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1.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(16): 3857-3862, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893581

RESUMO

Licorice is one of the most commonly used traditional Chinese medicine. In clinic, raw licorice and honey-fried licorice are used in medicines, with the main effects in clearing away heat and detoxifying, moistening lungs and removing phlegm. Honey-fried licorice has effects in nourishing the spleen and stomach and replenishing Qi and pulse. Because traditional Chinese medicine exerts the effects through multiple components and multiple targets, the index components used in the quality evaluation of licorice are often difficult to reflect their real quality. In addition, most of studies for the quality standards have shown that honey-fried licorice are the same as licorice, with a lack of quality evaluation standards that can demonstrate their processing characteristics. The quality of medicine is directly related to its clinical efficacy, so it is necessary to establish a more effective quality control method. Licorice has a beany smell, which is one of the main quality identification characteristics. In this study, by taking advantage of the odor characteristics, a headspace-gas chromatography-ion migration mass spectrometry technology was used to establish a quality evaluation method. A total of 76 volatile components were identified. Through the dynamic principal component analysis, 7 kinds of volatile substances in raw licorice and 13 kinds of volatile substances in honey-fried licorice were statistically obtained, and could be taken as index components for the quality evaluation of raw and honey-fried licorice, respectively. This study could help realize the combination and unification of modern detection and traditional quality evaluation methods, and make a more realistic evaluation for the quality of licorice.


Assuntos
Glycyrrhiza , Mel/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Espectrometria de Mobilidade Iônica
2.
Trials ; 21(1): 790, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933552

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We investigate the effects of Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) root extract, an anti-inflammatory natural medicine, compared to the usual therapeutic regimen on clinical symptoms and laboratory signs in patients with confirmed COVID-19 that are moderately ill. TRIAL DESIGN: This is a single-center, open-label, randomized, clinical trial with parallel-group design. This study is being conducted at Shahid Mohammadi Hospital, Bandar Abbas, Iran. PARTICIPANTS: Both male and female patients with ≥18 years of age (≥ 35 kg of weight), admitted at the Shahid Mohammadi Hospital, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas for treatment, screened for the following criteria. INCLUSION CRITERIA: 1. Confirmed diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection (via polymerase chain reaction [PCR] and/or antibody test). 2. Presenting as moderate COVID-19 pneumonia (via chest computed tomography (CT) and/or X-ray) requiring hospitalization. 3. Hospitalized ≤48 hours. 4. Signing informed consent and willingness of study participant to accept randomization to any assigned treatment arm. EXCLUSION CRITERIA: 1. Underlying diseases, including chronic heart disease, chronic hypertension, severe renal failure, severe liver failure, and thyroid disorders. 2. Severe and critical COVID-19 pneumonia. 3. Use of warfarin, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), diuretics, corticosteroids, and antiarrhythmic drugs. 4. Treatment with Investigational and antiviral therapy in a clinical study within one month before randomization. 5. History of allergy to Licorice. 6. Pregnancy and breastfeeding. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Intervention group: The standard treatment regimen for COVID-19 along with a Licorice-based herbal preparation (D-Reglis ®, Irandarouk Pharmaceutical Company, Iran) at a dose of 760 mg three times a day for a period of seven days. CONTROL GROUP: The standard treatment for COVID-19 based on the Iranian Ministry of Health and Medical Education's protocol for a period of seven days. MAIN OUTCOMES: The recovery rate of clinical symptoms, including fever, dry cough, and tiredness, as well as paraclinical features, including thrombocytopenia, lymphocytopenia, and C-reactive protein, are evaluated as primary outcomes within seven days of randomization. Time to improvement of clinical and paraclinical features and length of stay in a hospital, along with the incidence of adverse reactions are also evaluated as the secondary outcomes within seven days of randomization. RANDOMIZATION: An electronic table of random numbers will be used to allocate the included participants into either control or intervention groups (in a 1:1 ratio) using the simple randomization method. BLINDING (MASKING): This is an open-label trial without blinding and placebo control. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMIZED (SAMPLE SIZE): A total of 60 participants randomizes (30 patients allocated to the intervention group and 30 patients allocated to the control group). TRIAL STATUS: The protocol is Version 1.0, May 31, 2020. Recruitment began July 30, 2020, and is anticipated to be completed by October 30, 2020. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This clinical trial has been registered in the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRCT). The registration number is "IRCT20200506047323N2", https://www.irct.ir/trial/47990 . The registration date is 31 May 2020. FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Glycyrrhiza , Pandemias , Extratos Vegetais , Raízes de Plantas , Pneumonia Viral , Adulto , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios/efeitos adversos , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/métodos , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(30): e21094, 2020 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791684

