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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 809, 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33153450

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Neisseria gonorrhoeae is an emerging global health threat. Surveillance of AMR in N. gonorrhoeae in the Western Pacific Region is important, as resistant strains have typically emerged from this region. There are sparse data regarding antibiotic susceptibility of N. gonorrhoeae from Vietnam. This study aimed to provide updated data on antibiotic susceptibilities in N. gonorrhoeae isolates from Hanoi, Vietnam. METHODS: From 2017 to 2019, 409 N. gonorrhoeae clinical isolates were collected at the National Hospital for Venereology and Dermatology in Hanoi, Vietnam. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by disk diffusion method according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) protocol. The zone diameters of inhibition were recorded and interpreted according to standard CLSI criteria, except for azithromycin, due to the absence of CLSI interpretation. Categorical variables were analyzed by Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests. Linear regression was used to evaluate zones of inhibition by year. RESULTS: Among the 409 isolates, no isolates were susceptible to penicillin, 98.3% were resistant to ciprofloxacin, and all isolates were susceptible to spectinomycin. There were 122/407 (30.0%) isolates resistant to azithromycin and there was an association between resistance and year (p <  0.01), ranging from 15.3% of isolates in 2017 to 46.7% of the isolates in 2018. Resistance to cefixime was found in 13/406 (3.2%) of isolates and there was no association by year (p = 0.30). Resistance to ceftriaxone occurred in 3/408 (0.7%) of isolates. Linear regression indicated the zone of inhibition diameters decreased by 0.83 mm each year for ceftriaxone (95% CI: - 1.3, - 0.4; p <  0.01) and decreased by 0.83 mm each year (95% CI: - 1.33, - 0.33; p <  0.01) for azithromycin; the association was not significant for cefixime (p = 0.07). CONCLUSIONS: We found decreasing susceptibility of N. gonorrhoeae to ceftriaxone and azithromycin, as well as a high prevalence of resistance to azithromycin, among isolates in Hanoi, Vietnam from 2017 to 2019. The trends of decreasing susceptibility to first-line treatments are concerning and highlight the urgency of addressing antimicrobial resistance in N. gonorrhoeae. Expanded surveillance efforts within the Western Pacific Region are critical to monitoring trends and informing treatment guidelines.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Ceftriaxona/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Gonorreia/tratamento farmacológico , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Gonorreia/microbiologia , Humanos , Laboratórios , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/isolamento & purificação , Vietnã/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 795, 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33109139

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some patients who test positive for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) fail to return for results and treatment. To target improvement actions, we need to find out who these patients are. This study aimed to explore factors associated with failure to return within 30 days (FTR30) after testing among patients with positive results in a free STI testing centre in Paris. METHODS: All patients with at least one positive result between October 2016 and May 2017 and who completed a self-administered questionnaire were included in this cross-sectional study (n = 214). The questionnaire included sociodemographic factors, sexual behaviour and history of testing. Factors associated with FTR30 were assessed using logistic regression models. RESULTS: More than two-thirds of patients were men (72%), and the median age of patients was 27 years. Most patients were born in metropolitan France (56%) or in sub-Saharan Africa (22%). Men who had sex with men represented 36% of the study population. The FTR30 rate was 14% (95% CI [10-19%]). In multivariate analysis, previous HIV testing in younger persons (aOR: 3.36, 95% CI [1.27-8.84]), being accompanied by another person at the pretest consultation (aOR: 3.45, 95% CI [1.36-8.91]), and lower self-perceived risk of HIV infection (aOR: 2.79, 95% CI [1.07-7.30]) were associated with a higher FTR30. Testing for chlamydia/gonorrhoea without presumptive treatment was associated with a lower FTR30 (aOR: 0.21, 95% CI [0.07-0.59]). CONCLUSIONS: These factors that affect failure to return are related to the patient's representations and involvement in the STI screening process. Increasing health literacy and patient empowerment could help to decrease failure to return after being tested positive for HIV/STI. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Not applicable.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , HIV/isolamento & purificação , Programas de Rastreamento/economia , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Pacientes Desistentes do Tratamento , Adulto , Chlamydia/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Gonorreia/diagnóstico , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Gonorreia/microbiologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/isolamento & purificação , Paris/epidemiologia , Assunção de Riscos , Comportamento Sexual , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
3.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1526, 2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33081743

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Syphilis and gonorrhea reached an all-time high in 2018. The resurgence of syphilis and gonorrhea requires innovative methods of sexual contact tracing that encourage disclosure of same-sex sexual contacts that might otherwise be suppressed. Over 75% of Grindr mobile phone application users report seeking "friendship," so this study asked people diagnosed with syphilis and gonorrhea to identify their friends. METHODS: Patients at the two Baltimore sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics and the Baltimore City Health Department were asked 12 questions to elicit members of their friendship networks before eliciting sexual networks. The study included 353 index cases and 172 friendship contacts, yielding a friendship network of 331 non-isolates (n = 331) and sexual-only network of 140 non-isolates. The data were plotted and analyzed using exponential family random graph analysis. RESULTS: Eliciting respondents' in-person social contacts yielded 12 syphilis cases and 6 gonorrhea cases in addition to the 16 syphilis cases and 4 gonorrhea cases that would have been found with sexual contacts alone. Syphilis is clustered within sexual (odds ratio = 2.2, 95% confidence interval (1.36, 3.66)) and social contacts (OR = 1.31, 95% CI (1.02, 1.68)). Gonorrhea is clustered within reported social (OR = 1.56, 95% CI (1.22, 2.00)) but not sexual contacts (OR = 0.98, 95% CI (0.62, 1.53)). CONCLUSIONS: Eliciting friendship networks of people diagnosed with syphilis and gonorrhea may find members of their sexual networks, drug use networks, or people of similar STI risk. Friendship networks include more diagnosed cases of syphilis and gonorrhea than sexual networks alone, especially among populations with many non-disclosing men who have sex with men (MSM) and women who have sex with women (WSW). Future research should evaluate whether this friendship network method of contact tracing can be implemented by adapting automated mobile phone COVID-19 contact tracing protocols, if these COVID-19 contact tracing methods are able to maintain anonymity and public trust.


