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1.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 394, 2021 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34418959

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To understand the mechanism of glucosinolates (GSs) accumulation in the specific organs, combined analysis of physiological change and transcriptome sequencing were applied in the current study. Taking Chinese kale as material, seeds and silique walls were divided into different stages based on the development of the embryo in seeds and then subjected to GS analysis and transcriptome sequencing. RESULTS: The main GS in seeds of Chinese kale were glucoiberin and gluconapin and their content changed with the development of the seed. During the transition of the embryo from torpedo- to the early cotyledonary-embryo stage, the accumulation of GS in the seed was accompanied by the salient decline of GS in the corresponding silique wall. Thus, the seed and corresponding silique wall at these two stages were subjected to transcriptomic sequencing analysis. 135 genes related to GS metabolism were identified, of which 24 genes were transcription factors, 81 genes were related to biosynthetic pathway, 25 genes encoded catabolic enzymes, and 5 genes matched with transporters. The expression of GS biosynthetic genes was detected both in seeds and silique walls. The high expression of FMOGS-OX and AOP2, which is related to the production of gluconapin by side modification, was noted in seeds at both stages. Interestingly, the expression of GS biosynthetic genes was higher in the silique wall compared with that in the seed albeit lower content of GS existed in the silique wall than in the seed. Combined with the higher expression of transporter genes GTRs in silique walls than in seeds, it was proposed that the transportation of GS from the silique wall to the seed is an important source for seed GS accumulation. In addition, genes related to GS degradation expressed abundantly in the seed at the early cotyledonary-embryo stage indicating its potential role in balancing seed GS content. CONCLUSIONS: Two stages including the torpedo-embryo and the early cotyledonary-embryo stage were identified as crucial in GS accumulation during seed development. Moreover, we confirmed the transportation of GS from the silique wall to the seed and proposed possible sidechain modification of GS biosynthesis may exist during seed formation.


Assuntos
Brassica/genética , Brassica/metabolismo , Glucosinolatos/genética , Glucosinolatos/metabolismo , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo , Parede Celular/genética , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Variação Genética , Genótipo
2.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444909

RESUMO

Glucosinolates (GLS) and their derivatives are secondary plant metabolites abundant in Brassicaceae. Due to the enzymatic reaction between GLS and myrosinase enzyme, characteristic compounds with a pungent taste are formed, used by plants to defend themselves against insect herbivores. These GLS derivatives have an important impact on human health, including anti-inflammation and anti-cancer effects. However, GLS derivatives' formation needs previous enzymatic reactions catalyzed by myrosinase enzyme. Many of the brassica-based foods are processed at a high temperature that inactivates enzymes, hindering its bioavailability. In the last decade, several studies showed that the human gut microbiome can provide myrosinase activity that potentially can raise the beneficial effects of consumption of vegetables rich in GLS. The variability of the human gut microbiome (HGM) in human populations and the diverse intake of GLS through the diet may lead to greater variability of the real dose of pro-healthy compounds absorbed by the human body. The exploitation of the genetic and biochemical potential of HGM and correct ecological studies of both isolated strains and mixed population are of great interest. This review focuses on the most recent advances in this field.


Assuntos
Brassica/química , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Glucosinolatos/metabolismo , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacocinética , Antineoplásicos/farmacocinética , Disponibilidade Biológica , Manipulação de Alimentos , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Temperatura Alta/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Paladar , Verduras/química
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281271

RESUMO

The allotetraploid species Brassica juncea (mustard) is grown worldwide as oilseed and vegetable crops; the yellow seed-color trait is particularly important for oilseed crops. Here, to examine the factors affecting seed coat color, we performed a metabolic and transcriptomic analysis of yellow- and dark-seeded B. juncea seeds. In this study, we identified 236 compounds, including 31 phenolic acids, 47 flavonoids, 17 glucosinolates, 38 lipids, 69 other hydroxycinnamic acid compounds, and 34 novel unknown compounds. Of these, 36 compounds (especially epicatechin and its derivatives) accumulated significantly different levels during the development of yellow- and dark-seeded B. juncea. In addition, the transcript levels of BjuDFR, BjuANS,BjuBAN, BjuTT8, and BjuTT19 were closely associated with changes to epicatechin and its derivatives during seed development, implicating this pathway in the seed coat color determinant in B. juncea. Furthermore, we found numerous variations of sequences in the TT8A genes that may be associated with the stability of seed coat color in B. rapa, B. napus, and B. juncea, which might have undergone functional differentiation during polyploidization in the Brassica species. The results provide valuable information for understanding the accumulation of metabolites in the seed coat color of B. juncea and lay a foundation for exploring the underlying mechanism.


