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1.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0259171, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34699568

RESUMO

Plant associated microbiomes are known to confer fitness advantages to the host. Understanding how plant factors including biochemical traits influence host associated microbiome assembly could facilitate the development of microbiome-mediated solutions for sustainable plant production. Here, we examined microbial community structures of a set of well-characterized Arabidopsis thaliana mutants disrupted in metabolic pathways for the production of glucosinolates, flavonoids, or a number of defense signalling molecules. A. thaliana lines were grown in a natural soil and maintained under greenhouse conditions for 4 weeks before collection of roots for bacterial and fungal community profiling. We found distinct relative abundances and diversities of bacterial and fungal communities assembled in the individual A. thaliana mutants compared to their parental lines. Bacterial and fungal genera were mostly enriched than depleted in secondary metabolite and defense signaling mutants, except for flavonoid mutations on fungi communities. Bacterial genera Azospirillum and Flavobacterium were significantly enriched in most of the glucosinolate, flavonoid and signalling mutants while the fungal taxa Sporobolomyces and Emericellopsis were enriched in several glucosinolates and signalling mutants. Whilst the present study revealed marked differences in microbiomes of Arabidopsis mutants and their parental lines, it is suggestive that unknown enzymatic and pleiotropic activities of the mutated genes could contribute to the identified host-associated microbiomes. Notwithstanding, this study revealed interesting gene-microbiota links, and thus represents valuable resource data for selecting candidate A. thaliana mutants for analyzing the links between host genetics and the associated microbiome.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/metabolismo , Glucosinolatos/metabolismo , Microbiota , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Arabidopsis , Azospirillum/patogenicidade , Basidiomycota/patogenicidade , Flavobacterium/patogenicidade , Flavonoides/genética , Genes de Plantas , Glucosinolatos/genética , Mutação , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia
2.
Phytochemistry ; 192: 112965, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610557

RESUMO

Plant specialized metabolites are often subject to within-plant transport and have tissue-specific distribution patterns. Among plants in the Brassicaceae, the genus Erysimum is unique in producing not only glucosinolates but also cardenolides. Ten cardenolides were detected with varying abundance in different tissues of Erysimum cheiranthoides L (Brassicaceae; wormseed wallflower). As is predicted by the optimal defense theory, cardenolides were most abundant in young leaves and reproductive tissues. The lowest concentrations were observed in senescing leaves and roots. Crosses between wildtype E. cheiranthoides and a mutant line with an altered cardenolide profile showed that the seed cardenolide phenotype is determined entirely by the maternal genotype. Prior to the development of the first true leaves, seedling cotyledons also had the maternal cardenolide profile. Hypocotyl grafting experiments showed that the root cardenolide profile is determined entirely by the aboveground plant genotype. In further grafting experiments, there was no evidence of cardenolide transport into the leaves, but a mixed cardenolide profile was observed in the stems and inflorescences of plants that had been grafted at vegetative and flowering growth stages, respectively. Together, these results indicate that E. cheiranthoides leaves are a site of cardenolide biosynthesis.


Assuntos
Brassicaceae , Chenopodium ambrosioides , Erysimum , Cardenolídeos , Glucosinolatos
3.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578891

RESUMO

Isothiocyanates, such as sulforaphane and iberin, derived from glucosinolates (GLS) in cruciferous vegetables, are known to prevent and suppress cancer development. GLS can also be converted by bacteria to biologically inert nitriles, such as sulforaphane-nitrile (SFN-NIT) and iberin-nitrile (IBN-NIT), but the role of the gut microbiome in this process is relatively undescribed and SFN-NIT excretion in humans is unknown. An ex vivo fecal incubation model with in vitro digested broccoli sprouts and 16S sequencing was utilized to explore the role of the gut microbiome in SFN- and IBN-NIT production. SFN-NIT excretion was measured among human subjects following broccoli sprout consumption. The fecal culture model showed high inter-individual variability in nitrile production and identified two sub-populations of microbial communities among the fecal cultures, which coincided with a differing abundance of nitriles. The Clostridiaceae family was associated with high levels, while individuals with a low abundance of nitriles were more enriched with taxa from the Enterobacteriaceae family. High levels of inter-individual variation in urine SFN-NIT levels were also observed, with peak excretion of SFN-NIT at 24 h post broccoli sprout consumption. These results suggest that nitrile production from broccoli, as opposed to isothiocyanates, could be influenced by gut microbiome composition, potentially lowering efficacy of cruciferous vegetable interventions.


