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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(2)2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33467410

RESUMO

Ethanol abuse is a common issue in individuals with sedentary lifestyles, unbalanced diets, and metabolic syndrome. Both ethanol abuse and metabolic syndrome have negative impacts on the central nervous system, with effects including cognitive impairment and brain oxidative status deterioration. The combined effects of ethanol abuse and metabolic syndrome at a central level have not yet been elucidated in detail. Thus, this work aims to determine the effects of ethanol intake on a mouse model of metabolic syndrome at the behavioral and biochemical levels. Seven-week-old male control (B6.V-Lep ob/+JRj) and leptin-deficient (metabolic syndrome) (B6.V-Lep ob/obJRj) mice were used in the study. Animals were divided into four groups: control, ethanol, obese, and obese-ethanol. Ethanol consumption was monitored for 6 weeks. Basal glycemia, insulin, and glucose overload tests were performed. To assess short- and long-term memory, an object recognition test was used. In order to assess oxidative status in mouse brain samples, antioxidant enzyme activity was analyzed with regard to glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione, glutathione disulfide, lipid peroxidation products, and malondialdehyde. Ethanol intake modulated the insulin response and impaired the oxidative status in the ob mouse brain.


Assuntos
Modelos Animais de Doenças , Etanol/farmacologia , Síndrome Metabólica/metabolismo , Receptores para Leptina/deficiência , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Glicemia/metabolismo , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Depressores do Sistema Nervoso Central/administração & dosagem , Depressores do Sistema Nervoso Central/farmacologia , Etanol/administração & dosagem , Glutationa/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Glutationa Redutase/metabolismo , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Insulina/metabolismo , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/genética , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/metabolismo , Receptores para Leptina/genética
2.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 211: 111920, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33497861

RESUMO

Azoxystrobin is a broad-spectrum strobilurin fungicide for use on a wide range of crops available to end-users as formulated products. Due to its extensive application, it has been detected in aquatic ecosystems, raising concerns about its environmental impact, which is still poorly explored. The objective of this work was to study the effects of a commercial formulation of azoxystrobin in the zebrafish embryo model. Sublethal and lethal effects were monitored during the exposure period from 2 h post fertilisation (hpf) to 96 hpf after exposure to azoxystrobin concentrations (1, 10 and 100 µg L-1). The responses of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR)) as well as detoxifying enzymes (glutathione-s-transferase (GST) and carboxylesterase (CarE)) were evaluated at 96 hpf. Similarly, glutathione levels (reduced (GSH) and oxidised (GSSG) glutathione), neurotransmission (acetylcholinesterase (AChE)) and anaerobic respiration (lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)) -related enzymes were assayed. At 120 hpf, larvae from each group were used for behaviour analysis. Results from this study showed concentration-dependent teratogenic effects, particularly by increasing the number of malformations (yolk and eye), with a higher prevalence at the highest concentration. However, it was found that the lowest concentration induced a high generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increased activity of SOD, GST, and CarE. In addition, GR and GSSG levels were decreased by the lowest concentration, suggesting an adaptive response to oxidative stress, which is also supported by the increased AChE activity and absence of behavioural changes. These findings advance the knowledge of the azoxystrobin developmental and environmental impacts, which may impose ecotoxicological risks to non-target species.


Assuntos
Embrião não Mamífero/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungicidas Industriais/toxicidade , Pirimidinas/toxicidade , Estrobilurinas/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/embriologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Catalase/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Embrião não Mamífero/fisiologia , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Glutationa Redutase/metabolismo , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Estrobilurinas/farmacologia , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
3.
Aquat Toxicol ; 231: 105737, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33422861

RESUMO

Increasing global research has identified microplastics (MPs) to be impacting marine organisms. The present work aimed at investigating the physiological and behavioral effects of thirty-six juvenile Sparus aurata exposed to control, virgin and weathered MPs enriched diets during a 21-day period under controlled conditions. Physiological effects were assessed in liver and brain using the following biomarkers: activities of the antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GRd), the detoxifying enzyme glutathione S-transferase (GST) and malondialdehyde (MDA) as indicative of lipid peroxidation. Individuals were recorded for behavior analysis (i.e. social interactions and feeding behavior). Results revealed an increase in cellular stress from control to weathered fish groups, with the virgin group showing intermediate levels in all quantified biomarkers. Significant differences were found in the liver for all biomarkers except for MDA, suggesting that exposure time to MPs in this experiment is long enough to trigger the activation of antioxidant enzymes but not to produce cell damage by lipid peroxidation. In brain tissue samples, fish from the weathered group presented significantly higher values for CAT and SOD, highlighting its function as primary antioxidants. Regarding behavioral effects, results showed that the two MPs enriched groups were significantly bolder during social interactions and, although no significantly, tended to be more active during feeding. In conclusion, MPs which have been weathered in marine environmental conditions produces a higher physiological response than virgin MPs but also, a physiological response is variable depending on the tissue analyzed. In addition, a short period to MP exposure seems to affect overall social and feeding behavior but, further research is needed to assess long-term effects of MP ingestion and its potential consequences on fish populations.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Ingestão de Alimentos , Microplásticos/toxicidade , Dourada/fisiologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Glutationa Redutase/metabolismo , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Análise de Componente Principal , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
4.
Food Chem ; 336: 127618, 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771896

