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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 807(Pt 1): 150561, 2022 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624692

RESUMO

Hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-BDEs) are major transformation products of PBDEs that readily bioaccumulate in the marine food web. Although 6-OH-BDE-47 is frequently and abundantly detected in cetaceans, its potential toxic effects are largely unknown. We explored the toxicological pathways and mechanisms of OH-BDEs by exposing pygmy killer whale skin fibroblast cell lines (PKW-LWHT) to 6-OH-BDE-47 at concentrations ranging from 0.02, 0.2, 2 to 4 µM. The result showed that 6-OH-BDE-47 inhibited cell proliferation in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The cell cycle data revealed that the cell cycle was arrest at the G0/G1 phase by 6-OH-BDE-47. Using qPCR and Western blot assay, we found that 6-OH-BDE-47 up-regulated the transcription and expression level of p21 and RB1 and down-regulated the expression level of Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA), CDK2, CDK4, cyclin D1, cyclin E2, E2F1, and E2F3 and the cellular phosphorylated RB1. The results showed that 6-OH-BDE-47 was able to arrest the cell cycle of PKW-LWHT cells at G1 phase by changing the expression level of related regulatory genes in G1 stage, and finally inhibit cell proliferation.


Assuntos
Golfinhos , Animais , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular , Proliferação de Células , Fibroblastos , Bifenil Polibromatos
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 804: 150196, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34798738

RESUMO

One of the largest environmental disasters worldwide occurred on November 5th, 2015, when the Fundão dam collapsed in Mariana (Minas Gerais State, Southeast Brazil). The tailing mud flooded the Doce River basin and reached the sea in the coast of Espírito Santo State (ES), Southeast Brazil. This coastal region is the habitat of the most isolated population of franciscana dolphins (Pontoporia blainvillei), with the lowest populational census and lowest genetic diversity in Franciscana Management Area Ia (FMA Ia) - 18° 25'S and 21° 17'S. This study aimed to assess the bioaccumulation of trace-elements (As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, and Zn) in muscle, liver and kidney of franciscana dolphins collected near the Doce River's mouth before (n = 32) and after (n = 19) the tailing mud reached the sea. The Generalized Additive Model (GAM) showed increasing temporal trends of Hg and Zn in muscle and liver after the dam failure, probably related to higher concentrations and bioavailability in the water column and sediments from the Doce River. Declining trends were found for As and Cu muscular and hepatic concentrations and Fe concentrations in kidney due to their lower bioavailability after the disaster, caused by association with tailings mud trapped in the riverbanks and suspended particulate material. Additionally, higher As and Hg concentrations found in the first period of sampling may be due to historical contamination by mining activities. The full extent of the impacts caused by the Fundão dam failure is still unknown. However, due to their rapid increase and remobilization process, toxic effects can be induced in the biota by these elements. Elements' bioaccumulation in this study contributes to the knowledge of franciscana dolphins from FMA Ia. Considering the conservation concern regarding this franciscana population and its scarce knowledge, the impact of this disaster can be alarming for species conservation.


Assuntos
Desastres , Golfinhos , Oligoelementos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Bioacumulação , Brasil , Monitoramento Ambiental , Mineração , Rios , Oligoelementos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
3.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(22): 15149-15161, 2021 11 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34726395

RESUMO

Rough-toothed dolphins, Steno bredanensis, are closely associated with coastal waters in the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean, increasing the exposure to multiple stressors, such as chemical pollution. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are known to affect the health of cetacean species. To comprehend the potential impacts of POPs on populations' viability, it is necessary to distinguish populations and predict their risk of long-term exposure. Blubbers of rough-toothed dolphins (n = 28) collected along the southeastern (SE) and southern (S) Brazilian coast were screened for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and pesticides in a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer. Based on the contamination profile, a discriminant function analysis separated the rough-toothed dolphins into three ecological populations: two coastal and one offshore. POP concentrations were the highest reported for the species worldwide and highest among the delphinids in Brazilian waters, reaching 647.9 µg g-1 lw for PCBs. The SE population presented 212.9 ± 163.0, S population presented 101.0 ± 96.7, and OCS/S population presented 183.3 ± 85.3 µg g-1 lw (mean ± SD) of PCBs. The potential risk of effects triggered by elevated PCB concentrations was assessed in an individual-based model. A risk of severe decline in population size is projected for the three populations in the next 100 years, especially in SE Brazil, varying between 67 and 99%.