Assuntos
Mostardeira/genética , Mostardeira/metabolismo , Catequina/análogos & derivados , Catequina/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Glucosinolatos/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Mostardeira/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fenótipo , Pigmentação/genética , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo
4.
Food Chem ; 362: 130076, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090048

RESUMO

The internal blue discoloration of radish roots (Raphanus sativus) during storage affects their quality. We here performed transcriptome and metabolome profiling to investigate the mechanisms underlying the bluing of radish roots during storage. On comparing white radish (WR) and blue radish (BR), we identified 14,171 differentially expressed genes (upregulated: 7,383, downregulated: 6,788) and 145 differentially accumulated metabolites (upregulated: 117, downregulated: 28). Functional annotation analysis and metabolome profiling revealed that the blue discoloration of radish roots was promoted by high content of glucosinolates, oxidation system (ROS, CAT, POD) or low reduction system (GSH, GPX, APX, GST, ASA). Our results provide new insights into the underlying metabolic causes of the blue discoloration of radish roots and report candidate genes and metabolites involved in blue compound biosynthesis.


Assuntos
Metaboloma , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Raphanus/genética , Raphanus/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Glucosinolatos/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Pigmentação
5.
J Chem Ecol ; 47(8-9): 768-776, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34185213

RESUMO

In natural and agricultural ecosystems, plants are often simultaneously or sequentially exposed to combinations of stressors. Here we tested whether limited water availability (LWA) affects plant response to insect herbivory using two populations of Eruca sativa from desert and Mediterranean habitats that differ in their induced defenses. Considering that such differences evolved as responses to biotic and possibly abiotic stress factors, the two populations offered an opportunity to study ecological aspects in plant response to combined stresses. Analysis of chemical defense mechanisms showed that LWA significantly induced total glucosinolate concentrations in the Mediterranean plants, but their concentrations were reduced in the desert plants. However, LWA, with and without subsequent jasmonate elicitation, significantly induced the expression of proteinase inhibitor in the desert plants. Results of a no-choice feeding experiment showed that LWA significantly increased desert plant resistance to Spodoptera littoralis larvae, whereas it did not affect the relatively strong basal resistance of the Mediterranean plants. LWA and subsequent jasmonate elicitation increased resistance against the generalist insect in Mediterranean plants, possibly due to both increased proteinase inhibitor expression and glucosinolate accumulation. The effect of LWA on the expression of genes involved in phytohormone signaling, abscisic acid (ABA-1) and jasmonic acid (AOC1), and the jasmonate responsive PDF1.2, suggested the involvement of abscisic acid in the regulation of defense mechanisms in the two populations. Our results indicate that specific genotypic responses should be considered when estimating general patterns in plant response to herbivory under water deficiency conditions.


Assuntos
Brassicaceae/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Spodoptera/fisiologia , Água/química , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Animais , Brassicaceae/química , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Defensinas/genética , Defensinas/metabolismo , Clima Desértico , Inibidores Enzimáticos/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucosinolatos/análise , Glucosinolatos/metabolismo , Glucosinolatos/farmacologia , Herbivoria/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/fisiologia , Região do Mediterrâneo , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Spodoptera/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estresse Fisiológico , Água/metabolismo
6.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2658, 2021 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33976202

RESUMO

Many herbivorous insects selectively accumulate plant toxins for defense against predators; however, little is known about the transport processes that enable insects to absorb and store defense compounds in the body. Here, we investigate how a specialist herbivore, the horseradish flea beetle, accumulates glucosinolate defense compounds from Brassicaceae in the hemolymph. Using phylogenetic analyses of coleopteran major facilitator superfamily transporters, we identify a clade of glucosinolate-specific transporters (PaGTRs) belonging to the sugar porter family. PaGTRs are predominantly expressed in the excretory system, the Malpighian tubules. Silencing of PaGTRs leads to elevated glucosinolate excretion, significantly reducing the levels of sequestered glucosinolates in beetles. This suggests that PaGTRs reabsorb glucosinolates from the Malpighian tubule lumen to prevent their loss by excretion. Ramsay assays corroborated the selective retention of glucosinolates by Malpighian tubules of P. armoraciae in situ. Thus, the selective accumulation of plant defense compounds in herbivorous insects can depend on the ability to prevent excretion.


