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1.
Chemosphere ; 244: 125570, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32050348

RESUMO

In this paper, the enhancement of sodium glutamate (SG) on activity of anaerobic ammonia oxidizing (anammox) bacteria was investigated by batch tests. The results illustrated that SG played an important role in enhancing anammox bacterial activity when the SG dosage ranged from 0.50 to 1.25 mM, and the optimal SG concentration was 1.00 mM. The performance of anammox was the best and the total nitrogen removal rate (TNRR) was 138.2 mg N g-1·VSS·d-1 when the concentration of SG was 1.00 mM. The results of EPS and anammox bacterial biomass measurement indicated that protein (PN), polysaccharide (PS), total EPS and the bacterial abundance reached the maximum of 1.00 mM SG addition. Compared to the control tests, the EPS content and bacterial abundance increased by 38.2% and 75.8%, respectively. In addition, the cloning results showed that the community structure of anammox bacteria evolved in species level of Candidatus Brocadia genus under the condition of SG enhancement.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Glutamato de Sódio/metabolismo , Anaerobiose , Biomassa , Reatores Biológicos/microbiologia , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Oxirredução
2.
Chem Biol Interact ; 318: 108969, 2020 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007422

RESUMO

Methylmercury (MeHg) is a neurotoxicant that poses risk to human health and the environment, while glutamate homeostasis is necessary for the proper functioning of the brain. We have previously shown an increase in oxidative stress after cockroach exposure to diet containing monosodium glutamate (MSG), both separately and combined with a low dose of methylmercury. We herein seek to corroborate these findings by quantifying the expression levels of certain antioxidant genes in Nauphoeta cinerea exposed to MeHg and MSG. Cockroaches were fed with the basal diet alone, basal diet +2% NaCl, basal diet +2% MSG; basal diet +0.125 mg/g MeHg, basal diet +0.125 mg/g MeHg +2% NaCl; and basal diet +0.125 mg/g MeHg +2% MSG for 21 days and mRNA from head homogenate was used to quantify the expression of antioxidant genes such as glutathione-s-transferase (GstS, GstT, GstD), thioredoxin (Trx1, Trx2, Trx5), peroxiredoxin (prx4), superoxide dismutase (Sod), catalase (Cat). MeHg, NaCl and MSG alone downregulated mRNA levels of GstS and Trx5, in contrast, co-exposure of MeHg + MSG, upregulated these genes. MeHg + NaCl upregulated the mRNA levels of Cat and Sod but these genes were downregulated by NaCl alone. MeHg + NaCl and MeHg + MSG upregulated GstD and GstT. MeHg alone upregulated the transcription levels of Trx1, Trx2 and Prx4. The disruptions in the transcription levels of various genes by MeHg and MSG, reinforce the toxicity of these neurotoxicants. In general, the data suggest their additive effects and support the use of N. cinerea as a model for toxicological studies.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Baratas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/toxicidade , Glutamato de Sódio/toxicidade , Animais , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
Prep Biochem Biotechnol ; 50(1): 74-81, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31517565

RESUMO

Ectoine has fostered the development of products for skin care and cosmetics. In this study, we employed the marine bacterial strain Marinococcus sp. MAR2 to increase ectoine production by optimizing medium constituents using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and a fed-batch strategy. The results from the steepest ascent and central composite design indicated that 54 g/L of yeast extract, 14.0 g/L of ammonium acetate, 74.4 g/L of sodium glutamate, and 6.2 g/L of sodium citrate constituted the optimal medium with maximum ectoine production (3.5 g/L). In addition, we performed fed-batch culture in the bioreactor, combining pH and dissolved oxygen to produce ectoine by Marinococcus sp. MAR2. The ectoine production, content, and productivity of 5.6 g/L, 10%, and 3.9 g/L/day were further reached by a fed-batch culture. Thus, the ectoine production by Marinococcus sp. MAR2 using RSM and fed-batch strategy shows its potential for industrial production.


