strategy to examine the relationship between chemical compositions and biological activities during plant maturation could not only contribute to the scientific evaluation of medicinal parts of crude drugs but also assist in identifying biologically active constituents that have not yet been reported.


Assuntos
Interleucina-2/metabolismo , Magnolia/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Flores/química , Flores/metabolismo , Glucosídeos/química , Glucosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Interleucina-2/genética , Magnolia/metabolismo , Camundongos , Fenilpropionatos/química , Fenilpropionatos/isolamento & purificação , Fenilpropionatos/farmacologia , Linfócitos T/citologia , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/metabolismo
2.
J Chem Ecol ; 46(1): 63-75, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31832894

RESUMO

Plants experience seasonal fluctuations in abiotic and biotic factors such as herbivore attack rates. If and how root defense expression co-varies with seasonal fluctuations in abiotic factors and root herbivore attack rates is not well understood. Here, we evaluated seasonal changes in defensive root latex chemistry of Taraxacum officinale plants in the field and correlated the changes with seasonal fluctuations in abiotic factors and damage potential by Melolontha melolontha, a major natural enemy of T. officinale. We then explored the causality and consequences of these relationships under controlled conditions. The concentration of the defensive sesquiterpene lactone taraxinic acid ß-D glucopyranosyl ester (TA-G) varied substantially over the year and was most strongly correlated to mean monthly temperature. Both temperature and TA-G levels were correlated with annual fluctuations in potential M. melolontha damage. Under controlled conditions, plants grown under high temperature produced more TA-G and were less attractive for M. melolontha. However, temperature-dependent M. melolontha feeding preferences were not significantly altered in TA-G deficient transgenic lines. Our results suggest that fluctuations in temperature leads to variation in the production of a root defensive metabolites that co-varies with expected attack of a major root herbivore. Temperature-dependent herbivore preference, however, is likely to be modulated by other phenotypic alterations.


Assuntos
Besouros/fisiologia , Glucosídeos/metabolismo , Lactonas/metabolismo , Sesquiterpenos/metabolismo , Taraxacum/química , Animais , Biomassa , Besouros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Glucosídeos/química , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Herbivoria/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactonas/química , Lactonas/farmacologia , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/fisiologia , Raízes de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/parasitologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/parasitologia , Estações do Ano , Sesquiterpenos/química , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Taraxacum/metabolismo , Taraxacum/parasitologia , Temperatura Ambiente
3.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 224: 117346, 2020 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31344577

RESUMO

The photophysics and structural transition dynamics of a bio-active flavin lumichrome (LM) entrapped in two sugars based neutral surfactants were reported. Sugar-based surfactants, which were used for research purpose are potential environmentally friendly, green alternative amphiphilic surface active substance compared to other kinds of common surfactants. Here, two alkyl glucoside surfactants n-octyl-ß-D-glucopyranoside (OBG) and n-octyl-ß-D-thioglucopyranoside (OBTG) were used. This work is carried out by using steady-state absorption and fluorescence emission spectroscopy along with time-resolved fluorescence emission techniques. Photophysics of LM was modulated several folds in these two sugar-based neutral micelles. LM exhibits excitation and emission wavelength dependent fluorescence properties in these two sugars based neutral micelles. LM confined in the micellar environments exhibited structural transition dynamism, i.e. different kinds of conformers are equilibrated. Herein, different conformers of LM are identified and explained with the help of spectroscopic methods. From the fluorescence anisotropy measurement, it was found that the rotational relaxation time of LM in OBG micelle was more compared to that in OBTG micelle, which indicates that the LM molecule faced much more constrained environment in OBG micellar media.