Assuntos
Brassicaceae/metabolismo , Besouros/metabolismo , Proteínas Facilitadoras de Transporte de Glucose/metabolismo , Glucosinolatos/metabolismo , Hemolinfa/metabolismo , Túbulos de Malpighi/metabolismo , Animais , Transporte Biológico , Brassicaceae/parasitologia , Besouros/fisiologia , Herbivoria/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/parasitologia , Açúcares/metabolismo
7.
Food Chem ; 356: 129550, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33819785

RESUMO

Glucosinolates (GSLs) are well known for plant defense and human nutrition. In this study, broccoli seedlings were illuminated under different LED light, including white, red, blue, and 75% red + 25% blue (200 mmol·m-2·s-1) for 4 weeks to investigate the effects of LED light on GSLs and sulforaphane biosynthesis. Results showed that red light promoted GSL biosynthesis and sulforaphane accumulation because red light could induce SOT18 expression to advance aliphatic GSLs biosynthesis, whereas the high tryptophan content and the upregulation of CYP79B2, CYP79B3, and CYP83B1 were attributed to indole GSL biosynthesis. Low-level methionine content and downregulated SOT18 were the main factors inhibiting GSLs and sulforaphane accumulation under blue LED illumination. BoHY5 gene expression was induced significantly and the yeast one-hybrid assay demonstrated BoHY5 could bind to SOT18 promoter. Consequently, BoHY5 inhibited SOT18 expression, and played a negative role in the GSL biosynthetic network.


Assuntos
Brassica/metabolismo , Glucosinolatos/metabolismo , Isotiocianatos/metabolismo , Plântula/metabolismo , Sulfóxidos/metabolismo , Brassica/efeitos da radiação , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Humanos , Iluminação , Plântula/efeitos da radiação
8.
Food Chem ; 355: 129634, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799240

RESUMO

Glucosinolates are a group of secondary metabolites occurring in all the vegetables belonging to the Brassicaceae family. Upon tissue damage, glucosinolates are hydrolyzed by myrosinase to a series of degradation products, including isothiocyanates, which are important for their health-promoting effects in humans. The glucosinolate-myrosinase system has been characterized in several Brassica species, of which white mustard (Sinapis alba) has been studied the most. In this study, a new HPLC-UV assay to evaluate the activities and kinetics of myrosinases in aqueous extracts, which closely represent the physiological conditions of plant tissues, was developed. This method was tested on myrosinases extracted from broccoli and cauliflower inflorescences, employing sinigrin and glucoraphanin as substrates. The results showed a strong inhibition of both enzymes at high substrate concentrations. The main issues related to kinetic analysis on the glucosinolate-myrosinase system were also elucidated.


Assuntos
Brassicaceae/enzimologia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Glucosinolatos/metabolismo , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Glucosinolatos/química , Humanos , Hidrólise , Cinética
9.
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem ; 85(5): 1194-1204, 2021 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33704369

RESUMO

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical countries. While ripe fruit is a popular food item globally, the unripe fruit is only consumed in some Asian countries. To promote the utilization of unripe papaya based on the compositional changes of biological active metabolites, we performed liquid chromatography-Orbitrap-mass spectrometry-based analysis to reveal the comprehensive metabolite profile of the peel and pulp of unripe and ripe papaya fruits. The number of peaks annotated as phenolics and aminocarboxylic acids increased in the pulp and peel of ripe fruit, respectively. Putative carpaine derivatives, known alkaloids with cardiovascular effects, decreased, while carpamic acid derivatives increased in the peel of ripe fruit. Furthermore, the functionality of unripe fruit, the benzyl glucosinolate content, total polyphenol content, and proteolytic activity were detectable after heating and powder processing treatments, suggesting a potential utilization in powdered form as functional material.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/metabolismo , Ácidos Carboxílicos/metabolismo , Carica/metabolismo , Glucosinolatos/metabolismo , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/fisiologia , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Alcaloides/química , Alcaloides/classificação , Alcaloides/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Carboxílicos/química , Ácidos Carboxílicos/classificação , Ácidos Carboxílicos/isolamento & purificação , Carica/química , Cromatografia Líquida , Culinária/métodos , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Alimento Funcional/análise , Glucosinolatos/química , Glucosinolatos/classificação , Glucosinolatos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polifenóis/química , Polifenóis/classificação , Polifenóis/isolamento & purificação , Análise de Componente Principal , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
10.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0247032, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33596258