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Excessive ingestion of licorice can cause pseudohyperaldosteronism. A few case reports in the available literature have described significant hypokalemia secondary to licorice consumption with clinical manifestations of muscle weakness, paralysis, or severe hypertension. To our knowledge, no report has discussed severe asymptomatic hypokalemia associated with licorice consumption. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 79-year-old man presented to the urology clinic with a several-month history of urinary frequency and a weak stream. Routine laboratory investigations revealed serum potassium (K) level of 1.8 mmol/L, and he was immediately admitted to the nephrology department. DIAGNOSES: He was in a good state of health, and systemic and neurological examinations were unremarkable. However, laboratory investigations revealed severe hypokalemia and metabolic alkalosis accompanied with renal K wasting and hypertension, suggesting a state of mineralocorticoid excess. Hormonal studies revealed low serum renin and aldosterone but normal serum cortisol levels. Detailed history taking revealed that he had used licorice tea daily during the preceding 18 months. INTERVENTIONS AND OUTCOME: The patient's serum K returned to normal levels after vigorous K replacement and discontinuation of licorice intake. He was also diagnosed with benign prostatic hyperplasia during hospitalization and was treated. LESSONS: Chronic licorice ingestion can precipitate severe hypokalemia, although patients may remain asymptomatic. This case report indicates that the severity of a patient's clinical presentation depends on individual susceptibility, as well as the dose and duration of licorice intake.


Assuntos
Glycyrrhiza/efeitos adversos , Hipopotassemia/etiologia , Preparações de Plantas/efeitos adversos , Chás de Ervas/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Doenças Assintomáticas , Humanos , Hipopotassemia/sangue , Achados Incidentais , Masculino , Preparações de Plantas/administração & dosagem , Potássio/sangue
5.
J Contemp Dent Pract ; 21(5): 575-579, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32690843

RESUMO

AIM: The present study was done to evaluate the in vivo cariostatic efficacy of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of liquorice to ascertain whether it could be developed into a caries-preventive regimen basically targeted for use in the pediatric population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty schoolchildren of 6-12-year-old were selected for the study. Powder of Glycyrrhiza glabra is used to prepare the gel with various concentration of aqueous and ethanolic liquorice gel. The preweighed dose was delivered through the vials. The drug concentrations were based on their respective minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values against Streptococcus mutans, which were calculated earlier. And it is divided into three groups, i.e., group I: aqueous liquorice extract 1.75 g/10 mL saline, group II: ethanolic liquorice extract 350 mg/10 mL, and group III: hexidine (0.2% chlorhexidine, CHX). For statistical analysis, Tukey's post hoc with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and t test were applied. RESULTS: It was found that hexigel has a potential antibacterial activity against S. mutans, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 3.14 ± 2.02. Ethanolic liquorice shows MIC of 2.15 ± 0.91 and aqueous liquorice shows MIC of 1.30 ± 1.08. Tukey's post hoc test showed statistically nonsignificant difference between hexigel and ethanolic liquorice against S. mutans. CONCLUSION: On conclusion, the present study found that hexigel was better than both the ethanolic and aqueous solutions of liquorice. And ethanolic liquorice was found to be better than aqueous solution, but it was not statistically significant, which could be due to the small sample size. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Dental caries is one of the most common infectious microbial diseases. Various steps have been taken to prevent dental caries, fluoride being the most common among them. Nowadays, G. glabra, commonly known as liquorice (mulethi), is one such medicinal plant used by various cultures for thousands of years to relieve coughs, sore throats, and gastric inflammation. This drug in our study demonstrated inhibitory effect on the growth of S. mutans.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Glycyrrhiza , Triterpenos , Criança , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais , Streptococcus mutans
6.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(11): 2546-2551, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32627487

