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1.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2022: 1098892, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35103093

RESUMO

Excessive lipid accumulation and high oxidative stress have become a serious health and economic problem in the pig industry. Fatness characteristics are crucial in pig production since they are closely related to meat quality. The gut microbiome is well acknowledged as a key element in fat deposition. But the link between gut microbiota and fat accumulation in pigs remains elusive. To examine whether there is a link between pigs' gut microbiome, lipogenic properties, and oxidative stress, we selected 5 high-fat pigs and 5 low-fat pigs from 60 250-day-old Jinhua pigs in the present study and collected the colon content, serum sample, and liver and abdominal fat segments from each pig for metagenomic analysis, the oxidative stress assay, and RT-qPCR analysis, respectively. The backfat thickness and fat content of the longissimus dorsi muscle were considerably higher in the high-fat pigs than in the low-fat pigs (P < 0.05). An obvious difference in GSH-Px and MDA in the serum between the high- and low-fat pigs was observed. After RT-qPCR analysis, we found the gene expression of ACC1 and SREBP1 in the liver and FAS, PPARγ, and LPL in the abdominal fat were significantly higher in high-fat pigs than in low-fat pigs (P < 0.05). Additionally, metagenomic sequencing revealed that high-fat pigs had a higher abundance of Archaeal species with methanogenesis functions, leading to more-efficient fat deposition, while low-fat pigs had higher abundances of butyrate-producing bacteria species that improved the formation of SCFAs, especially butyrate, thus alleviating fat deposition in pigs. Furthermore, a total of 17 CAZyme families were identified to give significant enrichments in different fat phenotypes of pigs. This study would provide a detailed understanding of how the gut microbiome influences fat deposition in pigs, as well as a hint for improving growth performance and fatness traits by manipulating the gut microbiome.


Assuntos
Gordura Abdominal/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Gordura Abdominal/patologia , Acetil-CoA Carboxilase/genética , Acetil-CoA Carboxilase/metabolismo , Animais , Archaea/genética , Archaea/isolamento & purificação , Archaea/metabolismo , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Colo/metabolismo , Colo/microbiologia , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/sangue , Fígado/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/sangue , Metagenômica , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , PPAR gama/genética , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Suínos
2.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol ; 215: 106022, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34774723

RESUMO

Vitamin D3 (VD3) deficiency has been associated with increased risk for cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, a highly incident malignant neoplasia worldwide. On the other hand, VD3 supplementation has shown some beneficial effects in clinical studies and rodent models of chronic liver disease. However, preventive effects of dietary VD3 supplementation in cirrhosis-associated hepatocarcinogenesis is still unknow. To investigate this purpose, male Wistar rats submitted to a combined diethylnitrosamine- and thioacetamide-induced model were concomitantly supplemented with VD3 (5,000 and 10,000 IU/kg diet) for 25 weeks. Liver samples were collected for histological, biochemical and molecular analysis. Serum samples were used to measure 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and alanine aminotransferase levels. Both VD3 interventions decreased hepatic collagen deposition and pro-inflammatory p65 protein levels, while increased hepatic antioxidant catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities and serum 25(OH)D, without a clear dose-response effect. Nonetheless, only the highest concentration of VD3 increased hepatic protein levels of VD receptor, while decreased the number of large preneoplastic glutathione-S-transferase- (>0.5 mm²) and keratin 8/18-positive lesions, as well the multiplicity of hepatocellular adenomas. Moreover, this intervention increased hepatic antioxidant Nrf2 protein levels and glutathione-S-transferase activity. In summary, dietary VD3 supplementation - in special the highest intervention - showed antifibrotic and antineoplastic properties in chemically-induced cirrhosis-associated hepatocarcinogenesis. The positive modulation of Nrf2 antioxidant axis may be mechanistically involved with these beneficial effects, and may guide future clinical studies.


Assuntos
Adenoma de Células Hepáticas/prevenção & controle , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/prevenção & controle , Suplementos Nutricionais , Cirrose Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/prevenção & controle , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Adenoma de Células Hepáticas/induzido quimicamente , Adenoma de Células Hepáticas/metabolismo , Adenoma de Células Hepáticas/patologia , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Alanina Transaminase/genética , Animais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/induzido quimicamente , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Catalase/sangue , Catalase/genética , Quimioprevenção/métodos , Colágeno/genética , Colágeno/metabolismo , Dietilnitrosamina/toxicidade , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutationa Peroxidase/sangue , Glutationa Peroxidase/genética , Glutationa Transferase/genética , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Queratinas/genética , Queratinas/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Cirrose Hepática/induzido quimicamente , Cirrose Hepática/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Masculino , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte Nucleocitoplasmático/genética , Proteínas de Transporte Nucleocitoplasmático/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Receptores de Calcitriol/genética , Receptores de Calcitriol/metabolismo , Tioacetamida/toxicidade , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Vitamina D/sangue
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(23)2021 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34884891