Assuntos
Diamino Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Bacillaceae/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cultura Celular por Lotes/métodos , Microbiologia Industrial/métodos , Acetatos/análise , Acetatos/metabolismo , Bacillaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Técnicas de Cultura Celular por Lotes/instrumentação , Reatores Biológicos , Meios de Cultura/química , Meios de Cultura/metabolismo , Desenho de Equipamento , Fermentação , Microbiologia Industrial/instrumentação , Citrato de Sódio/análise , Citrato de Sódio/metabolismo , Glutamato de Sódio/análise , Glutamato de Sódio/metabolismo
4.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124627, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31548173

RESUMO

Nitrogen contamination remains a severe environmental problem and a major threat to sustainable development worldwide. A systematic analysis of the literature indicates that the partial nitritation-anammox (PN/AMX) process is still actively studied as a viable option for energy-efficient and feasible technology for the sustainable treatment of N- rich wastewaters, since its initial discovery in 1990. Notably, the mainstream PN/AMX process application remains the most challenging bottleneck in AMX technology and fascinates the world's attention in AMX studies. This paper discusses the recent trends and developments of PN/AMX research and analyzes the results of recent years of research on the PN/AMX from lab-to full-scale applications. The findings would deeply improve our understanding of the major challenges under mainstream conditions and next-stage research on the PN/AMX process. A great deal of efforts has been made in the process engineering, PN/AMX bacteria populations, predictive modeling, and the full-scale implementations during the past 22 years. A series of new and excellent experimental findings at lab, pilot and full-scale levels including good nitrogen removal performance even under low temperature (15-10 °C) around the world were achieved. To date, pilot- and full-scale PN/AMX have been successfully used to treat different types of industrial sewage, including black wastewater, sludge digester liquids, landfill leachate, monosodium glutamate wastewater, etc. Supplementing the qualitative analysis, this review also provides a quantitative bibliometrics study and evaluates global perspectives on PN/AMX research published during the past 22 years. Finally, general trends in the development of PN/AMX research are summarized with the aim of conveying potential future trajectories. The current review offers a valuable orientation and global overview for scientists, engineers, readers and decision makers presently focusing on PN/AMX processes.


Assuntos
Compostos de Amônio/análise , Bactérias/metabolismo , Reatores Biológicos/microbiologia , Esgotos/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Bibliometria , Nitrogênio/análise , Oxirredução , Esgotos/microbiologia , Glutamato de Sódio/análise
5.
J Environ Manage ; 253: 109691, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630062

RESUMO

To investigate the effect of the organic loading rate (OLR) on anaerobic treatment of monosodium glutamate (MSG) wastewater, a lab-scale up-flow anaerobic blanket (UASB) reactor was continuously operated over a 222-day period. The overall performances of COD removal and methane recovery initially exhibited an increase and subsequently decreased when the OLR was increased from 1 g-COD/L/d to 24 g-COD/L/d. At the optimal OLR of 8 g-COD/L/d, superior performance was obtained with a maximum COD removal efficiency of 97%, a methane production rate of 2.3 L/L/d, and specific methanogenic activity of 86 mg-CH4/g-VSS/d (feeding on glutamate), with superior characteristics of sludge in VSS concentration, average diameter of granules, and settling velocity. According to the results of the specific methanogenic activity, the methanogenic pathway was more inclined to pass through acetate than through hydrogen. Methanosarcina instead of Methanosaeta, with Methanobacterium and greatly increased Firmicutes, dominated in the UASB reactor after long term operation. These results support that the OLR had a substantial effect on both the treatment and energy recovery efficiency of MSG wastewater as well as on microbial community variations in the UASB reactor.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Esgotos , Anaerobiose , Reatores Biológicos , Metano , Glutamato de Sódio , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias
6.
J Food Sci ; 84(11): 3275-3283, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602667

