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1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(42): 11568-11576, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31584809

RESUMO

Tribenuron-methyl (TM), as one of the sulfonylurea (SU) herbicides, has been widely and effectively applied for many kinds of plants. SUs inhibit plant growth by restraining the biosynthetic pathway of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) catalyzed by acetolactate synthase (ALS). Safeners are agrochemicals that protect crops from herbicide injuries. To improve the crop tolerance under TM toxicity stress, this paper evaluated the protective effect of N-tosyloxazolidine-3-carboxamide. It turned out that most of the tested compounds showed significant protection against TM via enhancing the glutathione (GSH) content and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity. Among all of the tested compounds, compound 16 exhibited more excellent protection than the contrast safener R-28725 and other target compounds. A positive correlation between the growth level, endogenous GSH content, and GST activity was observed in this research. The GST kinetic parameter Vmax of the maize was increased by 29.6% after treatment with compound 16, while Km was decreased by 51.9% compared to the untreated control. The molecular docking model indicated that compound 16 could compete with TM in the active site of ALS, which could interpret the protective effects of safeners. The present work demonstrated that N-tosyloxazolidine-3-carboxamide derivatives could be considered as potential candidates for developing new safeners in the future.


Assuntos
Herbicidas/toxicidade , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Zea mays/efeitos dos fármacos , Zea mays/enzimologia , Acetolactato Sintase/química , Acetolactato Sintase/metabolismo , Glutationa Transferase/química , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Cinética , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/toxicidade , Zea mays/química
2.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 158: 47-53, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378360

RESUMO

Buprofezin is a chitin synthesis inhibitor that is very effective against Homopteran pests, such as the white-backed planthopper (WBPH), S. furcifera (Horvath). In the present study, resistance selection, cross-resistance and mechanisms of buprofezin resistance were investigated in this planthopper species. However, the mechanism associated with resistance to growth regulator insecticides (IGRs) remains largely unknown. A resistant strain (Bup-R) with a resistance level (22-fold) to buprofezin was developed through continuous selection for 47 generations from a laboratory susceptible strain (Bup-S). The results showed that the Bup-R exhibited no cross-resistance to other tested insecticides. Synergism tests showed that piperonyl butoxide (PBO) (SR = 3.9-fold) and diethyl maleate (DEM) (SR = 1.8-fold) had synergistic effects on buprofezin toxicity in the resistant strain (F47). Enzyme activity results revealed an approximate 5.7-fold difference in cytochrome P450 monooxygenase and a 2-fold difference in glutathione S-transferase (GST) between the resistant and susceptible strains, suggesting that the increased activity of these two enzymes is likely the main detoxification mechanism involved in resistance to buprofezin in this species. Furthermore, the mRNA expression levels of cytochrome P450 (CYP) and GST genes by quantitative real-time PCR results indicated that sixteen P450 and one GST gene were significantly overexpressed in the Bup-R strain, among which thirteen P450 genes and one GST gene were >2-fold higher than in the Bup-S strain. The present study increases our knowledge of the buprofezin resistance mechanism in S. furcifera and provides a useful reference for integrated pest management (IPM) strategies.


Assuntos
Hemípteros/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Tiadiazinas/farmacologia , Animais , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Glutationa Transferase/genética , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Hemípteros/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Maleatos/metabolismo , Butóxido de Piperonila/farmacologia , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
3.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(9): 555, 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401704

RESUMO

This work aims to diagnose the state of the northeastern coasts of Tunisia using P. articulatus species. Biological parameters, protein and metallothionein content, enzymatic activities, and metallic concentration were assessed at four stations during four seasons and analyzed by multiple regressions. The comparison of biological ratios showed minima at Sidi Daoued and maxima at Korbous where metallothioneins were maximal. The catalytic activity was low during summer and higher during cold periods contrary to acetylcholinesterase activity. Concerning glutathione S-transferase, its activity was important at Kelibia in autumn and at La Goulette and Sidi Daoued in warm seasons. The metallic concentrations were low at Korbous and maximal at Kelibia and Sidi Daoued stations. Kelibia seems to be the most polluted site followed by Sidi Daoued and La Goulette (industries, urbanization and fishing ports). The pollution seems to be reduced at Korbous station having more suitable conditions for the proliferation of monodonts.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Gastrópodes/fisiologia , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Poluentes Ambientais , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Gastrópodes/metabolismo , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Metalotioneína/metabolismo , Estações do Ano , Tunísia
4.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1155: 185-196, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468397

