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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 1152, 2021 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34763670

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends periodic gonorrhoea prevalence assessments in the general population or proxies thereof (including pregnant women, women attending family planning clinics, military recruits, and men undergoing employment physicals for example) and in population groups at increased risk, including men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM) and sex workers. METHOD: We evaluated reported prevalence data, including estimates from proxy general population samples to reflect the WHO recommendations. We describe the outcomes from the general population country-by-country and extend previous reviews to include MSM, sex workers, and extragenital infections. RESULT AND CONCLUSION: In our systematic search, 2015 titles were reviewed (January 2010-April 2019) and 174 full-text publications were included. National, population-based prevalence data were identified in only four countries (the United States of America, the United Kingdom, Peru, New Caledonia) and local population-based estimates were reported in areas within five countries (China, South Africa, Brazil, Benin, and Malawi). The remaining studies identified only reported test positivity from non-probability, proxy general population samples. Due to the diversity of the reviewed studies, detailed comparison across studies was not possible. In MSM, data were identified from 64 studies in 25 countries. Rectal infection rates were generally higher than urogenital or pharyngeal infection rates, where extragenital testing was conducted. Data on sex workers were identified from 41 studies in 23 countries; rates in female sex workers were high. Current prevalence monitoring was shown to be highly suboptimal worldwide. Serial prevalence monitoring of critical epidemiological variables, and guidelines to optimize prevalence study conduct and reporting beyond antenatal settings are recommended.


Assuntos
Gonorreia , Profissionais do Sexo , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Feminino , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Prevalência , Estados Unidos
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34755815

RESUMO

PrEP users are under high risk for bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STI), including those caused by Treponema pallidum (Tp), Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Ng). Ct and Ng screening at multiple anatomic sites may improve the diagnostic sensitivity among high-risk populations. We analyzed the prevalence and incidence of Ct, Ng, and Tp and investigated predictors of bacterial STI occurrence between January 2018 and November 2019 in a retrospective cohort of PrEP users in Sao Paulo, Brazil. We describe the frequency and percentage of Ct/Ng per anatomical site and calculate the percentage of missed diagnosis if molecular testing were applied only in symptomatic patients, or only in urine samples. Patients underwent syphilis testing every 3-4 months and Ct/Ng testing every 6 months. We included 413 PrEP users with a median age of 31 years. At baseline, 25% had a positive treponemal test and 7% had active syphilis; Ct and Ng were more frequently detected in the oropharynx and anus (6.4-6.9%) than in urine samples (0.7-2.6%). Twelve months after the onset of PrEP, the incidence of Tp, Ct and Ng was, respectively, 13.4%, 11.4% and 8.9%. During follow-up, 23 out of 33 Ct/Ng cases (69%, 95% CI 51-84) would have been missed if oropharynx and anus samples had not been tested. In addition, if only symptomatic cases had been tested, 30 out of 33 Ct/Ng cases (90%, 95% CI 75-98) would have been missed. Participants with incident STI had a higher baseline number of sexual partners and a longer follow-up. Our study reinforces that active and frequent screening for STI is a powerful strategy to improve the diagnostic sensitivity.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia , Gonorreia , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Chlamydia trachomatis , Gonorreia/diagnóstico , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Neisseria gonorrhoeae , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos
3.
Lakartidningen ; 1182021 11 02.
Artigo em Sueco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730833

RESUMO

Neisseria gonorrhoeae causes the sexually transmitted infection gonorrhoea, which can result in serious complications, e.g. infertility and ectopic pregnancy. The incidence of gonorrhoea is high internationally and has dramatically increased in Sweden during the last 10 years. Gonorrhoea mostly manifests as urethritis, cervicitis, and/or extragenital infections (in pharynx, rectum and eye). Urogenital infections in women and particularly pharyngeal and rectal gonorrhoea are frequently asymptomatic. Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) are recommended for diagnostics, but culture remains imperative for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Antimicrobial resistance in N. gonorrhoeae is a major concern, which compromises management and control of gonorrhoea globally. Diagnosed gonorrhoea should always be treated and the recommended first-line treatment is an injection with a high dose of ceftriaxone. Test-of-cure is recommended for all cases approximately two weeks after treatment.


Assuntos
Gonorreia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Ceftriaxona/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Gonorreia/diagnóstico , Gonorreia/tratamento farmacológico , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Suécia/epidemiologia
4.
Lakartidningen ; 1182021 11 02.
Artigo em Sueco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730835

RESUMO

The incidence of syphilis was decreasing during the last decades of the 20th century, partly due to the awareness and fear of hiv. However, an increase is now apparent in many countries. It is still uncommon in Sweden compared to chlamydia and gonorrhoea, and the incidence is 4.6/100.000 inhabitants. The infection can be latent and without symptoms, but also manifest itself as a painless genital ulcer, with rash and fever, or as neurosyphilis. Congenital infection due to transmission of the syphilis spirochete from an infected mother to her fetus is still a problem in many parts of the world. In order to prevent congenital syphilis it is important for all pregnant women to have access to maternal care during their pregnancy, and to get efficient treatment if diagnosed with syphilis.


Assuntos
Gonorreia , Neurossífilis , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Sífilis Congênita , Sífilis , Feminino , Humanos , Neurossífilis/diagnóstico , Neurossífilis/tratamento farmacológico , Neurossífilis/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Sífilis/diagnóstico , Sífilis/tratamento farmacológico , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Sífilis Congênita/diagnóstico , Sífilis Congênita/tratamento farmacológico , Sífilis Congênita/epidemiologia
5.
Przegl Epidemiol ; 75(2): 151-158, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34696547

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 pandemic had a big impact on the health services organisation, including that of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). AIM: To analyse and evaluate the influence of COVID-19 epidemic on the detection of STIs and healthcare services in a group of these patients on the base of the experience of the Department of Dermatology and Venereology and University Outpatient Clinic in Bialystok, Poland. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Analysis of the number of consultations for suspicion of STIs, number of newly diagnosed cases of syphilis, gonorrhoea, Chlamydia trachomatis infections and genital herpes in two periods: January 2019 - February 2020 (before the epidemic state was introduced) and March 2020 - April 2021 (during pandemic). STIs cases hospitalised in the same periods were also analysed. RESULTS: The number of hospitalisations and outpatient consultations decreased during pandemic as compared to the period before it (by 83.3% and 41.9%, respectively). Patients with syphilis constituted the majority in both periods, remaining STIs were few. During pandemic, the proportion of detected cases of syphilis was higher as compared to the time before it, despite the diminished number of consultations (39.4% and 28%, respectively). Majority of patients with syphilis were men (92.3% and 93.3%), among them men-who-have-sex-with-men constituted at least 50%. Early syphilis was diagnosed more frequently during pandemic than before it (92.3% and 78.6%, respectively), early symptomatic syphilis in particular (46.2% and 35.7%, respectively). HIV coinfection in syphilis patients was more frequent during pandemic (15.8% and 7.1%, respectively). More than half of these patients (53.8%) did not come for follow-up visits after treatment during pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: The pandemic caused the decrease in number of outpatient STIs consultations and hospitalisations. The proportion of newly diagnosed cases of syphilis per number of consultations increased. The percentage of early syphilis cases, especially early symptomatic syphilis increased. Adherence to after treatment follow up was suboptimal.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Gonorreia , Infecções por HIV , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Sífilis , Feminino , Gonorreia/diagnóstico , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Polônia/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Sífilis/diagnóstico , Sífilis/epidemiologia
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34711144

RESUMO

Abstract: The Australian Gonococcal Surveillance Programme (AGSP), established in 1981, has continuously monitored antimicrobial resistance in clinical isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae for more than 40 years. In 2020, a total of 7,222 clinical isolates of gonococci from patients in the public and private sectors, in all jurisdictions, were tested for in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility by standardised methods. Current treatment recommendations for gonorrhoea, for the majority of Australia, continues to be dual therapy with ceftriaxone and azithromycin. In 2020, decreased susceptibility (DS) to ceftriaxone (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] value ≥ 0.06 mg/L) was found nationally in 0.9% of isolates. There was one isolate, reported from Victoria in 2020, that was resistant to ceftriaxone (MIC value ≥ 0.25 mg/L). Resistance to azithromycin (MIC value ≥ 1.0 mg/L) was found nationally in 3.9% of N. gonorrhoeae isolates, continuing a downward trend observed and reported since 2017. Isolates with high-level resistance to azithromycin (MIC value ≥ 256 mg/L) are identified sporadically in Australia; in 2020, there was one such isolate reported in Queensland. In 2020, penicillin resistance was found in 27% of gonococcal isolates nationally, and ciprofloxacin resistance in 36%; however, there is considerable variation by jurisdiction. In some remote settings, penicillin resistance remains low, and this drug continues to be recommended as part of an empiric therapy strategy. In 2020, in remote Northern Territory, no penicillin resistance was reported, and in remote Western Australia 5/116 of gonococcal isolates (4.3%) were penicillin resistant. There was one ciprofloxacin-resistant isolate reported from remote Northern Territory, and ciprofloxacin resistance rates remain comparatively low in remote Western Australia (4/116; 3.4%).


Assuntos
Gonorreia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Gonorreia/tratamento farmacológico , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Neisseria gonorrhoeae , Vitória
7.
Rev Chilena Infectol ; 38(4): 512-522, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34652397

RESUMO

Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a nonmotile, sporulated, aerobic or facultative anaerobic gram-negative diplococcus, catalase and oxidase positive. Sexually transmitted infections caused by this microorganism were established as public health problem since the 19th century, representing a great threat to human health due to its high prevalence and multi-resistance to antimicrobials. In recent decades, reports of strains resistant to penicillin, fluoroquinolones, sulfonamides, tetracycline, macrolides, and more recently to cephalosporins and azithromycin have increased. Such a panorama has generated concern worldwide, due to the increase in cases of gonorrhea associated with multi-resistant strains. In Chile, from 2010 to 2018, the National Surveillance Program for N. gonorrhoeae was developed in order to characterize this infection in the regions and record antimicrobial resistance. This review presents an updated, systematic bibliographic analysis of the main aspects of this microorganism, its response to antimicrobials, and provides diagnostic and treatment guidelines, while waiting to advance in the understanding of the molecular mechanism and the metabolic and immunological interactions that determine infection, with a view to designing an effective vaccine.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Gonorreia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Chile/epidemiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Neisseria gonorrhoeae
8.
Am J Prev Med ; 61(5 Suppl 1): S16-S25, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34686285

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In 2019, the District of Columbia recorded a 20-year low rate in new HIV infections but also had near-record numbers of gonorrhea and chlamydia infections. District of Columbia Department of Health has supported numerous forms of community-based in-person screening but not direct at-home testing. METHODS: In summer 2020, the District of Columbia Department of Health launched GetCheckedDC.org for District of Columbia residents to order home-based oral HIV antibody test and urogenital, pharyngeal, and rectal chlamydia and gonorrhea tests. Initial and follow-up surveys were completed by individuals for both test modalities. RESULTS: A retrospective analysis was conducted for the first 5 months of the program. During that period, 1,089 HIV and 1,262 gonorrhea and chlamydia tests (535 urogenital, 520 pharyngeal, 207 rectal) were ordered by 1,245 District of Columbia residents. The average age was 33.1 (median=31, range=14-78) years; 51.6% of requestors identified as Black; 39.3% identified as men who have sex with men; 16.2% reported no form of insurance; and 8.1% and 10.4% reported never being testing for HIV and sexually transmitted infections, respectively. More than half of people requesting tests reported convenience and COVID-19 as the reasons. In total, 39.5% of sexually transmitted infection tests were returned; 7.22% of people testing for sexually transmitted infections received a positive result, and 10.35% of rectal tests were positive. No individuals reported a positive HIV self-test that was confirmed; 98.5% of respondents said that they would recommend the HIV self-test kit. CONCLUSIONS: Mail-out HIV and sexually transmitted infection testing was readily taken up among high-priority demographics within a diverse, urban, high-morbidity jurisdiction during the COVID-19 pandemic. Extragenital testing for gonorrhea and chlamydia should be included in all at-home screening tests given the high positivity rate.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Infecções por Chlamydia , Gonorreia , Infecções por HIV , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Adulto , Infecções por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , District of Columbia/epidemiologia , Gonorreia/diagnóstico , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Pandemias , Serviços Postais , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Washington/epidemiologia
9.
BMJ Open ; 11(10): e052823, 2021 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620667

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The incidence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and its antimicrobial resistance is increasing in many countries. Antibacterial mouthwash may reduce gonorrhoea transmission without using antibiotics. We modelled the effect that antiseptic mouthwash may have on the incidence of gonorrhoea. DESIGN: We developed a mathematical model of the transmission of gonorrhoea between each anatomical site (oropharynx, urethra and anorectum) in men who have sex with men (MSM). We constructed four scenarios: (1) mouthwash had no effect; (2) mouthwash increased the susceptibility of the oropharynx; (3) mouthwash reduced the transmissibility from the oropharynx; (4) the combined effect of mouthwash from scenarios 2 and 3. SETTING: We used data at three anatomical sites from 4873 MSM attending Melbourne Sexual Health Centre in 2018 and 2019 to calibrate our models and data from the USA, Netherlands and Thailand for sensitivity analyses. PARTICIPANTS: Published available data on MSM with multisite infections of gonorrhoea. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Incidence of gonorrhoea. RESULTS: The overall incidence of gonorrhoea was 44 (95% CI 37 to 50)/100 person-years (PY) in scenario 1. Under scenario 2 (20%-80% mouthwash coverage), the total incidence increased (47-60/100 PY) and at all three anatomical sites by between 7.4% (5.9%-60.8%) and 136.6% (108.1%-177.5%). Under scenario 3, with the same coverage, the total incidence decreased (20-39/100 PY) and at all anatomical sites by between 11.6% (10.2%-13.5%) and 99.8% (99.2%-100%). Under scenario 4, changes in the incidence depended on the efficacy of mouthwash on the susceptibility or transmissibility. The effect on the total incidence varied (22-55/100 PY), and at all anatomical sites, there were increases of nearly 130% and large declines of almost 100%. CONCLUSIONS: The effect of mouthwash on gonorrhoea incidence is largely predictable depending on whether it increases susceptibility to or reduces the transmissibility of gonorrhoea.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais , Gonorreia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Gonorreia/prevenção & controle , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , Antissépticos Bucais , Neisseria gonorrhoeae
10.
J Prim Health Care ; 13(2): 171-179, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620299

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION Routinely following an evidence-based clinical pathway of care for bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as chlamydia or gonorrhoea is important to help reduce the spread of infections, prevent reinfections and avoid associated health complications. AIM To develop an easy-to-use tool for routine use by primary care clinicians to ensure best practice management of patients tested for and diagnosed with chlamydia or gonorrhoea. METHODS The tool (a MedTech Advanced Form) was developed in consultation with seven primary care clinicians and included different tabs for use during the STI care pathway (testing, treatment, advice, partner notification and follow up) with clickable links to relevant online resources. The tool was trialled over 3 months by 19 clinicians in three Wellington primary care clinics - two youth health and a student health service. Outcome measures were frequency of use, completeness of fields related to best practice care and clinician acceptance of the tool (from focus group feedback). RESULTS The tool was used for approximately one in four patients who were tested during the trial period, with 'forgetting' reported as the most common reason for non-use. Clinician views about the tool were favourable, with most indicating they would like to continue use and would recommend it to colleagues. Documentation of best practice care was excellent; fields to record reasons for testing, discussion of sexual history, provision of treatment and advice given were used for most patients for whom the form was completed. CONCLUSIONS Inclusion of this STI management tool in the electronic patient records system appeared to improve primary care clinicians' delivery and documentation of best practice sexual health care at a practice level. Wider use of a modified version of this tool could facilitate more comprehensive best practice management of bacterial STIs.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia , Gonorreia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Adolescente , Infecções por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Infecções por Chlamydia/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Chlamydia/prevenção & controle , Busca de Comunicante , Estudos de Viabilidade , Gonorreia/diagnóstico , Gonorreia/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle
11.
Pediatrics ; 148(5)2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34675130

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Rates of chlamydia and gonorrhea among adolescents continue to rise. We aimed to evaluate if a universal testing program for chlamydia and gonorrhea improved testing rates in an urban general pediatric clinic and an urban family medicine clinic within a system of federally qualified health care centers and evaluated the feasibility, cost, and logistic challenges of expanding implementation across 28 primary care clinics within a federally qualified health care centers system. METHODS: A universal testing quality improvement program for male and female patient 14 to 18 years old was implemented in a general pediatrics and family medicine clinic in Denver, Colorado. The intervention was evaluated by using a controlled pre-post quasi-experimental design. The difference in testing rates due to the intervention was assessed by using a difference-in-differences regression model weighted with the inverse probability of treatment. RESULTS: In total, 15 541 pediatric encounters and 5420 family medicine encounters were included in the analyses. In pediatrics, the unadjusted testing rates increased from 32.0% to 66.7% in the intervention group and from 20.9% to 28.9% in the comparison group. For family medicine, the rates increased from 38.5% to 49.9% in the intervention group and decreased from 26.3% to 24.8% in the comparison group. The intervention resulted in an adjusted increase in screening rates of 25.2% (P < .01) in pediatrics and 11.8% (P < .01) in family medicine. The intervention was well received and cost neutral to the clinic. CONCLUSIONS: Universal testing for chlamydia and gonorrhea in primary care pediatrics and family medicine is a feasible approach to improving testing rates .


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Gonorreia/diagnóstico , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Adolescente , Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Colorado/epidemiologia , Medicina de Família e Comunidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pediatria/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/economia , Melhoria de Qualidade , Assistência de Saúde Universal
12.
New Microbiol ; 44(3): 164-172, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34694413

RESUMO

Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) is the agent of one of the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infections worldwide. The possible development of 'untreatable' infections points out the need for antibiotic-sparing methods to reduce the number of gonococcal infections. In this context, fatty acids are interesting candidates as next-generation antibacterial agents. The aim of this study was to investigate the bactericidal effects of selected fatty acids on GC viability, as well as to observe their biological effects by means of transmission electron microscopy. The cytotoxicity of these compounds on human cervical cells (HeLa), chosen as a model of genital mucosa, was assessed as well. Lauric, myristic, and palmitic acid displayed high killing activity against GC in concentrations ranging between 100 µM and 25 µM, whereas the antimicrobial effect of oleic and butyric acids was present in concentrations between 1 mM and 0.25 mM. Modifications induced by fatty acids on the GC cell included the disorganization of the cytoplasmic structure, the distortion of pili/fimbriae, and the separation of the inner and outer membrane layers. For concentrations active against GC, fatty acids were not toxic for cervical cells. Our data can help in promoting innovative antibiotic-free compounds for the treatment of GC infections.


Assuntos
Gonorreia , Neisseria gonorrhoeae , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos , Gonorreia/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639324

RESUMO

Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) affect mainly young individuals and cause health, social, and economic problems worldwide. The present study used a web questionnaire to assess the awareness, knowledge, sexual behaviors, and common practices regarding STDs in young Greek adults. The 1833 individuals, aged 18-30 years, who responded to the study seem to be particularly knowledgeable regarding STDs such as AIDS (97.7%), warts (97%), Chlamydia (92.2%), genital herpes (89.9%), syphilis (81.9%), and gonorrhea (72.1%), whereas lower percentages were noted for trichomoniasis (39.3%), Molluscum contagiosum (12.9%), mycoplasmosis (11.6%), and amoebiasis (7.4%). Regarding oral STD transmission, participants replied correctly for genital herpes (45%), warts (35.8%), and AIDS (HIV; 33.8%), whereas 30.2% were unfamiliar with oral sexual transmission. Of the participants, 52% were not aware that STDs might cause infertility. Only 40.4% of the respondents reported always using condoms during sexual intercourse, and 48.6% had never been tested for STDs. The majority of the young population (55%) presented a moderate knowledge STD score (41-60%) and was associated with demographic parameters such as age, gender, sexual preference, number of sexual partners, and residence (p < 0.05). These findings provide important information regarding the prevention of STDs and highlight the significance of developing more effective sex education programs for young people in Greece.


Assuntos
Gonorreia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Adolescente , Adulto , Preservativos , Grécia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Comportamento Sexual , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia
14.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(10): ITC145-ITC160, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34633834

RESUMO

Gonorrhea and chlamydia rates have risen to record-high levels in the United States over the past decade. Because these infections are often asymptomatic, effective clinical management relies on screening of asymptomatic patients, particularly women younger than 25 years and men who have sex with men. If undetected and untreated, gonorrhea and chlamydia can lead to infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and chronic pelvic pain and can facilitate HIV acquisition and transmission. Primary care providers need to be aware of recent changes in recommended treatments for both infections.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Ceftriaxona/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Infecções por Chlamydia/tratamento farmacológico , Doxiciclina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Gentamicinas/uso terapêutico , Gonorreia/diagnóstico , Gonorreia/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino
15.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1637, 2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493244

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Before the COVID-19 pandemic, Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) were increasing in Europe, and Spain and Catalonia were not an exception. Catalonia has been one of the regions with the highest number of COVID-19 confirmed cases in Spain. The objective of this study was to estimate the magnitude of the decline, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, in the number of STI confirmed cases in Catalonia during the lockdown and de-escalation phases. METHODS: Interrupted time series analysis was performed to estimate the magnitude of decline in the number of STI reported confirmed cases - chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis, and lymphogranuloma venereum- in Catalonia since lockdown with historical data, from March 13th to August 1st 2020, comparing the observed with the expected values. RESULTS: We found that since the start of COVID-19 pandemic the number of STI reported cases was 51% less than expected, reaching an average of 56% during lockdown (50% and 45% during de-escalation and new normality) with a maximum decrease of 72% for chlamydia and minimum of 22% for syphilis. Our results indicate that fewer STIs were reported in females, people living in more deprived areas, people with no previous STI episodes during the last three years, and in the HIV negative. CONCLUSIONS: The STI notification sharp decline was maintained almost five months after lockdown started, well into the new normality. This fact can hardly be explained without significant underdiagnosis and underreporting. There is an urgent need to strengthen STI/HIV diagnostic programs and services, as well as surveillance, as the pandemic could be concealing the real size of the already described re-emergence of STIs in most of the European countries.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Infecções por Chlamydia , Gonorreia , Infecções por HIV , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Sífilis , Artefatos , Infecções por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Feminino , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Sífilis/epidemiologia
16.
J Med Microbiol ; 70(9)2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34494952

RESUMO

Introduction. Gonorrhoea is a sexually transmitted disease whose incidence has increased in recent years and adult gonococcal conjunctivitis (AGC) is a relatively uncommon complication.Hypothesis/Gap Statement. AGC is associated with increased incidence of genital gonorrhoea and must be treated correctly to avoid serious corneal complications.Aims. To report the prevalence, clinical features, and complications of AGC in a tertiary ophthalmology centre in Barcelona, Spain. Present epidemiological data, clinical features, ocular complications, and antibiotic susceptibility. Design: Single-centre, descriptive, retrospective case series.Methodology. Systematic case-defined search in medical records and further retrospective chart review study of microbiologically confirmed AGC attending outpatient clinic and/or emergency room from 2012 to 2020. We analysed the clinical presentation, treatments, antibiotic susceptibility, complications and ocular sequelae.Results. Thirteen patients were diagnosed of AGC. Eleven patients had unilateral presentation. Two patients had bilateral presentation. In ten cases there was abundant mucopurulent discharge, three cases presented periocular pain and periocular inflammation requiring a CT scan to rule out post-septal cellulitis. The diagnosis was confirmed by culture. In total, 100 % of strains were susceptible to ceftriaxone, 58 % were ciprofloxacin resistant and no beta-lactamase production was detected. Three patients required hospital admission. One patient developed a complication presenting with ptosis caused by superior symblepharon.Conclusion. AGC is a rare disease which is difficult to diagnose as it requires a high index of suspicion to prevent corneal perforation but in an important number of cases it may mimic orbital cellulitis. It is crucial that treatment starts as soon as possible to avoid serious corneal damage. Patients should promptly receive complete and correct treatment when admitted to the emergency room since an elevated number of patients do not attend their medical follow-up visit. Azithromycin or aminoglycoside eye drops are probably the best option to complete the treatment, due to high quinolone resistance.


Assuntos
Conjuntivite Bacteriana , Gonorreia , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/isolamento & purificação , Soluções Oftálmicas/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Aminoglicosídeos/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Conjuntivite Bacteriana/tratamento farmacológico , Conjuntivite Bacteriana/epidemiologia , Gonorreia/tratamento farmacológico , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Espanha/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495263

RESUMO

Trachoma is a keratoconjunctivitis caused by Chlamydia trachomatis, considered an important leading cause of preventable blindness in the world. This study aimed at verifying if flies can be the vectors for trachoma in our municipality. Flies were assessed in the households of children diagnosed with inflammatory trachoma at the municipality of Botucatu, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. Fly traps were placed in the backyard of the houses during 24 h, in each of the four weather seasons, over a period of one year. The collected dipterans were taxonomically classified and the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis in the flies was evidenced by using the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). During the studied period, 2,188 flies were collected, mainly during the summer and the spring. The most common identified fly was Musca domestica. All fly samples were negative for Chlamydia trachomatis but several other different bacteria were identified in these flies. The authors concluded that flies are probably not the vectors for trachoma in the studied area. Further studies should be conducted to evaluate other possible factors responsible for the maintenance of the disease in our environment.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Gonorreia , Tracoma , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Chlamydia trachomatis/genética , Tracoma/epidemiologia
18.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 24(9): e25801, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496152

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Provider-collected swabs are an unappealing procedure for many transgender women and may have led to suboptimal rates of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) testing. Self-collection for CT/NG testing is recommended for men who have sex with men. However, the information on acceptability and clinical performance to support a recommendation for transgender women is lacking. We aimed to determine the acceptability and satisfaction towards self-collection for CT/NG testing among Thai transgender women. METHODS: Thai transgender women who attended Tangerine Clinic (a transgender-led, integrated, gender-affirming care and sexual health services clinic in Bangkok, Thailand) between May and July 2020 and had condomless sexual intercourse within the past six months were offered to collect urine and perform self-swabs of pharyngeal, rectal, and if applicable, neovaginal compartments for pooled nucleic acid amplification testing for CT/NG infections. Participants received a diagram, video and oral instructions about how to perform self-collection procedure. Those who accepted self-collection were also offered to receive provider collection to evaluate the performance between the two methods. Self-administered questionnaires were used to assess satisfaction. RESULTS: Among 216 transgender women enrolled, 142 (65.7%) accepted self-collection. All who accepted had pharyngeal, rectal and urine samples collected. Of 31 transgender women who had undergone genital surgery, 28 (90.3%) accepted neovaginal self-swab. The acceptance rate increased from 46.2% in May to 84.5% in July 2020. One participant had an invalid result. All transgender women who accepted self-collection could perform it without assistance, and 82.8% were highly satisfied with the method. None reported dissatisfaction. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, provider collection services were discontinued early, and only eight transgender women were able to perform both methods for performance evaluation. The performance agreement was 100%. CONCLUSIONS: Thai transgender women had high acceptability and satisfaction towards self-collection for CT/NG testing. The performance was promising compared to provider collection. Our results support the implementation of self-collection to the sexually transmitted infection services, particularly during the COVID-19 pandemic where physical distancing is the new normal. A larger study is warranted to determine the performance of self-collection for CT/NG testing in each anatomical compartment and confirm the performance between self-collection and provider collection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolamento & purificação , Gonorreia/diagnóstico , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/isolamento & purificação , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Satisfação Pessoal , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Pessoas Transgênero , Adulto , COVID-19 , Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Autocuidado , Tailândia/epidemiologia
19.
JAMA ; 326(10): 949-956, 2021 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34519796

RESUMO

Importance: Chlamydia and gonorrhea are among the most common sexually transmitted infections in the US. Infection rates are highest among adolescents and young adults of both sexes. Chlamydial and gonococcal infections in women are usually asymptomatic and may lead to pelvic inflammatory disease and its associated complications. Newborns of pregnant persons with untreated infection may develop neonatal chlamydial pneumonia or gonococcal or chlamydial ophthalmia. Infection in men may lead to urethritis and epididymitis. Both types of infection can increase risk of acquiring or transmitting HIV. Objective: To update its 2014 recommendation, the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) commissioned a systematic review to evaluate the benefits and harms of screening for chlamydia and gonorrhea in sexually active adolescents and adults, including pregnant persons. Population: Asymptomatic, sexually active adolescents and adults, including pregnant persons. Evidence Assessment: The USPSTF concludes with moderate certainty that screening for chlamydia in all sexually active women 24 years or younger and in women 25 years or older who are at increased risk for infection has moderate net benefit. The USPSTF concludes with moderate certainty that screening for gonorrhea in all sexually active women 24 years or younger and in women 25 years or older who are at increased risk for infection has moderate net benefit. The USPSTF concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening for chlamydia and gonorrhea in men. Recommendation: The USPSTF recommends screening for chlamydia in all sexually active women 24 years or younger and in women 25 years or older who are at increased risk for infection. (B recommendation) The USPSTF recommends screening for gonorrhea in all sexually active women 24 years or younger and in women 25 years or older who are at increased risk for infection. (B recommendation) The USPSTF concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening for chlamydia and gonorrhea in men. (I statement).


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Gonorreia/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Doenças Assintomáticas , Infecções por Chlamydia/complicações , Feminino , Gonorreia/complicações , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/efeitos adversos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , Doença Inflamatória Pélvica/etiologia , Doença Inflamatória Pélvica/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Comportamento Sexual , Adulto Jovem
20.
JAMA ; 326(10): 957-966, 2021 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34519797

RESUMO

Importance: The 2014 US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation statement supported the effectiveness of screening for chlamydia and gonorrhea in asymptomatic, sexually active women 24 years or younger and in older women at increased risk for infection, although evidence for screening in men was insufficient. Objective: To update the 2014 USPSTF review on screening for chlamydial and gonococcal infection in adults and adolescents, including those who are pregnant. Data Sources: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Ovid MEDLINE (January 1, 2014, through May 28, 2020) with surveillance through May 21, 2021. Study Selection: Randomized clinical trials and observational studies of screening effectiveness, accuracy of risk stratification and alternative screening methods, accuracy of tests, and screening harms. Data Extraction and Synthesis: One investigator abstracted data; a second checked accuracy. Two investigators independently assessed study quality. Main Outcomes and Measures: Complications of infection; infection transmission or acquisition; diagnostic accuracy of anatomical site-specific testing and collection methods; screening harms. Results: Twenty-seven studies were included (N = 179 515). Chlamydia screening compared with no screening was significantly associated with reduced risk of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) in 2 of 4 trials and with reduced hospital-diagnosed PID (0.24% vs 0.38%); relative risk, 0.6 [95% CI, 0.4-1.0]), but not clinic-diagnosed PID or epididymitis, in the largest trial. In studies of risk prediction instruments in asymptomatic women, age younger than 22 years demonstrated comparable accuracy to extensive criteria. Sensitivity of chlamydial testing was similar at endocervical (89%-100%) and self- and clinician-collected vaginal (90%-100%) sites for women and at meatal (100%), urethral (99%), and rectal (92%) sites for men but lower at pharyngeal sites (69.2%) for men who have sex with men. Sensitivity of gonococcal testing was 89% or greater for all anatomical samples. False-positive and false-negative testing rates were low across anatomical sites and collection methods. Conclusions and Relevance: Screening for chlamydial infection was significantly associated with a lower risk of PID in young women. Risk prediction criteria demonstrated limited accuracy beyond age. Testing for asymptomatic chlamydial and gonococcal infections was highly accurate at most anatomical sites, including urine and self-collected specimens. Effectiveness of screening in men and during pregnancy, optimal screening intervals, and adverse effects of screening require further evaluation.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Gonorreia/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento , Adolescente , Adulto , Doenças Assintomáticas , Infecções por Chlamydia/complicações , Feminino , Gonorreia/complicações , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/efeitos adversos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Programas de Rastreamento/normas , Doença Inflamatória Pélvica/etiologia , Doença Inflamatória Pélvica/prevenção & controle , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Comportamento Sexual , Adulto Jovem
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