RESUMO

This research aimed to compare the effects of monosodium glutamate (MSG) and its alternatives on sensory characteristics of chicken soup. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis was carried out to quantify umami substances in potential MSG alternatives. Two mushroom extracts (CE and MC), one tomato extract (TC), and one yeast extract (YE) powders were selected due to their high equivalent umami concentration (EUC). These extracts together with MSG were then applied individually at four different levels (CE, MC, TC, MSG: 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.4%; YE: 0.0125%, 0.025%, 0.05%, 0.1%) in chicken soup in order to compare their impact on major sensory attributes using the degree of difference from control (DODC) test. Our results showed that all four extracts at all the usage levels exhibited an enhancement effect on the overall flavor, meaty flavor, saltiness, and umami taste. The extent of enhancement depended on the type of the alternative and its usage level. Higher levels of MSG alternatives (except YE) suppressed the chicken flavor. YE had similar enhancement effects as MSG on umami and salty tastes already at lower usage levels. At the lowest concentration, TC showed a stronger enhancement effect than MSG, but its effect on most attributes decreased as the usage dose increased. Compared to CE, the other mushroom extract MC resembled MSG at most levels. Overall, the closest synergistic effect in chicken soup was noted with 0.1% MSG, 0.1% MC, and 0.025% YE. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This study compared the enhancement effects of MSG and selected alternatives in chicken soup. Results will help food manufacturers who would like to replace MSG with natural umami substances in soup products to enhance flavor and reduce sodium chloride.


Assuntos
Agaricales/química , Aromatizantes/análise , Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Glutamato de Sódio/análise , Animais , Galinhas , Humanos , Cloreto de Sódio/análise , Paladar
7.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 593, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533812

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to observe the effects of chronic dosing with monosodium glutamate on mortality, fertility, major organ functions and histology in albino Wistar rats. RESULTS: 6 male and 6 female rats (age 6 weeks) were bred in a cage, feeding on standard growers' mash, with monosodium glutamate added (120 mg/kg/day). 12 corresponding breeding rats (on standard feed without MSG) were controls. Chronic dosing with monosodium glutamate in albino Wistar rats (at a dose consistent with the human ADI) led to increased mortality, fertility impairment, and significant changes in major organ function tests and histology. 23 deaths were recorded in the rats fed with MSG additive, while mortality was zero in the control animals. Fertility was lower in rats on MSG (48 births) than in controls (117 births). The weight gain of the MSG rats was higher than in controls. Biochemical parameters and organ histology remained normal in control animals. In MSG-treated rats however, liver/renal function tests, fasting serum cholesterol and triglyceride, serum uric acid showed a significant rise at trimestrial time-points. Histology showed mild portal inflammation in MSG rats, with periglomerular fibrosis and interstitial nephritis in two rats, at 6-12 months.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutamato de Sódio/farmacologia , Animais , Feminino , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Rim/patologia , Rim/fisiopatologia , Testes de Função Renal , Fígado/patologia , Fígado/fisiopatologia , Testes de Função Hepática , Masculino , Ratos Wistar , Glutamato de Sódio/administração & dosagem
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31430891

RESUMO

This study examines whether students' experience in a food safety class affected their responses to the monosodium glutamate (MSG) issue and to message framing. We differentiated students into two groups depending on their involvement in a food safety class. The data were collected through in-class surveys in South Korea. A structural equation model was used where the dependent variable was students' intention to avoid MSG; the mediating variables were knowledge, trust, attitude, and risk perception; and the exogenous variable was class experience. A difference-in-differences scheme was used to analyze the interaction between class experience and message frame. Empirical results show that students who took the class had relatively more knowledge of MSG along with lower risk perceptions or fears of MSG and thus a reduced intention to avoid it. The class experience also affected their trust in overall food safety in the domestic market as well as in food-related institutions and groups. Students showed sensitivity to message framing, although the sensitivity did not statistically differ by students' class experience status. Our results imply that cultivating students' knowledge of food additives through a food safety class enables them to respond more reasonably toward food additives.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem da Esquiva , Aditivos Alimentares/efeitos adversos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Glutamato de Sódio/efeitos adversos , Estudantes/psicologia , Medo , Feminino , Humanos , Intenção , Masculino , República da Coreia , Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Confiança , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 29(11): 1745-1748, 2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434366