Assuntos
Brassica/química , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Glucosinolatos/metabolismo , Isotiocianatos/metabolismo , Nitrilas/metabolismo , Sulfóxidos/metabolismo , Clostridiaceae , Enterobacteriaceae , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Brotos de Planta/química , Tiocianatos/metabolismo
4.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500622

RESUMO

Glucosinolates (GSLs) from Lepidium graminifolium L. were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively by their desulfo-counterparts using UHPLC-DAD-MS/MS technique and by their volatile breakdown products-isothiocyanates (ITCs) using GC-MS analysis. Thirteen GSLs were identified with arylaliphatic as the major ones in the following order: 3-hydroxybenzyl GSL (glucolepigramin, 7), benzyl GSL (glucotropaeolin, 9), 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzyl GSL (11), 3-methoxybenzyl GSL (glucolimnanthin, 12), 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzyl GSL (3,5-dimethoxysinalbin, 8), 4-hydroxybenzyl GSL (glucosinalbin, 6), 3,4-dimethoxybenzyl GSL (10) and 2-phenylethyl GSL (gluconasturtiin, 13). GSL breakdown products obtained by hydrodistillation (HD) and CH2Cl2 extraction after hydrolysis by myrosinase for 24 h (EXT) as well as benzyl ITC were tested for their cytotoxic activity using MTT assay. Generally, EXT showed noticeable antiproliferative activity against human bladder cancer cell line UM-UC-3 and human glioblastoma cell line LN229, and can be considered as moderately active, while IC50 of benzyl ITC was 12.3 µg/mL, which can be considered as highly active.


Assuntos
Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucosinolatos/química , Glucosinolatos/farmacologia , Lepidium/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Glioblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Hidrólise , Isotiocianatos/química , Isotiocianatos/farmacologia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Tiocianatos/química , Tiocianatos/farmacologia , Tioglucosídeos/química , Tioglucosídeos/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/tratamento farmacológico
5.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500612

RESUMO

Red cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata) continues to receive increasing attention on its health-promoting properties because of its high glucosinolate content. Glucosinolates are an unstable active substance; however, there are few studies on their changes in different cooking processes. In this study, we investigated the effects of processing methods (boiling, steaming, microwave heating, frying, stir-frying) and boiling time on glucosinolates in red cabbage. Ten glucosinolates, including 4-methoxyglucobrassicin, neoglucobrassicin, glucoalyssin, glucobrassicin, glucoraphanin, glucoiberin, progoitrin, gluconapin and sinigrin, in red cabbage were detected. Decreases of 32.36%, 24.83%, 25.27%, 81.11% and 84.29% for total glucosinolates were observed after boiling, microwaving, steaming, frying and stir-frying. Indole glucosinolates were more efficiently lost compared to aliphatic glucosinolates after boiling, while microwaving, steaming, frying and stir-frying also resulted in a greater reduction in indole glucosinolates than aliphatic glucosinolates. Glucoalyssin, glucoerucin and sinigrin were more thermal sensitive than other glucosinolates. It was confirmed that microwaving and steaming retained higher levels of glucosinolates than other methods and may be better for cooking red cabbage.


Assuntos
Brassica/química , Glucosinolatos/química , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Culinária/métodos , Glucose/análogos & derivados , Glucose/química , Imidoésteres/química , Indóis/química , Micro-Ondas , Oximas/química , Sulfóxidos/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
6.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 394, 2021 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34418959