RESUMO

The essential trace element selenium (Se) is needed for the biosynthesis of selenocysteine-containing selenoproteins, including the secreted enzyme glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPX3) and the Se-transporter selenoprotein P (SELENOP). Both are found in blood and thyroid colloid, where they serve protective functions. Serum SELENOP derives mainly from hepatocytes, whereas the kidney contributes most serum GPX3. Studies using transgenic mice indicated that renal GPX3 biosynthesis depends on Se supply by hepatic SELENOP, which is produced in protein variants with varying Se contents. Low Se status is an established risk factor for autoimmune thyroid disease, and thyroid autoimmunity generates novel autoantigens. We hypothesized that natural autoantibodies to SELENOP are prevalent in thyroid patients, impair Se transport, and negatively affect GPX3 biosynthesis. Using a newly established quantitative immunoassay, SELENOP autoantibodies were particularly prevalent in Hashimoto's thyroiditis as compared with healthy control subjects (6.6% versus 0.3%). Serum samples rich in SELENOP autoantibodies displayed relatively high total Se and SELENOP concentrations in comparison with autoantibody-negative samples ([Se]; 85.3 vs. 77.1 µg/L, p = 0.0178, and [SELENOP]; 5.1 vs. 3.5 mg/L, p = 0.001), while GPX3 activity was low and correlated inversely to SELENOP autoantibody concentrations. In renal cells in culture, antibodies to SELENOP inhibited Se uptake. Our results indicate an impairment of SELENOP-dependent Se transport by natural SELENOP autoantibodies, suggesting that the characterization of health risk from Se deficiency may need to include autoimmunity to SELENOP as additional biomarker of Se status.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/sangue , Doença de Hashimoto/imunologia , Selênio/sangue , Selenoproteína P/imunologia , Adulto , Animais , Autoimunidade , Feminino , Glutationa Peroxidase/sangue , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Doença de Hashimoto/sangue , Doença de Hashimoto/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
4.
Nutrients ; 13(11)2021 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34836325

RESUMO

The imbalance of high oxidative stress and low antioxidant capacities is thought to be a significant cause of the development and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the impact of oxidative stress, glutathione (GSH), and its related antioxidant enzymes on the recurrence of HCC has not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to compare the changes to oxidative stress and GSH-related antioxidant capacities before and after tumor resection in patients with HCC recurrence and non-recurrence. We also evaluated the prognostic significance of GSH and its related enzymes in HCC recurrence. This was a cross-sectional and follow-up study. Ninety-two HCC patients who were going to receive tumor resection were recruited. We followed patients' recurrence and survival status until the end of the study, and then assigned patients into the recurrent or the non-recurrent group. The tumor recurrence rate was 52.2% during the median follow-up period of 3.0 years. Patients had significantly lower plasma malondialdehyde level, but significantly or slightly higher levels of GSH, glutathione disulfide, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR) activities after tumor resection compared to the respective levels before tumor resection in both recurrent and non-recurrent groups. GSH level in HCC tissue was significantly higher than that in adjacent normal tissue in both recurrent and non-recurrent patients. Decreased plasma GPx (HR = 0.995, p = 0.01) and GR (HR = 0.98, p = 0.04) activities before tumor resection, and the increased change of GPx (post-pre-resection) (HR = 1.004, p = 0.03) activity were significantly associated with the recurrence of HCC. These findings suggest there might be a possible application of GPx or GR as therapeutic targets for reducing HCC recurrence.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/sangue , Glutationa/sangue , Neoplasias Hepáticas/sangue , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/epidemiologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Idoso , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/cirurgia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Dissulfeto de Glutationa/sangue , Glutationa Peroxidase/sangue , Glutationa Redutase/sangue , Hepatectomia , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/cirurgia , Masculino , Malondialdeído/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/etiologia , Capacidade de Absorbância de Radicais de Oxigênio , Período Pós-Operatório , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico
5.
Acta Vet Hung ; 69(3): 256-265, 2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34491901

RESUMO

A severe form of recurrent exertional rhabdomyolysis occurs enzootically in a well-defined region of Transylvania, Harghita county. At the highest lying two settlements (more than 800 m above sea level), the prevalence of equine rhabdomyolysis is between 17 and 23%, while in the neighbouring villages in the valley it is less than 2%. The objective of our study was to clarify the role of selenium and vitamin E in the high prevalence of rhabdomyolysis in that region. Soil and hay samples were collected from each area to evaluate mineral content. Ten horses from the non-affected and 20 horses from the affected area were tested for serum selenium, vitamin E, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), muscle enzymes, lactate and electrolytes. Hay samples collected from the affected area had lower selenium content. Horses in the affected regions had significantly lower serum selenium (P = 0.006) and GSH-Px levels than animals living in the non-affected regions. A good correlation between erythrocyte GSH-Px and serum selenium concentration could be demonstrated (r = 0.777, P < 0.001). Serum vitamin E levels were low independently of the origin of the horse. Based on our results, selenium deficiency possibly has a role in the Transylvanian enzootic equine recurrent rhabdomyolysis syndrome.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos , Rabdomiólise , Selênio , Vitamina E , Animais , Glutationa Peroxidase/sangue , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Cavalos , Rabdomiólise/epidemiologia , Rabdomiólise/veterinária , Romênia/epidemiologia , Selênio/sangue , Vitamina E/sangue
6.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2021: 8864905, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34381561