Assuntos
Golfinhos , Poluentes Ambientais , Bifenilos Policlorados , Animais , Oceano Atlântico , Monitoramento Ambiental , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise
5.
Ann Parasitol ; 67(2): 341-345, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34598407

RESUMO

Dolphins are rarely observed in the Baltic Sea, making only sporadic appearances as a result of their migrations. The study included six specimens: four white-beaked dolphins Lagenorhynchus albirostris and two striped dolphins Stenella coeruleoalba. Their gastrointestinal tracts were found to contain the nematodes Anisakis simplex (in both species) and Contracaecum sp. (only in the white-beaked dolphins). This is the first record of Anisakidae nematodes in dolphins found in the Baltic Sea.


Assuntos
Anisakis , Golfinhos , Animais , Cetáceos
6.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 146: 129-143, 2021 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34672263

RESUMO

Cryptococcus gattii is a fungal pathogen that primarily affects the respiratory and nervous systems of humans and other animals. C. gattii emerged in temperate North America in 1999 as a multispecies outbreak of cryptococcosis in British Columbia (Canada) and Washington State and Oregon (USA), affecting humans, domestic animals, and wildlife. Here we describe the C. gattii epizootic in odontocetes. Cases of C. gattii were identified in 42 odontocetes in Washington and British Columbia between 1997 and 2016. Species affected included harbor porpoises Phocoena phocoena (n = 26), Dall's porpoises Phocoenoides dalli (n = 14), and Pacific white-sided dolphins Lagenorhynchus obliquidens (n = 2). The probable index case was identified in an adult male Dall's porpoise in 1997, 2 yr prior to the initial terrestrial outbreak. The spatiotemporal extent of the C. gattii epizootic was defined, and cases in odontocetes were found to be clustered around terrestrial C. gattii hotspots. Case-control analyses with stranded, uninfected odontocetes revealed that risk factors for infection were species (Dall's porpoises), age class (adult animals), and season (winter). This study suggests that mycoses are an emerging source of mortality for odontocetes, and that outbreaks may be associated with anthropogenic environmental disturbance.


Assuntos
Cryptococcus gattii , Golfinhos , Phocoena , Animais , Colúmbia Britânica , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Masculino
7.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 150(3): 2189, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34598649

RESUMO

Relatively little is known about spinner dolphins in Malaysian waters and the wider Southeast Asian region. This note represents the first known acoustic recording of the species sighted opportunistically in the northern Straits of Malacca. Over a brief 20 min sighting, 46 whistles were recorded and four tonal types were detected, with 54.4% being upsweep whistles. The whistle duration ranged from 36 to 977 ms and the frequency ranged from 6.6 to 23.8 kHz. Fifty-seven click trains with a mean interclick interval of 41.5 ± 19.3 ms were detected. These findings provide a baseline for future regional acoustic research on this species.