Assuntos
Flavinas/química , Glucosídeos/química , Tensoativos/química , Tioglucosídeos/química , Flavinas/análise , Micelas , Modelos Moleculares , Espectrometria de Fluorescência
4.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 56(7): 1070-1073, 2020 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31872832

RESUMO

A C1-type d-glucose-conjugated fluorescent probe Glu-1-O-DCSN was synthesized and showed deep-red emission at 685 nm with a Stokes shift of up to 150 nm in DMSO. In in vitro live cell imaging, Glu-1-O-DCSN exhibited similar and competitive uptake behaviours to d-glucose and was selectively located in mitochondria. Furthermore, Glu-1-O-DCSN was successfully employed for in vivo hypermetabolic tumor targeting.


Assuntos
Compostos de Benzilideno/química , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Glucose/metabolismo , Glucosídeos/química , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Animais , Compostos de Benzilideno/síntese química , Compostos de Benzilideno/toxicidade , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Fluorescência , Corantes Fluorescentes/síntese química , Corantes Fluorescentes/toxicidade , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 1/metabolismo , Glucosídeos/síntese química , Glucosídeos/toxicidade , Humanos , Camundongos Nus , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/metabolismo
5.
Food Chem ; 304: 125444, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491712

RESUMO

Poor aqueous solubility of some minor steviol glycosides (SGs) has prevented their potential widespread usage as non-nutritional high intensity sweeteners in beverage industry. Rebaudioside B (reb B) is one of the minor SGs found in stevia leaf, and has a better taste quality than many of the major SGs. However, reb B suffers from poor aqueous solubility and low dissolution rate, which greatly limits its application, especially in beverages. In our effort to enhance its solubility by using natural means, we discovered that under certain conditions reb B forms hemihydrate crystal, which has much lower solubility and dissolution rate than commercial powder reb B product. The crystal was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). This may offer more insight into the interaction of SGs with water at molecular level, and therefore provide new guidance on current efforts to enhance the solubility of SGs.


Assuntos
Glucosídeos/química , Glicosídeos/química , Edulcorantes/química , Diterpenos de Caurano/química , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Solubilidade , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Água/química , Difração de Raios X
6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(1): 323-331, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31880932

RESUMO

4G-α-Glucopyranosylrutin (monoglucosylrutin, MGR) is a flavonol glycoside with quercetin as an aglycone, is pale yellow in color, and engages in both copigmentation and anticopigmentation. In this study, we elucidated the mechanism underlying the copigmentation of MGR upon complexation with caffeine. Three approaches were used: binding analyses based on changes in the absorbance spectrum, NOESY experiments, and DFT and TDDFT calculations using an explicit solvation model. Our findings show that copigmentation mainly results from a bathochromic shift in the absorbance spectrum and not a from hyperchromic effect. MGR and caffeine form a complex in both 1:1 and 1:2 stoichiometric ratios. The calculated optimized 1:1 and 1:2 complex structures were supported by the NOESY spectrum and form a cluster with 13 and 11 water molecules, respectively, through hydrogen bonds. Although HOMO and LUMO contribute most to the excitation of both the MGR monomer and the complexes, these frontier molecular orbitals in the complexes are distributed more widely than those in the MGR monomer. In particular, LUMO in the complexes spreads into the copigment caffeine and the solvent water molecules. This increase in electron delocalization reduces the energy gap between the frontier molecular orbitals, resulting in copigmentation with a bathochromic shift.


Assuntos
Cafeína/química , Flavonóis/química , Glucosídeos/química , Cor , Ligações de Hidrogênio
7.
Food Chem ; 308: 125569, 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644967

RESUMO

In this study, the solubility of phloretin (PT) was enhanced via steviol glycoside (STE)-based micelle (MC) and solid dispersion (SD). Computer simulation, characterization, interaction with serum albumin (SA) and in vitro release were carried out to investigate the solubilization mechanisms and the difference in their solubilization capacities. For PT-loaded MC (STE-PT MC), PT was encapsulated into the hydrophobic core of a spherical micelle with a droplet diameter of 5 nm. For PT-loaded SD (STE-PT SD), PT was completely dispersed with the amorphous state in STE. Most of those PTs were directly dissolved in water, and few were encapsulated by STE micelles. The amorphous state combined with relatively large micelles contributed to the high solubilization capacity of STE-PT SD. In addition, PT of STE-PT SD exhibited a higher dissolution rate and more effective interaction with SA than that of STE-PT MC. No undesirable chemical interaction between PT and STE occurred.