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) as one the most common cancer type is associated with oxidative stress. Surgery is the only curative modality for early-stage CRC. The aim of this study was to evaluate the oxidative damage biomarkers as well as enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants in patients with CRC before and after tumor resection and in healthy controls. 60 patients with stage I/II colorectal adenocarcinoma and 43 healthy controls were recruited in this study. We measured plasma levels of oxidative damage biomarkers, including advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), advanced glycation end products (AGEs), malondialdehyde (MDA), and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) at baseline and after tumor removal. We also evaluated the plasma activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) as enzymatic antioxidants and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay for nonenzymatic antioxidant capacity. Patients with CRC had significantly higher AGE, AOPP, MDA, and ox-LDL and also FRAP levels and higher SOD and GPx and lower CAT activity levels compared to healthy controls (p < 0.05). We did not observe any statistically significant correlation between redox biomarkers and the size and stage of the tumor. AGEs (72.49 ± 4.7 vs. 67.93 ± 8.8, p < 0.001), AOPP (137.64 ± 21.9 vs. 119.08 ± 33.1, p < 0.001), MDA (3.56 ± 0.30 vs. 3.05 ± 0.33, p < 0.001), and ox-LDL (19.78 ± 0.97 vs. 16.94 ± 1.02, p < 0.001) concentrations reduced significantly after tumor removal. The largest effect sizes were found in ox-LDL (d = -2.853, 95% CI 2.50-3.19) and MDA (d = -1.617, 95% CI 0.43-0.57). Serum FRAP levels (1097.5 ± 156.7 vs. 1239.3 ± 290, p < 0.001) and CAT (2.34 ± 0.34 vs. 2.63 ± 0.38, p < 0.001), GPx (102.37 ± 6.58 vs. 108.03 ± 6.95, p < 0.001), and SOD (5.13 ± 0.39 vs. 5.53 ± 0.31, p < 0.001) activity levels increased significantly after surgery. The largest effect sizes among antioxidants were seen in SOD (d = 1.135, 95% CI 0.46-0.34) and GPx (d = 0.836, 95% CI 0.35-0.23). This study indicated that patients with colorectal cancer had higher levels of oxidative stress and antioxidant activity compared to healthy controls. After surgical resection of tumor, we observed a substantial improvement in redox homeostasis.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/sangue , Neoplasias Colorretais/sangue , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos de Citorredução/efeitos adversos , Homeostase , Estresse Oxidativo , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/sangue , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adenocarcinoma/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Catalase/sangue , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/cirurgia , Feminino , Glutationa Peroxidase/sangue , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/sangue , Humanos , Lipoproteínas LDL/sangue , Masculino , Malondialdeído/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia
7.
Seizure ; 91: 278-286, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34252880

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) are assessed as oxidative stress markers to determine the impact of oxidation on the levels of GSH-Px and SOD in patients with epilepsy (PWE) and healthy controls. METHODS: A meta-analysis was completed on twenty-nine published studies. A total of 636 PWE and 665 healthy controls, 303 PWE and 191 controls, and 22 PWE and 22 controls were included to study GSH-Px levels in erythrocytes, serum and plasma, respectively. For SOD studies, there were 610 PWE and 680 controls, 464 PWE and 382 controls, and 62 PWE with 77 controls for erythrocytes, serum and plasma, respectively. RESULTS: Meta-analysis showed that the erythrocyte SOD level was significantly lower in PWE than in healthy controls (SMD =-1.96; 95% CI [-2.93, -0.99]; P<0.0001). Moreover, the meta-analysis demonstrated that in serum and plasma, SOD levels in PWE were significantly lower than those in healthy controls (SMD =-1.47; 95% CI [-2.47, -0.48]; P<0.0001). Erythrocyte GSH-Px levels had a tendency to decrease in PWE compared with healthy controls (SMD =-0.31; 95% CI [-1.48, 0.85]; P=0.598), but the results showed no significant difference. CONCLUSION: Our results showed reduced SOD levels in erythrocytes, serum and plasma in PWE, which may be an indicator of oxidative damage in epilepsy. This is the first meta-analysis of circulating GSH-Px and SOD levels in PWE and healthy controls.


Assuntos
Epilepsia , Glutationa Peroxidase/sangue , Superóxido Dismutase/sangue , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Estresse Oxidativo
8.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34279378

RESUMO

The aim of the study is to evaluate oxidant-antioxidant balance as well as lysosomal and anti-protease activities in ovarian cancer since it has been emphasized that the crucial inducing factor of carcinogenesis may be reactive oxygen/nitrogen species or, more precisely, oxidative stress-induced inflammation. The study involved 15 women with ovarian cancer, aged 59.9 ± 7.8 years, and 9 healthy women aged 56.3 ± 4.3 years (controls). The study material was venous blood collected from fasting subjects. In erythrocytes, the activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase, as well as concentrations of conjugated dienes (CDs) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), were investigated. CD, TBARS, and vitamins A and E plasma concentrations were also determined. Moreover, total antioxidant capacity and concentrations of 4-hydroxynonenal adducts and 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α, as well as activities of acid phosphatase, arylsulfatase, cathepsin D, and α1-antitrypsin, were studied in serum. The vitamin E and 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α concentrations as well as arylsulfatase activity were lower in the women with cancer compared to the controls (p = 0.006, p = 0.03, p = 0.001, respectively). In contrast, cathepsin D activity was lower in the controls (p = 0.04). In the peripheral blood of the women with cancer, oxidant-antioxidant and lysosomal disturbances were observed.