Assuntos
Golfinhos , Stenella , Acústica , Animais , Malásia , Espectrografia do Som , Vocalização Animal
8.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 150(2): 709, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470329

RESUMO

Much can be learned by investigating the click trains of odontocetes, including estimating the number of vocalizing animals and comparing the acoustic behavior of different individuals. Analyzing such information gathered from groups of echolocating animals in a natural environment is complicated by two main factors: overlapping echolocation produced by multiple animals at the same time, and varying levels of background noise. Starkhammar et al. [(2011a). Biol. Lett. 7(6), 836-839] described an algorithm that measures and compares the frequency spectra of individual clicks to identify groups of clicks produced by different individuals. This study presents an update to this click group separation algorithm that improves performance by comparing multiple click characteristics. There is a focus on reducing error when high background noise levels cause false click detection and recordings are of a limited frequency bandwidth, making the method applicable to a wide range of existing datasets. This method was successfully tested on recordings of free-swimming foraging dolphins with both low and high natural background noise levels. The algorithm can be adjusted via user-set parameters for application to recordings with varying sampling parameters and to species of varying click characteristics, allowing for estimates of the number of echolocating animals in free-swimming groups.


Assuntos
Golfinhos , Ecolocação , Acústica , Algoritmos , Animais , Natação
9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 15986, 2021 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34373473

RESUMO

Cetacean morbillivirus (CeMV) is a global threat to cetaceans. We report a novel morbillivirus from a Fraser's dolphin (Lagenodelphis hosei) that stranded in Maui, Hawaii in 2018 that is dissimilar to the beaked whale morbillivirus previously identified from Hawaii and to other CeMV strains. Histopathological findings included intranuclear inclusions in bile duct epithelium, lymphoid depletion, rare syncytial cells and non-suppurative meningitis. Cerebellum and lung tissue homogenates were inoculated onto Vero.DogSLAMtag cells for virus isolation and cytopathic effects were observed, resulting in the formation of multinucleated giant cells (i.e., syncytia). Transmission electron microscopy of infected cell cultures also revealed syncytial cells with intracytoplasmic and intranuclear inclusions of viral nucleocapsids, consistent with the ultrastructure of a morbillivirus. Samples of the cerebellum, lung, liver, spleen and lymph nodes were positive for morbillivirus using a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The resulting 559 bp L gene sequence had the highest nucleotide identity (77.3%) to porpoise morbillivirus from Northern Ireland and the Netherlands. The resulting 248 bp P gene had the highest nucleotide identity to porpoise morbillivirus in Northern Ireland and the Netherlands and to a stranded Guiana dolphin (Sotalia guianensis) in Brazil (66.9%). As Fraser's dolphins are a pelagic species that infrequently strand, a novel strain of CeMV may be circulating in the central Pacific that could have additional population impacts through transmission to other small island-associated cetacean species.


Assuntos
Golfinhos/virologia , Infecções por Morbillivirus/virologia , Morbillivirus/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Hawaii/epidemiologia , Infecções por Morbillivirus/epidemiologia , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Irlanda do Norte/epidemiologia , Baleias/virologia
10.
Mycologia ; 113(5): 1089-1109, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343445

RESUMO

The Ambrosia Fusarium Clade (AFC) is a monophyletic lineage within clade 3 of the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) that currently comprises 19 genealogically exclusive species. These fungi are known or predicted to be farmed by adult female Euwallacea ambrosia beetles as a nutritional mutualism (Coleoptera: Scolytinae; Xyleborini). To date, only eight of the 19 AFC species have been described formally with Latin binomials. We describe three AFC species, previously known as AF-8, AF-10, and AF-11, based on molecular phylogenetic analysis of multilocus DNA sequence data and comparative morphological/phenotypic studies. Fusarium duplospermum (AF-8) farmed by E. perbrevis on avocado in Florida, USA, is distinguished by forming two morphologically different types of multiseptate conidia and brownish orange colonies on potato dextrose agar (PDA). Fusarium drepaniforme (AF-10), isolated from an unknown woody host in Singapore and deposited as Herb IMI 351954 in the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, UK, under the name F. bugnicourtii, is diagnosed by frequent production of multiseptate sickle-shaped conidia. Fusarium papillatum (AF-11), isolated from mycangia of E. perbrevis infesting tea in Kandy, Sri Lanka, forms multiseptate clavate conidia that possess a papillate apical cell protruding toward the ventral side. Lastly, we prepared an augmented description of F. kuroshium (AF-12), previously isolated from the heads or galleries of E. kuroshio in a California sycamore tree, El Cajon, California, USA, and recently validated nomenclaturally as Fusarium. Conidia formed by F. kuroshium vary widely in size and shape, suggesting a close morphological relationship with F. floridanum, compared with all other AFC species. Maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony analyses of a multilocus data set resolve these three novel AFC species, and F. kuroshium, as phylogenetically distinct based on genealogical concordance. Given the promiscuous nature of several Euwallacea species, and the overlapping geographic range of several AFC species and Euwallacea ambrosia beetles, the potential for symbiont switching among sympatric species is discussed.