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To understand the mechanism of glucosinolates (GSs) accumulation in the specific organs, combined analysis of physiological change and transcriptome sequencing were applied in the current study. Taking Chinese kale as material, seeds and silique walls were divided into different stages based on the development of the embryo in seeds and then subjected to GS analysis and transcriptome sequencing. RESULTS: The main GS in seeds of Chinese kale were glucoiberin and gluconapin and their content changed with the development of the seed. During the transition of the embryo from torpedo- to the early cotyledonary-embryo stage, the accumulation of GS in the seed was accompanied by the salient decline of GS in the corresponding silique wall. Thus, the seed and corresponding silique wall at these two stages were subjected to transcriptomic sequencing analysis. 135 genes related to GS metabolism were identified, of which 24 genes were transcription factors, 81 genes were related to biosynthetic pathway, 25 genes encoded catabolic enzymes, and 5 genes matched with transporters. The expression of GS biosynthetic genes was detected both in seeds and silique walls. The high expression of FMOGS-OX and AOP2, which is related to the production of gluconapin by side modification, was noted in seeds at both stages. Interestingly, the expression of GS biosynthetic genes was higher in the silique wall compared with that in the seed albeit lower content of GS existed in the silique wall than in the seed. Combined with the higher expression of transporter genes GTRs in silique walls than in seeds, it was proposed that the transportation of GS from the silique wall to the seed is an important source for seed GS accumulation. In addition, genes related to GS degradation expressed abundantly in the seed at the early cotyledonary-embryo stage indicating its potential role in balancing seed GS content. CONCLUSIONS: Two stages including the torpedo-embryo and the early cotyledonary-embryo stage were identified as crucial in GS accumulation during seed development. Moreover, we confirmed the transportation of GS from the silique wall to the seed and proposed possible sidechain modification of GS biosynthesis may exist during seed formation.


Assuntos
Brassica/genética , Brassica/metabolismo , Glucosinolatos/genética , Glucosinolatos/metabolismo , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo , Parede Celular/genética , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Variação Genética , Genótipo
7.
Plant Mol Biol ; 107(1-2): 85-100, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34424501

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Phosphoglycerate Dehydrogenase 1 of the phosphorylated pathway of serine biosynthesis, active in heterotrophic plastids, is required for the synthesis of serine to enable plant growth at high rates of indolic glucosinolate biosynthesis. Plants have evolved effective strategies to defend against various types of pathogens. The synthesis of a multitude of specialized metabolites represents one effective approach to keep plant attackers in check. The synthesis of those defense compounds is cost intensive and requires extensive interaction with primary metabolism. However, how primary metabolism is adjusted to fulfill the requirements of specialized metabolism is still not completely resolved. Here, we studied the role of the phosphorylated pathway of serine biosynthesis (PPSB) for the synthesis of glucosinolates, the main class of defensive compounds in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. We show that major genes of the PPSB are co-expressed with genes required for the synthesis of tryptophan, the unique precursor for the formation of indolic glucosinolates (IG). Transcriptional and metabolic characterization of loss-of-function and dominant mutants of ALTERED TRYPTOPHAN1-like transcription factors revealed demand driven activation of PPSB genes by major regulators of IG biosynthesis. Trans-activation of PPSB promoters by ATR1/MYB34 transcription factor in cultured root cells confirmed this finding. The content of IGs were significantly reduced in plants compromised in the PPSB and these plants showed higher sensitivity against treatment with 5-methyl-tryptophan, a characteristic behavior of mutants impaired in IG biosynthesis. We further found that serine produced by the PPSB is required to enable plant growth under conditions of high demand for IG. In addition, PPSB-deficient plants lack the growth promoting effect resulting from interaction with the beneficial root-colonizing fungus Colletotrichum tofieldiae.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Colletotrichum/fisiologia , Endófitos/fisiologia , Glucosinolatos/biossíntese , Indóis/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Serina/biossíntese , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/microbiologia , Vias Biossintéticas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Fosforilação , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Triptofano/biossíntese
8.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444909

RESUMO

Glucosinolates (GLS) and their derivatives are secondary plant metabolites abundant in Brassicaceae. Due to the enzymatic reaction between GLS and myrosinase enzyme, characteristic compounds with a pungent taste are formed, used by plants to defend themselves against insect herbivores. These GLS derivatives have an important impact on human health, including anti-inflammation and anti-cancer effects. However, GLS derivatives' formation needs previous enzymatic reactions catalyzed by myrosinase enzyme. Many of the brassica-based foods are processed at a high temperature that inactivates enzymes, hindering its bioavailability. In the last decade, several studies showed that the human gut microbiome can provide myrosinase activity that potentially can raise the beneficial effects of consumption of vegetables rich in GLS. The variability of the human gut microbiome (HGM) in human populations and the diverse intake of GLS through the diet may lead to greater variability of the real dose of pro-healthy compounds absorbed by the human body. The exploitation of the genetic and biochemical potential of HGM and correct ecological studies of both isolated strains and mixed population are of great interest. This review focuses on the most recent advances in this field.