Assuntos
Lisossomos/metabolismo , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/sangue , Neoplasias Ovarianas/sangue , Estresse Oxidativo , Idoso , Catalase/sangue , Catepsina D/sangue , Dinoprosta/sangue , Feminino , Glutationa Peroxidase/sangue , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/metabolismo , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Superóxido Dismutase/sangue , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/metabolismo , Vitamina A/sangue , Vitamina E/sangue
9.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol ; 213: 105954, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34298098

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present study was conducted to investigate the therapeutic effects of a potent polyphenol, fisetin, on the letrozole-induced rat model of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). METHODOLOGY: Twenty-four female Wistar rats (42 days old) were divided into four groups: control group (received carboxy methylcellulose (CMC 0.5 %)), PCOS group treated with letrozole (1 mg/kg), fisetin group received same dose of letrozole + fisetin (10 mg/kg), and metformin group received same dose of letrozole + metformin (300 mg/kg). At the end of the experiment, biochemical (glucose, lipid profile) and hormonal (insulin, testosterone, estradiol, and progesterone) parameters were analyzed. Histological examinations of ovaries were also conducted by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blotting were carried out for cytochrome P450 17A1 (CYP17A1), sirtuin-1 (SIRT1), and 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) gene expression in the ovaries. Furthermore, enzymatic activities of antioxidants including catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the ovaries were analyzed by colorimetric method. RESULTS: Letrozole administration resulted in a remarkable abnormality in biochemical and hormonal parameters. Fisetin normalized levels of glucose, lipid profile, homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), testosterone, estradiol, and progesterone. Moreover, fisetin increased expression levels of SIRT1 and AMPK, and decreased expression level of CYP17A1 in the ovaries. Additionally, fisetin showed protective effect by enhancing antioxidant activities of CAT, SOD, and GPx depleted secondary to induction of PCOS. Fisetin effects were comparable to metformin, as the standard drug used for treatment of PCOS. CONCLUSION: Our results showed that, fisetin treatment caused significant alleviating effects by restoring PCOS-induced alterations in the key genes involved in energy homeostasis and antioxidant enzymes, suggesting that it may have a key role in combating with PCOS.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Flavonóis/farmacologia , Letrozol/antagonistas & inibidores , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/sangue , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/genética , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Carboximetilcelulose Sódica/administração & dosagem , Catalase/sangue , Catalase/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Estradiol/sangue , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Glutationa Peroxidase/sangue , Glutationa Peroxidase/genética , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Letrozol/toxicidade , Metformina/farmacologia , Ovário/metabolismo , Ovário/patologia , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/sangue , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/induzido quimicamente , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/patologia , Progesterona/sangue , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Sirtuína 1/sangue , Sirtuína 1/genética , Esteroide 17-alfa-Hidroxilase/antagonistas & inibidores , Esteroide 17-alfa-Hidroxilase/sangue , Esteroide 17-alfa-Hidroxilase/genética , Superóxido Dismutase/sangue , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Testosterona/sangue
10.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 154: 112315, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34082049

RESUMO

Acrylamide has a variety of toxicities, including carcinogenicity, and can be present in food via the Maillard reaction in processing of certain foods. Previous studies have demonstrated that co-existing Maillard reaction products (MRPs) ameliorated acrylamide-induced abnormal physiological status in mice. This study is focused on the effects on hematological parameters, erythrocyte osmotic fragility, oxidative stress in plasma and liver, and contents of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in mice exposed to acrylamide and to acrylamide and MRPs derived from arginine and glucose. Acrylamide alone caused significant increases in liver indexes, erythrocyte osmotic fragility, malonaldehyde level in liver and 8-OHdG level in testis, and significant decreases in weight gain, hematological parameters, levels of glutathione, glutathione peroxidase and total superoxide dismutase in plasma. Whether MRPs and acrylamide were physically mixed or when the solution is prepared from heating the mixture of arginine, glucose and acrylamide, the presence of MRPs effectively reduced the adverse changes caused by acrylamide. These results suggest that the toxicity of acrylamide to mice can be ameliorated by MRPs, the common compositions simultaneously generated with acrylamide in food matrix.