Assuntos
Golfinhos , Fusarium , Ambrosia , Animais , Fusarium/genética , Filogenia , Esporos Fúngicos
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 800: 149512, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391148

RESUMO

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), as a type of legacy persistent organic pollutants, pose significant health threats to wildlife. However, long-term residue changes and profiles of PCBs in cetaceans have not been extensively studied in the Pearl River Estuary (PRE), an important marine mammal area in China. Here, the body burdens, spatiotemporal trends, and health risks of 21 chlorobiphenyl congeners (∑21CBs) were analyzed in blubber samples collected from twelve cetacean species (n = 172) in the PRE from 2003 to 2020. Our results revealed medium levels of PCBs (316-96,233 ng g-1 lipid) compared to those reported for cetaceans elsewhere (70-370,000 ng g-1 lipid). Clear differences in PCB distribution patterns between inshore and offshore cetaceans and between odontocetes and mysticetes were also found. Both the coastal Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) and Indo-Pacific finless porpoises (Neophocaena phocaenoides) displayed similarly fine-scale spatial distribution patterns of PCBs, suggesting that the two cetaceans could serve as bioindicators of PCB pollution in the PRE. Additionally, both cetaceans exhibited decreasing trends in their blubber PCB concentrations over the past 20 years, likely reflecting the effective regulation of PCBs in the PRE Delta. Nevertheless, the relatively high and stable PCB-toxic equivalent (TEQ) levels detected in calf humpback dolphins during the sampling period suggested that the calves are still under the stresses of high PCB-related health risks. Our results highlight the need for more efforts to eliminate PCB contamination to prevent these cetaceans from continuous population decline and further extinction.


Assuntos
Golfinhos , Bifenilos Policlorados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Estuários , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
12.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0250331, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34460862

RESUMO

The goal of the current study was to create reference intervals and values for several common and one potential novel physiological indicators of animal welfare for four species of cetaceans. The subjects included 189 bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), 27 Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus), eight Pacific white-sided dolphins (Lagenorhynchus obliquidens), and 13 beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) at Alliance of Marine Mammal Parks and Aquariums and/or Association of Zoos and Aquariums accredited facilities. During two sampling time periods between July and November of 2018 and between January and April of 2019, fecal samples were collected weekly for five weeks from all animals. Samples were processed and analyzed using enzyme immunoassay for fecal cortisol, aldosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) metabolites. Linear mixed models were used to examine demographic and time factors impacting hormone metabolite concentrations. Age, sex, and time of year were all significant predictors for some of the models (p < 0.01). An iOS mobile application ZooPhysioTrak was created for easy access to species-specific reference intervals and values accounting for significant predictors. For facilities without access to this application, additional reference intervals and values were constructed without accounting for significant predictors. Information gained from this study and the use of the application can provide reference intervals and values to make informed management decisions for cetaceans in zoological facilities.