RESUMO

Litchi fruit were exposed to 0.7 PPM hydrogen water (HW) before storage at 25 ± 1 â„ƒ. HW treatment delayed the pericarp browning and maintained the total soluble solids (TSS) of litchi fruit. Then, a total of 25 antioxidant system-related characters were determined to evaluate the effects of HW on antioxidant system during pericarp browning. Compared with control pericarp, the pericarp of HW-treated litchi fruit exhibited higher levels of superoxide radical (O2-·) scavenging activity, glutathione (GSH), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and total flavonoids during whole storage, higher levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), catalase (CAT), glutathione disulfide (GSSG), ascorbate oxidase (AAO) and total phenols only on day 1, and higher levels of ascorbate peroxidase (APX), total anthocyanin, glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidases (GPX) at later stage of storage. Those HW-induced antioxidant system-related characters might directly or indirectly enhanced the antioxidant capacity and delayed the pericarp browning of litchi.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Hidrogênio/química , Litchi/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Análise Discriminante , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/metabolismo , Glutationa Redutase/metabolismo , Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Litchi/química , Litchi/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Chemosphere ; 262: 128384, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33182105

RESUMO

Arsenic (As) polluted food chain has become a serious issue for the growth and development of humans, animals and plants. Nitric oxide (NO) or silicon (Si) may mitigate As toxicity. However, the combined application of NO and Si in mitigating As uptake and phytotoxicity in Brassica juncea is unknown. Hence, the collegial effect of sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a NO donor and Si application on B. juncea growth, gas exchange parameters, antioxidant system and As uptake was examined in a greenhouse experiment. Arsenic toxicity injured cell membrane as signposted by the elevated level of malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), thus decreasing the growth of stressed plants. Moreover, As stress negatively affected gas exchange parameters and antioxidative system of plants. However, NO or/and Si alleviated As induced oxidative stress through increasing the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione (GSH), along with thiol and proline synthesis. Furthermore, plants treated with co-application of NO and Si showed improved growth, gas attributes and decreased As uptake under As regimes. The current study highlights that NO and Si synergistically interact to mitigate detrimental effects of As stress through reducing As uptake. Our findings recommend combined NO and Si application in As spiked soils for improvement of plant growth and stress alleviation.


Assuntos
Arsênico/metabolismo , Mostardeira/fisiologia , Óxido Nítrico/química , Silício/química , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Arsênico/toxicidade , Ascorbato Peroxidases/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Glutationa Redutase/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Mostardeira/metabolismo , Doadores de Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Doadores de Óxido Nítrico/farmacologia , Nitroprussiato/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 202: 110954, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800228