Assuntos
Acrilamida/toxicidade , Arginina/química , Glucose/química , Reação de Maillard , 8-Hidroxi-2'-Desoxiguanosina/metabolismo , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Glutationa/sangue , Glutationa Peroxidase/sangue , Hemólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Superóxido Dismutase/sangue , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/metabolismo
11.
Toxicol Ind Health ; 37(5): 251-259, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34078187

RESUMO

This study investigated hepatic oxidative damage in rats following long-term manganese (Mn) exposure and clarified the underlying mechanisms. Forty-eight rats (SPF, male) were randomly assigned to receive low (10 mg/kg, n = 16) or high doses of Mn (50 mg/kg, n = 16) or sterilized distilled water (control group, n = 16). Rats were euthanized after 12 months, and liver Mn levels and histopathological changes were determined. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels and liver malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), nuclear factor E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and NAD(P)H quinine oxidoreductase-1 (NQO1) levels were also determined. The Mn concentration and relative liver weights were significantly higher in the high-dose Mn group than in the control and low-dose Mn exposure groups. Low-dose Mn exposure resulted in mild expansion of hepatic sinuses and intact nuclei, whereas high-dose exposure led to pathological alterations in hepatocytes. High-dose Mn treatment significantly increased AST, ALT, and MDA activities and decreased GSH-PX activity. Additionally, liver Nrf2, HO-1, and NQO1 protein expression were markedly reduced by Mn exposure. Under the study conditions, long-term low-dose Mn exposure resulted in slight pathological changes in liver structure, but high-dose Mn exposure affected both liver structure and function, which might be related to the inhibition of Nrf2 expression, suppression of the transcription of its underlying antioxidant genes, and down regulation of the corresponding proteins. Consequently, the antioxidant capacity in the rat liver was weakened.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/genética , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/fisiopatologia , Manganês/sangue , Manganês/toxicidade , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Glutationa Peroxidase/sangue , Heme Oxigenase-1/sangue , Masculino , Malondialdeído/sangue , NAD(P)H Desidrogenase (Quinona)/sangue , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
12.
BMC Nephrol ; 22(1): 162, 2021 05 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933022

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is frequently consumed as a flavor enhancer or food additive. Possible damages induced by MSG effects on some organs have been stated in experimental animal models. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effects of L-carnitine (L-ca) on the renal tissue in MSG-Induced Rats. METHODS: In this regard, 60 male rats were randomly divided into six groups (n = 10/each): 1 (Control); 2 (sham); 3 (L-carnitine 200 mg/kg b.w); 4 (MSG 3 g/kg b.w); 5 (MSG + L-carnitine 100 mg/kg); and 6 (MSG + L-carnitine 200 mg/kg). After 6 months, the rats were sacrificed, the blood sample collected and the kidneys harvested for evaluation of biochemical analytes, genes expression, and histopathological changes. RESULTS: MSG significantly increased the serum level of MDA, BUN, creatinine, uric acid and renal Caspase-9, NGAL and KIM-1 expression, but it decreased the serum activity also renal expression of SOD, catalase, GPX, and Bcl-2 expression compared to the control group. Treatment with L-ca significantly reduced the serum BUN, creatinine, uric acid and MDA level and increased catalase, GPX and SOD compared to the MSG group. However, only administration of L-ca 200 significantly decreased the caspase-9, NGAL and KIM-1; also, it increased the Bcl-2 expression in the kidney compared to the MSG group. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicated that L-carnitine had a major impact on the cell protection and might be an effective therapy in ameliorating the complications of the kidney induced by MSG via its antioxidant and anti-apoptotic properties.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Carnitina/farmacologia , Caspase 9/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutamato de Sódio/toxicidade , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Cálcio/sangue , Caspase 9/genética , Catalase/sangue , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutationa Peroxidase/sangue , Humanos , Rim/enzimologia , Rim/patologia , Masculino , Malondialdeído/sangue , Fósforo/sangue , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Superóxido Dismutase/sangue
13.
BMC Vet Res ; 17(1): 181, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933076

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As one of the most common surgeries performed in veterinary medicine, ovariohysterectomy (OHE) can induce oxidative stress in dogs. The antioxidant properties of melatonin have been confirmed in various studies. This study aimed to investigate the effects of melatonin administration on oxidative stress in dogs before and after OHE. In this study, 25 mature female intact dogs were selected and randomly divided into five equal groups: Melatonin (melatonin, no surgery), OHE (no melatonin, surgery), OHE + melatonin (melatonin, surgery), anesthesia+melatonin (melatonin, sham surgery), and control (no melatonin, no surgery) groups. Melatonin (0.3 mg/Kg/day, p.o.) was administrated to the dogs in the melatonin, OHE + melatonin, and anesthesia+melatonin groups on days - 1, 0, 1, 2, and 3 (day 0 = OHE). Blood sampling was performed on days - 1, 1, 3, and 5 of the study. Blood samples were immediately transferred to the laboratory and sera were separated and stored at - 20 °C. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), catalase (CAT) and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations were measured with commercial kits. RESULTS: The levels of SOD, GPX and CAT were significantly higher in the melatonin and anesthesia+melatonin groups compared to those of the control group at days 3 and 5. The level of antioxidant enzymes significantly decreased in the OHE group compared to that of other groups at days 3 and 5. The administration of melatonin increased the level of antioxidant enzymes in ovariohysterectomized dogs. Ovariohysterectomy significantly increased the concentration of MDA in comparison to that of other groups at day 3. Melatonin administration significantly decreased the level of MDA in melatonin, anesthetized, and ovariohysterectomized dogs at day 3. CONCLUSIONS: Administration of melatonin on day - 1, 0, 1, 2 and 3 modulate the oxidative stress induced by OHE in dogs by increasing antioxidant enzymes concentration and decreasing MDA levels.