Assuntos
Aldosterona/análise , Beluga/metabolismo , Golfinho Nariz-de-Garrafa/metabolismo , Desidroepiandrosterona/metabolismo , Golfinhos/metabolismo , Hidrocortisona/análise , Fatores Etários , Animais , Desidroepiandrosterona/análise , Golfinhos/fisiologia , Fezes/química , Feminino , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Masculino , Valores de Referência , Estações do Ano , Fatores Sexuais
13.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0250332, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34460864

RESUMO

This study reports comprehensive clinical pathology data for hematology, serum, and plasma biochemistry reference intervals for 174 apparently healthy common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and reference values for 27 Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus), 13 beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas), and 6 Pacific white-sided dolphins (Lagenorhynchus obliquidens) in zoos and aquariums accredited by the Alliance for Marine Mammal Parks and Aquariums and the Association of Zoos & Aquariums. Blood samples were collected as part of a larger study titled "Towards understanding the welfare of cetaceans in zoos and aquariums" (colloquially called the Cetacean Welfare Study). Two blood samples were collected following a standardized protocol, and two veterinarian examinations were conducted approximately six months apart between July to November 2018 and January to April 2019. Least square means, standard deviations, and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for hematology, serum, and plasma biochemical variables. Comparisons by age, gender, and month revealed statistically significant differences (p < 0.01) for several variables. Reference intervals and values were generated for samples tested at two laboratories for up to 56 hematologic, serum, and plasma biochemical variables. To apply these data, ZooPhysioTrak, an iOS mobile software application, was developed to provide a new resource for cetacean management. ZooPhysioTrak provides species-specific reference intervals and values based on user inputs of individual demographic and sample information. These data provide a baseline from which to compare hematological, serum, and plasma biochemical values in cetaceans in zoos and aquariums.


Assuntos
Beluga/sangue , Golfinho Nariz-de-Garrafa/sangue , Golfinhos/sangue , Fatores Etários , Animais , Animais de Zoológico/sangue , Golfinhos/metabolismo , Feminino , Masculino , Valores de Referência , Estações do Ano , Fatores Sexuais
14.
Aquat Toxicol ; 239: 105939, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34455206

RESUMO

Sea turtles, dolphins and dugongs can be exposed to large mixtures of contaminants due to the proximity of foraging locations to anthropogenic inputs. Differences in accumulation and effect result in differences of chemical risk to these species. However, little is known about the effect of contaminants in marine wildlife. Cell-based, or in vitro, exposure experiments offer an ethical alternative to investigate the effect of contaminants in wildlife. Data from in vitro studies can then be placed in an environmental context, by using screening risk assessments, comparing effect data with accumulation data from the literature, to identify risk to populations of marine wildlife. Cytotoxicity of Cr6+, Cd2+, Hg2+, 4,4'-DDE, and PFNA were investigated in primary skin fibroblasts of green turtles, loggerhead turtles, hawksbill turtles, dugongs, Burrunan dolphins, and common bottlenose dolphins. The general order of toxicity for all species was Hg2+> Cr6+ > Cd2+> 4,4'-DDE > PFNA, and significant differences in cytotoxicity were found between species for Cr6+, Cd2+ and PFNA. For Cd2+, in particular, cells from turtle species were less sensitive than mammalian species, and dugong cells were by far the most sensitive. The results from the cytotoxicity assay were then used in combination with published data on tissue contaminant concentrations to calculate risk quotients for identifying populations of each species most at risk from these chemicals. Cr, Cd and Hg were identified as posing risk in all six species. Dugongs were particularly at risk from Cd accumulation and dolphin species were particularly at risk from Hg accumulation. These results demonstrate the importance of using species-specific effect and accumulation data for developing chemical risk assessments and can be used to inform managers of priority contaminants, species, or populations. Development of additional in vitro endpoints, and improving links between in vitro and in vivo effects, would further improve this approach to understanding chemical risk in marine megafauna.


Assuntos
Golfinhos , Tartarugas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Medição de Risco , Especificidade da Espécie , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 800: 149302, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426300

RESUMO

The ecology and life history of marine megafauna can answer the ecological importance of a region. This study assesses and monitors the abundance and home range of sea turtles, seabirds, marine mammals and the association with coastal microhabitats in potentially impacted areas at the Rio Doce river mouth, Comboios, and Piraquê-açu river mouth after the collapse of the Fundão dam. Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROV) and UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, or drones) were used for megafauna species identification, behavior, population data, habitat characterization, and monitoring of environmental protection areas. The species Sotalia guianensis and Pontoporia blainvillei were the most recorded cetaceans, and the main observed behavior was feeding. Guiana dolphin (S. guianensis) occurs in greater density in the Rio Doce river mouth region, resulting in more than 10 sightings/km2, while franciscana (P. blainvillei) were the most concentrated Comboios area. The seabirds (all species) had up to 15 sightings/km2 at the Rio Doce river mouth, the highest density among sampled areas. The green turtle (Chelonia mydas) was the most frequently recorded, followed by the leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea). The green turtle occurred at a higher concentration at the Piraquê-Açu river mouth (above 6 sightings/km2). The sites closest to Rio Doce river mouth and Comboios predominantly showed mud bottoms, while those at Piraquê-Açu mouth were mostly reef structures. The estuarine areas showed greater importance for megafauna than marine areas.


Assuntos
Golfinhos , Colapso Estrutural , Tartarugas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Brasil , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
16.
Glob Chang Biol ; 27(19): 4839-4848, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34254409

RESUMO

From midnight of 26 March 2020, New Zealand became one of the first countries to enter a strict lockdown to combat the spread of COVID-19. The lockdown banned all non-essential services and travel both on land and sea. Overnight, the country's busiest coastal waterway, the Hauraki Gulf Marine Park, became devoid of almost all recreational and non-essential commercial vessels. An almost instant change in the marine soundscape ensued, with ambient sound levels in busy channels dropping nearly threefold the first 12 h. This sudden drop led fish and dolphins to experience an immediate increase in their communication ranges by up to an estimated 65%. Very low vessel activity during the lockdown (indicated by the presence of vessel noise over the day) revealed new insights into cumulative noise effects from vessels on auditory masking. For example, at sites nearer Auckland City, communication ranges increased approximately 18 m (22%) or 50 m (11%) for every 10% decrease in vessel activity for fish and dolphins, respectively. However, further from the city and in deeper water, these communication ranges were increased by approximately 13 m (31%) or 510 m (20%). These new data demonstrate how noise from small vessels can impact underwater soundscapes and how marine animals will have to adapt to ever-growing noise pollution.


Assuntos
Comunicação Animal , COVID-19 , Golfinhos , Acústica , Animais , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
17.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0241099, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34288903

RESUMO

Population decline and extinction risk of river dolphins are primarily associated with flow alteration. Previous studies predominantly highlighted maintenance of adequate flow for low water seasons when habitats contract and the risk of local extinction escalates. Although river dolphins are sensitive to reduction in river flow, no studies quantify the relationships between flow and ecology of river dolphins to mitigate the potential adverse impacts of flow alteration. We quantify the relationships between flow and the ecology of river cetaceans concerning Ganges River dolphins (GRD; Platanista gangetica gangetica) usable area availability (AWS) for the low water season at wider flows (50-575 m3/s) at finer spatial and temporal scales. This study reveals that distribution of area usable to GRD is highly regulated by the adequate flow and river attributes (velocity and depth) interactions that likely offer energetically efficient modes of locomotion to GRD, suggesting the hydro-physical environment as a major determinant of river dolphin distribution and abundance. Flow and AWS relationships indicate that the flow during the dry season negatively contributed to AWS, whereas that of pre-monsoon maximized the AWS, suggesting that modifying flow regimes does alter in-stream habitats at varying spatial scales and may influence life-history strategies. Substantial fragmentation in suitable pool availability and loss of longitudinal connectivity exhibited by dry season flow suggested a higher risk of adverse biological effects during the dry season, which may reduce population viability by reducing survivorship and reproduction failure. Owing to river dolphins' dependence on the attribute of freshwater flow, they can be expected to be more affected by flow regulations as interactive effects. Considering the seasonal effects and changes in the availability of usable areas by flow alteration, adopting effective habitat retention plans by water-based development projects appears critical to avoid further ecological risks in aquatic species conservation. Identifying priority riverscapes for river cetaceans and prioritizing investment opportunities is an essential first step towards effective riverine cetacean conservation.