RESUMO

In the present study, we evaluated the antioxidant and anti-stress activities of taurine in electric foot-shock stress model rats. Taurine supplementation markedly increased the hepatic glutathione (GSH) levels, compared to the levels in the stress group. In addition, activities of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) were improved in the taurine-treated group. Plasma cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S) levels were significantly reduced in the taurine-supplemented group compared to those in the stress group. In contrast, the levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) were markedly increased in the taurine or betaine-treated group compared to those in the stress group. It may be concluded that taurine produces beneficial effects in the form of antioxidant status and biochemical alterations in foot-shock-induced acute stress in rats.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Fisiológico , Taurina/farmacologia , Animais , Catalase/metabolismo , Sulfato de Desidroepiandrosterona/sangue , Estimulação Elétrica , Glutationa/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Ácido Hidroxi-Indolacético/sangue , Fígado/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Serotonina/sangue
5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(36): 9979-9988, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411878

RESUMO

A delta class glutathione S-transferase gene (BoGSTd2) is identified from Bradysia odoriphaga for the first time. Developmental expression analysis showed that expression of BoGSTd2 is significantly higher in the fourth instar larval stage and the adult stage. Tissue-specific expression analysis found that BoGSTd2 was expressed predominantly in the midgut and Malpighian tubules in the fourth instar larvae and the abdomen of adults. Expression of BoGSTd2 was significantly upregulated following exposure to chlorpyrifos and clothianidin. In vitro inhibition and metabolic assays indicated that recombinant BoGSTd2 could not directly metabolize chlorpyrifos and clothianidin. Nevertheless, disk diffusion assays indicated that BoGSTd2 plays an important role in protection against oxidative stress. RNAi assays showed that BoGSTd2 participates in the elimination of reactive oxygen species induced by chlorpyrifos and clothianidin. These results strongly suggest that BoGSTd2 plays an important role in chlorpyrifos and clothianidin detoxification in B. odoriphaga by protecting tissues from oxidative stress induced by these insecticides.


Assuntos
Dípteros/enzimologia , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Inseticidas/metabolismo , Animais , Clorpirifos/metabolismo , Dípteros/genética , Dípteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dípteros/metabolismo , Glutationa Transferase/genética , Guanidinas/metabolismo , Inativação Metabólica , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Larva/enzimologia , Larva/genética , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/metabolismo , Neonicotinoides/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Tiazóis/metabolismo
6.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 159: 34-40, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400782

RESUMO

The present study investigated the insecticidal activity of the different organic extracts from the entomopathogenic fungi, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Metarhizium anisopliae, Purpureocillium lilacinum, and Trichoderma longibrachiatum towards cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii. The methanol extracts from the mycelia and spores of C. cladosporioides and P. lilacinum exhibited the highest insecticidal activity against A. gossypii compared with other extracts, which LC50 values were recorded to be 57.60 and 94.18 ppm, respectively. The major constituents identified in both methanol extracts by GC-MS analysis were linoleic acid and palmitic acid. The methanol extracts of C. cladosporioides and P. lilacinum caused a voluminous increase in the total carbohydrates content of A. gossypii adults, while the total protein content was significantly decreased by both extracts. The activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were significantly reduced by methanol extracts. The P. lilacinum extract caused a considerable reduction in the activity of glutathione-S-transferase (GST), α- and ß-esterase by 28.9, 27.9 and 23.4%, respectively. Both extracts induced a significant increase in phenoloxidase and chitinase activity of A. gossypii adults. These results suggest that C. cladosporioides and P. lilacinum methanol extracts could be used as a promising approach for the management of A. gossypii in many economically crops.