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The Turnip (Brassica rapa L. ssp. rapa) is a leaf and root vegetable grown and consumed worldwide. The consumption of Turnip has been associated with beneficial effects on human health due to their phytochemicals that may control a variety of physiological functions, including antioxidant activity, enzyme regulation, and apoptotic control and the cell cycle. The current systematic review of the literature aims to evaluate both the profile and quantity of phytochemicals commonly found in Turnip greens and to provide perspectives for further investigation. METHODS: This review was conducted following the PRISMA guidelines. Four bibliographic databases (PubMed, Embase, Web-of-Science and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials) were searched to identify published studies until April 8th, 2020 (date last searched) without data and language restriction. Studies were included if they used samples of Turnip greens (the leaves), and evaluated its phytochemical content. Two reviewers independently evaluated the titles and abstracts according to the selection criteria. For each potentially eligible study, two reviewers assessed the full-texts and independently extracted the data using a predesigned data extraction form. RESULTS: Based on the search strategy 5,077 potentially relevant citations were identified and full texts of 37 studies were evaluated, among which 18 studies were eligible to be included in the current review. The majority of included studies were focused on identification of glucosinolates and isothiocyanates (n = 14, 82%), four studies focused on organic acids, and five studies reported phenolic component profile in Turnip greens. Among included studies nine studies (50%) provided information on phytochemical's content. We found 129 phytochemicals (19 glucosinolates, 33 glucosinolate-breakdown products, 10 organic acids and 59 polyphenolic compounds) reported in Turnip greens. Flavonoids were mainly present as quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin derivatives; while aliphatic forms were the predominant glucosinolate (gluconapin was the most common across five studies, followed by glucobrassicanapin). In general, the phytochemical content varied among the leaves, tops and Turnip roots. CONCLUSIONS: Emerging evidence suggests the Turnip as a substantial source of diverse bioactive compounds. However, detailed investigation on the pure compounds derived from Turnip green, their bioavailability, transport and metabolism after consumption is further needed. Additional studies on their biological activity are crucial to develop dietary recommendations on the effective dosage and dietary recommendation of Turnip greens for nutrition and health.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Verduras/química , Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Glucosinolatos/análise , Glucosinolatos/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Polifenóis/análise , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Verduras/metabolismo
11.
Food Chem ; 345: 128771, 2021 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33601652

RESUMO

The isothiocyanate sulforaphane (SF) is one of the most potent naturally occurring Phase 2 enzymes inducers derived from brassica vegetables like broccoli, cabbage, brussel sprouts, etc. Ingestion of broccoli releases SF via hydrolysis of glucoraphanin (GRP) by plant myrosinase and/or intestinal microbiota. However, both SF and plant myrosinase are thermal-labile, and the epithiospecifier protein (ESP) directs the hydrolysis of GRP toward formation of sulforaphane nitrile instead of SF. In addition, bacterial myrosinase has low hydrolyzing efficiency. In this review, we discuss strategies that could be employed to improve the stability of SF, increase SF formation during thermal and non-thermal processing of broccoli, and enhance the myrosinase-like activity of the gut microbiota. Furthermore, new cooking methods or blanching technologies should be developed to maintain myrosinase activity, and novel thermostable myrosinase and/or microbes with high SF producing abilities should also be developed.


Assuntos
Brassica/química , Isotiocianatos/metabolismo , Bactérias/enzimologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Brassica/metabolismo , Culinária , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Glucosinolatos/química , Glucosinolatos/metabolismo , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Hidrólise , Imidoésteres/química , Imidoésteres/metabolismo , Isotiocianatos/química , Pressão
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(3)2021 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33513755