RESUMO

Current study aims to determine difference in metal accumulation pattern in muscle of Liza parsia (pelagic, omnivore), Amblypharyngodon mola (surface feeder, herbivore) and Mystus gulio (benthic, carnivore) depending on their niche and feeding habit and how it affects the endogenous antioxidants and glucose metabolism in fish muscle. Fishes were collected from Malancha, Diamond Harbour and Chandanpiri, West Bengal, India. Concentrations of lead, zinc, cadmium, chromium were measured in water, sediment and fish muscle. Metal pollution index (MPI) and bioconcentration factor (BCF) was calculated to evaluate the ability of fish to accumulate specific metals in muscle tissue from the aquatic environment. Metal concentrations were found significantly higher (P < 0.05) in water, sediment, fish muscles from Malancha than Chandanpiri and Diamond Harbour. L. parsia (MPI: 0.4-1.6) showed highest metal deposition in their muscle followed by A. mola (MPI: 0.37-1.38) and M. gulio (MPI: 0.2-1.2). Malondealdehyde, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione S transferase, glutathione reductase and cortisol levels increased in case of L. parsia from Malancha and Chandanpiri. Succinate dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase, Ca+2 ATPase and cytochrome C oxidase levels were significantly (P < 0.05) lower at Malancha and Chandanpiri than Diamond Harbour. Heat shock protein (HSP70) expression was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in all fish species at Malancha followed by Chandanpiri and Diamond Harbour. Glucose, glycogen, hexokinase, phosphofructokinase and glycogen phosphorylase levels varied between sites and selected fish species. Serum cortisol level was measured and found to be the highest in L. parsia from Malancha (2.94 ± 0.12 ng/ml) and the lowest in M. gulio from Diamond Harbour (0.7 ± 0.05 ng/ml). The results indicate that metal toxicity alters antioxidant levels, oxidative status and energy production in fish in species specific manner. Our results also indicate that Mystus has the highest degree of adaptability in response to metal toxicity possibly due to its specific food habit and niche position. Therefore, it can be concluded that maintenance of oxidative and metabolic status to combat metal-induced oxidative load will be helpful for the fishes to acquire better resistance under such eco-physiological stress. Alteration of niche and interactive segregation in aquatic organism may be one of the key modulator of resistance against such stress.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Cyprinidae/metabolismo , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Glucose/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Músculos/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Catalase/metabolismo , Cyprinidae/fisiologia , Glutationa Redutase/metabolismo , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Índia , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Músculos/enzimologia , Músculos/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Especificidade da Espécie , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
7.
Stroke ; 51(10): 3142-3146, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32819193

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: There is an urgent need to develop adjunct therapies that can be added onto reperfusion for acute ischemic stroke. Recently, mitochondrial transplantation has emerged as a promising therapeutic approach for boosting brain tissue protection. In this proof-of-concept study, we investigate the feasibility of using placenta as a source for mitochondrial transplantation in a mouse model of transient focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. METHODS: Mitochondria-enriched fractions were isolated from cryopreserved mouse placenta. Mitochondrial purity and JC1 membrane potentials were assessed by flow cytometry. Adenosine triphosphate and mitochondrial proteins were measured by luminescence intensity and western blot, respectively. Therapeutic efficacy of mitochondrial fractions was assessed in a mouse model of transient focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. RESULTS: Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that about 87% of placental mitochondria were viable and maintained JC1 membrane potentials after isolation. Placental mitochondrial fractions contained adenosine triphosphate equivalent to mitochondrial fractions isolated from skeletal muscle and brown fat tissue. Normalized mitochondrial antioxidant enzymes (glutathione reductase, MnSOD [manganese superoxide dismutase]) and HSP70 (heat shock protein 70) were highly preserved in placental mitochondrial fractions. Treatment with placental mitochondrial fractions immediately after reperfusion significantly decreased infarction after focal cerebral ischemia in mice. CONCLUSIONS: Cryopreserved placenta can be a feasible source for viable mitochondrial isolation. Transplantation with placental mitochondria may amplify beneficial effects of reperfusion in stroke.


Assuntos
Mitocôndrias/transplante , Placenta/transplante , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/terapia , Animais , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Glutationa Redutase/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/metabolismo , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/fisiologia , Camundongos , Placenta/metabolismo , Gravidez , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
8.
Chem Biol Interact ; 330: 109114, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735800

RESUMO

Tebuconazole (TEB) is a broad-spectrum conazole fungicide that has been used in agriculture in the control of foliar and soil-borne diseases of many crops. The present study has investigated the adverse effects of subchronic exposure to TEB on the kidney of male rats. Animals were divided into four equal groups and treated with TEB at increasing doses 0.9, 9 and 27 mg/kg body weight for 28 consecutive days. The results showed that TEB induced oxidative stress in the kidney demonstrated by an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl (PC), advanced oxidation protein product (AOPP) levels and DNA damage, as compared to the controls. Furthermore, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities were increased in the renal tissue of treated rats. Moreover, significant decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH) content in TEB-treated rats was observed, while oxidized glutathione (GSSG) levels were increased, thus a marked fall in GSH/GSSG ratio was registered in the kidney. Glutathione reductase (GR) activity showed a significant increase after TEB exposure. Moreover, TEB down-regulated the expression of Bcl2 and up-regulated the expression of Bax and caspase 3, which triggered apoptosis via the Bax/Bcl2 and caspase pathway. Also, TEB administration resulted in altered biochemical indicators of renal function and varying lesions in the overall histo-architecture of renal tissues. Taken together, our findings brought into light the renal toxicity induced by TEB, which was found to be significant at low doses.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Triazóis/toxicidade , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Fungicidas Industriais/toxicidade , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Glutationa/metabolismo , Dissulfeto de Glutationa/metabolismo , Glutationa Redutase/metabolismo , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/metabolismo , Masculino , Oxirredução , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
9.
Life Sci ; 257: 118072, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32659367