Assuntos
Diterpenos de Caurano/química , Glucosídeos/química , Floretina/química , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Micelas , Floretina/análise , Solubilidade , Água/química
8.
Food Chem ; 309: 125796, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706678

RESUMO

Interest in anthocyanins has increased remarkably in recent decades, although their wider application has been hampered by instability problems. Thus, this study aimed at developing a strategy to gain access to more stable anthocyanins via enzymatic esterification. For that purpose, three cyanidin derivatives were obtained from underutilized, but easily accessible sources, and their total anthocyanin content was quantified. The purity of cyanidins obtained ranged from 40% to 88% depending on their source. Subsequently, the critical enzymatic reaction conditions were established, and the best results were found using tert-butanol as a solvent, 20 g/L of lipase B from Candida Antarctica, and vinyl cinnamate as acyl donor at ratio 250:1 (acyl donor to anthocyanin). Finally, five new acylated anthocyanin derivatives were synthesized with improved antioxidant activity and thermostability, in comparison to the cyanidin-3-glucoside, which is an advantageous feature for industrial applications.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Glucosídeos/metabolismo , Lipase/metabolismo , Acilação , Antocianinas/química , Cinamatos/química , Esterificação , Glucosídeos/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Prunus domestica/química , Prunus domestica/metabolismo , Solventes/química , Temperatura Ambiente
9.
Food Chem ; 302: 125343, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31430630

RESUMO

Pectin was extracted from blueberry powder as water soluble fraction (WSF), rich in branched regions, and chelator soluble fraction (CSF), linear, with strong negative charge. Binding of pectins with three anthocyanin standards (malvidin-3-glucoside; M3G, cyanidin-3-glucoside; C3G, and delphinidin-3-glucoside; D3G) and blueberry extract (BBE) were used. Without blueberry pectin, M3G was the most stable followed by C3G, whereas D3G completely disappeared after gastrointestinal digestion. CSF prevented M3G and C3G degradation more than WSF, the in vitro stability was highest with CSF and C3G. Increased stability of anthocyanins after simulated gastrointestinal digestion suggests that anthocyanins can be transported to colon where gut microbiota actively produce anthocyanin metabolites. The amount of bound anthocyanins that interacted with blueberry pectin increased as the number of hydroxyl groups increased on anthocyanins. Hydrogen bonding in addition to electrostatic interaction contribute to stability of pectin-anthocyanins interaction at pH 4.0 and contribute to stability under gastrointestinal simulation.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/química , Antocianinas/farmacocinética , Mirtilos Azuis (Planta)/química , Pectinas/química , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Digestão , Glucosídeos/química , Glucosídeos/metabolismo , Glucosídeos/farmacocinética , Ligações de Hidrogênio , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Pectinas/metabolismo , Pectinas/farmacocinética , Extratos Vegetais/química , Eletricidade Estática
10.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) ; 67(12): 1337-1346, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31787660

RESUMO

The 1-BuOH-soluble fraction of the methanol (MeOH) extract of Diospyros maritima was separated by chromatographic techniques to give three new oleanane-type and one new ursane-type triterpene glucoside, named ebenamariosides A-D (1-4); two megastigmanes were also isolated. The structures of triterpene glucosides was elucidated with extensive investigation by one and two dimensional NMR spectroscopy and the structures were confirmed by partial enzymatic hydrolyses to give the corresponding mono-glucosides and aglycones. The structures of the megastigmanes, including their absolute stereochemistries, were elucidated by spectroscopic evidence and by the modified Mosher's method. Two megastigmanes were chemically correlated and their absolute structures were unambiguously determined. The cytotoxicity of the triterpene glucosides and their degradation products were assayed. They did not show any significant activity.