RESUMO

Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) plays important roles in host physiology. However, the effects of GABA are greatly restricted due to its low bioavailability in the human body. Here, a high acid-tolerance GABA-producing strain, Lactobacillus brevis Bmb5, was isolated from kimchi. Bmb5 converted glutamate to GABA (7.23 ± 0.68 µg/µl) at a rate of 72.3%. The expression of gadB gene, encoding the enzyme involved in the decarboxylation of glutamate to GABA, was decreased upon incubation. Our findings indicate GABA production in Bmb5 is not directly correlated with gadB gene expression, providing new insight into the mechanisms underlying GABA production in Lactobacillus.


Assuntos
Lactobacillus brevis/metabolismo , Glutamato de Sódio/metabolismo , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/metabolismo , Ácidos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Expressão Gênica , Glutamato Descarboxilase/genética , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Lactobacillus brevis/enzimologia , Lactobacillus brevis/genética , Lactobacillus brevis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética
10.
Niger J Physiol Sci ; 34(1): 11-16, 2019 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31449266

RESUMO

Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a widely-consumed taste enhancer which has been implicated in the aetiology of renal and hepatic dysfunction in adults and their offspring. There is increasing evidence on the therapeutic properties of Coconut Water (CW) in kidney and liver disorders. This study investigated the effects of CW on renal and hepatic functions in offspring of MSG-fed dams. Twelve female Wistar rats (120 - 140 g) were grouped into four as follows; Control (10 ml/Kg distilled water), MSG (0.08 mg/Kg), CW (10 ml/Kg) and MSG+CW. Treatments were given orally daily commencing two weeks prior to mating, throughout mating and gestation until parturition. All dams received standard rodent diet and drinking water ad libitum throughout the study. After weaning on Post-Natal Day (PND) 28, serum was obtained from offspring for assay of liver and renal function. Histological analysis of the livers and kidneys were performed on both dams and offspring. There was no significant difference in liver enzymes, urea, creatinine and albumin levels amongst the offspring on PND 28. However, liver and kidney sections from MSG dams and their offspring showed early degenerative changes which were not evident in renal and hepatic tissues from CW and MSG+CW dams and offspring. These observations suggest that coconut water protects against monosodium glutamate-induced renal and hepatic dysfunction in dams and offspring.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Cocos , Aromatizantes/toxicidade , Nefropatias/induzido quimicamente , Nefropatias/prevenção & controle , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/prevenção & controle , Glutamato de Sódio/toxicidade , Animais , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Feminino , Aromatizantes/administração & dosagem , Nefropatias/metabolismo , Masculino , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Glutamato de Sódio/administração & dosagem
11.
J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 29(6): 933-943, 2019 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154752

RESUMO

Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-producing strains were isolated from four edible insects and subjected to 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Among the four GABA-producing bacteria, Enterococcus avium JS-N6B4 exhibited the highest GABA-production, while cultivation temperature, initial pH, aerobic condition, and mono-sodium glutamate (MSG) feeding were found to be the key factors affecting GABA production rate. The culture condition was optimized in terms of glucose, yeast extract, and MSG concentrations using response surface methodology (RSM). GABA production up to 16.64 g/l was obtained under the conditions of 7 g/l glucose, 45 g/l yeast extract, and 62 g/l MSG through the optimization of medium composition by RSM. Experimental GABA production was 13.68 g/l, which was close to the predicted value (16.64 g/l) calculated from the analysis of variance, and 2.79-fold higher than the production achieved with basic medium. Therefore, GABA-producing strains may help improve the GABA production in edible insects, and provide a new approach to the use of edible insects as effective food biomaterials.