RESUMO

AIMS: Sunitinib (Su), a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is one of the most commonly used anti-angiogenic drugs. Some studies have described retinal detachment and photoreceptor damage following systemic exposure to Su, despite beneficial effects achieved with local treatment of ocular pathologies. The aim of this study was to explore the role of NADPH oxidase system and oxidative stress in eyes from Su-treated animals. MAIN METHODS: Male Wistar rats were administered 25 mg Su/kg body weight/day incorporated in the chow for 3 weeks. Upon treatment completion, NADPH oxidase activity and ROS levels were measured in ocular tissue by chemiluminescence and dihydroethidium (DHE) staining, respectively. The expression of NADPH oxidase isoforms (NOX1, NOX2 and NOX4), antioxidant enzymes and endothelial/inducible nitric oxidase isoforms (eNOS/iNOS) in the eyecup and/or retina were measured via immunofluorescence, immunoblotting and RT-qPCR. KEY FINDINGS: NADPH oxidase activity/expression increased in eyecup and retinas from Su-treated rats. Immunohistofluorescence studies in retinal layer confirmed a higher signal of NADPH oxidase isoforms after Su treatment. Treated animals also presented with reductions in NO levels and eNOS expression, whereas iNOS was upregulated. Finally, a significant depletion of antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase was measured in eyecups of rats following Su exposure, and the opposite pattern was seen for glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase. SIGNIFICANCE: This study demonstrates that Su treatment is associated with NADPH oxidase-derived oxidative stress in the eye. Long-term treatment of Su should be properly monitored to avoid retinotoxic effects that might result in ocular pathologies and sight-threatening conditions.


Assuntos
Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/toxicidade , Retina/efeitos dos fármacos , Sunitinibe/toxicidade , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Glutationa Redutase/metabolismo , Masculino , NADPH Oxidases/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Retina/patologia , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
10.
J Pineal Res ; 69(3): e12676, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32597503

RESUMO

Melatonin is a chronobiotic hormone, which can regulate human diseases like cancer, atherosclerosis, respiratory disorders, and microbial infections by regulating redox system. Melatonin exhibits innate immunomodulation by communicating with immune system and influencing neutrophils to fight infections and inflammation. However, sustaining redox homeostasis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in neutrophils are critical during chemotaxis, oxidative burst, phagocytosis, and neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation. Therefore, endogenous antioxidant glutathione (GSH) redox cycle is highly vital in regulating neutrophil functions. Reduced intracellular GSH levels and glutathione reductase (GR) activity in the neutrophils during clinical conditions like autoimmune disorders, neurological disorders, diabetes, and microbial infections lead to dysfunctional neutrophils. Therefore, we hypothesized that redox modulators like melatonin can protect neutrophil health and functions under GSH and GR activity-deficient conditions. We demonstrate the dual role of melatonin, wherein it protects neutrophils from oxidative stress-induced apoptosis by reducing ROS generation; in contrast, it restores neutrophil functions like phagocytosis, degranulation, and NETosis in GSH and GR activity-deficient neutrophils by regulating ROS levels both in vitro and in vivo. Melatonin mitigates LPS-induced neutrophil dysfunctions by rejuvenating GSH redox system, specifically GR activity by acting as a parallel redox system. Our results indicate that melatonin could be a potential auxiliary therapy to treat immune dysfunction and microbial infections, including virus, under chronic disease conditions by restoring neutrophil functions. Further, melatonin could be a promising immune system booster to fight unprecedented pandemics like the current COVID-19. However, further studies are indispensable to address the clinical usage of melatonin.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Glutationa/metabolismo , Melatonina/uso terapêutico , Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Feminino , Glutationa Redutase/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Melatonina/farmacologia , Camundongos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , NADPH Oxidases/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
11.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 201: 110777, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32485493