RESUMO

High bicarbonate concentrations of calcareous soils with high pH can affect crop performance due to different constraints. Among these, Fe deficiency has mostly been studied. The ability to mobilize sparingly soluble Fe is a key factor for tolerance. Here, a comparative transcriptomic analysis was performed with two naturally selected Arabidopsis thaliana demes, the carbonate-tolerant A1(c+) and the sensitive T6(c-). Analyses of plants exposed to either pH stress alone (pH 5.9 vs. pH 8.3) or to alkalinity caused by 10 mM NaHCO3 (pH 8.3) confirmed better growth and nutrient homeostasis of A1(c+) under alkaline conditions. RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) revealed that bicarbonate quickly (3 h) induced Fe deficiency-related genes in T6(c-) leaves. Contrastingly, in A1(c+), initial changes concerned receptor-like proteins (RLP), jasmonate (JA) and salicylate (SA) pathways, methionine-derived glucosinolates (GS), sulfur starvation, starch degradation, and cell cycle. Our results suggest that leaves of carbonate-tolerant plants do not sense iron deficiency as fast as sensitive ones. This is in line with a more efficient Fe translocation to aerial parts. In A1(c+) leaves, the activation of other genes related to stress perception, signal transduction, GS, sulfur acquisition, and cell cycle precedes the induction of iron homeostasis mechanisms yielding an efficient response to bicarbonate stress.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Bicarbonatos/toxicidade , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Salicilatos/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Bicarbonatos/farmacologia , Calmodulina/metabolismo , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Celular/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Ontologia Genética , Glucosinolatos/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Homeostase , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Ferro/metabolismo , Peroxidases/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/genética , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/fisiologia , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , RNA-Seq , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Amido/metabolismo , Enxofre/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição
13.
Plant Sci ; 303: 110764, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33487349

RESUMO

Side-chain modification contributes to the structural diversity of aliphatic glucosinolates (GSLs), a class of sulfur-containing secondary metabolites found in Brassicales. The first step in side-chain modification of aliphatic GSLs is the S-oxygenation of the methylthioalkyl (MT) moiety to the methylsulfinylalkyl (MS) moiety. This reaction is catalyzed by flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMOGS-OX), which is encoded by seven genes in Arabidopsis thaliana. Therefore, the regulation of FMOGS-OX gene expression is key to controlling side-chain structural diversity. In this study, we demonstrated that the expression of FMOGS-OX2 and FMOGS-OX4 was induced by glucose treatment, independent of MYB28/29 and MYC2/3/4, the transcription factors that positively regulate aliphatic GSL biosynthesis. Glucose treatment of the abscisic acid (ABA)-related mutants indicated that glucose-triggered upregulation of FMOGS-OX2 and FMOGS-OX4 was partially regulated by ABA through the key negative regulators ABI1 and ABI2, and the positive regulator SnRK2, but not via the transcription factor ABI5. In wild-type plants, glucose treatment drastically reduced the accumulation of 4-methylthiobutyl (4MT) GSL, whereas a decrease in 4MT GSL was not observed in the fmogs-ox2, abi1-1, abi2-1, aba2-1, or aba3-1 mutants. This result indicated that the decreased accumulation of 4MT GSL by glucose treatment was attributed to upregulation of FMOGS-OX2 via the ABA signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Glucosinolatos/metabolismo , Oxigenases/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/enzimologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/fisiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
14.
J Sci Food Agric ; 101(6): 2422-2427, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33011991

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low growth temperatures and the special light qualities of midnight sun in northern Scandinavia, have both been shown to improve eating quality of swede root bulbs. To study the combined effect of these factors on root development and sensory-related compounds, plants were grown in phytotron under different 24 h supplemental light-emitting diode (LED) light colours, at constant 15 °C, or reduced end-of-season temperature at 9 °C. RESULTS: Far-red LED (740 nm) light induced longer leaves and produced more roundly shaped bulbs, than the other light quality treatments. At constant 15 °C, supplemental light of far-red LED also produced a stronger purple crown skin colour than the other LED treatments. This difference between light quality treatments disappeared at 9 °C, as all bulb crowns developed a purple colour. There were no significant effects of LED-supplements on sugar concentrations, while the reduced temperature on average did increase concentrations of d-fructose and d-glucose. Total glucosinolate concentrations were not different among treatments, although the most abundant glucosinolate, progoitrin, on average was present in highest concentration under LEDs containing far-red light, and in lower concentration at 9 °C compared to 15 °C. CONCLUSION: The light quality of 24 h photoperiods in combination with temperature appears primarily important for growth and morphological traits in swede root bulbs. Influence of light quality and low temperature on appearance and sensory-related compounds may be utilized in marketing of root vegetables with special quality related to growth conditions of high latitude origin. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Brassica napus/efeitos da radiação , Glucosinolatos/análise , Raízes de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Açúcares/química , Brassica napus/química , Brassica napus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brassica napus/metabolismo , Temperatura Baixa , Glucosinolatos/metabolismo , Humanos , Luz , Fotoperíodo , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/efeitos da radiação , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos da radiação , Açúcares/metabolismo , Paladar , Verduras/química , Verduras/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Verduras/metabolismo , Verduras/efeitos da radiação
15.
J Sci Food Agric ; 101(4): 1676-1684, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888328