RESUMO

The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of lime and licorice processing of Pinelliae Rhizoma on its toxic lectin protein and clarify the scientific detoxification connotation of lime and licorice processing of Pinelliae Rhizoma. Western blot was used to semi-quantitatively analyze the contents of lectin in Pinelliae Rhizoma and Pinelliae Rhizoma Praeparatum. Raw products and lectin were treated by soaking in licorice juice, lime solution or mixture solution of these two to investigate the different processing time on the content of toxic lectin protein. SDS-PAGE gel electrophoresis was used to analyze the changes of lectin protein bands in the solution and precipitates before and after processing. MALDI-TOF technology was used to qualitatively analyze and compare the protein molecular weight before and after processing. The results showed that the contents of lectin in Pinelliae Rhizoma and Pinelliae Rhizoma Praeparatum were 5.01% and 0.04% respectively, indicating that processing could significantly reduce the content of active lectin in raw products. The results also showed that the content of lectin in raw drugs decreased significantly after soaking in lime solution for one day or in licorice juice for three day, and the effect was greatest in mixture solution. Qualitative analysis showed that after being treated by soaking in lime solution, the lectin protein was decomposed into small peptide segments, while after being treated by soaking in licorice juice, the lectin protein was denatured and precipitated. The structure of lectin protein in Pinelliae Rhizoma was broken after being processed with licorice juice and lime solution, which significantly reduced the content of toxic lectinprotein. This is one of the detoxification mechanisms of Pinelliae Rhizoma processing.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Glycyrrhiza , Pinellia , Compostos de Cálcio , Lectinas , Óxidos , Tecnologia Farmacêutica
7.
J Cancer Res Ther ; 16(3): 458-462, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32719251

RESUMO

Background: Oral mucositis is a common and debilitating painful side effect of many forms of chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Mucositis may lead to dose reductions and unplanned interruptions of chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy (RT) and often affects patients' quality of life. Aim: The objective of the study was to assess the efficacy of the ayurvedic preparation in decreasing the severity of mucositis in head-and-neck cancer patients receiving concomitant chemoradiotherapy. Materials and Methods: In this prospective randomized study, the patients were divided into three groups. Group 1 patients received conventional mucositis treatment, whereas Group 2 patients received ayurvedic preparation Yashtimadhu in addition to conventional treatment. Group 3 patients received honey for local application in oral cavity as well as one tea spoon of honey twice daily orally in addition to routine conventional treatment. All the patients were assessed for mucositis at the end of every week during the RT for a period of 6 weeks. Results: A significant difference was observed between the groups at each time point. Nearly 42.85% of patients in conventional treatment arm developed Grade 3 mucositis, 20% of patients developed Grade 3 mucositis in group where honey was given, and only 15.5% of patients developed Grade 3 mucositis in Yastimadhu group. Unplanned treatment breaks and hospitalization of patients were reduced with the use of yashtimadhu as compared to other two groups. Conclusion: Yashtimadhu was observed to be effective and delayed the development of severe form of mucositis. The drug appeared to be more efficient in the management of radiation-induced mucositis.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Quimiorradioterapia/efeitos adversos , Glycyrrhiza/química , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/radioterapia , Mucosa Bucal/efeitos dos fármacos , Lesões por Radiação/tratamento farmacológico , Estomatite/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mucosa Bucal/patologia , Mucosa Bucal/efeitos da radiação , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Lesões por Radiação/etiologia , Lesões por Radiação/patologia , Estomatite/etiologia , Estomatite/patologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Front Immunol ; 11: 1239, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574273