Assuntos
Enterococcus/metabolismo , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Insetos/microbiologia , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/biossíntese , Animais , Meios de Cultura/química , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Enterococcus/classificação , Enterococcus/genética , Enterococcus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Nutrientes/química , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Glutamato de Sódio/química , Glutamato de Sódio/metabolismo , Temperatura Ambiente
12.
Regul Toxicol Pharmacol ; 107: 104399, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152859

RESUMO

In response to the lack of authenticated mutagenicity/genotoxicity studies on MSG monohydrate, a series of genotoxicity studies conducted under GLP and according to globally accepted test guidelines (e.g., OECD) was performed. A bacterial reverse mutation test using Salmonella typhimurium (TA100, TA1535, TA98 and TA1537) and Escherichia coli (WP2 uvrA) at concentrations up to 5000 µg/plate, an in vitro chromosomal aberration test in CHL/IU cells at concentrations up to 10 mmol/L (1.9 mg/mL), a mouse lymphoma tk assay at concentrations up to 10 mmol/L (1.9 mg/mL), an in vitro micronucleus test in human peripheral blood lymphocytes at concentrations up to 10 mmol/L (1871 µg/mL), and an in vivo micronucleus test in bone marrow of rats that were gavaged with up to 2000 mg/kg bw were investigated. MSG monohydrate did not cause mutagenicity in any bacterial strain, did not induce chromosomal aberrations in CHL/IU cells or gene mutation in mouse lymphoma cells, was not clastogenic or aneugenic to human lymphocytes, and did not induce micronuclei in erythrocytes of rats when compared with vehicle controls. These results show that MSG is not mutagenic or genotoxic under the study conditions.


Assuntos
Aromatizantes/toxicidade , Glutamato de Sódio/toxicidade , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Cricetulus , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/genética , Humanos , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Testes de Mutagenicidade , Ratos Wistar , Salmonella typhimurium/efeitos dos fármacos , Salmonella typhimurium/genética
13.
Curr Pharm Biotechnol ; 20(7): 542-550, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31113341

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are robustly used biomedicine. Moreover, no study has been conducted to explore the consequence of green synthesis of ZnO NPs with Camellia sinensis (green tea extract, GTE) on kidneys of rats treated with monosodium glutamate (MSG). METHODS: Therefore, the objective of the research was designed to explore the possible defensive effect of GTE/ZnO NPs against MSG-induced renal stress investigated at redox and histopathological points. RESULTS: The levels of urea and creatinine increased as the effect of a high dose of MSG, in addition, the myeloperoxidase and xanthine oxidase activates were elevated significantly with the high dose of MSG. The levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants (uric acid, glutathione, and thiol) were decreased sharply in MSG-treated rats as compared to the normal group. CONCLUSION: The data displayed that GTE/ZnO NPs reduced the effects of MSG significantly by reduction of the level peroxidation and enhancement intracellular antioxidant. These biochemical findings were supported by histopathology evaluation, which showed minor morphological changes in the kidneys of rats.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Camellia sinensis/química , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas/química , Glutamato de Sódio/toxicidade , Óxido de Zinco/farmacologia , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glutationa/metabolismo , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Testes de Função Renal , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ratos Wistar , Glutamato de Sódio/metabolismo , Óxido de Zinco/química
14.
Eur. j. anat ; 23(3): 215-221, mayo 2019. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-182982