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recently, it become an important strategy using light to regulate plant growth and quality, especially on daily edible leafy vegetable. Pak-choi is rich in healthy functional compounds, e.g. flavonoid and glucosinolate. Many studies have focused on the plant response to increased radiation and transformed visible light quality, however, we know less about different blue and UV-A light wavelengths. Therefore, the goal of this study was to identify whether different blue and UV-A light wavelengths could improve quality in two cultivars of pak-choi and further cultivate potentially healthy functional plants. RESULTS: The different blue and UV-A light wavelength treatments significantly increased the fresh and dry weight in two cultivars of pak-choi. Compared with control, the content of soluble protein was higher after the different blue and UV-A light treatments. Similarly, the contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids increased significantly under the light treatments, and the highest content presented under T430 (supplemental blue light at 430 nm) in red-leaf pak-choi and under T400 (supplemental UV-A light at 400 nm) in green-leaf pak-choi. The total anthocyanins content and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) of two pak-choi cultivars improved positively with decreasing treatment wavelength, and other healthy compounds were affected to varying degrees under supplemental light treatments. CONCLUSION: The growth and healthy compound contents of pak-choi were significantly improved by supplemental blue and UV-A light, and there were wavelength- and cultivar-dependent effects. Compared with control, T430 presented the higher biomass and the contents of total phenolics, flavonoids and pigment in two pak-choi cultivars, and T380 was an efficient strategy to increase antioxidants and health-promoting compounds of red-leaf pak-choi. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Brassica/metabolismo , Brassica/efeitos da radiação , Folhas de Planta/química , Antocianinas/análise , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Brassica/química , Cor , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Glucosinolatos/análise , Glucosinolatos/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/efeitos da radiação , Raios Ultravioleta , Verduras/química , Verduras/metabolismo , Verduras/efeitos da radiação
16.
Life Sci ; 264: 118615, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33096115

RESUMO

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NFLD) is one of the present public health problems which have no specific and effective treatment. The speed of the disease progression depends on the patient's lifestyle. Due to life stresses and lack of time, a high number of people depend on fast food containing a high amount of fats which one of the main causes of insulin resistance (IR). IR is one of the metabolic disorders which strongly intersected with molecular NAFLD and leading to its progression into non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In this review, we introduced the updated statistics of NAFLD and NASH progression all over the world shows its importance, etiologies, and pathogenesis. Also, IR and its role in NASH initiation and progression explored, and current treatments with its limitations have been explained. Glucosinolates (GLS) is a group of phytochemicals which known by its potent hydrolysis products with promising anti-cancer effect. In this review, we have collected the recent experimental studies of different GLS hydrolysis products against IR and chronic liver diseases supported by our lab finding. Finally, we recommend this group of phytochemicals as promising molecules to be studied experimentally and clinically against a wide range of chronic liver diseases with an acceptable safety margin.


Assuntos
Glucosinolatos/administração & dosagem , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/dietoterapia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/administração & dosagem , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Feminino , Glucosinolatos/metabolismo , Humanos , Hidrólise , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo
17.
Food Chem ; 334: 127520, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32693332

RESUMO

CaCl2, Ca2+ chelator (EGTA) and Ca2+ channel blocker (verapamil) were used to investigate mechanism of glucoraphanin metabolism in broccoli sprouts under ZnSO4 stress. CaCl2 treatment promoted sprout growth, reduced MDA (malonaldehyde) content and electrolyte leakage in sprouts under ZnSO4 stress. The highest MDA content and electrolyte leakage were obtained in ZnSO4 plus verapamil-treated sprouts. In addition, ZnSO4 plus CaCl2 treatment significantly enhanced glucoraphanin content and sulforaphane formation, while an opposite result was observed after ZnSO4 plus EGTA treatment; which were further supported by expression of glucoraphanin biosynthetic and hydrolytic genes as well as myrosinase (MYR) and epithiospecifier protein (ESP) activities. These results indicated that exogenous and endogenous calcium promoted glucoraphanin biosynthesis and the conversion rate of glucoraphanin into sulforaphane. Verapamil treatment also stimulated glucoraphanin biosynthesis, but exerted an adverse influence on sulforaphane formation from the hydrolysis of glucoraphanin because of much higher ESP expression and ESP activity than ZnSO4 treatment.