Assuntos
Brassica/química , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Glucosinolatos/metabolismo , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacocinética , Antineoplásicos/farmacocinética , Disponibilidade Biológica , Manipulação de Alimentos , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Temperatura Alta/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Paladar , Verduras/química
9.
Biomolecules ; 11(8)2021 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34439839

RESUMO

The nutritional and health-promoting properties of plants are largely determined by their tissue chemistry. Tuning growth conditions could affect the accumulation of phytochemicals and, therefore, enhance the biological activities. Herein, the impact of elevated CO2 (eCO2; 620 µmol CO2 mol-1 air) on growth and chemical composition of sprouts of three Lepidium sativum cultivars (Haraz, Khider and Rajab) was investigated. Changes in the sprout actions against some human chronic diseases were evaluated. eCO2 induced biomass accumulation (1.46-, 1.47- and 2-fold in Haraz, Khider and Rajab, respectively) and pigment accumulation and reduced the level of antinutrients in L. sativum cultivars. Compared to the control, eCO2 induced total glucosinolate accumulation (0.40-, 0.90- and 1.29-fold in Khider, Haraz and Rajab, respectively), possibly through increased amino acid production, and their hydrolysis by myrosinase. In line with increased polyphenol production, improved phenylalanine ammonia lyase activity was observed. The antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hypocholesterolemic, antibacterial and anticancer activities of the produced sprouts were significantly improved by sprouting and eCO2 exposure. PCA indicated that the cultivars showed interspecific responses. Thus, the present study confirms the synergistic effect of sprouting with eCO2 exposure as a promising approach to produce more bioactive L. sativum sprouts.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Glucosinolatos/farmacologia , Lepidium sativum , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Glucosinolatos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Lepidium sativum/química , Lepidium sativum/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281196

RESUMO

Until recently, genes from the iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster pathway were not known to have a role in plant disease resistance. The Nitrogen Fixation S (NIFS)-like 1 (NFS1) and Mitochondrial Ferredoxin-1 (MFDX1) genes are part of a set of 27 Fe-S cluster genes induced after infection with host and nonhost pathogens in Arabidopsis. A role for AtNFS1 in plant immunity was recently demonstrated. In this work, we showed that MFDX1 is also involved in plant defense. More specifically, Arabidopsis mfdx1 mutants were compromised for nonhost resistance against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci, and showed increased susceptibility to the host pathogen P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000. Arabidopsis AtMFDX1 overexpression lines were less susceptible to P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000. Metabolic profiling revealed a reduction of several defense-related primary and secondary metabolites, such as asparagine and glucosinolates in the Arabidopsis mfdx1-1 mutant when compared to Col-0. A reduction of 5-oxoproline and ornithine metabolites that are involved in proline synthesis in mitochondria and affect abiotic stresses was also observed in the mfdx1-1 mutant. In contrast, an accumulation of defense-related metabolites such as glucosinolates was observed in the Arabidopsis NFS1 overexpressor when compared to wild-type Col-0. Additionally, mfdx1-1 plants displayed shorter primary root length and reduced number of lateral roots compared to the Col-0. Taken together, these results provide additional evidence for a new role of Fe-S cluster pathway in plant defense responses.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Ferredoxinas/genética , Arabidopsis/imunologia , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/imunologia , Resistência à Doença , Ferredoxinas/imunologia , Ferredoxinas/metabolismo , Glucosinolatos/genética , Glucosinolatos/imunologia , Ferro/metabolismo , Proteínas Ferro-Enxofre/genética , Proteínas Ferro-Enxofre/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Família Multigênica , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Imunidade Vegetal/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Enxofre/metabolismo
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34298919

