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2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32114974

RESUMO

The Australian Gonococcal Surveillance Programme (AGSP) has continuously monitored antimicrobial resistance in clinical isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae from all states and territories since 1981. In 2018, there were 9,006 clinical isolates of gonococci from public and private sector sources tested for in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility by standardised methods. This was the highest annual total of isolates tested since the inception of the AGSP. The current treatment recommendation for gonorrhoea, for the majority of Australia, remains dual therapy with ceftriaxone and azithromycin. Decreased susceptibility to ceftriaxone (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value ≥0.06 mg/L) was found nationally in 1.73% of isolates. The highest proportions were reported from Tasmania and non-remote Western Australia (7.3% and 2.1% respectively). In 2018 two extensively drug-resistant isolates were reported from Queensland patients. These two isolates, with ceftriaxone MIC values of 0.50 mg/L, high-level resistance to azithromycin (MIC ≥ 256 mg/L), and resistance to penicillin and ciprofloxacin were identified and reported to the World Health Organization as isolates of international significance. Resistance to azithromycin (MIC value ≥1.0 mg/L) was found nationally in 6.2% of isolates, lower than the 9.3% reported in 2017, but more than double the proportion reported in 2015 (2.6%). The highest proportions were reported from the Australian Capital Territory (8.7%), Victoria (8.3%), and New South Wales (6.5%). High-level resistance to azithromycin (MIC value ≥256 mg/L) was reported in nine isolates nationally in 2018: four from New South Wales, three from Victoria, and two from Queensland. The proportion of isolates resistant to penicillin in non-remote Australia ranged from 8.8% in non-remote Northern Territory to 44.1% in South Australia. In remote Northern Territory penicillin resistance rates remain low (1.9%), and higher in remote Western Australia (6.5%). The proportion of isolates resistant to ciprofloxacin in non-remote Australia ranged from 10.3% in non-remote Northern Territory to 48.3% in South Australia. Ciprofloxacin resistance rates remain comparatively low in remote Northern Territory (1.9%) and remote Western Australia (4.6%).


Assuntos
Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Austrália/epidemiologia , Território da Capital Australiana , Ciprofloxacino/uso terapêutico , Gonorreia/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Neisseria gonorrhoeae , New South Wales/epidemiologia , Northern Territory/epidemiologia , Resistência às Penicilinas , Penicilinas/uso terapêutico , Queensland/epidemiologia , Austrália do Sul/epidemiologia , Tasmânia/epidemiologia , Vitória/epidemiologia , Austrália Ocidental/epidemiologia
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 77, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992256

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The rates of newly diagnosed cases of sexually transmitted diseases, including genital chlamydial infection and gonorrhea, are important for prevention and control of these diseases. However, nationwide rates are not reported in Japan. METHODS: We used the number of cases of sexually transmitted diseases reported by nationwide sentinel surveillance in 2015, together with the number of all disease outpatients in September 2014 at all medical institutions, drawn from the Survey of Medical Institutions of Japan. The number of cases of sexually transmitted diseases in the total population was estimated using the ratio estimation method with the number of all disease outpatients as auxiliary information. This method is currently used for estimating influenza cases from sentinel surveillance data in Japan. RESULTS: The estimated number of newly diagnosed cases per 100,000 population in 2015 in Japan was 244 (95% confidence interval 211-277) for genital chlamydial infection, 87 (95% confidence interval 74-100) for genital herpes, 61 (95% confidence interval 29-93) for condyloma acuminatum, and 89 (95% confidence interval 64-113) for gonorrhea. CONCLUSION: We estimated the nationwide number of newly diagnosed cases of sexually transmitted diseases in Japan from sentinel surveillance data. This provides useful information for public health policy-making.


Assuntos
Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Condiloma Acuminado/epidemiologia , Feminino , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Herpes Genital/epidemiologia , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , Adulto Jovem
9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 991, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752720