Assuntos
Histerectomia/veterinária , Melatonina/farmacologia , Ovariectomia/veterinária , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Catalase/sangue , Cães , Feminino , Glutationa Peroxidase/sangue , Histerectomia/efeitos adversos , Malondialdeído/sangue , Ovariectomia/efeitos adversos , Superóxido Dismutase/sangue
14.
Molecules ; 26(7)2021 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33916540

RESUMO

Metabolic syndrome (MS) is the association of three or more pathologies among which obesity, hypertension, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and diabetes are included. It causes oxidative stress (OS) and renal dysfunction. Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (HSL) is a source of natural antioxidants that may control the renal damage caused by the MS. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of a 2% HSL infusion on renal function in a MS rat model induced by the administration of 30% sucrose in drinking water. 24 male Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups: Control rats, MS rats and MS + HSL rats. MS rats had increased body weight, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, insulin, HOMA index, and leptin (p ≤ 0.04). Renal function was impaired by an increase in perfusion pressure in the isolated and perfused kidney, albuminuria (p ≤ 0.03), and by a decrease in clearance of creatinine (p ≤ 0.04). The activity of some antioxidant enzymes including the superoxide dismutase isoforms, peroxidases, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase was decreased (p ≤ 0.05). Lipoperoxidation and carbonylation were increased (p ≤ 0.001). The nitrates/nitrites ratio, total antioxidant capacity, glutathione levels and vitamin C were decreased (p ≤ 0.03). The treatment with 2% HSL reversed these alterations. The results suggest that the treatment with 2% HSL infusion protects renal function through its natural antioxidants which favor an improved renal vascular response. The infusion contributes to the increase in the glomerular filtration rate, by promoting an increase in the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant systems leading to a decrease in OS and reestablishing the normal renal function.


Assuntos
Albuminúria/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Antiobesidade/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Hibiscus/química , Hipolipemiantes/farmacologia , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Síndrome Metabólica/tratamento farmacológico , Albuminúria/sangue , Albuminúria/patologia , Animais , Fármacos Antiobesidade/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Ácido Ascórbico/sangue , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Creatinina/sangue , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutationa/sangue , Glutationa Peroxidase/sangue , Glutationa Transferase/sangue , Hipolipemiantes/isolamento & purificação , Insulina/sangue , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/fisiopatologia , Leptina/sangue , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/patologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Superóxido Dismutase/sangue , Triglicerídeos/sangue
15.
Rom J Ophthalmol ; 65(1): 46-53, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33817433

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the glutathione antioxidant defense system changes in the tear and serum of patients with hypertensive retinopathy (HR) and to establish whether there is an interdependence between their levels and HR degree. Methods: 90 patients were split into three groups according to the Keith-Wagner-Barker grading of HR: GI-36 patients; GII-35 patients; GIII-19 patients. The concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH) and activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) in tear and serum were measured. Results were analyzed by ANOVA, followed by Bonferroni post hoc test. The Spearman correlation coefficient was calculated (p≤0.05 statistically significant). Results: In serum, the GSH level and GPx activity were not statistically changed between groups with HR degree advancement, unlike the GR activity that was statistically diminished (p=0.018). The values of the studied markers in the tear showed a decrease with the progression of the HR degree. Only serum GSH level correlated with the tear one (r=-0.361, p=0.000), while the enzymes activity did not. A correlation of GPx and GR activity (r=0.417, p=0.000) was identified in tear, while in serum - of GPx activity and GSH level (r=409, p=0.000). Tear GPx and GR levels correlated significantly but with low power with HR degree (r=0.299, p=0.004/ r=0.299, p=0.004). Conclusion: Statistically significant elevation in tear GPx and GR activity and a tendency of GSH level increase was revealed, being attested, and a direct correlation between GPx and GR activity, as well as of their activity with the HR degree. In serum, the GSH level and the GPx activity did not change accurately, while the GR activity diminished significantly, the identified decrease being correlated with the HR degree. Abbreviations: HR = hypertensive retinopathy, HTN = hypertension, GSH = reduced glutathione, GPx = glutathione peroxidase, GR = glutathione reductase, GGR = gamma-glutamyl transferase, ROSs = reactive species of oxygen, OS = oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Glutationa Peroxidase/sangue , Glutationa Redutase/sangue , Retinopatia Hipertensiva/enzimologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672988