Assuntos
Diospyros/química , Glucosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Norisoprenoides/isolamento & purificação , Folhas de Planta/química , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Células A549 , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Glucosídeos/química , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Humanos , Conformação Molecular , Norisoprenoides/química , Norisoprenoides/farmacologia , Estereoisomerismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Triterpenos/química , Triterpenos/farmacologia
11.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 36(1): 8, 2019 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31858273

RESUMO

The application of chemical fertilizers to enhance crop production is a major concern due to associated environmental pollution and health hazards. Hence, there is an urgent need to develop an eco-friendly solution to improve crop production and promote sustainable agriculture simultaneously. Stevia rebaudiana is an important medicinal crop being substitute for sugar, superior flavor outline, extensive medicinal properties, and also of agronomic interest. In the present study, bacterium STJP isolated from the rhizospheric soil of S. rebaudiana and identified as Bacillus safensis on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequencing, showed good amount of zinc (4.4 mg/L) and potassium (5.4 mg/L) solubilization. Paneer-whey (a dairy waste) based bioformulation (P-WBF) was developed utilizing isolate B. safensis STJP (accession number NAIMCC TB-2833) and inspected for the quality and ability to enhance the growth, nutrients uptake, and stevioside content in S. rebaudiana. The application of P-WBF displayed a significantly higher concentration (153.12%) of stevioside in S. rebaudiana as compared to control. P-WBF treated Stevia plants showed significantly higher fresh and dry weight as well (as compared to control). Further, enhancement of phosphorous, nitrogen, potassium, and zinc uptake in plant tissue was also recorded by application of P-WBF. This study suggests the use of P-WBF based biofertilizer using B. safensis STJP to increase stevioside content in Stevia plant by a nutrient(s) linked mechanism. This novel approach can also be beneficial for utilization of a dairy waste in preparation of bioformulation and, for enhancement of crop yield by an ecofriendly manner leading to sustainable agriculture.


Assuntos
Bacillus/fisiologia , Diterpenos de Caurano/química , Fertilizantes/análise , Glucosídeos/química , Nutrientes/química , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Stevia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Agricultura , Bacillus/genética , Nitrogênio/análise , Fósforo/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
12.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(49): 13624-13634, 2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31743023

RESUMO

Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is an important target for type 2 diabetes. PTP1B inhibitors can reduce blood glucose levels by increasing insulin sensitivity. Anthocyanins often play a hypoglycemic effect, but the research about them have mainly focused on glucosidase. At present, the research about protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) target is less, and the corresponding molecular mechanism is still unclear. Therefore, in this present study, anthocyanins isolated from blueberry were used to study the inhibitory activity on PTP1B. The isolated cyanidin-3-arabinoside (Cya-3-Ara) exhibited a better inhibitory activity with IC50 = 8.91 ± 0.63 µM, which was higher than the positive control (oleanolic acid, IC50 = 13.9 ± 1.01 µM), and the mechanism of PTP1B inhibition was reversible mixed pattern. The structure-activity relationship (SAR) between anthocyanins and PTP1B inhibition was investigated. The enzyme activity inhibition and molecular docking showed that anthocyanins had high selectivity for PTP1B inhibition. Further study showed that Cya-3-Ara could promote glycogen synthesis through ameliorating PTP1B-involved IRS-1/PI3K/Akt/GSK3ß pathways. Cya-3-Ara could also be regarded as a synergistic inhibitor (CI ≤ 0.54) of oleanolic acid to obtain a better inhibitory effect on PTP1B. Taken together, our study clearly illustrates the SAR between anthocyanins and PTP1B inhibition and the mechanism of Cya-3-Ara in the insulin signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/química , Mirtilos Azuis (Planta)/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Glucosídeos/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Antocianinas/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores Enzimáticos/isolamento & purificação , Frutas/química , Glucosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Cinética , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 1/química
13.
J Food Sci ; 84(11): 3140-3146, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31613008