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Male urethritis is primary sexually transmitted. Northern Territory (NT) has the highest rates of gonococcal infection in Australia and local guidelines recommend empiric treatment with azithromycin and ceftriaxone for all men presenting with urethritis. As gonococcal drug resistance is a growing concern, this study aims to improve empiric use of ceftriaxone through examining local patterns of male urethritis, comparing cases of gonococcal urethritis (GU) to controls with non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU). METHODS: A retrospective study was undertaken of all men with symptomatic urethritis presenting to Darwin sexual health clinic from July 2015 to July 2016 and aetiology of urethritis in this population was described. Demographic, risk profile, and clinical features of GU cases were compared to NGU controls. RESULTS: Among n = 145 men, the most common organisms identified were Chlamydia trachomatis (23.4%, SE 3.5%) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (17.2%, SE 3.1%). The main predictors of GU were any abnormalities on genital examination (aOR 10.4, 95% CI 2.1 to 50.8) and a history of urethral discharge (aOR 5.7, 95% CI 1.4 to 22.6). Aboriginal patients (aOR 3.0, 95% CI 0.9 to 9.6) and those over 30 years of age (aOR 1.4, 95% CI 0.3 to 7.0) were more likely to have GU in the unadjusted analysis, but not in the adjusted model. CONCLUSION: This is the first study looking at patterns of male urethritis in urban NT and the results support a move towards adopting national guidelines to use ceftriaxone for empiric management of syndromic urethritis only in high-risk patients. In addition to traditional demographic risk factors, clinical features remain an important component of risk stratification.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Uretrite/epidemiologia , Adulto , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ceftriaxona/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Chlamydia/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Chlamydia trachomatis/efeitos dos fármacos , Chlamydia trachomatis/genética , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolamento & purificação , Gonorreia/tratamento farmacológico , Gonorreia/microbiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/efeitos dos fármacos , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/genética , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/isolamento & purificação , Northern Territory/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Uretrite/diagnóstico , Uretrite/tratamento farmacológico , Uretrite/microbiologia
10.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3988, 2019 09 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488838

RESUMO

Whole genome sequencing (WGS) has been used to investigate transmission of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, but to date, most studies have not combined genomic data with detailed information on sexual behaviour to define the extent of transmission across population risk groups (bridging). Here, through combined epidemiological and genomic analysis of 2,186N. gonorrhoeae isolates from Australia, we show widespread transmission of N. gonorrhoeae within and between population groups. We describe distinct transmission clusters associated with men who have sex with men (MSM) and heterosexuals, and men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) are identified as a possible bridging population between these groups. Further, the study identifies transmission of N. gonorrhoeae between HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals receiving pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Our data highlight several groups that can be targeted for interventions aimed at improving gonorrhoea control, including returning travellers, sex workers, and PrEP users.


Assuntos
Gonorreia/tratamento farmacológico , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/genética , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Comportamento Sexual , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Adulto , Feminino , Gonorreia/transmissão , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Profissionais do Sexo , Parceiros Sexuais , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Vitória , Adulto Jovem
11.
Bull World Health Organ ; 97(8): 548-562P, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31384073

RESUMO

Objective: To generate estimates of the global prevalence and incidence of urogenital infection with chlamydia, gonorrhoea, trichomoniasis and syphilis in women and men, aged 15-49 years, in 2016. Methods: For chlamydia, gonorrhoea and trichomoniasis, we systematically searched for studies conducted between 2009 and 2016 reporting prevalence. We also consulted regional experts. To generate estimates, we used Bayesian meta-analysis. For syphilis, we aggregated the national estimates generated by using Spectrum-STI. Findings: For chlamydia, gonorrhoea and/or trichomoniasis, 130 studies were eligible. For syphilis, the Spectrum-STI database contained 978 data points for the same period. The 2016 global prevalence estimates in women were: chlamydia 3.8% (95% uncertainty interval, UI: 3.3-4.5); gonorrhoea 0.9% (95% UI: 0.7-1.1); trichomoniasis 5.3% (95% UI:4.0-7.2); and syphilis 0.5% (95% UI: 0.4-0.6). In men prevalence estimates were: chlamydia 2.7% (95% UI: 1.9-3.7); gonorrhoea 0.7% (95% UI: 0.5-1.1); trichomoniasis 0.6% (95% UI: 0.4-0.9); and syphilis 0.5% (95% UI: 0.4-0.6). Total estimated incident cases were 376.4 million: 127.2 million (95% UI: 95.1-165.9 million) chlamydia cases; 86.9 million (95% UI: 58.6-123.4 million) gonorrhoea cases; 156.0 million (95% UI: 103.4-231.2 million) trichomoniasis cases; and 6.3 million (95% UI: 5.5-7.1 million) syphilis cases. Conclusion: Global estimates of prevalence and incidence of these four curable sexually transmitted infections remain high. The study highlights the need to expand data collection efforts at country level and provides an initial baseline for monitoring progress of the World Health Organization global health sector strategy on sexually transmitted infections 2016-2021.


Assuntos
Saúde Global , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Bloqueio Interatrial , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Tricomoníase/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 25(9): 1660-1667, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407661

RESUMO

In July 2018, a case of Neisseria gonorrhoeae associated with ceftriaxone treatment failure was identified in Alberta, Canada. We identified the isolate and nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) specimen as the ceftriaxone-resistant strain multilocus sequence type 1903/NG-MAST 3435/NG-STAR 233, originally identified in Japan (FC428), with the same penA 60.001 mosaic allele and genetic resistance determinants. Core single-nucleotide variant (SNV) analysis identified 13 SNVs between this isolate and FC428. Culture-independent surveillance by PCR for the A311V mutation in the penA allele and N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing directly from NAAT transport media positive for N. gonorrhoeae by NAAT did not detect spread of the strain. We identified multiple sequence types not previously detected in Alberta by routine surveillance. This case demonstrates the benefit of using culture-independent methods to enhance detection, public health investigations, and surveillance to address this global threat.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Resistência às Cefalosporinas/genética , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/isolamento & purificação , Alberta/epidemiologia , Gonorreia/microbiologia , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/efeitos dos fármacos , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/genética , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Vigilância da População
13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 727, 2019 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31420018

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since 2000, substantial increases in syphilis in men who have sex with men (MSM) have been reported in many cities. Condomless anal sex (CAS) is one of the factors, along with drugs for sex and sex in group. This study identified factors and clinical manifestations as well as Treponema pallidum (T.pallidum) strains that could be related to early syphilis in Barcelona. METHODS: This prospective study was conducted in a sexually transmitted infections unit in 2015. Epidemiological, behavioral, clinical and microbiological variables were collected in a structured form. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were performed focusing on HIV-positive patients. RESULTS: Overall, 274 cases were classified as having early syphilis (27.5% primary, 51.3% secondary, and 21.2% early latent syphilis). In all, 94% of participants were MSM and 36.3% were HIV-positive. The median number of sexual contacts in the last 12 months was 10; 72.5% practiced CAS, 50.6% had sex in group, and 54.7% consumed drugs. HIV-positive cases had more anonymous sex contacts (p = 0.041), CAS (p = 0.002), sex in group (p < 0.001) and drugs for sex (p < 0.001). In the multivariate analysis, previous syphilis (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 4.81 [2.88-8.15]), previous Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection (aOR 3.8 [2.28-6.43]), and serosorting (aOR 20.4 [7.99-60.96]) were associated with having syphilis. Clinically, multiple chancres were present in 31% of cases with no differences on serostatus, but anal chancre was most common in HIV-positive patients (p = 0.049). Molecular typing did not conclusively explain clinical presentation in relation to specific T.pallidum strains. CONCLUSION: Control of syphilis remains a challenge. Similar to prior studies, HIV-positive patients were found to engage more often in sexual behaviors associated with syphilis than HIV-negative patients. Clinical manifestations were rather similar in both groups, although anal chancre was most common in HIV-positive patients. Various strain types of syphilis were found, but no clinical associations were identified.


Assuntos
Soropositividade para HIV/epidemiologia , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Sífilis/etiologia , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/epidemiologia , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/etiologia , Adulto , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/microbiologia , Seleção por Sorologia para HIV , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Espanha/epidemiologia , Treponema pallidum/patogenicidade
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426732

RESUMO

Introduction: Infectious disease surveillance in Victoria, Australia is based upon a legislated requirement for doctors and laboratories to notify suspected or diagnosed cases of specific conditions to the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS). The department undertakes regular audits of notification practices in Victoria typically every two years. The objective of this particular audit was to describe notification practices in 2016 and 2017, assess the effect of enhanced surveillance programs (ESPs) on Indigenous status data completeness and provide a baseline assessment that can be used to monitor the impact of a recent legislative change to notification requirements for several of the notifiable diseases which came into effect on 1 September 2018. Methods: Notified cases reported to DHHS between 1 January 2016 and 31 December 2017 which met the confirmed and probable national case definitions were analysed by year, notifier type (doctor-only, laboratory-only, or both) and condition category (urgent versus routine). For three notifiable conditions (gonococcal infection and hepatitis B and hepatitis C of unspecified duration) Indigenous status completeness was compared pre- and post ESP commencement. Results: The number of notified cases in Victoria increased 50% from 76,904 in 2016 to 115,318 in 2017 with a 277% increase in notified influenza alone. Almost half of cases were notified by both laboratory and doctor. Indigenous status was more likely to be complete following the introduction of ESPs (relative risk, RR 1.36 (95%CI: 1.33 - 1.40) p>0 .001). Discussion: DHHS Victoria experienced a 1.5-fold increase in notified cases in 2017 compared with 2016, which was almost entirely attributable to influenza. For three notifiable conditions which had ESPs introduced during this period, Indigenous status reporting significantly improved. Indigenous identifiers on pathology request forms and data linkage are both interventions which are being considered to improve Indigenous status reporting in Victoria.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Notificação de Doenças , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Humanos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos , Vigilância da População , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Fatores de Tempo , Vitória/epidemiologia
15.
Med J Aust ; 211(9): 406-411, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468530

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To estimate rates of HIV infection, chlamydia, gonorrhoea, and infectious syphilis in transgender men and women in Australia; to compare these rates with those for cisgender people. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, comparative analysis of de-identified health data. SETTING, PARTICIPANTS: We analysed data for 1260 transgender people (404 men, 492 women, 364 unrecorded gender), 78 108 cisgender gay and bisexual men, and 309 740 cisgender heterosexual people who attended 46 sexual health clinics across Australia during 2010-2017. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: First-visit test positivity for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), stratified by patient group and year; demographic and behavioural factors associated with having STIs. RESULTS: 14 of 233 transgender men (6.0%) and 34 of 326 transgender women (10%) tested during first clinic visits were chlamydia-positive; nine transgender men (4%) and 28 transgender women (8.6%) were gonorrhoea-positive. One of 210 tested transgender men (0.5%) and ten of 324 tested transgender women (3.1%) were diagnosed with infectious syphilis; 14 transgender men (3.5%) and 28 transgender women (5.7%) were HIV-positive at their first visit. The only significant change in prevalence of an STI among transgender patients during the study period was the increased rate of gonorrhoea among transgender women (from 3.1% to 9.8%). Compared with cisgender gay and bisexual men, transgender men were less likely (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.46; 95% CI, 0.29-0.71; P = 0.001) and transgender women as likely (aOR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.73-1.32; P = 0.92) to be diagnosed with a bacterial STI; compared with heterosexual patients, transgender men were as likely (aOR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.46-1.13; P = 0.16) and transgender women more likely (aOR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.16-2.10; P = 0.003) to receive a first-visit bacterial STI diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: The epidemiology of STIs in transgender people attending Australian sexual health clinics differs from that of cisgender patients. Gender details must be captured by health data systems to facilitate appropriate delivery of sexual health care.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Pessoas Transgênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Austrália/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Heterossexualidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Sexual , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0218349, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260486

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are associated with adverse outcomes in pregnancy, including mother-to-child HIV transmission. Yet there are limited data on the prevalence and correlates of STI in pregnant women by HIV status in low- and middle-income countries, where syndromic STI management is routine. METHODS: Between November 2017 and July 2018, we conducted a cross-sectional study of consecutive pregnant women making their first visit to a public sector antenatal clinic (ANC) in Cape Town. We interviewed women ≥18 years and tested them for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoea (NG) and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) using Xpert assays (Cepheid, USA); results of syphilis serology came from routine testing records. We used multivariable logistic regression to identify correlates of STI in pregnancy. RESULTS: In 242 women (median age 29 years [IQR = 24-34], median gestation 19 weeks [IQR = 14-24]) 44% were HIV-infected. Almost all reported vaginal sex during pregnancy (93%). Prevalence of any STI was 32%: 39% in HIV-infected women vs. 28% in HIV-uninfected women (p = 0.036). The most common infection was CT (20%) followed by TV (15%), then NG (5.8%). Of the 78 women diagnosed with a STI, 7 (9%) were identified and treated syndromically in ANC. Adjusting for age and gestational age, HIV-infection (aOR = 1.89; 95% CI = 1.02-3.67), being unmarried or not cohabiting with the fetus' father (aOR = 2.19; 95% CI = 1.16-4.12), and having STI symptoms in the past three days (aOR = 6.60; 95% CI = 2.08-20.95) were associated with STI diagnosis. CONCLUSION: We found a high prevalence of treatable STIs in pregnancy among pregnant women, especially in HIV-infected women. Few women were identified and treated in pregnancy.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Tricomoníase/epidemiologia , Adulto , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Coinfecção , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Logísticos , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , África do Sul/epidemiologia
18.
Biosci Trends ; 13(3): 273-275, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31327795

RESUMO

Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), gonorrhea and syphilis are the major sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in the world, which are the focus of epidemic prevention and control in China. The epidemiological trend analysis of STDs in Shanghai could reflect the epidemic situation of these diseases in high-income areas of China, providing a reference for how to control their epidemic. Although the overall incidence rate of infectious diseases levelled off after 2009, Shanghai still faces many new obstacles in the fight against STDs. Without effective prevention and control strategies for high-risk behaviors, such as active sexual activity without protection, for key susceptible populations, there may be a more serious epidemic of STDs in the future. Given these situations, strategies for controlling STDs in Shanghai should be more targeted with the development of epidemics, focusing on the following key areas for future work: i) attaching importance to health education; ii) strengthening epidemic surveillance; and iii) developing Community Health Service Centers (CHSC) as intervention subjects.


Assuntos
Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/prevenção & controle , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Gonorreia/prevenção & controle , Hepacivirus/patogenicidade , Vírus da Hepatite B/patogenicidade , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Sífilis/prevenção & controle
19.
J Glob Health ; 9(2): 020408, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31360448

RESUMO

Background: The epidemiology of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and the role of commercial heterosexual sex networks in driving STI transmission in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region remain largely unknown. Objective: To characterize the epidemiology of Treponema pallidum (syphilis), Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis, and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) among female sex workers (FSWs) in MENA using an in-depth quantitative assessment. Methods: A systematic review on ten international, regional, and country-level databases was conducted, and reported following PRISMA guidelines. Pooled prevalences of current and/or ever infection for each STI were estimated using random-effects meta-analyses. Sources of between-study heterogeneity were investigated through random-effects meta-regressions. Results: One T. pallidum incidence study and 144 STI prevalence studies were identified for 45 812 FSWs in 13 MENA countries. The pooled prevalence of current infection was 12.7% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 8.5%-17.7%) for T. pallidum, 14.4% (95% CI = 8.2%-22.0%) for C. trachomatis, 5.7% (95% CI = 3.5%-8.4%) for N. gonorrhoeae, and 7.1% (95% CI = 4.3%-10.5%) for T. vaginalis. The pooled prevalence of ever infection (seropositivity using antibody testing) was 12.8% (95% CI = 9.4%-16.6%) for T. pallidum, 80.3% (95% CI = 53.2%-97.6%) for C. trachomatis, and 23.7% (95% CI = 10.2%-40.4%) for HSV-2. The multivariable meta-regression for T. pallidum infection demonstrated strong subregional differences, with the Horn of Africa and North Africa showing, respectively 6-fold (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 6.4; 95% CI = 2.5-16.7) and 5-fold (AOR = 5.0; 95% CI = 2.5-10.6) higher odds of infection than Eastern MENA. There was also strong evidence for declining T. pallidum odds of infection at 7% per year (AOR = 0.93; 95% CI = 0.88-0.98). Study-specific factors including diagnostic method, sample size, sampling methodology, and response rate, were not associated with syphilis infection. The multivariable model explained 48.5% of the variation in T. pallidum prevalence. Conclusions: STI infection levels among FSWs in MENA are considerable, supporting a key role for commercial heterosexual sex networks in transmission dynamics, and highlighting the health needs of this neglected and vulnerable population. Syphilis prevalence in FSWs appears to have been declining for at least three decades. Gaps in evidence persist for multiple countries.


Assuntos
Profissionais do Sexo/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , África do Norte/epidemiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Herpes Genital/epidemiologia , Humanos , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Vaginite por Trichomonas/epidemiologia
20.
Med Sci Monit ; 25: 5657-5665, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31361737

RESUMO

BACKGROUND This study aimed to investigate trends in the epidemiology of the leading sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), gonorrhea, and syphilis, in the 31 provinces of mainland China. MATERIAL AND METHODS This retrospective study analyzed the incidence data of STDs from official reports in China between 2004 and 2016. The grey model first order one variable, or GM (1,1), time series forecasting model for epidemiological studies predicted the incidence of STDs based on the annual incidence reports from 31 Chinese mainland provinces. Hierarchical cluster analysis was used to group the prevalence of STDs within each province. RESULTS The prediction accuracy of the GM (1,1) model was high, based on data during the 13 years between 2004 and 2016. The model predicted that the incidence rates of AIDS and syphilis would continue to increase over the next two years. Cluster analysis showed that 31 provinces could be classified into four clusters according to similarities in the incidence of STDs. Group A (Sinkiang Province) had the highest reported prevalence of syphilis. Group B included provinces with a higher incidence of gonorrhea, mainly in the southeast coast of China. Group C consisted of southwest provinces with a higher incidence of AIDS. CONCLUSIONS The GM (1,1) model was predictive for the incidence of STDs in 31 provinces in China. The predicted incidence rates of AIDS and syphilis showed an upward trend. Regional distribution of the major STDs highlights the need for targeted prevention and control programs.


Assuntos
Previsões/métodos , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Modelos Estatísticos , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sífilis/epidemiologia
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