Assuntos
Brassica/efeitos dos fármacos , Cloreto de Cálcio/farmacologia , Glucosinolatos/metabolismo , Imidoésteres/metabolismo , Sulfato de Zinco/farmacologia , Brassica/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brassica/metabolismo , Ácido Egtázico/farmacologia , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Hidrólise , Isotiocianatos/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico
18.
Food Chem ; 339: 128092, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152880

RESUMO

The production of low potassium vegetables arose out of the dietary needs of patients with renal dysfunction. Attempts have been made to reduce potassium content in vegetables and fruits; however, induced potassium deficiency has often resulted in decreased yields. Here, we investigated a new method of producing low potassium kale and present the characteristics of the resulting produce. By substituting potassium nitrate with calcium nitrate in the nutrient solution 2 weeks before harvesting, the potassium content of kale was reduced by 70% without a deterioration in yield and semblance qualities. Despite no relationships being detected between potassium deficiency and anti-oxidative properties, the total glucosinolate content, an indicator of the anti-cancer effect of cruciferous vegetables, was significantly increased by potassium deficiency in kale. This study demonstrates a novel method of producing low potassium kale for patients with renal failure, without a reduction in yield but with beneficial increase in glucosinolates.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Brassica/metabolismo , Dieta , Glucosinolatos/metabolismo , Potássio/metabolismo , Insuficiência Renal/dietoterapia , Insuficiência Renal/fisiopatologia , Brassica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucosinolatos/farmacologia , Humanos
19.
Food Chem ; 339: 127860, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866700

RESUMO

Leaf samples from five Brassicaceae species (Brassica carinata, Brassica oleracea, Brassica rapa, Eruca vesicaria and Sinapis alba) were analyzed to determine their contents of glucosinolates and trace elements, and the bioaccessibility of these compounds. Considerable variability in the total contents and glucosinolate profiles was observed in the Brassicaceae species, with the total amounts ranging from 8.5 µmol/g dw in Brassica oleracea to 32.9 µmol/g dw in Sinapis alba. Bioaccessibilities of the predominant glucosinolates were moderate, ranging from 13.1% for glucoraphanin to 43.2% for gluconapin, which is particularly relevant as they have been implicated in a variety of anti-carcinogenic mechanisms. Trace element concentrations were: Se (28-160 µg/Kg dw); Cr (0.31-4.03 µg/g dw); Ni (0.19-1.53 µg/g dw); Fe (8.6-18.8 µg/g dw); Zn (20.8-41.5 µg/g dw); Ca (6.2-15.2 mg/g dw). Brassicaceae leaves were also moderate dietary sources of Se, Ni, Zn and Ca.


Assuntos
Brassicaceae/química , Glucosinolatos/análise , Oligoelementos/análise , Verduras/química , Glucosinolatos/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química
20.
Commun Biol ; 3(1): 779, 2020 12 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33328568

RESUMO

Wasabi, horseradish and mustard are popular pungent crops in which the characteristic bioactive hydrolysis of specialized glucosinolates (GSLs) occurs. Although the metabolic pathways of GSLs are well elucidated, how plants have evolved convergent mechanisms to accumulate identical GSL components remains largely unknown. In this study, we discovered that sinigrin is predominantly synthesized in wasabi, horseradish and mustard in Brassicaceae. We de novo assembled the transcriptomes of the three species, revealing the expression patterns of gene clusters associated with chain elongation, side chain modification and transport. Our analysis further revealed that several gene clusters were convergently selected during evolution, exhibiting convergent shifts in amino acid preferences in mustard, wasabi and horseradish. Collectively, our findings provide insights into how unrelated crop species evolve the capacity for sinigrin super-accumulation and thus promise a potent strategy for engineering metabolic pathways at multiple checkpoints to fortify bioactive compounds for condiment or pharmaceutical purposes.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Brassicaceae/genética , Brassicaceae/metabolismo , Glucosinolatos/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Brassicaceae/classificação , Evolução Molecular , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Especificidade de Órgãos , Filogenia , Metabolismo Secundário
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