Assuntos
Afídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Gossypium/parasitologia , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Alanina Transaminase/genética , Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Animais , Quitinases/genética , Quitinases/metabolismo , Glutationa Transferase/genética , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Dose Letal Mediana , Metanol/química , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/genética , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo
7.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 323, 2019 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319801

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exogenous 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) positively regulates plants chlorophyll synthesis and protects them against environmental stresses, although the protection mechanism is not fully clear. Here, we explored the effects of ALA on chlorophyll synthesis in tomato plants, which are sensitive to low temperature. We also examined the roles of the glutathione S-transferase (GSTU43) gene, which is involved in ALA-induced tolerance to oxidation stress and regulation of chlorophyll synthesis under low temperature. RESULTS: Exogenous ALA alleviated low temperature caused chlorophyll synthesis obstacle of uroporphyrinogen III (UROIII) conversion to protoporphyrin IX (Proto IX), and enhanced the production of chlorophyll and its precursors, including endogenous ALA, Proto IX, Mg-protoporphyrin IX (Mg-proto IX), and protochlorophyll (Pchl), under low temperature in tomato leaves. However, ALA did not regulate chlorophyll synthesis at the level of transcription. Notably, ALA up-regulated the GSTU43 gene and protein expression and increased GST activity. Silencing of GSTU43 with virus-induced gene silencing reduced the activities of GST, superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and glutathione reductase, and increased the membrane lipid peroxidation; while fed with ALA significant increased all these antioxidase activities and antioxidant contents, and alleviated the membrane damage. CONCLUSIONS: ALA triggered GST activity encoded by GSTU43, and increased tomato tolerance to low temperature-induced oxidative stress, perhaps with the assistance of ascorbate- and/or a glutathione-regenerating cycles, and actively regulated the plant redox homeostasis. This latter effect reduced the degree of membrane lipid peroxidation, which was essential for the coordinated synthesis of chlorophyll.


Assuntos
Ácido Aminolevulínico/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Genes de Plantas/fisiologia , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Ácido Aminolevulínico/farmacologia , Resposta ao Choque Frio , Glutationa Transferase/genética , Homeostase/efeitos dos fármacos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Lycopersicon esculentum/efeitos dos fármacos , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/fisiologia , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(32): 9060-9069, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339696

RESUMO

Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) play an active role in the development of drug resistance by numerous cancer cells, including melanoma cells, which is a major cause of chemotherapy failure. As part of our continuous effort to explore why dietary polyphenols bearing the catechol moiety (dietary catechols) show usually anticancer activity, catechol-type diphenylbutadiene (3,4-DHB) was selected as a model of dietary catechols to probe whether they work as pro-oxidative chemosensitizers via GST inhibition in melanoma cells. It was found that, in human melanoma A375 cells, 3,4-DHB is easily converted to its ortho-quinone via copper-containing tyrosinase-mediated two-electron oxidation along with generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) derived from the oxidation; the resulting ortho-quinone and ROS are responsible for its ability to sensitize the cisplatin-resistant cells by inhibiting GST, followed by induction of apoptosis in an ASK1-JNK/p38 signaling cascade and mitochondria-dependent pathway. This work provides further evidence to support that dietary catechols exhibit antimelanoma activity by virtue of their tyrosinase-dependent pro-oxidative role and gives useful information for designing polyphenol-inspired GST inhibitors and sensitizers in chemotherapy against melanoma.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Butadienos/farmacologia , Catecóis/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Glutationa Transferase/antagonistas & inibidores , Melanoma/enzimologia , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/química , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/metabolismo , Apoptose , Butadienos/química , Butadienos/metabolismo , Catecóis/química , Catecóis/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/metabolismo , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Humanos , Melanoma/metabolismo , Melanoma/fisiopatologia , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Modelos Químicos , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
9.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; 102(1): e21599, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31328816

RESUMO

A complementary DNA that encodes an omega-class glutathione S-transferase (GST) of the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (nlGSTO), was isolated by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. A recombinant protein (nlGSTO) was obtained via overexpression in the Escherichia coli cells and purified. nlGSTO catalyzes the biotransformation of glutathione with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, a general substrate for GST, as well as with dehydroascorbate to synthesize ascorbate. Mutation experiments revealed that putative substrate-binding sites, including Phe28, Cys29, Phe30, Arg176, and Lue225, were important for glutathione transferase and dehydroascorbate reductase activities. As ascorbate is a reducing agent, nlGSTO may participate in antioxidant resistance.