RESUMO

Monosodium glutamate (MSG), known as AJI-NO-MOTO, is the sodium salt of glutamic acid. Glutamate is one of the most common amino acids found in nature, and is the main component of many proteins and peptides of most tissues. Glutamate is also produced in the body and plays an essential role in human metabolism. MSG is commonly used as a flavor enhancer. Lycopene (LPN) is a member of carotenoids, and it is an antioxidant substance found in tomato, and in other red fruits, and vegetables. The present study aimed to investigate the potential protective effects of LPN on MSG-induced nephrotoxicity in adult male albino rats. 40 adult male albino rats were divided into 4 groups with 10 rats in each group. Group I (control group). Group ІІ animals received lycopene orally in a dose of 4 mg/kg b.w. per day for 14 days. Group ІІI animals received MSG subcutaneously in a dose of 4 mg/g b.w. per day for 14 days. Group ІV animals received MSG Plus LPN. At the end of the experiment, kidney specimens were processed for histopathological, immunohistochemistry and biochemical studies. Administration of lycopene decreased elevated serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and immunoexpression of the proapoptotic protein (Bax), induced by MSG. It increased the immunoexpression of the antiapoptotic protein (Bcl2). It also ameliorated the morphological changes induced by MSG. MSG has toxic effects on the kidneys as indicated by biochemical, histological and immunohistochemical results. Lycopene has protective effects against MSG-nephrotoxicity by reducing elevated serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, kidney damage, and apoptosis


No disponible


Assuntos
Animais , Ratos , Licopeno/administração & dosagem , Glutamato de Sódio/toxicidade , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Córtex Renal/anatomia & histologia , Imuno-Histoquímica , Fígado/lesões , Projetos de Pesquisa , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Fotomicrografia , Peso Corporal
15.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2019: 9417498, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31015892

RESUMO

Syzygium cumini is used worldwide for the treatment of metabolic syndrome-associated outcomes. Previously, we described the antihypertriglyceridemic effect of the hydroethanolic extract of S. cumini leaf (HESc) in monosodium L-glutamate- (MSG-) induced obese rats. This study sought to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the antihypertriglyceridemic effect of HESc in MSG-obese rats. Newborn male Wistar rats were injected subcutaneously with MSG (4.0 g/kg/day, obese group) or saline 1.25% (1.0 mL/kg/day, lean group), from 2nd through 10th postnatal day. At 8 weeks old, obese rats started to be orally treated with HESc (0.5 or 1.0 g/kg/day, n = 7) or saline 0.9% (1 mL/kg/day, n = 7). Lean rats received saline solution (1 mL/kg/day, n = 7). Upon 8-week treatment, animals were euthanized for blood and tissue collection. Another set of adult nonobese Wistar rats was used for the assessment of HESc acute effects on Triton WR1339-induced hypertriglyceridemia. HESc reduced weight gain, as well as adipose tissue fat pads, without altering food intake of obese rats. HESc restored fasting serum glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and free fatty acids, as well as insulin sensitivity, to levels similar to lean rats. Additionally, HESc halved the triglyceride content into very low-density lipoprotein particles, as well as healed liver steatosis, in obese rats. Hepatic protein expression of the endoplasmic reticulum chaperone GRP94 was decreased by HESc, which also downregulated the hepatic triglyceride secretion pathway by reducing the splicing of X-box binding protein 1 (XBP-1s), as well as protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) translational levels. This action was further corroborated by the acute inhibitory effect of HESc on triglyceride accumulation on Triton WR1339-treated rats. Our data support the downregulation of the XBP-1s/PDI/MTP axis in the liver of MSG-obese rats as a novel feasible mechanism for the antihypertriglyceridemic effect promoted by the polyphenolic phytocomplex present in S. cumini leaf.


Assuntos
Regulação para Baixo , Hipertrigliceridemia/tratamento farmacológico , Fígado/metabolismo , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Folhas de Planta/química , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Syzygium/química , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado Gorduroso/sangue , Fígado Gorduroso/tratamento farmacológico , Fígado Gorduroso/fisiopatologia , Glicolipídeos/sangue , Hipertrigliceridemia/sangue , Hipertrigliceridemia/fisiopatologia , Lipoproteínas VLDL/sangue , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/patologia , Fígado/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polifenóis/química , Isomerases de Dissulfetos de Proteínas/metabolismo , Ratos Wistar , Glutamato de Sódio , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Proteína 1 de Ligação a X-Box/metabolismo
16.
Curr Pharm Biotechnol ; 20(6): 465-475, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30961481