RESUMO

Selenium (Se) is a beneficial element to higher plants. Application of Se at low concentrations enhances the antioxidant metabolism reducing the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by plant membrane cells. This study aimed to evaluate how the application of Se in the forms sodium selenate and sodium selenite regulates ROS scavenging in field-grown cowpea plants. Seven Se application rates (0; 2.5; 5; 10; 20; 40 and 60 g ha-1) of each of the two Se forms were applied to plants via the soil. Photosynthetic pigments concentration, gas exchange parameters, lipid peroxidation by malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration, hydrogen peroxide concentration, activity of catalase (CAT, EC:1.11.1.6), glutathione reductase (GR, EC:1.6.4.2), ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC:1.11.1.11) and Se concentration in leaves and grains were evaluated. In general, Se application led to a decrease in chlorophyll a concentration whilst leading to an increase in chlorophyll b, indicating conservation of total chlorophyll concentration. Application of 2.5 g ha-1 of Se as selenate provided a notable increase in total chlorophyll and total carotenoids compared to the other application rates. Selenate and selenite application decreased lipid peroxidation. However, each Se source acted in a different pathway to combat ROS. While selenate showed more potential to increase activity of APX and GR, selenite showed a higher potential to increase CAT activity. The negative correlation between CAT and GR is indicative that both pathways might be activated under distinct circumstances. The more prominent activity of CAT under high rates of selenite resulted in a negative correlation of this enzyme with chlorophyll a and carotenoids. Both selenate and selenite application increased sucrose and total sugars concentration in leaves of cowpea plants. Overall, these results indicate that application of Se in cowpea under field conditions stimulates distinct pathways to scavenge ROS. This could prove beneficial to mitigate oxidative stress during plant development.


Assuntos
Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Ácido Selênico/toxicidade , Ácido Selenioso/toxicidade , Vigna/efeitos dos fármacos , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ascorbato Peroxidases/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Clorofila , Clorofila A , Glutationa Redutase/metabolismo , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Ácido Selênico/metabolismo , Ácido Selenioso/metabolismo , Selênio/metabolismo , Selenito de Sódio , Vigna/metabolismo , Vigna/fisiologia
12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 197: 110609, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32302859

RESUMO

Bisphenol A (BPA) is used throughout the world and it could enter aquatic ecosystems causing harmful effects on humans, animals and plants. The current study relies on the investigation of the toxicity of this emerging pollutant on two freshwater species from different trophic levels: the microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and the clam Corbicula fluminea. After 96 h of exposure to several concentrations of BPA, the growth of C. reinhardtii was affected, being the 96 h-EC50 value for growth 30 mg L-1. The toxicity and bioaccumulation of 30 mg L-1 BPA in microalgae after 24 h of exposure were studied. Several cytotoxicity biomarkers such as vitality, oxidative stress and cytoplasmic membrane potential were altered in exposed cells and microalgae accumulated 0.16 pg BPA cell-1. Regarding C. fluminea, four treatments were established: control without BPA (C); BPA in the food (microalgae pre-exposed for 24 h to 30 mg L-1) (M); BPA in the water (7.5 mg L-1) (W); BPA in both food and water (M + W). After one month of exposure, treated bivalves showed a significantly decrease in the filtration rate and increased lipid peroxidation levels, indicating fitness reduction and oxidative damage. Furthermore, the activities of catalase, glutathione reductase, Se-dependent and total glutathione peroxidase enzymes increased significantly in W and M + W treatments with respect to the control. Clams of the M + W treatment were the most affected, indicating that the little amount of BPA bioaccumulated by microalgae could increase the damage. Emerging contaminants may accumulate in several organisms, such as microalgae, and could have negative impacts on ecosystems.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Chlamydomonas reinhardtii/efeitos dos fármacos , Corbicula/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Compostos Benzidrílicos/farmacocinética , Catalase/metabolismo , Chlamydomonas reinhardtii/metabolismo , Corbicula/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Glutationa Redutase/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Microalgas/efeitos dos fármacos , Microalgas/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Fenóis/farmacocinética
13.
Plant Sci ; 294: 110459, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32234218

RESUMO

Glutathione reductase (GR; EC 1.6.4.2) is a key NADPH-dependent flavo-protein oxidoreductase which can catalyze the oxidized glutathione (GSSG) to reduced glutathione (GSH) to protect plant cells from oxidative damage induced by Reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst. To investigate the biochemical characteristics and functional divergence of Populus GR family, three GR genes (PtGR1.1/1.2/2) were cloned from Populus trichocarpa and their biochemical characteristics were analyzed in this study. All the three genes were expressed in root, stem, leaf and bud, and the expression of PtGR genes were general upregulated under salicylic acid and alamethicin treatment. PtGR1.1 and PtGR1.2 were localized in cytoplasm, while PtGR2 was in chloroplast. The three PtGR proteins showed different enzymatic activities, apparent kinetic characteristic and thermal stability profiles. However, they have similar bivalent metal ions (Cu2+, Cd2+, Zn2+ and Pb2+) sensitivity and optimum pH profiles. Our study sheds light on a comprehensive information of glutathione reductase family in P. trichocarpa, and proved PtGR genes play critical roles when suffering different stresses.