Assuntos
Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Hemípteros/enzimologia , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de DNA
10.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 182: 109416, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31301596

RESUMO

The main objectives of this study were to purify the glutathione S-transfereses (GSTs) and assess the effect of high doses of acrylamide (ACR) on male albino Wistar rat liver, kidney, testis and bran GST activities, and expression analysis of GST. ACR (50 mg/300 ml) was ingested for 40 days (20 doses) in drinking water on alternative days, on 40 day post ingestion the control and treated tissues were collected for GST purification by affinity column and biochemical characterization of GSTs by substrate specificities, and GST expression by immuno dot blots. In the analysis of the purified GSTs, we observed that liver GSTs were resolved in to three bands known as Yc, Yb and Ya; kidney GSTs were resolved in to two bands known as Yc and Ya; testis and brain GSTs were resolved as four bands known as Yc, Yb, Yß and Yδ on 12.5% sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel (SDS PAGE). In the analysis of biochemical characterization, we observed a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in the specific activities of liver GST isoforms with the substrates 1-chloro 2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB), bromosulfophthalein (BSP), p-nitrophenyl acetate (pNPA), p-nitrobenzyl chloride (pNBC) and cumene hydroperoxide (CHP), but showed no activity with ethacrynic acid (ECA) and significant decrease (p < 0.05) in the specific activities of kidney GST isoforms with the substrates CDNB, pNPA, pNBC and CHP, but showed no activity with BSP and ECA, and a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in the specific activities of testis and brain GST isoforms with the substrates CDNB, BSP, pNPA, pNBC, ECA and CHP. In the analysis of immuno dot blots, we observed a decreased expression of liver, kidney, testis and brain GSTs. Through the affinity purification and biochemical characterization, we observed a tissue specific distribution of GSTs that is liver GSTs possess Yc, Yb and Ya sub units known as alpha (α) and mu (µ) class GSTs; kidney GSTs possess Yc and Ya sub units known as (α) alpha class GST; testis and brain GSTs possess Yc, Yb, Yß and Yδ sub units known as alpha (α), mu (µ) and pi (π) class GSTs. Purification studies, biochemical characterization and immuno dot blot analysis were revealed the GSTs were sensitive to high doses of ACR and the high level exposure to ACR cause the damage of detoxification function of GST due to decreased expression and hence lead to cellular dysfunction of vital organs.


Assuntos
Acrilamida/toxicidade , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Animais , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Glutationa/metabolismo , Isoenzimas , Rim/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Nitrobenzenos , Nitrofenóis , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Especificidade por Substrato , Testículo/metabolismo , Distribuição Tecidual
11.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 337, 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287014

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aedes aegypti were found developing in the water in open public drains (drain-water, DW) in Jaffna city in northern Sri Lanka, a location where the arboviral diseases dengue and chikungunya are endemic. METHODS: Susceptibilities to the common insecticides dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), malathion, propoxur, permethrin and deltamethrin and activities of the insecticide-detoxifying enzymes carboxylesterase (EST), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and monooxygenase (MO) were compared in adult Ae. aegypti developing in DW and fresh water (FW). RESULTS: DW Ae. aegypti were resistant to the pyrethroids deltamethrin and permethrin, while FW Ae. aegypti were susceptible to deltamethrin but possibly resistant to permethrin. Both DW and FW Ae. aegypti were resistant to DDT, malathion and propoxur. Greater pyrethroid resistance in DW Ae. aegypti was consistent with higher GST and MO activities. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate the potential for insecticide resistance developing in Ae. aegypti adapted to DW. Urbanization in arboviral disease-endemic countries is characterized by a proliferation of open water drains and therefore the findings identify a potential new challenge to global health.