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are increasingly utilized in both industrial and medical applications. Therefore, the study was aimed to investigate the effect of green nanoparticle complex (green tea extract/zinc oxide nanoparticles complex, GTE/ZnO NPs) on oxidative stress induced by monosodium glutamate (MSG) on the liver of rats. METHODS: Wistar male rats (n=64) weighing between 200-250 g were divided randomly into eight groups: control group was given physiological saline (1 mg/kg), two groups were treated with two different doses of MSG (MSG-LD, MSG-HD; 6 and 17.5 mg/Kg, respectively), GTE was given 1 mg/mL, 5th group was treated with ZnO NPs and 6th group was treated with GTE/ZnO NPs complex while, 7th and 8th groups were treated with MSG-LD + GTE/ZnO NPs complex and MSG-HD + GTE/ZnO NPs complex, respectively. All substances were given orally for 30 consecutive days. At the end of the study, the liver was homogenized for measurement of the oxidative stress status and anti-inflammatory biomarkers as well as histological and transmission alternations. RESULTS: Results showed that the antioxidant enzymes activity and glutathione level were significantly decreased in MSG groups than control in a dose-dependent manner. Conversely, the malondialdehyde and inflammatory cytokines levels were significantly increased in MSG groups than the control group. The liver indicated no evidence of alteration in oxidative status, anti-inflammatory and morphological parameters in GTE, ZnO NPs and GTE/ZnO NPs complex groups. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, MSG at both doses caused oxidative stress and inflammation on liver after 28 days of exposure that supported histological analysis and transmission view of hepatic parenchyma. GTE/ZnO NPs act as partial hepato-protective against MSG.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis/química , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Glutamato de Sódio/toxicidade , Óxido de Zinco/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Citocinas/metabolismo , Fígado/enzimologia , Fígado/ultraestrutura , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/imunologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
17.
Mol Cancer Ther ; 18(4): 780-787, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30824607

RESUMO

To provide a better understanding of the pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics relationships of antibody-based drugs, we analyzed several chimeric and humanized monoclonal antibodies or antibody-drug conjugates (ADC) for PK and efficacy among four strains of mice. Notably, antibodies and ADCs displayed a dose-dependent drug disposition profile in the plasma of NSG mice. The increased clearance rate in NSG mice resulted in the reduction of antitumor activity of ADCs. Furthermore, we identified that the abnormal clearance was mediated by Fc-FcγR interaction by comparing antibodies that lack FcγR binding capacity. We also found a high percentage of FcγR-expressing macrophages in the bone marrow, spleen, and liver of NSG mice, which may be responsible for the abnormal distribution of antibodies. Overall, these findings suggest that preclinical evaluation of efficacy and pharmacokinetics of antibodies and ADCs need to consider mouse strain-induced variations.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Imunoconjugados/uso terapêutico , Linfoma Anaplásico de Células Grandes/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores de IgG/metabolismo , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Meia-Vida , Humanos , Imunoconjugados/metabolismo , Antígeno Ki-1/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos Nus , Camundongos SCID , Células Mieloides/imunologia , Células Mieloides/metabolismo , Glutamato de Sódio/farmacologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Carga Tumoral , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(5)2019 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30836679

RESUMO

In clinical practice, there are patients with a combination of metabolic syndrome (MS) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The pathological mechanisms linking MS and COPD are largely unknown. It remains unclear whether the effect of MS (possible obesity) has a major impact on the progression of COPD. This complicates the development of effective approaches for the treatment of patients with a diagnosis of MS and COPD. Experiments were performed on female C57BL/6 mice. Introduction of monosodium glutamate and extract of cigarette smoke was modeled to simulate the combined pathology of lipid disorders and emphysema. Biological effects of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and GLP-1 on endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) in vitro and in vivo were evaluated. Histological, immunohistochemical methods, biochemical methods, cytometric analysis of markers identifying EPC were used in the study. The CD31⁺ endothelial cells in vitro evaluation was produced by Flow Cytometry and Image Processing of each well with a Cytation™ 3. GLP-1 reduces the area of emphysema and increases the number of CD31⁺ endothelial cells in the lungs of mice in conditions of dyslipidemia and damage to alveolar tissue of cigarette smoke extract. The regenerative effects of GLP-1 are caused by a decrease in inflammation, a positive effect on lipid metabolism and glucose metabolism. EPC are proposed as pathogenetic and diagnostic markers of endothelial disorders in combination of MS with COPD. Based on GLP-1, it is proposed to create a drug to stimulate the regeneration of endothelium damaged in MS and COPD.