Assuntos
Glutationa Redutase/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Populus/enzimologia , Alameticina/metabolismo , Cádmio/metabolismo , Cobre/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Glutationa Redutase/genética , Cinética , Chumbo/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/genética , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Populus/genética , Populus/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Ácido Salicílico/metabolismo , Zinco/metabolismo
14.
Chemosphere ; 251: 126366, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32145575

RESUMO

In this study, the effects of excess nickel (Ni) (100 µM and 200 µM) on growth, antioxidant production, fatty acid, organic and amino acids profiles were examined in Lemna minor L. After 7 days of Ni treatment, chlorosis, growth inhibition and ROS overproduction were observed, accompanied by Ni accumulation. Interestingly, decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were recorded in fronds upon Ni exposure. Fatty acid profiles in Ni-treated L. minor were characterized by increases in saturated- and decreases in unsaturated fatty acids. Ni excess increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), guiacol peroxidase (GPX), and glutathione reductase (GR), and non-enzymatic antioxidants such as glutathione (GSH) and ascorbic acid (AsA); however, deactivation of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and catalase (CAT) activities were also observed. Disruption of amino acid metabolism in Ni-exposed fronds was evidenced by the accumulation of cysteine, arginine, threonine, valine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine and phenylalanine, as well as reduced levels of tyrosine, alanine, aspartate and proline. Approximately 299%-396%, 139%-254% and 56%-97% concentration increments in citric, malic and oxalic acids, respectively, were concomitantly observed with significant decreases in tartaric, acetic, and fumaric acids in fronds subjected to Ni stress. Taken together, these results indicated that Ni stress induced negative effects on plant physiological, biochemical and morphological processes; however, it is likely that the coordination of metabolites and antioxidants may ameliorate the damaging effects of Ni accumulation.


Assuntos
Araceae/metabolismo , Níquel/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Araceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Ascorbato Peroxidases/metabolismo , Ácido Ascórbico/farmacologia , Catalase/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Glutationa Redutase/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Peroxidases/metabolismo , Prolina/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
15.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 193: 110355, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32120164

RESUMO

In the Montado system, in Portuguese Alentejo region, some Eutric Cambisols are known to promote manganese (Mn) toxicity in wheat. Variation on bioavailable Mn concentration depends on soil acidity, which can be increased by natural events (e.g. waterlogging) or human activity (e.g. excess use of chemical fertilizers). The effect of increasing soil Mn on crop element uptake, element distribution and oxidative stress was evaluated on winter wheat (Triticum aestivum). Plants were grown for 3 weeks in an acidic Cambisol spiked with increasing Mn concentrations (0, 45.2 and 90.4 mg MnCl2/Kg soil). Calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg) and Mn were quantified in the soil solution, root and shoot tissues and respective subcellular fractions. The activity of the antioxidant enzymes ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were determined in extracts of wheat shoots and roots. Overall, increase in soil bioavailable Mn inhibited the uptake of other elements, increased the Ca proportion in the root apoplast, promoted the translocation of Mn and P to shoot tissues and increased their proportion in the shoot vacuoles. Wheat roots showed greater antioxidant enzymes activities than shoots. These activities decreased at the highest soil Mn concentration in both plant parts. Wheat roots appear to be more sensitive to oxidative stress derived from excess soil Mn and promote Mn translocation and storage in shoot vacuoles, probably in Mn and P complexes, as a detoxification strategy. Improvement in wheat production, in acidic soils, may rely on the enhancement of its Mn detoxification strategies.


Assuntos
Manganês/toxicidade , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ascorbato Peroxidases/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico , Cálcio/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Glutationa Redutase/metabolismo , Magnésio/metabolismo , Manganês/farmacocinética , Estresse Oxidativo , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Fósforo/metabolismo , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/farmacocinética , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Triticum/enzimologia , Triticum/metabolismo
16.
Arch Med Res ; 51(3): 204-214, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111490