RESUMO

The role of the ACE2 enzyme in the COVID-19 infection is 2-fold, with opposing implications for the disease development. 1. The membrane bound angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) serves as the entry point of COVID-19 2. Conversely, it supports an anti-inflammatory pathway. This led to the controversy of the impact of medications, which influence its expression. ACE2 is part of the wider renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and is upregulated via compounds, which inhibits the classical ACE, thereby plasma aldosterone and aldosterone receptor (MR) activation. MR activation may therefore protect organs from binding the COVID-19 by reducing ACE2 expression. Glycyrrhizin (GL) is a frequent component in traditional Chinese medicines, which have been used to control COVID-19 infections. Its systemically active metabolite glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) inhibits 11beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase(11betaHSD2) and activates MR in organs, which express this enzyme, including the lungs. Does this affect the protective effect of ACE2? Importantly, GL has anti-inflammatory properties by itself via toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) antagonism and therefore compensates for the reduced protection of the downregulated ACE2. Finally, a direct effect of GL or GA to reduce virus transmission exists, which may involve reduced expression of type 2 transmembrane serine protease (TMPRSS2), which is required for virus uptake. Glycyrrhizin may reduce the severity of an infection with COVID-19 at the two stages of the COVID-19 induced disease process, 1. To block the number of entry points and 2. provide an ACE2 independent anti-inflammatory mechanism.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Glicirrízico/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Glycyrrhiza , Humanos , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Receptores Virais/metabolismo
9.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(10): 2431-2438, 2020 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32495603

RESUMO

This research is to predict anti-Alzheimer's disease active constituents on the target of acetylcholinesterase(AChE) from Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma with the help of pharmacophore and molecular docking. AChE ligand-based pharmacophore model was set up and the molecular library of the constituents from Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma were established by collecting literature. Then the constituents from Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma were screen for the potential AChE inhibitory potency in silico through matching with the best pharmacophore model. The flexible docking was used to evaluate the interactions between compounds screened from pharmacophore model and AChE protein(PDB ID:4 EY7). The interactions were expressed including but not limited to CDOCKER interaction energy, hydrogen bonds and non-bonding interactions. The molecular library of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma contains 44 chemical constituents. As for the pharmacophore model, six kinds of potential AChE inhibitory constituents from Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma were considered to be the promising compounds according to the results of searching 3 D database of pharmacophore model. The molecular docking was possessed and the interaction patterns were given to show the detail interactions. The compounds screening from the pharmacophore model were consistent with the existing studies to some degree, indicating that the virtual screen protocols of AChE inhibitory constituents from Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma based on pharmacophore and molecular docking was reliable.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Glycyrrhiza , Triterpenos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Rizoma
10.
Food Chem ; 324: 126854, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353655

RESUMO

Licorice, as a nutritional plant extensively used in food fields, grows in various origins of the world as wild and cultivated types. But existing methods were not adequate for quality estimation of licorice samples from multiple sources till date. In the present research, HPLC, UV and FT-IR were applied together to establish fingerprint profiles of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) samples. Then, an appropriate quantitative method was adopted to evaluate their qualities. Furthermore, eight active chemical compositions and the potential antioxidant capacities of licorice samples were determined, and their intrinsic characteristics were excavated by chemometric methods. The results showed that the ingredient content and antioxidant capacity of licorice were closely related to the origin and growth type, and the established method was capable of accurately classifying wild and cultivated licorice samples from nine habitats into five quality grades. This study provides a novel and comprehensive strategy for food quality assessment.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Glycyrrhiza/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Antioxidantes/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Análise por Conglomerados , Ecossistema , Glycyrrhiza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Glycyrrhiza/metabolismo , Análise de Componente Principal , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
11.
Complement Ther Med ; 50: 102401, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32444056