Assuntos
Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/genética , Síndrome Metabólica/genética , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Enfisema Pulmonar/genética , Animais , Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Células Progenitoras Endoteliais/metabolismo , Citometria de Fluxo , Glucose/metabolismo , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/patologia , Síndrome Metabólica/induzido quimicamente , Síndrome Metabólica/diagnóstico , Síndrome Metabólica/tratamento farmacológico , Camundongos , Molécula-1 de Adesão Celular Endotelial a Plaquetas/genética , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/induzido quimicamente , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Enfisema Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Enfisema Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Enfisema Pulmonar/patologia , Glutamato de Sódio/toxicidade
19.
Syst Biol Reprod Med ; 65(3): 194-204, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30773941

RESUMO

Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is widely used in food preparation industry and has been consumed regularly. Previous studies had reported on effects of MSG when given at extremely high dosages, the results are not applicable to human equivalent intake. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of MSG on sperm quality and changes in reproductive organs of adult male rats when taken at average human daily intake (ADI). Twenty-four adult male rats were randomly assigned into three groups; NC (Normal control), MSG60 and MSG120 where MSG was given orally at 60 mg/kg and 120 mg/kg to each respective group. All treatments were conducted for 28 consecutive days. MSG at estimated ADI of 120 mg/kg body weight resulted in a significant drop in sperm quality (p < 0.05) when compared to both control and MSG60 groups. A significant decrease in the weight of reproductive organs was also apparent (p < 0.05). Moreover, oxidative status evaluation showed that treatment of MSG induces oxidative stress in the testis, more severely at a dose of 120 mg/kg body weight. These findings are supported by alterations in the observed histology of reproductive organs. This study shows that an intake dose of 120 mg/kg body weight MSG could cause significant damage to the reproductive system. Abbreviations: MSG: Monosodium glutamate; ADI: average daily intake; PUFA: polyunsaturated fatty acid; FSH: follicle stimulating hormone; LH: luteinizing hormone; TCA: tricarbocylic acid; PF: prostatic fluid.


Assuntos
Aromatizantes/efeitos adversos , Genitália Masculina/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutamato de Sódio/efeitos adversos , Administração Oral , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Hormônios/sangue , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Toxicidade
20.
Food Funct ; 10(3): 1280-1287, 2019 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30801094

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine the interaction between the human umami receptor hT1R1 and a ligand while avoiding the cross-talk among various signal pathways in cells. The hT1R1 was modified and mounted onto a signal amplification system on a glassy carbon electrode surface, and the response current towards four umami ligands (sodium glutamate (MSG), disodium inosinate (IMP), disodium guanylate (GMP), and disodium succinate (SUC)) was measured. The allosteric constants of the receptor-ligand interaction were calculated by the method of sensing kinetics, and the results indicated that the sensing ability of hT1R1 towards the abovementioned four ligands was as follows: GMP > MSG > IMP > SUC. After the analysis of the molecular structure and simulation through the molecular docking model, we have found that hT1R1 is essentially a recognition receptor for the nitrogen signal in the body, and it may recognize the umami substance through its amino group. The new research method developed in this study shows promising application in the mechanism study of signal transduction and drug screening.


Assuntos
Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/metabolismo , Paladar/fisiologia , Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/instrumentação , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Ouro/química , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Proteica , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/genética , Pesquisa , Glutamato de Sódio
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