RESUMO

This study was conducted to investigate doubled haploid (DH) lines produced between high GSL (HGSL) Brassica rapa ssp. trilocularis (yellow sarson) and low GSL (LGSL) B. rapa ssp. chinensis (pak choi) parents. In total, 161 DH lines were generated. GSL content of HGSL DH lines ranged from 44.12 to 57.04 µmol·g-1·dry weight (dw), which is within the level of high GSL B. rapa ssp. trilocularis (47.46 to 59.56 µmol g-1 dw). We resequenced five of the HGSL DH lines and three of the LGSL DH lines. Recombination blocks were formed between the parental and DH lines with 108,328 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in all chromosomes. In the measured GSL, gluconapin occurred as the major substrate in HGSL DH lines. Among the HGSL DH lines, BrYSP_DH005 had glucoraphanin levels approximately 12-fold higher than those of the HGSL mother plant. The hydrolysis capacity of GSL was analyzed in HGSL DH lines with a Korean pak choi cultivar as a control. Bioactive compounds, such as 3-butenyl isothiocyanate, 4-pentenyl isothiocyanate, 2-phenethyl isothiocyanate, and sulforaphane, were present in the HGSL DH lines at 3-fold to 6.3-fold higher levels compared to the commercial cultivar. The selected HGSL DH lines, resequencing data, and SNP identification were utilized for genome-assisted selection to develop elite GSL-enriched cultivars and the industrial production of potential anti-cancerous metabolites such as gluconapin and glucoraphanin.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/genética , Glucosinolatos/genética , Brassica rapa/efeitos dos fármacos , Genótipo , Glucosinolatos/farmacologia , Haploidia , Isotiocianatos/farmacologia , Oximas/farmacologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/efeitos dos fármacos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Sulfóxidos/farmacologia
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208567

RESUMO

Plant phosphoprotein phosphatases are ubiquitous and multifarious enzymes that respond to developmental requirements and stress signals through reversible dephosphorylation of target proteins. In this study, we investigated the hitherto unknown functions of Brassica rapa protein phosphatase 5.2 (BrPP5.2) by transgenic overexpression of B. rapa lines. The overexpression of BrPP5.2 in transgenic lines conferred heat shock tolerance in 65-89% of the young transgenic seedlings exposed to 46 °C for 25 min. The examination of purified recombinant BrPP5.2 at different molar ratios efficiently prevented the thermal aggregation of malate dehydrogenase at 42 °C, thus suggesting that BrPP5.2 has inherent chaperone activities. The transcriptomic dynamics of transgenic lines, as determined using RNA-seq, revealed that 997 and 1206 (FDR < 0.05, logFC ≥ 2) genes were up- and down-regulated, as compared to non-transgenic controls. Statistical enrichment analyses revealed abiotic stress response genes, including heat stress response (HSR), showed reduced expression in transgenic lines under optimal growth conditions. However, most of the HSR DEGs were upregulated under high temperature stress (37 °C/1 h) conditions. In addition, the glucosinolate biosynthesis gene expression and total glucosinolate content increased in the transgenic lines. These findings provide a new avenue related to BrPP5.2 downstream genes and their crucial metabolic and heat stress responses in plants.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Glucosinolatos/biossíntese , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Fosfoproteínas Fosfatases/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Biomarcadores , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Fosfoproteínas Fosfatases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281271

RESUMO

The allotetraploid species Brassica juncea (mustard) is grown worldwide as oilseed and vegetable crops; the yellow seed-color trait is particularly important for oilseed crops. Here, to examine the factors affecting seed coat color, we performed a metabolic and transcriptomic analysis of yellow- and dark-seeded B. juncea seeds. In this study, we identified 236 compounds, including 31 phenolic acids, 47 flavonoids, 17 glucosinolates, 38 lipids, 69 other hydroxycinnamic acid compounds, and 34 novel unknown compounds. Of these, 36 compounds (especially epicatechin and its derivatives) accumulated significantly different levels during the development of yellow- and dark-seeded B. juncea. In addition, the transcript levels of BjuDFR, BjuANS,BjuBAN, BjuTT8, and BjuTT19 were closely associated with changes to epicatechin and its derivatives during seed development, implicating this pathway in the seed coat color determinant in B. juncea. Furthermore, we found numerous variations of sequences in the TT8A genes that may be associated with the stability of seed coat color in B. rapa, B. napus, and B. juncea, which might have undergone functional differentiation during polyploidization in the Brassica species. The results provide valuable information for understanding the accumulation of metabolites in the seed coat color of B. juncea and lay a foundation for exploring the underlying mechanism.