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of the diphenhydramine solution (DS) and diphenhydramine-containing glycyrrhiza glabra (DSG) in the treatment of recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS). DESIGN: It was a double-blind randomized clinical trial that was conducted from July to September 2018 at the Faculty of Dentistry, Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Birjand, Iran. INTERVENTION: DSG was made by adding 5% hydroethanolic extract of licorice to the diphenhydramine elixir. A total of 70 patients diagnosed with RSA were randomly assigned to the DS and DSG groups, each containing 35 patients. Participants were instructed to swish 3 ml of either solution around their mouth for about three minutes four times a day (at least 20 min before each meal and before bedtime) until the complete healing of the oral lesions. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome of this study was to assess the severity of pain prior to the intervention and on the first, third, and fifth days of it. This was done using the visual analog scale (VAS). The duration of wound healing was also measured through photography. The secondary outcome was to record the adverse effects of the intervention. This trial was registered at the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials under number1 IRCT20180407039213N1. RESULTS: The average pain score before the treatment in the DS and DSG groups was 8. 1 ± 1.17 and 7.97 ± 1.72, respectively, and there was apparently no significant difference between them. However, there was a significant difference between the two groups in terms of the average pain scores on the first (7 ± 1.28 versus 5.31 ± 1.28), third (4.02 ± 1.8 vs. 2.86 ± 1.56) and fifth days (1.71 ± 1.69 vs. 0.54 ± 1.31) of the intervention. Indeed, DSG significantly reduced the average wound healing duration by 1.5 days, as compared to DS (P = 0.0001). No adverse effects were observed with the intervention. CONCLUSION: According to our results, DSG appeared to be more effective in treating RAS than DS alone. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was registered at Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials before the enrolment of the first patient on June 29, 2019 (registration no: IRCT20180407039213N1, http://www.irct.ir/trial/31497).


Assuntos
Difenidramina/uso terapêutico , Glycyrrhiza , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Estomatite Aftosa/tratamento farmacológico , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Adulto , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antissépticos Bucais , Medição da Dor , Adulto Jovem
12.
Nat Chem Biol ; 16(7): 740-748, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32424305

RESUMO

Glycosylation is one of the most prevalent molecular modifications in nature. Single or multiple sugars can decorate a wide range of acceptors from proteins to lipids, cell wall glycans and small molecules, dramatically affecting their activity. Here, we discovered that by 'hijacking' an enzyme of the cellulose synthesis machinery involved in cell wall assembly, plants evolved cellulose synthase-like enzymes (Csls) and acquired the capacity to glucuronidate specialized metabolites, that is, triterpenoid saponins. Apparently, endoplasmic reticulum-membrane localization of Csls and of other pathway proteins was part of evolving a new glycosyltransferase function, as plant metabolite glycosyltransferases typically act in the cytosol. Discovery of glucuronic acid transferases across several plant orders uncovered the long-pursued enzymatic reaction in the production of a low-calorie sweetener from licorice roots. Our work opens the way for engineering potent saponins through microbial fermentation and plant-based systems.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Glucosiltransferases/genética , Glicosiltransferases/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Saponinas/biossíntese , Spinacia oleracea/metabolismo , Terpenos/metabolismo , Beta vulgaris/genética , Beta vulgaris/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Celulose/metabolismo , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Glucosiltransferases/metabolismo , Ácido Glucurônico/metabolismo , Glicosilação , Glicosiltransferases/metabolismo , Glycyrrhiza/genética , Glycyrrhiza/metabolismo , Células Vegetais/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Spinacia oleracea/genética
13.
Oral Health Prev Dent ; 18(1): 97-102, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32238980

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the efficacy of licorice lollipops in reducing dental caries in children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A literature search was confined to the English language using MeSH terms congruent with PICO format in 'PubMed', 'Cochrane Library' and 'Ovid', covering the period from April 1967 to December 2017. Searches in Google Scholar, grey literature and hand search of cross-references were performed to find additional data. Suitable studies were selected based on the predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Quality analysis and risk of bias of the selected studies were performed using the Cochrane Collaboration's tool for risk of bias. RESULTS: Overall 519 articles were retrieved, 516 (electronic databases) and 3 (Google scholar). 516 publications were excluded due to non-availability of abstracts, or because they were unrelated studies, narrative reviews, and systematic reviews as well as letters to editors. Only three studies were included for final analysis. Quality analysis of these three studies showed that only one was of high quality, whereas the other two were rated as low. CONCLUSION: Licorice lollipops showed a promising effect in reducing caries by decreasing Streptococcus mutans counts in the saliva. Further research using randomised controlled clinical trial (RCT) designs with large sample size are recommended.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Glycyrrhiza , Extratos Vegetais , Streptococcus mutans , Criança , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Saliva
14.
Nutrients ; 12(4)2020 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32344708