Assuntos
Aedes/enzimologia , Arbovirus/fisiologia , Resistência a Inseticidas , Mosquitos Vetores/enzimologia , Águas Residuárias/parasitologia , Aedes/efeitos dos fármacos , Aedes/virologia , Animais , Carboxilesterase/metabolismo , DDT/farmacologia , Feminino , Saúde Global , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Humanos , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Malation/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Oxigenases de Função Mista/metabolismo , Mosquitos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Nitrilos/farmacologia , Permetrina/farmacologia , Propoxur/farmacologia , Piretrinas/farmacologia
12.
Aquat Toxicol ; 214: 105255, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31325645

RESUMO

The heavy metal cadmium readily accumulates in organisms, causing damage. In this study, juvenile marine shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus were exposed to cadmium (Cd2+; 5, 50 and 500 µg L-1). Cd accumulation and antioxidant-related indices were determined, and damage to biomolecules was assessed, after 24, 48 and 96 h. Cd bioaccumulation in M. japonicus increased with exposure time and concentration, which reached the highest value at 96 h. The data showed that 5, 50 and 500 µg L-1 Cd increased glutathione (GSH) content and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) in a Cd-dose-dependent manner, but 5 and 50 µg L-1 Cd had no effect on caspase-3 activity. The expression levels of SOD, GST, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), metallothionein (MT), p53 and caspase-3 genes were rapidly increased after 50 and 500 µg L-1 Cd exposure, and remained at a significantly higher level than in the control after 96 h of exposure. After exposure to 5, 50 and 500 µg L-1 Cd, F-value (the ratio between double-stranded DNA and total DNA) remained high at 24 h, however, as the exposure time increased, the F-value decreased in a dose-dependent manner. An increase in malondialdehyde content was also observed following exposure to 50 and 500 µg L-1 Cd. Our data suggest that Cd induces oxidative stress, molecular damage and apoptosis in juvenile M. japonicus in a concentration- and time-dependent manner.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Crustáceos/fisiologia , Exposição Ambiental , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Caspase 3/genética , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Crustáceos/efeitos dos fármacos , Crustáceos/enzimologia , Glutationa/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Metalotioneína/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
13.
Aquat Toxicol ; 214: 105262, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31351400

RESUMO

To understand the toxic effects of nitrite exposure on crayfish, expression of genes involved in the immune system, the antioxidant defense, and the heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) was measured after 12, 24, and 48 h of different nitrite concentrations exposure in the hepatopancreas and hemocytes of Procambarus clarkii. Nitrite exposure up-regulated mRNA levels of cytoplasmic Mn superoxide dismutase (cMn-SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST), after 24 h nitrite exposure. At 48 h, nitrite exposure decreased the mRNA levels of mitochondrial MnSOD (mMn-SOD), CAT, and GPx. High concentrations of nitrite at 48 h of exposure decreased expression of ß-1,3-glucan-bingding protein in the hepatopancreas, and lysozyme expression in hemocytes. Nitrite exposure caused little effect on the heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) in hemocytes. Through overall clustering analysis, we found that 24 h of nitrite exposure caused stronger transcriptional responses. Our study indicated that the response of P. clarkii to acute nitrite exposure was exposure time-dependent. These results will help to understand the dynamic response pattern of crustaceans to nitrite pollution, and improve our understanding of the toxicological mechanisms of nitrite in crustaceans.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Astacoidea/genética , Astacoidea/imunologia , Exposição Ambiental , Nitritos/toxicidade , Transcrição Genética , Animais , Astacoidea/efeitos dos fármacos , Catalase/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/metabolismo , Hemócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemócitos/enzimologia , Hepatopâncreas/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatopâncreas/enzimologia , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
14.
Aquat Toxicol ; 214: 105233, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31301545