Assuntos
Mostardeira/genética , Mostardeira/metabolismo , Catequina/análogos & derivados , Catequina/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Glucosinolatos/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Mostardeira/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fenótipo , Pigmentação/genética , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo
15.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34279379

RESUMO

Sulforaphane (SFN) is a powerful health-promoting compound found in broccoli in the form of its inactive precursor, glucoraphanin (GFN). SFN formation occurs through the enzymatic hydrolysis of glucoraphanin by myrosinase under specific chemical conditions. Its incorporation in food formulations has been hindered by the thermal instability of SFN and low concentration in Brassicaceae. Then, extracting SFN from broccoli at a temperature below 40 °C appears as an option to recover and stabilize SFN, aiming at delivering it as a nutraceutical. We studied an eco-friendly extraction process to obtain an SFN-rich extract from broccoli. The effect of the broccoli mass/solvent ratio, ethanol concentration in the extractant solution, and extraction time on the recovery of SFN, GFN, phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activity were studied through a Box-Behnken design. The regression models explained more than 70% of the variability in the responses, adequately representing the system. The experimental factors differently affected the bioactive compound recovery and antioxidant activity of the extracts. The extraction conditions that allowed the highest recovery of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity were identified and experimentally validated. The results may provide the basis for the design of a process to produce a sulforaphane-rich food supplement or nutraceutical by using a GRAS extractant.


Assuntos
Brassica/química , Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Isotiocianatos/química , Sulfóxidos/química , Etanol/química , Glucosinolatos/análise , Glucosinolatos/química , Isotiocianatos/análise , Oximas/análise , Oximas/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Sulfóxidos/análise
16.
PLoS Genet ; 17(7): e1009527, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34264948

RESUMO

Glucosinolates are token stimuli in host selection of many crucifer specialist insects, but the underlying molecular basis for host selection in these insects remains enigmatic. Using a combination of behavioral, electrophysiological, and molecular methods, we investigate glucosinolate receptors in the cabbage butterfly Pieris rapae. Sinigrin, as a potent feeding stimulant, elicited activity in larval maxillary lateral sensilla styloconica, as well as in adult medial tarsal sensilla. Two P. rapae gustatory receptor genes PrapGr28 and PrapGr15 were identified with high expression in female tarsi, and the subsequent functional analyses showed that Xenopus oocytes only expressing PrapGr28 had specific responses to sinigrin; when ectopically expressed in Drosophila sugar sensing neurons, PrapGr28 conferred sinigrin sensitivity to these neurons. RNA interference experiments further showed that knockdown of PrapGr28 reduced the sensitivity of adult medial tarsal sensilla to sinigrin. Taken together, we conclude that PrapGr28 is a gustatory receptor tuned to sinigrin in P. rapae, which paves the way for revealing the molecular basis of the relationships between crucifer plants and their specialist insects.


Assuntos
Borboletas/fisiologia , Glucosinolatos , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo , Animais , Brassica , Borboletas/efeitos dos fármacos , Drosophila/genética , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Glucosinolatos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Larva , Oócitos/metabolismo , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética , Percepção Gustatória , Xenopus
17.
Food Chem ; 365: 130498, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34243119

RESUMO

Sauerkraut juice has not gained much scientific attention to date. Therefore, this study aimed to track changes in glucosinolates (GLS) during fermentation of white cabbage and the formation of corresponding breakdown products in sauerkraut and sauerkraut juice separately and to evaluate their stability during prolonged storage of the final products. The results obtained indicate that both sauerkraut and sauerkraut juice are a good source of bioactive compounds: ascorbigen and isothiocyanates. The stability of individual compounds during storage varied, and the absolute content of phytochemicals depended on the content of native GLS in the raw material and its bacterial composition. The dominant compound was ascorbigen, stable in acidic pH in both sauerkraut and sauerkraut juice, even after prolonged storage. Sauerkraut juice was also found as a rich source of bioactive isothiocyanates. One 250 mL glass of sauerkraut juice (after two weeks) can deliver approx. 75 µmol of bioactive ascorbien and isothiocyanates, hence it can be considered as functional food, delivering beneficial health effects.