RESUMO

The interactions between black soybean protein isolate (B-SPI) and cyanidin 3-O-glucoside (C3G), anthocyanin extracted from black soybean coat was investigated under neutral conditions. The fluorescence spectra showed that C3G had fluorescence quenching effects on B-SPI. Thermodynamic parameters showed that ∆G < 0, which demonstrated that the binding was a spontaneous reaction. Since ΔH > 0 and ΔS > 0, the interactions between C3G and B-SPI was mainly hydrophobic interactions. Fourier infrared spectroscopy results suggested that the contents of α-helix and ß-sheet structure showed an increasing trend, whereas the ß-angle content displayed a decreasing trend. The degradation of C3G followed first-order kinetics at 85 °C and 100 °C. After the interactions with B-SPI, the degradation rate constant was decreased and the half-life of C3G was prolonged from 70.25 ± 0.90 min to 175.64 ± 38.04 min at 85 °C, from 62.68 ± 1.1 min to 72.51 ± 2.5 min at 100 °C (p < 0.05). The results indicated that the interactions of B-SPI and C3G improved the thermal stability of C3G under heating conditions.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/química , Glucosídeos/química , Proteínas de Soja/química , Soja/química , Antocianinas/isolamento & purificação , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Glucosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Temperatura Alta , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Proteínas de Soja/isolamento & purificação , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
14.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) ; 67(10): 1072-1075, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31582627

RESUMO

Shikonin, a natural naphthoquinone, has attracted much attention due to its various biological activities. Two shikonin glucosides, shikonin-1',8-di-O-ß-D-glucopyranoside (1) and shikonin-1'-O-ß-D-glucopyranoside (2), were biosynthesized through in vitro enzymatic glycosylation and their structures were elucidated using spectroscopic techniques. The water-solubility and stability of compounds 1 and 2 were significantly higher than those of the parent compound. Furthermore, compound 2 showed moderate cytotoxicity against six cancer cell lines, with IC50 values ranging from 36.10 to 67.47 µM. This research indicated that in vitro enzymatic glycosylation of shikonin is an effective strategy to improve it water solubility and chemical stability.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/metabolismo , Glucosídeos/biossíntese , Glicosiltransferases/metabolismo , Naftoquinonas/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Glucosídeos/química , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Glicosilação , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Estrutura Molecular , Naftoquinonas/química , Naftoquinonas/farmacologia , Solubilidade , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Temperatura Ambiente
15.
Planta Med ; 85(16): 1192-1202, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604354

RESUMO

Willow bark (Salix spp.) is an ingredient in some dietary supplements. No serious adverse effects were reported from trials of willow bark extracts delivering 120 - 240 mg salicin (the purported active constituent) daily for up to 8 weeks. All studies involved adults only; none involved special subpopulations such as pregnant or breastfeeding women, or children. The most common adverse effects associated with willow bark are gastrointestinal; a few allergic reactions were also reported. Some publications advise caution when taking willow bark. There is a risk of increased bleeding in vulnerable individuals, salicylates cross the placenta and are eliminated slowly in newborns, some persons are sensitive or allergic to aspirin, and children are at risk of Reye syndrome. Concurrent use with other salicylate-containing medicines increases these risks. Metabolism of 240 mg salicin from willow bark could yield 113 mg of salicylic acid, yet dietary supplement products are not required to be labeled with warnings. In contrast, over-the-counter low-dose aspirin (81 mg strength), which delivers 62 mg salicylic acid, is required by law to include cautions, warnings, and contraindications related to its use in pregnant and nursing women, children, and other vulnerable subpopulations, e.g., those using anticoagulants. In the interest of protecting public health, the United States Pharmacopeia has included a cautionary labeling statement in the United States Pharmacopeia Salix Species monograph as follows: "Dosage forms prepared with this article should bear the following statement: 'Not for use in children, women who are pregnant or nursing, or by persons with known sensitivity to aspirin.'".