RESUMO

Novel coronaviruses (CoV) have emerged periodically around the world in recent years. The recurrent spreading of CoVs imposes an ongoing threat to global health and the economy. Since no specific therapy for these CoVs is available, any beneficial approach (including nutritional and dietary approach) is worth investigation. Based on recent advances in nutrients and phytonutrients research, a novel combination of vitamin C, curcumin and glycyrrhizic acid (VCG Plus) was developed that has potential against CoV infection. System biology tools were applied to explore the potential of VCG Plus in modulating targets and pathways relevant to immune and inflammation responses. Gene target acquisition, gene ontology and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment were conducted consecutively along with network analysis. The results show that VCG Plus can act on 88 hub targets which are closely connected and associated with immune and inflammatory responses. Specifically, VCG Plus has the potential to regulate innate immune response by acting on NOD-like and Toll-like signaling pathways to promote interferons production, activate and balance T-cells, and regulate the inflammatory response by inhibiting PI3K/AKT, NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways. All these biological processes and pathways have been well documented in CoV infections studies. Therefore, our findings suggest that VCG Plus may be helpful in regulating immune response to combat CoV infections and inhibit excessive inflammatory responses to prevent the onset of cytokine storm. However, further in vitro and in vivo experiments are warranted to validate the current findings with system biology tools. Our current approach provides a new strategy in predicting formulation rationale when developing new dietary supplements.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Curcumina/uso terapêutico , Ácido Glicirrízico/uso terapêutico , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Ácido Ascórbico/farmacologia , Coronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Curcuma/química , Curcumina/farmacologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Combinação de Medicamentos , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Ontologia Genética , Glycyrrhiza/química , Ácido Glicirrízico/farmacologia , Humanos , Interferons/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Transdução de Sinais , Biologia de Sistemas , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Vitaminas/farmacologia , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico
15.
Complement Ther Med ; 49: 102324, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32147070

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The roots and rhizomes of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) are used in traditional Persian medicine for the treatment of numerous diseases. A chronic cough is a non-specific reaction to irritation anywhere in the respiratory system. It usually lasts for more than eight weeks. The current study aimed to evaluate the effect of a modified traditional Persian medicine preparation, licorice pastille, in healing a chronic cough. METHODS: Through a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed in a respiratory disease clinic in Shiraz, Iran; between October 2016 and December 2017. Seventy participants with a chronic cough took part in the trial. The outcome measures were as the daily cough scores (the score being logged via patient symptoms, diary, and the visual analogue scale) and the quality of life measure of chronic cough according to the Leicester Cough Questionnaire. RESULTS: At baseline, there were no significant differences in the demographic or clinical (cough score) characteristics between the two groups. There was complete adherence to protocol in both groups but, the drop-out rate was 4 patients in the placebo and 6 ones in the intervention groups. The results at the end of the trial (Week 2) and follow-up (Week 4) demonstrated the efficacy of the licorice pastille in terms of the cough severity score against the placebo group. This item showed a significant decrease in the intervention group (1.2 ±â€¯0.93) comparing to the placebo one (1.8 ±â€¯1.03) at follow-up time. No major side effects were reported during the study and follow-up time. CONCLUSIONS: Licorice pastille could be a promising choice in the treatment of a chronic cough of unknown origin.


Assuntos
Tosse/tratamento farmacológico , Glycyrrhiza , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Doença Crônica , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida , Rizoma , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Med Food ; 23(3): 215-223, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191576