Assuntos
Golfinhos , Ecossistema , Rios , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Estações do Ano
18.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(10)2021 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34064946

RESUMO

The acquisition and analysis of EEG signals of dolphins, a highly intelligent creature, has always been a focus of the research of bioelectric signals. Prevailing cable-connected devices cannot be adapted to data acquisition very well when dolphins are in motion. Therefore, this study designs a novel, light-weighted, and portable EEG acquisition device aimed at relatively unrestricted EEG acquisition. An embedded main control board and an acquisition board were designed, and all modules are encapsulated in a 162 × 94 × 60 mm3 waterproof device box, which can be tied to the dolphin's body by a silicon belt. The acquisition device uses customized suction cups with embedded electrodes and adopts a Bluetooth module for wireless communication with the ground station. The sampled signals are written to the memory card on board when the Bluetooth communication is blocked. A limited experiment was designed to verify the effectiveness of the device functionality onshore and underwater. However, more rigorous long-term tests on dolphins in various states with our device are expected in future to further prove its capability and study the movement-related artifacts.


Assuntos
Golfinhos , Animais , Artefatos , Eletrodos , Eletroencefalografia , Movimento
19.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(12): 8159-8168, 2021 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34061511

RESUMO

Whales accumulate high levels of environmental pollutants. Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their metabolites (OH-PCBs) could be linked to abnormal behavior, which may lead to mass stranding of marine mammals. Whales may thus suffer from adverse effects such as neuronal dysfunction, yet testing the neurotoxicity of these compounds has never been feasible for these species. This study established neurons chemically reprogrammed from fibroblasts of mass stranded melon-headed whales (Peponocephala electra) and used them for in vitro neurotoxicity assays. Exposure to 4-hydroxy-2',3,5,5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (4'OH-CB72), a metabolite of PCBs, caused apoptosis in the reprogrammed neurons. Transcriptome analysis of 4'OH-CB72-treated whale neurons showed altered expressions of genes associated with oxidative phosphorylation, chromatin degradation, axonal transport, and neurodegenerative diseases. These results suggest that 4'OH-CB72 exposure may induce neurodegeneration through disrupted apoptotic processes. A comparison of the results with human reprogrammed neurons revealed the specific effects on the whale neurons. Our noninvasive approach using fibroblast-derived neurons is useful for hazard and risk assessments of neurotoxicity in whales.


Assuntos
Golfinhos , Bifenilos Policlorados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Neurônios , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Baleias
20.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(2): e20200638, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076040

RESUMO

As cetaceans are sentinels of the marine environment, studying their life history is of utmost importance in understanding their habits and their interaction with the environment. To achieve this goal, it is important to study their ecological niches through the investigation of their habitat use patterns and trophic relationships. This study aimed to evaluate if there are differences in the habitat use patterns and the trophic ecology of franciscana (Pontoporia blainvillei) and Guiana dolphins (Sotalia guianensis) accidentally caught off the south coast of São Paulo State, and Guiana dolphins biopsied in the Cananeia estuary, southeastern Brazil, based on the carbon and the nitrogen stable isotopes analysis. Isotopic ratios were estimated from skin samples. The isotopic niche size and overlap were calculated using the SIBER package (R software). The gathered results showed evidence of spatial segregation between Guiana dolphins and franciscanas. The Guiana dolphins sampled inside and outside the estuary showed evidence of trophic and spatial segregation. No difference in isotopic values between sexes was found for both species. Such differences between franciscanas and Guiana dolphins were expected as both species have distinct life histories as a result of different evolutionary pathways.


Assuntos
Carbono , Golfinhos , Animais , Oceano Atlântico , Brasil , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise
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