RESUMO

The water bodies are greatly influenced by heavy metal contamination and global increasing temperature. Arsenic (As) is one of the most dangerous widespread pollutants that pose health threats to human, animals and fishes. Considering the above, the study has been carried out to delineate 96 h median lethal concentration of arsenic alone and in combination with high temperature (As-T, 34 °C) by conducting static non-renewable bio-assay acute toxicity in Pangasianodon hypophthalmus (average weight 6.25 ±â€¯0.69 g, length 5.32 cm). Effect of definitive doses such as 25, 26, 27, 28, 29 and 30 mg/L of As alone and in combination with high temperature (As-T) were evaluated on stress biomarkers and cellular metabolism of P. hypophthalmus. The lethal concentration (96 h LC50) of As alone and in combination with high temperature was found to be 28.16 mg/L and 26.88 mg/L, respectively. The stress biomarkers in terms of catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione-s-transferase (GST) in liver, gill, brain and kidney, blood glucose and NBT were remarkable higher (p < 0.01) in comparison to unexposed group (control group). Brain neurotransmitter enzyme, AChE, immunological status (blood glucose and NBT) and cellular metabolic enzymes (lactate dehydrogenase LDH, malate dehydrogenase MDH, aspartate aminotransferase AST, and alanine aminotransferase ALT, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase G6PDH and ATPase) were noticeably (p < 0.01) altered by As and As-T exposure. The histopathological study exhibited devastating changes with exposure to As and As-T such as bile stagnation, hepatocyte with irregular nucleus, eosinophilic granules in the cytoplasm, necrosis, and nuclear hypertrophy in liver and curling of secondary lamellae, hypertrophy of lamellar epithelium, blood congestion, incomplete fusion of secondary lamellae, complete fusion of several lamellae and aneurysm in gill. Overall results clearly indicate that acute exposure of As and high temperature led to pronounced deleterious alterations on stress biomarkers and cellular and metabolic activities of P. hypophthalmus.


Assuntos
Arsênico/toxicidade , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Peixes-Gato/imunologia , Peixes-Gato/metabolismo , Temperatura Alta , Estresse Oxidativo , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Glicemia/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Brânquias/metabolismo , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Glicólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Dose Letal Mediana , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Neurotransmissores/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
15.
Aquat Toxicol ; 213: 105213, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200332

RESUMO

Atrazine is a widely used pesticide which acts as an endocrine disruptor in various organisms. The aim of this study was to investigate adverse effects of atrazine on life parameters, oxidative stress, and ecdysteroid biosynthetic pathway in the marine copepod Tigriopus japonicus. In T. japonicus, no mortality was shown in response to atrazine up to 20 mg/L in acute toxicity assessment. In nauplii, retardation in the growth and prolonged molting and metamorphosis resulted under chronic exposure of atrazine at 20 mg/L. In addition, body sizes of T. japonicus nauplii were significantly decreased (P < 0.01 in length and P < 0.001 in width) in response to 20 mg/L of atrazine. Furthermore, atrazine induced oxidative stress by the generation of reactive oxygen species at all concentrations compared to the control in the nauplii. Also, significant increase in glutathione-S transferase activity was observed in adult T. japonicus at low concentration of atrazine. To understand effects of atrazine on ecdysteroid biosynthetic pathway-involved genes (e.g., neverland, CYP307E1, CYP306A1, CYP302A1, CYP3022A1 [CYP315A1], CYP314A1, and CYP18D1) were examined with mRNA expressions of ecdysone receptor (EcR) and ultraspiracle (USP) in response to 20 mg/L atrazine in nauplii and adults. In the nauplii, these genes were significantly downregulated (P < 0.05) in response to atrazine, compared to the control but not in the adult T. japonicus. These results suggest that atrazine can interfere in vivo life parameters by oxidative stress-induced retrogression and ecdysteroid biosynthetic pathway in this species.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos/metabolismo , Atrazina/toxicidade , Vias Biossintéticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Copépodes/efeitos dos fármacos , Ecdisteroides/biossíntese , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos/efeitos dos fármacos , Organismos Aquáticos/genética , Atrazina/química , Vias Biossintéticas/genética , Tamanho Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Copépodes/genética , Copépodes/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
16.
Aquat Toxicol ; 213: 105227, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226596

RESUMO

The environmental impact of exposure to 3D-printed plastics as well as potential migration of toxic chemicals from 3D-printed plastics remains largely unexplored. In this work we applied leachates from plastics fabricated using a stereolithography (SLA) process to early developmental stages of zebrafish (Danio rerio) to investigate developmental toxicity and neurotoxicity. Migration of unpolymerized photoinitiator, 1-hydroxycyclohexyl phenyl ketone (1-HCHPK) from a plastic solid phase to aqueous media at up to 200 mg/L in the first 24 h was detected using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Both plastic extracts (LC50 22.25% v/v) and 1-HCHPK (LC50 60 mg/L) induced mortality and teratogenicity within 48 h of exposure. Developmental toxicity correlated with in situ generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), an increase in lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation markers and enhanced activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in embryos exposed to concentrations as low as 20% v/v for plastic extracts and 16 mg/L for 1-HCHPK. ROS-induced cellular damage led to induction of caspase-dependent apoptosis which could be pharmacologically inhibited with both antioxidant ascorbic acid and a pan-caspase inhibitor. Neuro-behavioral analysis showed that exposure to plastic leachates reduced spontaneous embryonic movement in 24-36 hpf embryos. Plastic extracts in concentrations above 20% v/v induced rapid retardation of locomotion, changes in photomotor response and habituation to photic stimuli with progressive paralysis in 120 hpf larvae. Significantly decreased acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity with lack of any CNS-specific apoptotic phenotypes as well as lack of changes in motor neuron density, axonal growth, muscle segment integrity or presence of myoseptal defects were detected upon exposure to plastic extracts during embryogenesis. Considering implications of the results for environmental risk assessment and the growing usage of 3D-printing technologies, we speculate that some 3D-printed plastic waste may represent a significant and yet very poorly uncharacterized environmental hazard that merits further investigation on a range of aquatic and terrestrial species.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Sistema Nervoso/efeitos dos fármacos , Plásticos/toxicidade , Impressão Tridimensional , Testes de Toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/fisiologia , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Embrião não Mamífero/efeitos dos fármacos , Embrião não Mamífero/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/metabolismo , Neurônios Motores/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios Motores/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/embriologia
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 685: 795-805, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31238283

RESUMO

This study investigates the combined effects of increased temperatures and copper on the early live stages of the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and the blue mussel Mytilus edulis as well as their hybrids. For this purpose, developmental abnormalities was measured after 48 h of exposure as well as a battery of oxidative stress markers such as, antioxidant enzyme activities, lipid peroxidation measured as malondialdehyde accumulation (MDA) and metallothionein contents (MT) and related gene expression pattern. Embryotoxicity and metal accumulation in tissues of mussel larvae exposed to a sublethal concentration of copper (10 µg/L) along with a slight temperature increase from 18 °C to22 °C were significantly increased after 48 h of exposure. Co-exposure to Cu and elevated temperatures significantly increased the antioxidant enzyme activities termed as, glutathione-S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and being maintained at 22 °C only in pure M. galloprovincialis (PG) larvae and female galloprovincialis x male edulis hybrid larvae (HFG). A significant decrease in mRNA abundance of cat, sod, gst gene transcription levels was showed in the same species. Furthermore, metallothionein accumulation increased significantly in PG D-larvae exposed to copper at 22 °C. The same pattern was observed in term of gene expression of MTs cognates (mt-10 and mt-20). Significant increase of MDA levels in pure M. edulis (PE) larvae and their female M. edulis x male M. galloprovincialis hybrid larvae (HFE) combined with a low MTs content were observed. Overall, this study provides clues about the relatively higher resistance and resilience of M. galloprovincialis species compared to M. edulis species under environmental pollution and future climate change scenarios.


Assuntos
Cobre/toxicidade , Mytilus/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Temperatura Ambiente , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Metalotioneína/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
18.
Environ Pollut ; 246: 904-913, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31159140

RESUMO

Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) has been frequently detected in environmental media and biological samples. However, knowledge of its adverse health consequences is limited. In the current study, Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans, L1 larvae) were exposed to TDCPP at environmentally relevant concentrations (control, 0.1, 1, 100 and 1000 µg L-1) for 72 h to explore any association between TDCPP and the aging process. Some of the degenerative age-related indicators were observed, including locomotion behaviors and lifespan. As crucial biomarkers of aging, the accumulation of lipofuscin, and lipid peroxidation (LPO) products exemplified by 4-hydroxynon-2-enal (4-HNE) were detected. This product forms as a result of oxidative stress, as confirmed by an N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) pharmacological assay. Moreover, a significant increase in reactive oxide species (ROS) production in a dose-dependent manner using a fluorescent probe was observed. For the underlying molecular mechanism of the above aging phenotypes, significantly upregulated transcription of genes related to antioxidant systems, especially a subset of glutathione S-transferase (gst-5, gst-6, gst-9, gst-10, gst-19, gst-24, gst-26, gst-29, gst-33, and gst-38), was found by RNA-Seq and further confirmed by RT-qPCR. The elevated glutathione S-transferase (GST) was attributed to the significant increase in 4-HNE because mutations in gst-5 and gst-24 inhibited the conjugation of GSTs with 4-HNE. Therefore, GST play an indispensable role in the detoxification process of TDCPP exposure and further confirmed LPO accumulation at the molecular mechanism level. In conclusion, TDCPP accelerated the aging process induced by the LPO products, 4-HNE, response to reactive oxidative species in C. elegans.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Aldeídos/metabolismo , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Compostos Organofosforados/toxicidade , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Envelhecimento/genética , Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans/fisiologia , Glutationa Transferase/genética , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Estresse Oxidativo
19.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(22): 22625-22640, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31168715

RESUMO

Endogeic earthworm Metaphire posthuma (Valliant, 1868) is a common biological component of the tropical soil of India and other countries. The species is reported to influence fertility and porosity of soil and bear a high composting potential. Intensive agricultural, industrial, and mining activities increase the amount of toxic metals in soil causing physiological adversity in earthworm and other biotic components in soil. Coelomocytes, the chief immunoeffector cells of earthworm, perform diverse physiological functions under the challenge of toxins and pathogens. The experimental earthworms collected separately from soils with agricultural and tannery activities were subjected to quantitation of prooxidation and antioxidation parameters for estimation of oxidative stress. Total count, cellular aggregation, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), superoxide anion, nitric oxide, activities of phenoloxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione-s-transferase, and amount of total protein were estimated in the coelomocytes of M. posthuma as experimental end points of toxicity screening. Concentrations of cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury were determined in the soil samples to assess the degree of toxic contamination. The increase in the amount of prooxidants and decrease in the activities of antioxidant enzymes indicated the signs of oxidative stress in the coelomocytes of the organism. Aggregation of circulating coelomocytes is considered as an immune response involved in pathogen encapsulation response as reported in many invertebrates. Decrease in coelomocyte aggregation in earthworm collected from contaminated sites suggested a state of inappropriate shift of the innate immune status. Toxin-induced oxidative stress and reductions in cell aggregation response are the signs of immunocompromisation of M. posthuma. Present findings bear a prospect of this experimental species as an indicator of soil pollution.


Assuntos
Coelomomyces/fisiologia , Metais/toxicidade , Oligoquetos/fisiologia , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Agricultura , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Cádmio/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Agregação Celular , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Índia , Mineração , Oligoquetos/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Superóxidos/metabolismo
20.
Life Sci ; 231: 116572, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207309

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate whether some of the cephalosporin group antibiotics have inhibition effects on GR and GST enzymes with important functions in the metabolic pathway. METHODS: In this study, some selected cephalosporin group antibiotics on GST and GR enzyme was carried out using 96 rats. 16 groups (16 × 6) were created from these rats, divided to another 4 groups (4 × 24). The resulting groups were named as sham groups, cefazolin groups, cefuroxime groups and cefoperazone groups, respectively. The antibiotics used were injected to cefazolin, cefuroxime and cefoperazone groups. The inhibition effects of the antibiotics were measured in the different time intervals (1st, 3th, 5th, 7th). The statistical investigation of the results was performed using the SPSS software program. RESULTS: Results revealed the complex effects of the tested substances on GR and GST activity at different time intervals and in different tissues (p < 0.05). This indicated that the tested substances could be exposed to different interactions in vivo. CONCLUSION: The tested antibiotics showed some significant inhibition effects on the GST and GR enzyme activity in some tissues of brain, eye and muscle. The interaction of enzyme - the drug is a key factor to highlight the toxicological mechanism. For this reason, the results obtained from in vivo experiments are crucial to explane the physiological properties of the enzymes.


Assuntos
Cefalosporinas/farmacologia , Glutationa Redutase/antagonistas & inibidores , Glutationa Transferase/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Cefazolina/farmacologia , Cefoperazona/farmacologia , Cefuroxima/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Glutationa/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/antagonistas & inibidores , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Glutationa Redutase/metabolismo , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Ratos
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