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/metabolismo , Álcoois Benzílicos/química , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Glucosídeos/química , Casca de Planta/química , Ácido Salicílico/metabolismo , Salix/química , Humanos , Farmacopeias como Assunto , Estados Unidos
16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(39): 10904-10912, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508953

RESUMO

High-order multiple emulsions are of great interest in both fundamental research and industrial applications as vehicles for their encapsulation capability of actives. In this work, we report a hierarchically multicompartmental highly stable triple emulsion by emulsifying and assembling of natural Quillaja saponin. Water-in-oil-in-(oil-in-water) (W2/O2/(O1/W1)) triple emulsion indicates that the compartmented system consisted of surfaced saponin-coated nanodroplets (SNDs) and dispersed oil globules, which in turn contained smaller aqueous droplets. The effects of formulation parameters, including lipophilic emulsifier content, oil fraction, and SND concentration, on the formation of multiple emulsions were systematically investigated. The assembly into fibrillar network of SNDs at the outer oil-water interface effectively protected the triple emulsion droplets against flocculation and coalescence, and strongly prevented the osmotic-driven water diffusion between the internal water droplets and the external water phase, thus contributing to superior stability during 180 days storage. All of these characteristics make the multicompartmentalized emulsions suitable to co-encapsulate a hydrophilic bioactive (gardenia blue) and two hydrophobic bioactives (eapsanthin and curcumin) in a single emulsion droplet hierarchically for the segregation and protection of multiple cargos. This approach offers a promising route toward accessing the next generation of functional deliveries and encapsulation strategies.


Assuntos
Curcumina/química , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Quillaja/química , Saponinas/química , Composição de Medicamentos , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/instrumentação , Emulsificantes/química , Emulsões/química , Glucosídeos/química , Óleos/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Água/química
17.
J Chromatogr Sci ; 57(9): 838-846, 2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504273

RESUMO

There is an increasing interest in screening and developing natural tyrosinase inhibitors widely applied in medicinal and cosmetic products, as well as in the food industry. In this study, an approach by ultrafiltration LC-MS and molecular docking was used to screen and identify tyrosinase inhibitors from Semen Oroxyli extract. The samples were first incubated with the tyrosinase to select the optimal binding conditions including tyrosinase concentration, incubation time and the molecular weight of ultrafiltration membrane. By comparison of the chromatographic profiles of the extracts after ultrafiltration with activated and inactivated tyrosinase, the potential inhibitors were obtained and then identified by LC-MS. The relative binding affinities of the potential inhibitors were also calculated based on the decrease of peak areas of those. As a result, seven compounds were fished out as tyrosinase inhibitors by this assay. Among them, oroxin A and baicalein showed higher tyrosinase inhibitory than resveratrol as positive drug, and their binding mode with enzyme was further verified via the molecular docking analysis. The test results showed that the proposed method was a simple, rapid, effective, and reliable method for the discovery of natural bioactive compounds, and it can be extended to screen other bioactive compounds from traditional Chinese medicines.


Assuntos
Bignoniaceae , Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Inibidores Enzimáticos , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Extratos Vegetais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/análise , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/metabolismo , Flavonas/análise , Flavonas/química , Flavonas/metabolismo , Glucosídeos/análise , Glucosídeos/química , Glucosídeos/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular/métodos , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/química , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Ultrafiltração/métodos
18.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(40): 11108-11118, 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31496243