RESUMO

Anti-obesity activities of Korean red ginseng saponin fraction (RGS) and/or Glycyrrhiza glabra L. extract (GG) were investigated in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and high-fat diet-induced C57BL/6J obese mice. RGS and GG extracts were mixed at a mass ratio of 3:1 (SG31), 1:1 (SG11), or 1:3 (SG13). SG31 showed the highest anti-obesity activity among the three different mass ratios of RGS and GG extracts. SG31 showed higher inhibition efficiency on triglyceride (TG) accumulation than either single extract in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and without any cytotoxicity. It also decreases the expression of adipogenic and lipogenic genes such as C/EBPα and SREBP-1c (sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c). In the obese induced mouse model, SG31 significantly reduced white adipose tissue weight and body weight, attenuated dyslipidemia, and decreased serum TG levels. In some indices, the activity of SG31 was even higher compared with Garcinia Cambogia water extract, a positive control. The possible mechanism by which SG31 causes the above results was by activating the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway and stimulating the secretion of adiponectin in adipose tissue to regulate energy metabolism balance, inhibit TG formation, and promote ß-oxidation of fatty acids. Therefore, SG31 may have efficacy as an anti-obesity functional food or raw material if the results can be confirmed in human studies.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Antiobesidade/administração & dosagem , Glycyrrhiza/química , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Panax/química , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Células 3T3-L1 , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Animais , Fármacos Antiobesidade/análise , Proteína alfa Estimuladora de Ligação a CCAAT/genética , Proteína alfa Estimuladora de Ligação a CCAAT/metabolismo , Humanos , Lipogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Obesos , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , PPAR gama/genética , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 1/genética , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 1/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/sangue
17.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 1534, 2020 01 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32001773

RESUMO

Altica deserticola (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is a monophagous insect that feeds on, and is thus a harmful pest of, liquorice. Both adults and larvae feed on leaves, causing serious damage to leaf blades. It will even lead to the extinction of liquorice, resulting in significant economic losses. Leaf-disc tests were used to determine the feeding preference of A. deserticola on leaves of Glycyrrhiza uralensis and G. glabra and explore the underlying mechanism of liquorice feeding resistance to A. deserticola by comparing leaf hardness and thickness, cuticle thickness, and nitrogen and tannin content in the two plants. The results showed that larvae and adults have the same feeding preferences, i.e., both preferably fed on G. uralensis, indicating a higher resistance in this species. The hardness, thickness, and the thickness of the stratum corneum of the leaves of G. glabra were significantly greater than those of G. uralensis. Nitrogen content was higher in G. uralensis, while total tannin, tannic acid, and catechin content were higher in G. glabra. The thick cuticle and hard texture of G. glabra leaves may be an important physical trait for effectively resisting A. deserticola feeding, while high tannin and low nitrogen content may also be important.


Assuntos
Besouros/metabolismo , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Animais , Dieta , Glycyrrhiza/metabolismo , Glycyrrhiza/parasitologia , Glycyrrhiza uralensis/metabolismo , Glycyrrhiza uralensis/parasitologia , Folhas de Planta/química
18.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 625, 2020 01 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31953420

RESUMO

Chemotherapy often induces oral ulcerative mucositis (OUM) in patients with cancer, characterized by severe painful inflammation. Mouth-washing with the Japanese herbal medicine hangeshashinto (HST) ameliorates chemotherapy-induced OUM in patients with colorectal cancer. Previously, we demonstrated that HST decreased interleukin 1ß-induced prostaglandin E2 production in human oral keratinocytes (HOKs) and OUM-induced mechanical or spontaneous pain in rats. However, HST effects on tissue repair functions in HOKs remain unclear. Here, we examined the effects of HST on scratch-induced wound healing in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, HST enhanced wound healing mainly through scratch-induced HOK migration. Screening of the seven constituent medicinal herbs and their major components revealed that Scutellaria root, processed ginger, and Glycyrrhiza components mainly induced the scratch-induced HOK migration. Pharmacokinetic analyses indicated that the active ingredient concentrations in rat plasma following oral HST administration were below the effective doses for HOK migration, suggesting direct effects of HST in OUM. Mitogen-activated protein kinase and C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 inhibitors significantly suppressed HST-induced HOK migration. Moreover, HST enhanced tissue repair in our OUM rat model. Thus, HST likely enhanced OUM tissue repair through oral keratinocyte migration upon MAPK and CXCR4 activation and may be useful in patients with cancer-associated OUM.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Queratinócitos/citologia , Estomatite/tratamento farmacológico , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração Oral , Animais , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Gengibre/química , Glycyrrhiza/química , Humanos , Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/química , Plantas Medicinais/química , Ratos , Receptores CXCR4/metabolismo , Estomatite/induzido quimicamente , Estomatite/metabolismo
19.
J Altern Complement Med ; 26(4): 329-334, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31977240