RESUMO

The trace element selenium (Se) is taken up from the diet and is metabolized mainly by hepatocytes. Selenoprotein P (SELENOP) constitutes the liver-derived Se transporter. Biosynthesis of extracellular glutathione peroxidase (GPx3) in kidney depends on SELENOP-mediated Se supply. We hypothesized that peri-operative Se status may serve as a useful prognostic marker for the outcome in patients undergoing liver transplantation due to hepatocellular carcinoma. Serum samples from liver cancer patients were routinely collected before and after transplantation. Concentrations of serum SELENOP and total Se as well as GPx3 activity were determined by standardized tests and related to survival, etiology of cirrhosis/carcinoma, preoperative neutrophiles, lymphocytes, thyrotropin (TSH) and Child-Pugh and Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) scores. A total of 221 serum samples from 79 transplanted patients were available for analysis. The Se and SELENOP concentrations were on average below the reference ranges of healthy subjects. Patients with ethanol toxicity-dependent etiology showed particularly low SELENOP and Se concentrations and GPx3 activity. Longitudinal analysis indicated declining Se concentrations in non-survivors. We conclude that severe liver disease necessitating organ replacement is characterized by a pronounced Se deficit before, during and after transplantation. A recovering Se status after surgery is associated with positive prognosis, and an adjuvant Se supplementation may, thus, support convalescence.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/sangue , Neoplasias Hepáticas/sangue , Transplante de Fígado/mortalidade , Selênio/sangue , Oligoelementos/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/mortalidade , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/cirurgia , Feminino , Glutationa Peroxidase/sangue , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Hepáticas/cirurgia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional , Período Pós-Operatório , Período Pré-Operatório , Prognóstico , Selenoproteína P/sangue , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 3034, 2021 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33542364

RESUMO

The reduced (GSH)-to-oxidized (GSSG) glutathione ratio represents a dynamic balance between oxidants and antioxidants. However, redox status in adolescents with obesity and anemia has not been investigated. This study investigated the association of erythrocyte GSH redox status (GSH, GSH:GSSG ratio, and glutathione peroxidase [GPx] activity) with anemia and adiposity in adolescents. This case-control study nested in a cross-sectional study enrolled 524 adolescents (268 boys; 256 girls). The prevalence of anemia in overweight and obesity (OWOB) was 5.2% in boys and 11.7% in girls. The GSH:GSSG ratio and GPx activity were significantly higher in girls than in boys (p < 0.001), in anemic than in non-anemic subjects (p < 0.001), and in OWOB than in normal-weight subjects (p < 0.001). Similarly, significantly higher GSH: GSSG level (p < 0.001) and GPx activity (p < 0.001) were found in subjects with 90th percentile waist circumference than in those with < 90th percentile. GPx and GSH:GSSG were positively associated with anemia after adjusting for age, sex, and body mass index (adjusted odds ratio, adjOR [95% confidence interval, CI] 2.18 [1.44-3.29]) or tertiles (adjOR [95% CI], T3 = 2.49 [1.03-6.01]). A similar association was noted for GSH and GPx. A compensatory increased redox defense mechanism exists in anemia and obesity among adolescents without metabolic disturbances.


Assuntos
Anemia/sangue , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Glutationa/sangue , Obesidade Pediátrica/sangue , Adiposidade/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Anemia/genética , Anemia/patologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Glutationa/genética , Dissulfeto de Glutationa/sangue , Glutationa Peroxidase/sangue , Glutationa Redutase/sangue , Homeostase/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Oxidantes/sangue , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Obesidade Pediátrica/genética , Obesidade Pediátrica/patologia , Circunferência da Cintura , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Gene Med ; 23(4): e3328, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33625761

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mutations in mitochondrial tRNA (mt-tRNA) genes are associated with hypertension, although their pathogenic mechanisms remain poorly understood. METHODS: In the present study, two Han Chinese families with maternally transmitted hypertension were interviewed. The mtDNA mutations of matrilineal relatives were screened by polymerase chain reaction-Sanger sequencing. Mitochondrial ATP, membrane potential and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were also analyzed in polymononuclear leukocytes carrying these mt-tRNA mutations. Additionally, the levels of oxidative stress-related biomarkers [malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG)] were analyzed. RESULTS: Nine of 13 adult matrilineal relatives of these pedigrees exhibited a wide range of severity of hypertension. The age at onset of hypertension was 30-62 years (average 46 years). Mutational screening of mitochondrial genomes revealed tRNAArg T10410C and T10454C mutations. Indeed, the m.T10454C and m.T10410C mutations occurred at conserved bases of TΨC-loop and acceptor arm of tRNAArg (positions 55 and 6), which are critical for tRNAArg post-transcriptional modification. Thus, the defects in tRNA modification may cause failure in tRNA metabolism, impairing mitochondrial translation. Biochemical analysis revealed that m.T10454C or m.T10410C mutation significantly reduced mitochondrial ATP and membrane potential and also increased ROS production in mutant cell lines (all p < 0.05). In addition, the levels of MDA and 8-OHdG in hypertensive patients markedly increased, whereas those of SOD and GSH-Px decreased (all p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate that m.T10410C and m.T10454C mutations affect the structure and function of tRNAArg and consequently alter mitochondrial function and lead to oxidative stress, which are involved in the pathogenesis of maternally inherited hypertension.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Hipertensão/genética , Herança Materna/genética , RNA de Transferência/genética , Trifosfato de Adenosina/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Genoma Mitocondrial , Glutationa Peroxidase/sangue , Humanos , Hipertensão/sangue , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/patologia , Masculino , Malondialdeído/sangue , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação/genética , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Linhagem , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Superóxido Dismutase/sangue
19.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 270: 113792, 2021 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33422656