RESUMO

A blood glucose level lowering effect is postulated for polyphenols (PPs), which is in part attributed to the inhibition of α-amylase. To estimate structure-effect relationships, chlorogenic acid (CA), phlorizin (PHL), epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), epicatechin (EC), and malvidin-3-glucoside (Mlv-3-glc) were used as inhibitors in an enzyme assay, on the basis of the conversion of GalG2CNP by α-amylase. The detection of CNP was performed by UV/vis spectroscopy. The data reveal that the inhibitor strength decreases as follows: EGCG > Mlv-3-glc > EC > PHL ∼ CA. Detection of the substrate conversion by isothermal titration calorimetry supports these results. All PPs showed mixed inhibition, except for CA and EGCG wherein the competitive proportion was predominant. Investigations by saturation transfer difference NMR revealed interaction of PPs with α-amylase prevalently based on interactions with the aromatic or conjugated system. A correlation between the extent of the conjugated system and the IC50 of the PP could be found.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/química , Catequina/análogos & derivados , Catequina/química , Ácido Clorogênico/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Glucosídeos/química , alfa-Amilases Pancreáticas/antagonistas & inibidores , Florizina/química , Animais , Calorimetria , alfa-Amilases Pancreáticas/química , Suínos
19.
Molecules ; 24(17)2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31480235

RESUMO

To explore the transformation mechanisms of free gastrodin and combined gastrodin before and after steaming of Gastrodia elata (G. elata), a fresh G. elata sample was processed by the traditional steaming method prescribed by Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2015 version), and HPLC-ESI-TOF/MS method was used to identify the chemical composition in steamed and fresh G. elata. Finally, 25 components were identified in G. elata based on the characteristic fragments of the compounds and the changes of the 25 components of fresh and steamed G. elata were compared by the relative content. Hydrolysis experiments and enzymatic hydrolysis experiments of 10 monomer compounds simulating the G. elata steaming process were carried out for the first time. As a result, hydrolysis experiments proved that free gastrodin or p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol could be obtained by breaking ester bond or ether bond during the steaming process of G. elata. Enzymatic experiments showed that steaming played an important role in the protection of gastrodin, confirming the hypothesis that steaming can promote the conversion of chemical constituents of G. elata-inhibiting enzymatic degradation. This experiment clarified the scientific mechanism of the traditional steaming method of G. elata and provided reference for how to apply G. elata decoction to some extent.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Gastrodia/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Vapor , Álcoois Benzílicos/análise , Glucosídeos/análise , Glucosídeos/química , Hidrólise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
20.
Mini Rev Med Chem ; 19(19): 1611-1626, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481002

RESUMO

Over the past three decades, the knowledge gained about the mechanisms that underpin the potential use of Rhodiola in stress- and ageing-associated disorders has increased, and provided a universal framework for studies that focused on the use of Rhodiola in preventing or curing metabolic diseases. Of particular interest is the emerging role of Rhodiola in the maintenance of energy homeostasis. Moreover, over the last two decades, great efforts have been undertaken to unravel the underlying mechanisms of action of Rhodiola in the treatment of metabolic disorders. Extracts of Rhodiola and salidroside, the most abundant active compound in Rhodiola, are suggested to provide a beneficial effect in mental, behavioral, and metabolic disorders. Both in vivo and ex vivo studies, Rhodiola extracts and salidroside ameliorate metabolic disorders when administered acutely or prior to experimental injury. The mechanism involved includes multi-target effects by modulating various synergistic pathways that control oxidative stress, inflammation, mitochondria, autophagy, and cell death, as well as AMPK signaling that is associated with possible beneficial effects on metabolic disorders. However, evidence-based data supporting the effectiveness of Rhodiola or salidroside in treating metabolic disorders is limited. Therefore, a comprehensive review of available trials showing putative treatment strategies of metabolic disorders that include both clinical effective perspectives and fundamental molecular mechanisms is warranted. This review highlights studies that focus on the potential role of Rhodiola extracts and salidroside in type 2 diabetes and atherosclerosis, the two most common metabolic diseases.


Assuntos
Glucosídeos/química , Doenças Metabólicas/tratamento farmacológico , Fenóis/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Rhodiola/química , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucosídeos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Doenças Metabólicas/patologia , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Fenóis/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Rhodiola/metabolismo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA