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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4467, 2020 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948751

RESUMO

Recent studies have reported that upregulation of disulfide-bond A oxidoreductase-like protein (DsbA-L) prevented lipid-induced renal injury in diabetic nephropathy (DN). However, the role and regulation of proximal tubular DsbA-L for renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis (TIF) remains unclear. In current study, we found that a proximal tubules-specific DsbA-L knockout mouse (PT-DsbA-L-KO) attenuated UUO-induced TIF, renal cell apoptosis and inflammation. Mechanistically, the DsbA-L interacted with Hsp90 in mitochondria of BUMPT cells which activated the signaling of Smad3 and p53 to produce connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and then resulted in accumulation of ECM of BUMPT cells and mouse kidney fibroblasts. In addition, the progression of TIF caused by UUO, ischemic/reperfusion (I/R), aristolochic acid, and repeated acute low-dose cisplatin was also alleviated in PT-DsbA-L-KO mice via the activation of Hsp90 /Smad3 and p53/CTGF axis. Finally, the above molecular changes were verified in the kidney biopsies from patients with obstructive nephropathy (Ob). Together, these results suggest that DsbA-L in proximal tubular cells promotes TIF via activation of the Hsp90 /Smad3 and p53/CTGF axis.


Assuntos
Fibrose/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Glutationa Transferase/genética , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Nefropatias/genética , Idoso , Animais , Apoptose , Fator de Crescimento do Tecido Conjuntivo/metabolismo , Nefropatias Diabéticas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Fibrose/patologia , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP90/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação , Rim/lesões , Nefropatias/patologia , Túbulos Renais Proximais/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Proteína Smad3/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo
2.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 202: 110954, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800228

RESUMO

Current study aims to determine difference in metal accumulation pattern in muscle of Liza parsia (pelagic, omnivore), Amblypharyngodon mola (surface feeder, herbivore) and Mystus gulio (benthic, carnivore) depending on their niche and feeding habit and how it affects the endogenous antioxidants and glucose metabolism in fish muscle. Fishes were collected from Malancha, Diamond Harbour and Chandanpiri, West Bengal, India. Concentrations of lead, zinc, cadmium, chromium were measured in water, sediment and fish muscle. Metal pollution index (MPI) and bioconcentration factor (BCF) was calculated to evaluate the ability of fish to accumulate specific metals in muscle tissue from the aquatic environment. Metal concentrations were found significantly higher (P < 0.05) in water, sediment, fish muscles from Malancha than Chandanpiri and Diamond Harbour. L. parsia (MPI: 0.4-1.6) showed highest metal deposition in their muscle followed by A. mola (MPI: 0.37-1.38) and M. gulio (MPI: 0.2-1.2). Malondealdehyde, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione S transferase, glutathione reductase and cortisol levels increased in case of L. parsia from Malancha and Chandanpiri. Succinate dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase, Ca+2 ATPase and cytochrome C oxidase levels were significantly (P < 0.05) lower at Malancha and Chandanpiri than Diamond Harbour. Heat shock protein (HSP70) expression was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in all fish species at Malancha followed by Chandanpiri and Diamond Harbour. Glucose, glycogen, hexokinase, phosphofructokinase and glycogen phosphorylase levels varied between sites and selected fish species. Serum cortisol level was measured and found to be the highest in L. parsia from Malancha (2.94 ± 0.12 ng/ml) and the lowest in M. gulio from Diamond Harbour (0.7 ± 0.05 ng/ml). The results indicate that metal toxicity alters antioxidant levels, oxidative status and energy production in fish in species specific manner. Our results also indicate that Mystus has the highest degree of adaptability in response to metal toxicity possibly due to its specific food habit and niche position. Therefore, it can be concluded that maintenance of oxidative and metabolic status to combat metal-induced oxidative load will be helpful for the fishes to acquire better resistance under such eco-physiological stress. Alteration of niche and interactive segregation in aquatic organism may be one of the key modulator of resistance against such stress.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Cyprinidae/metabolismo , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Glucose/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Músculos/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Catalase/metabolismo , Cyprinidae/fisiologia , Glutationa Redutase/metabolismo , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Índia , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Músculos/enzimologia , Músculos/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Especificidade da Espécie , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4071, 2020 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32792491

RESUMO

Arrest of oligodendrocyte (OL) differentiation and remyelination following myelin damage in multiple sclerosis (MS) is associated with neurodegeneration and clinical worsening. We show that Glutathione S-transferase 4α (Gsta4) is highly expressed during adult OL differentiation and that Gsta4 loss impairs differentiation into myelinating OLs in vitro. In addition, we identify Gsta4 as a target of both dimethyl fumarate, an existing MS therapy, and clemastine fumarate, a candidate remyelinating agent in MS. Overexpression of Gsta4 reduces expression of Fas and activity of the mitochondria-associated Casp8-Bid-axis in adult oligodendrocyte precursor cells, leading to improved OL survival during differentiation. The Gsta4 effect on apoptosis during adult OL differentiation was corroborated in vivo in both lysolecithin-induced demyelination and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis models, where Casp8 activity was reduced in Gsta4-overexpressing OLs. Our results identify Gsta4 as an intrinsic regulator of OL differentiation, survival and remyelination, as well as a potential target for future reparative MS therapies.


Assuntos
Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Oligodendroglia/citologia , Oligodendroglia/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/genética , Apoptose/fisiologia , Caspase 8/genética , Caspase 8/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Células Cultivadas , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Citometria de Fluxo , Glutationa Transferase/genética , Homeostase/genética , Homeostase/fisiologia , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Microglia/citologia , Microglia/metabolismo , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Esclerose Múltipla/genética , Esclerose Múltipla/metabolismo , Fagocitose/genética , Fagocitose/fisiologia , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Ratos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Remielinização/genética , Remielinização/fisiologia
4.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 204: 111069, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758696

RESUMO

We studied the absorption, cytotoxicity and oxidative stress markers of Paralytic Shellfish Toxins (PST) from three extracts from Alexandrium catenella and A. ostenfeldii, in middle Oncorhynchus mykiss intestine in vitro and ex vivo preparations. We measured glutathione (GSH) content, glutathione-S transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR) and catalase (CAT) enzymatic activity, and lipid peroxidation in isolated epithelium exposed to 0.13 and 1.3 µM PST. ROS production and lysosomal membrane stability (as neutral red retention time 50%, NRRT50) were analyzed in isolated enterocytes exposed to PST alone or plus 3 µM of the ABCC transport inhibitor MK571. In addition, the concentration-dependent effects of PST on NRRT50 were assayed in a concentration range from 0 to 1.3 µM PST. We studied the effects of three different PST extracts on the transport rate of the ABCC substrate DNP-SG by isolated epithelium. The extract with highest inhibition capacity was selected for studying polarized DNP-SG transport in everted and non-everted intestinal segments. We registered lower GSH content and GST activity, and higher GR activity, with no significant changes in CAT activity, lipid peroxidation or ROS level. PST exposure decreased NRRT50 in a concentration-depend manner (IC50 = 0.0045 µM), but PST effects were not augmented by addition of MK571. All the three PST extracts inhibited ABCC transport activity, but this inhibition was effective only when the toxins were applied to the apical side of the intestine and DNP-SG transport was measured at the basolateral side. Our results indicate that PST are absorbed by the enterocytes from the intestine lumen. Inside the enterocytes, these toxins decrease GSH content and inhibit the basolateral ABCC transporters affecting the normal functions of the cell. Furthermore, PST produce a strong cytotoxic effect to the enterocytes by damaging the lysosomal membrane, even at low, non-neurotoxic concentrations.


Assuntos
Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Glutationa/análogos & derivados , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Lisossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Oncorhynchus mykiss/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Saxitoxina/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Catalase/metabolismo , Dinoflagelados/metabolismo , Enterócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterócitos/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Frutos do Mar
5.
Aquat Toxicol ; 226: 105565, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32682195

RESUMO

Pyrene (PYR) and fluorene (FLU) are among the sixteen priority Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) of the United States Environmental Protection Agency and are both frequently detected in contaminated sites. Due to the importance of bivalve mollusks in biomonitoring programs and the scarce information on the biotransformation system in these organisms, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of PYR and FLU at the transcriptional level and the enzymatic activities of some biotransformation systems in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, and to evaluate the histological effects in their soft tissues. Oysters C. gigas were exposed for 24 h and 96 h to PYR (0.25 and 0.5 µM) and FLU (0.6 and 1.2 µM). After exposure, transcript levels of cytochrome P450 coding genes (CYP1-like, CYP2-like, CYP2AU2, CYP356A1, CYP17α-like), glutathione S tranferase genes (omega GSTO-like and microsomal, MGST-like) and sulfotransferase gene (SULT-like), and the activity of ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), Glutathione S-transferase (GST) and microssomal GST (MGST) were evaluated in gills. Histologic changes were also evaluated after the exposure period. PYR and FLU bioconcentrated in oyster soft tissues. The half-life time of PYR in water was lower than fluorene, which is in accordance to the higher lipophilicity and bioconcentration of the former. EROD activity was below the limit of detection in all oysters exposed for 96 h to PYR and FLU. The reproductive stage of the oysters exposed to PYR was post-spawn. Exposure to PYR caused tubular atrophy in digestive diverticula, but had no effect on transcript levels of biotransformation genes. However, the organisms exposed for 96 h to PYR 0.5 µM showed higher MGST activity, suggesting a protective role against oxidative stress in gills of oysters under higher levels of PYR in the tissues. Increased number of mucous cells in mantle were observed in oysters exposed to the higher FLU concentration, suggesting a defense mechanisms. Oysters exposed for 24 h to FLU 1.2 µM were in the ripe stage of gonadal development and showed higher transcript levels of CYP2AU2, GSTO-like and SULT-like genes, suggesting a role in the FLU biotransformation. In addition, after 96 h of exposure to FLU there was a significant increase of mucous cells in the mantle of oysters but no effect was observed on the EROD, total GST and MGST activities. These results suggest that PAH have different effects on transcript levels of biotransformation genes and enzyme activities, however these differences could also be related to the reproductive stage.


Assuntos
Crassostrea/efeitos dos fármacos , Fluorenos/toxicidade , Pirenos/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Biotransformação/efeitos dos fármacos , Crassostrea/metabolismo , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A1/metabolismo , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Fluorenos/metabolismo , Brânquias/efeitos dos fármacos , Brânquias/metabolismo , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Pirenos/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
6.
Life Sci ; 257: 118132, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32710949

RESUMO

AIM: Arsenic, an environmental contaminant, represents a public health problem worldwide. Studies have shown its association with molecular mechanisms related to cardiomyocytes redox balance. However, the microstructure and ultrastructure of cardiac tissue, as well as the activity of its antioxidant defenses front of disturbances in the mineral bioavailability induced by arsenic are still scarce. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate if arsenic exposure might induce structural and ultrastructural damages in cardiac tissue, including pathological remodeling of the parenchyma and stroma. Moreover, its impact on micromineral distribution and antioxidant enzymes activity in heart tissue was also evaluated. MAIN METHODS: Adult male Wistar rats were divided into three groups that received 0, 1 and 10 mg/L sodium arsenite in drinking water for eight weeks. The hearts were collected and subjected to structural and ultrastructural analysis, mineral microanalysis and antioxidant enzymes quantification. Functional markers of cardiac damages were evaluated using serum samples. KEY FINDINGS: Arsenic exposure induced dose-dependent structural and ultrastructural remodeling of cardiac tissue, with parenchyma loss, increase of stroma components, collagen deposition, and pathological damages such as inflammation, sarcomere disorganization, mitochondria degeneration and myofilament dissociation. Moreover, this metalloid was bioaccumulated in the tissue affecting its micromineral content, which resulted in antioxidant imbalance and increased levels of oxidative stress and cardiac markers. SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, our findings indicate that the heart is a potential target to arsenic toxicity, and long-term exposure to this metalloid must be avoided, once it might induce several cardiac tissue pathologies.


Assuntos
Arsênico/toxicidade , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Miocárdio/patologia , Remodelação Ventricular/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Arsênico/administração & dosagem , Arsênico/análise , Catalase/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Masculino , Miocárdio/química , Miocárdio/ultraestrutura , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 201: 110871, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32559692

RESUMO

Microplastics (MPs) are of increasing concern for filter feeding marine and freshwater species. Additionally MPs can sorb hydrophobic contaminants from the water, potentially providing an additional pathway of exposure of aquatic species to contaminants. An acute 48 h laboratory study was conducted to investigate the effects of microplastics and triclosan, both individually and combined, on New Zealand's green-lipped mussel, Perna canaliculus. Biomarkers included clearance rate, oxygen uptake, byssus production; and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity and lipid peroxidation in the gill tissue. Microplastics and triclosan, both individually and combined significantly decreased oxygen uptake and byssus production. These physiological responses were not observed when the microplastics were spiked with triclosan. Triclosan, both alone and spiked to microplastics, increased mussel oxidative stress markers including SOD activity and lipid peroxidation. An enhanced effect was observed on the SOD enzyme activity when mussels were exposed to microplastics spiked with triclosan. No effects on the biochemical biomarkers were observed for mussels exposed to microplastic only. Microplastics enhanced the uptake of triclosan in mussel tissue compared with triclosan only treatments indicating that microplastics potentially provide an additional pathway of exposure to hydrophobic contaminants.


Assuntos
Microplásticos/toxicidade , Perna (Organismo)/efeitos dos fármacos , Triclosan/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Brânquias/efeitos dos fármacos , Brânquias/metabolismo , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Nova Zelândia , Estresse Oxidativo , Perna (Organismo)/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Triclosan/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
8.
Life Sci ; 256: 117961, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32534039

RESUMO

The study focuses on whether antigenic proteins encapsulated in biopolymeric nanoparticles can augment protective efficacy. Chitosan nanoparticles (ChN) were prepared by ionic gelation method and Culture Filtrate Proteins (CFP) - CFP-10 and CFP-21 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) were encapsulated in ChN. The binding efficiency of nanoparticles with CFP-10 and CFP-21 proteins was confirmed by UV-Spectrophotometer. The efficacy of nanoparticles-encapsulated antigenic proteins administered intraperitoneal against Mtb aerosol infection was evaluated in Balb/c mice. Protection study was done by bacterial counts [CFU]. CFP-10 and CFP-21 proteins primed cells demonstrated a Th1 bias T cell response in an ex vivo assay. ChN-CFP10 and ChN-CFP21 nanoparticles have both protective and therapeutic potential against Mtb. In the group of mice immunized with CHN-CFP-10 the number of colonies reduced significantly from day 15 to day 60. ChN-CFP-21 showed maximum protection in ChN-CFP-21 immunized mice. ChN-CFP-10 and ChN-CFP-21 clearly showed enhanced protection against Mtb.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Bactérias/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/farmacologia , Quitosana/química , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/química , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Animais , Difusão Dinâmica da Luz , Feminino , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Tamanho da Partícula , Eletricidade Estática
9.
Aquat Toxicol ; 225: 105527, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32599436

RESUMO

A diverse range of chemicals are used in agriculture to increase food production on a large scale, and among them is the use of pesticides such as chlorothalonil, a broad-spectrum fungicide used in the control of foliar fungal diseases. This study aimed to elucidate the effects of chlorothalonil on biochemical biomarkers of oxidative stress in tissues of the fish Danio rerio. To achieve this, animals were exposed for 4 and 7 days, to nominal concentrations of chlorothalonil at 0 µg/L (DMSO, 0.001%), 0.1 µg/L and 10 µg/L, and after the exposure period, the tissues (gills and liver) were removed for biochemical analysis. Antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals (ACAP) and enzyme activities, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL), were evaluated in both tissues. In addition, the concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS), reduced glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels were also analysed. A significant increase in ROS concentration, ACAP levels, GST and GCL activities and a significant reduction of LPO levels in gills exposed to the highest concentration were observed after 4 days. However, there was a significant reduction of ACAP and CAT activity, as well as a significant increase of GST activity and LPO levels in gills exposed to the lower concentration after 7 days. The liver was less affected, presenting a significant reduction in CAT activity and LPO levels after 4 days. However, a significant increase in SOD activity and LPO levels occurred after 7 days. These results indicate that chlorothalonil, after 4 days, caused activation of the antioxidant defence system in gills of animals exposed to the highest concentration. However, after 7 days, the lowest concentration of this compound caused oxidative stress in this same organ. Also, the results show that gills were more affected than the liver, probably because gills can be involved in chlorothalonil metabolisation. Therefore, it is possible that the liver could be exposed to lower chlorothalonil concentrations or less toxic metabolites due to the metabolism taking place in the gills.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Fungicidas Industriais/toxicidade , Nitrilos/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Animais , Catalase/metabolismo , Brânquias/efeitos dos fármacos , Brânquias/enzimologia , Glutationa/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Peróxidos/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
10.
Chemosphere ; 258: 127344, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32554011

RESUMO

Contamination by micro and nano plastics is actually considered as a global environmental preoccupation. The quantification of microplastics in natural habitats and the characterization of their potential effects in marine wild organisms is currently of high importance. The main objective of this work was to investigate the fate and the effects of a microplastic mixture (ratio of 1: polyethylene (PE), 1: polypropylene (PP)) in the wedge clam Donax trunculus. The assimilation kinetics of microplastics particles was assessed in different organs (gills, digestive gland and flesh) using three different protocols (direct observation, H2O2, and HNO3/HCl digestion) in order to compare method's efficacity. The main biological endpoints studied were Aceylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition as a neurotoxicity biomarker, the Catalase (CAT) enzymatic activity and the Gluthation-S-Transfereases (GSTs) activities as oxidative stress and phase II detoxification phase markers, respectively. Results showed that the H2O2 digestion method was more efficient to assess particles assimilation than the direct observation and acid digestion. In all cases no particles were detected in clam's flesh and gills were the first target organ for micro-plastics accumulation. The exposure of Donax truculus to PP/PE mixture (0.06 g/Kg of sand) induce a significant inhibition of AChE activity in both gills and digestive gland and oxidative stress in all organs studied. This study brings new results on the potential accumulation of PP and PE associated to neurotoxicity and oxidative stress of the wedge clam Donax trunculus.


Assuntos
Bivalves/efeitos dos fármacos , Microplásticos/toxicidade , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/etiologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Catalase/metabolismo , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Polietileno/toxicidade , Polipropilenos/toxicidade
11.
Chemosphere ; 258: 127254, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32559492

RESUMO

Glyphosate is the most used herbicide worldwide, targeting physiological pathways in plants. Recent studies have shown that glyphosate can also cause toxic effects in animals. We investigated the glyphosate-based herbicide (GBH)-induced changes in potato (Solanum tuberosum) plant chemistry and the effects of a GBH on the survival rate and oxidative status of the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata). The beetles were reared on potato plants grown in pots containing soil treated with a GBH (Roundup Gold, 450 g/l) or untreated soil (water control). The 2nd instar larvae were introduced to the potato plants and then collected in 2 phases: as 4th instar larvae and as adults. The main glycoalkaloids of the potato plants, α-solanine and α-chaconine, were measured twice during the experiment. The α-solanine was reduced in potato plants grown in GBH-treated soil, which can be detrimental to plant defenses against herbivores. GBH treatment had no effect on the survival rate or body mass of the larvae or the adult beetles. In the larvae, total glutathione (tGSH) concentration and the enzyme activity of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase, and glutathione-S-transferase were increased in the GBH treatment group. In the adult beetles, CAT activity and tGSH levels were affected by the interactive effect of GBH treatment and the body mass. To conclude, environmentally relevant concentrations of a GBH can affect the potato plant's glycoalkaloid concentrations, but are not likely to directly affect the survival rate of the Colorado potato beetle, but instead, modify the antioxidant defense of the beetles via diet.


Assuntos
Besouros/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Solo/química , Solanum tuberosum/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Besouros/metabolismo , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Glicina/toxicidade , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Solanina/análogos & derivados , Solanina/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo
12.
Environ Toxicol ; 35(10): 1091-1099, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32485069

RESUMO

Various pollutants co-exist in the aquatic environment such as carbamazepine (CBZ) and copper (Cu), which can cause complex effects on inhabiting organisms. The toxic impacts of the single substance have been studied extensively. However, the studies about their combined adverse impacts are not enough. In the present study, zebrafish were exposed to environmental relevant concentrations of CBZ (1, 10, and 100 µg/L), Cu (0.5, 5, and 10 µg/L) and the mixtures (1 µg/L CBZ + 0.5 µg/L Cu, 10 µg/L CBZ + 5 µg/L Cu, 100 µg/L CBZ + 10 µg/L Cu) for 45 days, the effects on nervous and antioxidant systems of zebrafish were investigated. The results demonstrated that, in comparison with single exposure group, the combined presence of CBZ and Cu exacerbated the effect of antioxidant system (the ability of inhibition of hydroxyl radicals (IHR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST)) but not nervous system (Acetylcholinesterase [AChE]). The qPCR results supported the changes of corresponding enzymes activities. Hepatic histopathological analysis verified the results of biomarkers. Our work illustrated that the toxicity of mixed pollutants is very complicated, which cannot simply be inferred from the toxicity of single pollutant, and calls for more co-exposure experiments to better understanding of the co-effects of pollutants on aquatic organisms.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Carbamazepina/toxicidade , Cobre/toxicidade , Sistema Nervoso/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Acetilcolinesterase/genética , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Catalase/genética , Catalase/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Regulação para Baixo , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutationa Transferase/genética , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Sistema Nervoso/enzimologia , Sistema Nervoso/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
13.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2476, 2020 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32424161

RESUMO

Birds (Aves) display high metabolic rates and oxygen consumption relative to mammals, increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. Although excess ROS reduces lifespan by causing extensive cellular dysfunction and damage, birds are remarkably long-lived. We address this paradox by identifying the constitutive activation of the NRF2 master antioxidant response in Neoaves (~95% of bird species), providing an adaptive mechanism capable of counterbalancing high ROS levels. We demonstrate that a KEAP1 mutation in the Neoavian ancestor disrupted the repression of NRF2 by KEAP1, leading to constitutive NRF2 activity and decreased oxidative stress in wild Neoaves tissues and cells. Our evidence suggests this ancient mutation induced a compensatory program in NRF2-target genes with functions beyond redox regulation-including feather development-while enabling significant metabolic rate increases that avoid trade-offs with lifespan. The strategy of NRF2 activation sought by intense clinical investigation therefore appears to have also unlocked a massively successful evolutionary trajectory.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Aves/fisiologia , Plumas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Longevidade/fisiologia , Animais , Metabolismo Basal , Evolução Biológica , Aves/genética , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Genômica , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Filogenia , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Transporte Proteico , Ubiquitinação , Regulação para Cima/genética
14.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 199: 110751, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32446104

RESUMO

Tonalide or acetyl hexamethyl tetralin (AHTN) is used as a fragrance additive in various household products. Recently, AHTN has drawn attention owing to its negative health effects on aquatic organisms. Data on AHTN toxicity toward aquatic species are limited. Therefore, this study tested the oxidative stress induced by AHTN exposure on the Rhodeinae sinensis Gunther and Macrobrachium nipponense. In this study, malonaldehyde (MDA) content and the activities of acetyl cholinesterase (AchE), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and catalase (CAT) in R. sinensis Gunther were tested after 30 days of exposure to 30.093, 34.005, 38.426, 43.421, 49.067, 55.444, 62.652, 70.800, and 80.000 µg/L AHTN, respectively. The MDA, AchE, SOD, GST and CAT in M. nipponense were tested after 40 days of exposure to 60.000, 72.000, 86.400, 103.680, 124.416, 149.299, 179.159, 214.991, and 257.989 µg/L AHTN, respectively. In addition, an integrated biomarker response (IBR) index was utilised to evaluate the integrated toxic effects of AHTN on R. sinensis Gunther and M. nipponense. Finally, the predicted no-effect concentrations (PNECs) of AHTN, based on reproduction, biochemistry, survival, chronic toxicity, and acute toxicity endpoints were derived. The results indicated that low concentrations of AHTN can induce significant changes of oxidative stress biomarkers. The no observed effect concentrations (NOECs) of SOD, GST, AchE, CAT, and MDA were 103.680, 72.000, <60.000, 72.000, and <60.000 µg/L for R. sinensis Gunther and 38.426, 43.421, 30.093, 30.093, and 38.426 µg/L for M. nipponense, respectively. The IBR calculation results showed that 149.299 µg/L AHTN caused the highest toxic effect on R. sinensis Gunther after 30 days of exposure, whereas 70.797 µg/L AHTN caused the greatest damage to M. nipponense after 40 days of exposure. The PNECs of AHTN based on the non-traditional endpoints of biochemistry and reproduction were 0.00145 µg/L and 0.000395 µg/L, respectively, which were significantly lower than the PNEC of 2.636 µg/L for traditional endpoint survival. Therefore, the protection of aquatic organisms based on non-traditional toxicity endpoints should be considered in ecological risk assessment.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Organismos Aquáticos/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Palaemonidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Perfumes/toxicidade , Tetra-Hidronaftalenos/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos/enzimologia , Catalase/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Determinação de Ponto Final , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Nível de Efeito Adverso não Observado , Palaemonidae/enzimologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
16.
Aquat Toxicol ; 224: 105480, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32417752

RESUMO

The calanoid copepod, Acartia tonsa, is relatively sensitive to marine pollution. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) multifunctional enzyme, as a biomarker, play an important role in detoxification metabolism of exogenous substances. In the present study, GST-theta and GST-mu class homology genes (designated as AtGSTT1 and AtGSTM2) were identified and characterized from A. tonsa. The coding sequence of AtGSTT1 comprised 726 bp and encoded a putative protein of 241 amino acid residues. AtGSTM2 contained an open reading frame of 678 bp that encoded a putative 227 amino acid polypeptide. Both proteins contained a conserved GST-N domain and a GST-C domain. Structural analysis revealed the characteristic N-terminal G-site. Three-dimensional structure analysis showed that AtGSTT1 and AtGSTM2 have two typical domains of GST family: The ßαßαßßα topology structure at the N- terminus and the superhelical structure at the C- terminus. Subsequently, the expression levels of the two GST genes were detected in A. tonsa using real-time quantitative PCR after exposure to 1,2-dimethylnaphthalene (C2-NAPH) at different concentrations (0.574, 5.736 and 57.358 µg/L) for 24, 48, 72, and 96 h. AtGSTT1 mRNA expression was significantly up-regulated in a time-dependent manner and the highest mRNA expression occurred at 5.736 µg/L C2-NAPH exposure for 96 h. AtGSTM2 mRNA expression peaked at 72 h in 0.574 µg/L and 5.736 µg/L dose groups. The expression level of AtGSTM2 showed an increasing trend in a time-dependent manner at 57.358 µg/L of C2-NAPH. These results suggested that GST genes may play an important role in protecting A. tonsa from C2-NAPH pollution, and provide a theoretical basis for further study on the molecular mechanism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) pollution on zooplankton.


Assuntos
Copépodes/efeitos dos fármacos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Glutationa Transferase/genética , Naftalenos/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Clonagem Molecular , Copépodes/enzimologia , Copépodes/genética , DNA Complementar/genética , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda
17.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 105(1): 67-75, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32409854

RESUMO

Hydropower plants (HPPs) can affect the hydrological regime. However, biochemical responses of aquatic animals for the evaluation of this disturbing are not applied yet. The specimens of Unio tumidus were sampled in a reservoir (R) of a small HPP as well as downstream from the dam (DS). Biochemical indexes in the digestive gland and alkali labile phosphates (ALP) in the gonads were examined. The R-mollusks showed low cholinesterase, catalase and caspase-3 activities, and metallothionein concentration, but elevated levels of zinc and copper, oxidized glutathione and protein carbonyls. Concentrations of lactate, pyruvate and ALP, activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione S-transferase, and lipid peroxidation level were similar in both groups. Integrated biomarker response (IBR/n) index (n = 13) was 2.17 and 0.29 in the R- and DS-groups correspondingly. We suggest that using integrative biological response based on the biochemical markers of bivalve mollusks can be a valid early warning step in assessing 'environmental flow' impact.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Centrais Elétricas , Unio/fisiologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Metalotioneína/metabolismo , Moluscos/metabolismo , Rios , Ucrânia , Unio/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
18.
Mutat Res ; 852: 503167, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32265040

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a multifactorial disorder with an important genetic component, and several studies have demonstrated potential associations with allelic variants. In addition, CKD patients are also characterized by high levels of genomic damage. Nevertheless, no studies have established relationships between DNA damage, or genomic instability present in CKD patients, and gene polymorphisms. To fill in this gap, the potential role of polymorphisms in genes involved in base excision repair (OGG1, rs1052133; MUTYH, rs3219489; XRCC1, rs25487), nucleotide excision repair (ERCC2/XPD, rs1799793, rs171140, rs13181; ERCC4, rs3136166); phase II metabolism (GSTP1, rs749174; GSTO1, rs2164624; GSTO2, rs156697), and antioxidant enzymes (SOD1, rs17880135, rs1041740, rs202446; SOD2, rs4880; CAT, rs1001179; GPX1, rs17080528; GPX3, rs870406: GPX4, rs713041) were inquired. In addition, some genes involved in CKD (AGT, rs5050; GLO1, rs386572987; SHROOM3, rs17319721) were also evaluated. The genomic damage, the genomic instability, and oxidative damage were evaluated by using the micronucleus and the comet assay in 589 donors (415 CKD patients and 174 controls). Our results showed significant associations between genomic damage and genes directly involved in DNA repair pathways (XRCC1, and ERCC2), and with genes encoding for antioxidant enzymes (SOD1 and GPX1). GSTO2, as a gene involved in phase II metabolism, and MUTYH showed also an association with genomic instability. Interestingly, the three genes associated with CKD (AGT, GLO1, and SHROOM3) showed associations with both the high levels of oxidatively damaged DNA and genomic instability. These results support our view that genomic instability can be considered a biomarker of the CKD status.


Assuntos
Angiotensinogênio/genética , Reparo do DNA , Instabilidade Genômica , Lactoilglutationa Liase/genética , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/genética , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Angiotensinogênio/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ensaio Cometa , Dano ao DNA , DNA Glicosilases/genética , DNA Glicosilases/metabolismo , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genoma Humano , Glutationa Peroxidase/genética , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Glutationa Transferase/genética , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Humanos , Lactoilglutationa Liase/metabolismo , Masculino , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/metabolismo , Testes para Micronúcleos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/metabolismo , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Superóxido Dismutase-1/genética , Superóxido Dismutase-1/metabolismo , Proteína 1 Complementadora Cruzada de Reparo de Raio-X/genética , Proteína 1 Complementadora Cruzada de Reparo de Raio-X/metabolismo , Proteína Grupo D do Xeroderma Pigmentoso/genética , Proteína Grupo D do Xeroderma Pigmentoso/metabolismo
19.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 196: 110565, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32272347

RESUMO

The aim of the present work was to study the effect of the pyrethroid cypermethrin (CYP) on the non-target freshwater snail Chilina parchappi. Initially, the sensitivity of adult snails to CYP was evaluated via the 96-h LC50 test. Then, snails were exposed to subtethal CYP concentrations (0.1 and 10 mg/l) for 1, 4 and 10 days and the digestive glands were dissected for biomarkers analyses. Enzymatic activity of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST), as well as total glutathione reduced (GSH) levels, were determined. Histological analyses of morphology, intracellular accumulation of lipofucsins and neutral lipids accumulation in the digestive gland were also evaluated. As compared to other molluscs, C. parchappi showed high resistance to CYP exposure evidenced by the 96-h LC50 value (44.59 mg/l). Snails exposed to sublethal CYP concentrations showed a statistically significant increase (p < 0.01) in GST (79-116%) and GPx (45-190%) activities with respect to controls. However, CAT activity showed a tendency to decrease with CYP treatment but was not statistically significantly different compared to control. Only high CYP concentration caused a statistically significant increase (p < 0.01) in GSH content (95-196%). There was evidence of structural changes in the digestive gland of snails exposed to CYP, showing a dose-dependent response. In exposed snails, some of the main symptoms included a reduction in the thickness of the epithelium, vacuolisation of the digestive cells and an increase in the number of excretory cells. Accumulation of lipofuscins (933-1006%) and neutral lipids (403%) were statistically significantly higher (p < 0.05) in snails exposed to CYP compared to control. This study showed that C. parchappii is quite tolerant to CYP exposure and that at sublethal concentrations, GSH metabolism could play a protective role against the pesticide harm in snails. Therefore, it would be interesting to study the response of this organism to other environmental stressors to assess its potential use in monitoring programs.


Assuntos
Água Doce/química , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Piretrinas/toxicidade , Caramujos/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Sistema Digestório/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Digestório/metabolismo , Sistema Digestório/patologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ecotoxicologia , Glutationa/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Dose Letal Mediana , Caramujos/metabolismo
20.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 196: 110562, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32276164

RESUMO

Hexavalent chromium (chromium (VI)), a highly toxic heavy metal, is a common pollutant of aquatic ecosystems. The present study aimed to elucidate the potential toxic effects of chromium (VI) on oxidative stress biomarkers and fatty acids profile in the gills and digestive gland of Venus verrucosa, an ecologically and economically important bivalve species. Three doses of chromium (VI) (1, 10 and 100 µg.L-1) were chosen for V. verrucosa exposure during 7 days under controlled conditions. A significant increase in the levels of malondialdehyde, lipid hydroperoxides and hydrogen peroxide was observed in the gills and digestive gland of chromium (VI)-exposed V. verrucosa as compared to the control group. Furthermore, an induction of enzymatic antioxidant activities (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase) and an enhancement of non-enzymatic antioxidant levels (non-protein thiols, glutathione and vitamin C) were marked. An alteration of fatty acids composition was also noted following chromium (VI) exposure. The obtained results highlighted the importance of assessing oxidative damage biomarkers and fatty acids profile in the study of chromium (VI)-induced toxicity in V. verrucosa.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Bivalves/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromo/toxicidade , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Bivalves/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Brânquias/efeitos dos fármacos , Brânquias/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
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