RESUMO

Objective: The development of pseudoaldosteronism is shown to be mainly associated with four factors: daily dose of glycyrrhiza (licorice), duration of glycyrrhiza use, body size, and age. Recently, direct bilirubinemia and hypoalbuminemia are newly reported as possible factors that trigger pseudoaldosteronism due to glycyrrhiza ingestion. Pseudoaldosteronism occurs in the presence of combinations of these factors; therefore, the importance of each factor on the tolerance to glycyrrhiza loading is still unclear. Methods: In seven patients (63-78 years old, six women) who developed pseudoaldosteronism due to ingestion of glycyrrhiza-containing Kampo extract in their clinic, serum albumin and direct bilirubin (D-bil) levels were investigated. In six women, the authors evaluated the correlations between daily dose of glycyrrhiza ingested and each factor: age, height, weight, body mass index, body surface area (BSA), and duration of ingestion (Pearson's correlation coefficient). Results: No patients had abnormal levels of serum albumin or D-bil around the time of the onset. In six women, the highest correlation coefficient was observed between BSA and the glycyrrhiza dose in Kampo extract at the onset of pseudoaldosteronism. Conclusions: The findings suggested that in elderly women, BSA should be considered first as a factor for predicting the development of pseudoaldosteronism.


Assuntos
Glycyrrhiza/efeitos adversos , Síndrome de Liddle/induzido quimicamente , Medicina Kampo/efeitos adversos , Extratos Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Bilirrubina/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Albumina Sérica Humana
20.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 373, 2020 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31941983

RESUMO

The study reports 147 full-length WRKY genes based on the transcriptome analysis of Glycyrrhiza genus (G. glabra and G. uralensis). Additional motifs in G. glabra included DivIVA (GgWRKY20) and SerS Superfamily (GgWRKY21) at the C-terminal, and Coat family motifs (GgWRKY55) at the N-terminal of the proteins, while Exo70 exo cyst complex subunit of 338 amino acid (GuWRKY9) was present at the N-terminal of G. uralensis only. Plant Zn cluster super-family domain (17 WRKYs) and bZIP domain (2 WRKYs) were common between the two species. Based on the number of WRKY domains, sequence alignment and phylogenesis, the study identified GuWRKY27 comprising of 3 WRKY domains in G. uralensis and a new subgroup-IIf (10 members), having novel zinc finger pattern (C-X4-C-X22-HXH) in G. glabra. Multiple WRKY binding domains (1-11) were identified in the promoter regions of the GgWRKY genes indicating strong interacting network between the WRKY proteins. Tissue-specific expression of 25 GgWRKYs, under normal and treated conditions, revealed 11 of the 18 induction factor triggered response corroborating to response observed in AtWRKYs. The study identified auxin-responsive GgWRKY 55 & GgWRKY38; GA3 responsive GgWRKYs15&59 in roots and GgWRKYs8, 20, 38, 57 &58 in the shoots of the treated plant. GgWRKYs induced under various stresses included GgWRKY33 (cold), GgWRKY4 (senescence), GgWRKYs2, 28 & 33 (salinity) and GgWRKY40 (wounding). Overall, 23 GgWRKYs responded to abiotic stress, and 17 WRKYs were induced by hormonal signals. Of them 13 WRKYs responded to both suggesting inter-connection between hormone signalling and stress response. The present study will help in understanding the transcriptional reprogramming, protein-protein interaction and cross-regulation during stress and other physiological processes in the plant.


Assuntos
Genes de Plantas , Glycyrrhiza/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Transcriptoma , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sequência Conservada , Glycyrrhiza/metabolismo , Glycyrrhiza uralensis/genética , Família Multigênica , Filogenia , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Alinhamento de Sequência
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