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stresses contribute to the pathogenesis of ß-cell dysfunction in diabetes mellitus. This study investigates the effect of isopulegol on the above stresses in HFD/STZ induced diabetic rats. METHODS: Animals in group I and II were placed in normal pellet diet and group II was treated with isopulegol at 200 mg/kg b.w. Animals in groups III-V were placed in HFD for 4 weeks and made diabetic with single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (35 mg/kg b.w) in 0.1 M citrate buffer (pH 4.5). Group III served as diabetic control while animals in group IV and V were treated with isopulegol (100 mg/kg b.w) and metformin (25 mg/kg b.w) respectively for 28 d. RESULTS: The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione sulphur transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR) and the levels of vitamin-E, vitamin-C, reduced glutathione (GSH) were significantly (p <0.05) decreased in plasma and tissues of diabetic rats. Thiobarbituric acid reactive acid substances (TBARS) and lipid hydroperoxides (LHP), indices of lipid peroxidation were also significantly (p <0.05) increased in diabetic rats. In pancreatic tissue ER stress markers PERK, elf2α, ATF4 and in hepatic tissue oxidative stress marker UCP-2 expression was significantly (p <1.0) increased in diabetic rats. Administration of isopulegol significantly improved antioxidant status and decreased oxidative and ER stress markers in diabetic treated rats. Histopathological studies on liver and kidney supported the above findings. The results are comparable with the standard drug metformin. CONCLUSIONS: Isopulegol a naturally occurring monoterpene alcohol attenuated oxidative and ER stress in HFD/STZ induced diabetic rats.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos/farmacologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Ácido Ascórbico/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Glutationa/sangue , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Glutationa Redutase/metabolismo , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Hiperglicemia/patologia , Insulina/sangue , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Peróxidos Lipídicos/sangue , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Estreptozocina , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/análise , Vitamina E/sangue
17.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 123, 2020 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32143731

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acanthamoeba spp. are ubiquitous pathogens which cause granulomatous amoebic encephalitis and disseminated infection. Moreover, Acanthamoeba spp. infection of the cornea leads to Acanthamoeba keratitis. Our previous study showed that the infection of an eyeball may also take place via the migration of trophozoites through the optic nerve from the brain to the eyes. The aim of the study was to analyze the activity of enzymatic antioxidants and the concentration of non-enzymatic antioxidant in the eyes of immunocompetent and immunocompromised mice with disseminated acanthamoebiasis. RESULTS: In the immunocompetent mice infected with Acanthamoeba spp. we noted a significant decrease in catalase activity at 8 and 16 days post-infection (dpi). Glutathione reductase activity was significantly lower at 16 dpi compared to the control group and glutathione concentration was statistically higher at 24 dpi than in the control group. In the immunosuppressed mice, a statistically significant increase in glutathione concentration in the eye samples was found at 16 dpi compared to those not infected with Acanthamoeba spp. In the immunosuppressed mice infected with Acanthamoeba spp., glutathione peroxidase activity was statistically lower at 8 dpi, and glutathione concentration was statistically significantly higher at 16 dpi compared to the control group. CONCLUSIONS: The inflammatory response in the eyes of hosts with experimental acanthamoebiasis led to changes in the activity of enzymatic antioxidants and the content of non-enzymatic antioxidant. Therefore, the dysregulation of antioxidants may play a role in the pathomechanism of Acanthamoeba eye infection.


Assuntos
Ceratite por Acanthamoeba/tratamento farmacológico , Ceratite por Acanthamoeba/metabolismo , Acanthamoeba/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Acanthamoeba/imunologia , Ceratite por Acanthamoeba/parasitologia , Ceratite por Acanthamoeba/patologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Catalase/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Olho/imunologia , Olho/patologia , Glutationa , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Glutationa Redutase/metabolismo , Camundongos , Oxirredução
18.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 192: 110252, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32014725

RESUMO

Glutaredoxins (Grxs) are small multifunctional redox proteins. Grxs have glutathione-dependent oxidoreductase activity in the presence of glutathione reductase and NADPH. The role of Grxs is well studied in heavy metal tolerance in prokaryotic and mammalian systems but not in plant genera. In the present study, a chickpea glutaredoxin (CaGrx) gene (LOC101493651) has been investigated against metal stress based on its primary screening in chickpea which revealed higher up-regulation of CaGrx gene under various heavy metals (AsIII-25 µM, AsV-250 µM, Cr(VI)-300 µM, and Cd-500 µM) stress. This CaGrx gene was overexpressed in Arabidopsis thaliana and investigated various biochemical and physiological performances under each metal stress. Transgenic plants showed significant up-regulation of the CaGrx gene during qRT-PCR analysis as well as longer roots, higher seed germination, and survival efficiency during each metal stress. The levels of stress markers, TBARS, H2O2, and electrolyte leakage were found to be less in transgenic lines as compared to WT revealed less toxicity in transgenics. The total accumulation of AsIII, AsV, and Cr(VI) were significantly reduced in all transgenic lines except Cd, which was slightly reduced. The physiological parameters such as net photosynthetic rate (PN), stomatal conductance (gs), transpiration (E), water use efficiency (WUE), photochemical quenching (qP), and electron transport rate (ETR), were maintained in transgenic lines during metal stress. Various antioxidant enzymes such as glutaredoxin (GRX), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), antioxidant molecules (ascorbate, GSH) and stress-responsive amino acids (proline and cysteine) levels were significantly increased in transgenic lines which provide metal tolerance. The outcome of this study strongly indicates that the CaGrx gene participates in the moderation of metal stress in Arabidopsis, which can be utilized in biotechnological interventions to overcome heavy metal stress conditions in different crops.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Cicer/enzimologia , Glutarredoxinas/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Arabidopsis/efeitos dos fármacos , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Ascorbato Peroxidases/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Glutarredoxinas/genética , Glutationa/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Glutationa Redutase/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
19.
Environ Toxicol ; 35(7): 738-746, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32061150

RESUMO

Microcystins (MCs), as the most dominant bloom-forming strains in eutrophic surface water, can induce hepatotoxicity by oxidative stress. Alpha-lipoic acid (α-LA) is a super antioxidant that can induce the synthesis of antioxidants, such as glutathione (GSH), by nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). However, the potential molecular mechanism of α-LA regeneration of GSH remains unclear. The present study aimed to investigate whether α-LA could reduce the toxicity of MCs induced in human hepatoma (HepG2), Bel7420 cells, and BALB/c mice by activating Nrf2 to regenerate GSH. Results showed that exposure to 10 µM microcystin-leucine arginine (MC-LR) reduced viability of HepG2 and Bel7402 cells and promoted the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) compared with untreated cells. Moreover, the protection of α-LA included reducing the level of ROS, increasing superoxide dismutase activity, and decreasing malondialdehyde. Levels of reduced glutathione (rGSH) and rGSH/oxidized glutathione were significantly increased in cells cotreated with α-LA and MC-LR compared to those treated with MC-LR alone, indicating an ability of α-LA to attenuate oxidative stress and MC-LR-induced cytotoxicity by increasing the amount of rGSH. α-LA can mediate GSH regeneration through the Nrf2 pathway under the action of glutathione reductase in MC-LR cell lines. Furthermore, the data also showed that α-LA-induced cytoprotection against MC-LR is associated with Nrf2 mediate pathway in vivo. These findings demonstrated the potential of α-LA to resist MC-LR-induced oxidative damage of liver.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Glutationa/metabolismo , Microcistinas/toxicidade , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Ácido Tióctico/farmacologia , Animais , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Glutationa Redutase/metabolismo , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Toxinas Marinhas , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
20.
Molecules ; 25(1)2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31906464

RESUMO

Ginsenosides are active components found abundantly in ginseng which has been used as a medicinal herb to modify disease status for thousands of years. However, the pharmacological activity of ginsenoside Re in the neuronal system remains to be elucidated. Neuroprotective activity of ginsenoside Re was investigated in SH-SY5Y cells exposed to 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) to induce cellular injury. Ginsenoside Re significantly inhibited 6-OHDA-triggered cellular damage as judged by analysis of tetrazolium dye reduction and lactose dehydrogenase release. In addition, ginsenoside Re induced the expression of the antioxidant protein glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) but not catalase, glutathione peroxidase 1, glutathione reductase, or superoxide dismutase-1. Furthermore, upregulation of GPX4 by ginsenoside Re was mediated by phosphoinositide 3-kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase but not by p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase or c-Jun N-terminal kinase. Ginsenoside Re also suppressed 6-OHDA-triggered cellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species and peroxidation of membrane lipids. The GPX4 inhibitor (1S,3R)-RSL3 reversed ginsenoside Re-mediated inhibition of cellular damage in SH-SY5Y cells exposed to 6-OHDA, indicating that the neuronal activity of ginsenoside Re is due to upregulation of GPX4. These findings suggest that ginsenoside Re-dependent upregulation of GPX4 reduces oxidative stress and thereby alleviates 6-OHDA-induced neuronal damage.


Assuntos
Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Oxidopamina/farmacologia , Fosfolipídeo Hidroperóxido Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Glutationa Redutase/metabolismo , Humanos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Estrutura Molecular , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase-1/metabolismo
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