Assuntos
Brassica , Glucosinolatos , Fermentação , Alimentos
18.
Food Chem ; 365: 130493, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34247049

RESUMO

Glucosinolates (GSLs) are secondary plant metabolites that occur mainly in the Brassicaceae plants, which are desirable compounds in human foods due to their diverse biological activities. In this study, we developed an integrated data filtering and identification strategy to characterize the GSLs. An in-depth GSLs profiling was performed on 25 commonly Brassicaceae tissues in Jinan, China. By comparison with the reference standards and previous researches, we tentatively identified 47 GSLs including 8 unknown ones. The GSLs profiles of 25 Brassicaceae tissues were established, and 11 markers of GSLs could be used to distinguish the Brassica and Raphanus. This approach enables accurately characterization the GSLs of Brassicaceae tissues, and demonstrates the potential of GSLs profiles for Brassicaceae species discrimination.


Assuntos
Brassica , Brassicaceae , Raphanus , China , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Glucosinolatos , Humanos
19.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 165: 274-285, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090151

RESUMO

The objective of the present study was to evaluate the periodical UV-B radiation hormesis during kale seeds germination in their main content of secondary metabolite compounds (phenols; glucosinolates; total antioxidant capacity -TAC-) and their changes during a refrigerated shelf-life. The total UV-B doses received were 0, 5, 10, and 15 kJ m-2 (CTRL, UVB5, UVB10, and UVB15) in where the 25% was applied on the 3rd, 5th, 7th, and 10th sprouting day. UV radiation did not affect the morphological development of the sprouts. UVB10 and UVB15 treatments increased their phenolic content (>30%). Likewise, TAC was increased by UV-B lighting ~10% (DPPH) and ~20% (FRAP). The hydroxycinnamic acid content in UVB15-treated sprouts increased by 52%, while UVB5 reported an increase of 34% in the kaempferol-3,7-di-O-glucoside concentration, compared to CTRL. After 10 d at 4 °C of shelf-life, content of gallic acid hexoside I and gallic acid increased by 55 and 78% compared to UV-untreated kale sprouts, respectively. Glucoraphanin was the main glucosinolate found in kale sprouts and seeds, followed by 4-hydroxy-glucobrassicin, whose biosynthesis was enhanced by UVB10 (~24 and ~27%) and UVB15 (~36 and ~30%), respectively, compared to CTRL. In conclusion, periodical low UV-B illumination represents a useful tool to stimulate phytochemicals biosynthesis in kale sprouts as an important source of bioactive compounds with potential health benefits.


Assuntos
Brassica , Antioxidantes , Suplementos Nutricionais , Glucosinolatos , Hormese , Raios Ultravioleta
20.
Food Res Int ; 146: 110463, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34119247

RESUMO

Broccoli is a nutritious vegetable popular all over the world. This study investigated the effects of different concentrations of selenate (0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 1.6 mmol/L) on the selenium (Se), glucosinolate, and flavonoid contents of broccoli florets. Results showed that the total Se, selenomethionine, and methyl selenocysteine contents increased following selenate dosage. Interestingly, selenate treatment of 0.4 mmol/L decreased the flavonoid but increased the glucosinolate content. Metabolome analysis revealed changes in the individual contents of glucosinolates and flavonoids. Conjoint analysis of transcriptome and metabolome showed that the glucosinolate and flavonoid compounds were potentially regulated by two sulfate transporter genes (Sultr3;1 and Sultr4;2) and several cytochrome P450 genes (e.g., CYP71B21, CYP72C1, and CYP81F1). These new findings indicated that Se treatment may influence glucosinolate and flavonoid accumulation by regulating the expression of these genes. The results of this study provide some novel insights into the effects of Se on glucosinolates and flavonoids in broccoli florets and deepen our understanding of the regulatory network between some specific genes and these compounds.


Assuntos
Brassica , Selênio , Flavonoides , Glucosinolatos , Metaboloma , Ácido Selênico , Transcriptoma
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