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Cisplatin (CP), one of the most commonly used antitumor drugs in clinic, could induce reproductive and genetic toxicity. Traditional Chinese medicine believed that this side effect might be caused by the deficiency of both qi and blood. Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F. H. Chen (PN) is a traditional precious Chinese medicine for nourishing blood and hemostasis, which had the synergistic antitumor and reducing toxicity effects. However, the protective effect and mechanism of PN on CP-induced reproductive and genetic toxicity were still unknown. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study was designed to illuminate the possible protective effect and mechanism of PN on CP-induced reproductive and genetic toxicity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Network pharmacology was first applied to analyze the potential components and targets of PN against CP-induced reproductive and genetic toxicity. Then, the results of network pharmacology were validated in a mouse model of reproductive and genotoxicity induced by CP. Body weight, testis weight, epididymis weight, sperm count, sperm viability and sperm morphology were used to assess protective effects of PN on CP-induced reproductive toxicity. Tail moment in peripheral blood cells and micronucleus in bone marrow cells were used to assess protective effects of PN on CP-induced genetic toxicity. Finally, possible protective targets obtained from network pharmacology, including 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), malondialdehyde (MDA), total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), were experimentally validated by ELISA. RESULTS: One hundred and nineteen components of PN and sixty-eight targets of reproductive/genetic toxicity were acquired and constituted as the component-target network. Network pharmacology analysis showed alleviating oxidative stress might play important role in therapeutic mechanism of PN. In verified experiments, PN significantly improved the decline of body weight, testis weight and epididymis weight, increased sperm count and viability, decreased abnormal sperm morphology rate induced by CP in mice. Moreover, PN also significantly decreased the tail moment in peripheral blood cells and micronucleus formation rate in bone marrow cells in CP-induced mice. Finally, not only the decrease of T-SOD and GSH-Px level but also the increase of 8-OHdG and MDA level in serum were restored under PN treatment. CONCLUSION: Current study found that PN could improve CP-induced reproductive and genetic toxicity, which were probably attributed to alleviating oxidative stress. This finding provided the new perspective for understanding the therapeutic effect of PN on CP-induced reproductive and genetic toxicity and facilitating the clinical use of PN.


Assuntos
Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Panax notoginseng/química , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , 8-Hidroxi-2'-Desoxiguanosina/sangue , Animais , Células Sanguíneas/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Células da Medula Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Cisplatino/toxicidade , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Epididimo/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutationa Peroxidase/sangue , Masculino , Malondialdeído/sangue , Camundongos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatozoides/patologia , Superóxido Dismutase/sangue , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(3)2021 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33494146

RESUMO

Ensuring salmon health and welfare is crucial to maximize production in recirculation aquaculture systems. Healthy and robust mucosal surfaces of the skin and intestine are essential to achieve this goal because they are the first immunological defenses and are constantly exposed to multistressor conditions, such as infectious diseases, suboptimal nutrition, and environmental and handling stress. In this work, Atlantic salmon, split from a single cohort, were subjected to acute hypoxia stress or 15-min crowding stress and observed over a 24-h recovery period. Samples were collected from fish at 0, 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 h post-stress to analyze plasma-circulating markers of endocrine function (cortisol), oxidative stress (glutathione peroxidase) and immune function (interleukin 10 (IL-10), annexin A1). In addition, mucosal barrier function parameters were measured in the skin mucus (Muc-like protein and lysozyme) and distal intestine (simple folds, goblet cell size and goblet cell area). The results showed that both acute stress models induced increases of circulating cortisol in plasma (1 h post-stress), which then returned to baseline values (initial control) at 24 h post-stress. Moreover, the hypoxia stress was mostly related to increased oxidative stress and IL-10 production, whereas the crowding stress was associated with a higher production of Muc-like protein and lysozyme in the skin mucus. Interestingly, in the distal intestine, smaller goblet cells were detected immediately and one hour after post-hypoxia stress, which could be related to rapid release of the cellular content to protect this organ. Finally, the correlation of different markers in the hypoxic stress model showed that the circulating levels of cortisol and IL-10 were directly proportional, while the availability of Muc-like proteins was inversely proportional to the size of the goblet cells. On the other hand, in the crowding stress model, a proportional relationship was established between plasma cortisol levels and skin mucus lysozyme. Our results suggest key differences in energy partitioning between the two acute stress models and support the need for further investigation into the interplay of multistressor conditions and strategies to modulate immunological aspects of mucosal surfaces.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Imunidade nas Mucosas , Intestinos/imunologia , Membrana Mucosa/imunologia , Membrana Mucosa/metabolismo , Salmo salar/fisiologia , Animais , Glutationa Peroxidase/sangue , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Hipóxia/sangue , Hipóxia/imunologia , Intestinos/citologia , Pele/metabolismo
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