Assuntos
Busca de Comunicante/métodos , Amigos , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Rede Social , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Baltimore/epidemiologia , Revelação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Comportamento Sexual , Adulto Jovem
4.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238710, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911519

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: China has a high burden of gonorrhea, but an imbalanced male-to-female (M/F) ratio of reported cases. Therefore, the prevalence of gonorrhea in China may be underestimated due to inadequate testing of potentially infected females. The objective of this study is to investigate the cause of this imbalanced M/F ratio and develop strategies to enhance gonorrhea surveillance, particularly among females. METHODS: The national center for STD control (NCSTDC) of China CDC collected data in Zhongshan city over the year 2018 from the National Notifiable Disease Report System (NNDRS) and the Hospital and Laboratory Information Systems (HIS and LIS) that obtains information from 24 hospitals. RESULTS: Analysis of 1,542 reported cases of gonorrhea and the case distribution among different hospitals showed that most of the female cases (80.31%) were reported by gynecological clinics. The M/F ratio of reported cases varied between different hospitals and was dependent on the intensity of testing of females by their gynecological clinics. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed a significant correlation between M/F ratios and the relative contribution of female gonorrhea testing, especially in gynecology clinics. Enhancing gonorrhea testing among females should be advocated to improve surveillance in China.


Assuntos
Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Ginecologia , Vigilância da População , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Gonorreia/diagnóstico , Hospitais , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963885

RESUMO

In Samoa, the seroprevalence rates of sexually transmitted infections other than HIV have been endemically high over the past decade, despite years of prevention programming. Odds ratio and χ2 tests were conducted to compare the rates of positivity of chlamydia, gonorrhoea, hepatitis B and C, and syphilis across age groups from 2012 and 2017 surveillance data in Samoa. Young people aged 15-19 years were significantly more likely to have a chlamydia infection compared to all other age groups in both 2012 and 2017. Hepatitis B infections were more common in males and those aged 30 and above in both 2012 and 2017. Hepatitis C had no significant differences in age, but it was more common in males in 2012 and more common in females in 2017. Older age groups (aged 45 and above) were more likely to have a positive syphilis test in both 2014 and 2017 when compared to those aged 15-24 years. The results of this analysis confirm previously observed trends in Samoa for younger age groups' prevalence of chlamydia and gonorrhoea, and for older age groups' prevalence of hepatitis B and C. But the analysis also unexpectedly found that older age groups (aged 45 and above) are more likely to test positive for syphilis (for years 2014 and 2017). Further studies are needed to assess behavioural risk factors associated with older populations to explain the increase in risk and to design interventions suited to this demographic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Hepatite/epidemiologia , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Samoa/epidemiologia , Distribuição por Sexo , Adulto Jovem
6.
Western Pac Surveill Response J ; 11(1): 29-40, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963889

RESUMO

Objective: To estimate prevalence levels of and time trends for active syphilis, gonorrhoea and chlamydia in women aged 15-49 years in four countries in the Pacific (Fiji, the Federated States of Micronesia [FSM], Papua New Guinea [PNG] and Samoa) to inform surveillance and control strategies for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Methods: The Spectrum-STI model was fitted to data from prevalence surveys and screenings of adult female populations collected during 1995-2017 and adjusted for diagnostic test performance and to account for undersampled high-risk populations. For chlamydia and gonorrhoea, data were further adjusted for age and differences between urban and rural areas. Results: Prevalence levels were estimated as a percentage (95% confidence interval). In 2017, active syphilis prevalence was estimated in Fiji at 3.89% (2.82 to 5.06), in FSM at 1.48% (0.93 to 2.16), in PNG at 3.91% (1.67 to 7.24) and in Samoa at 0.16% (0.07 to 0.37). For gonorrhoea, the prevalence in Fiji was 1.63% (0.50 to 3.87); in FSM it was 1.59% (0.49 to 3.58); in PNG it was 11.0% (7.25 to 16.1); and in Samoa it was 1.61% (1.17 to 2.19). The prevalence of chlamydia in Fiji was 24.1% (16.5 to 32.7); in FSM it was 23.9% (18.5 to 30.6); in PNG it was 14.8% (7.39 to 24.7); and in Samoa it was 30.6% (26.8 to 35.0). For each specific disease within each country, the 95% confidence intervals overlapped for 2000 and 2017, although in PNG the 2017 estimates for all three STIs were below the 2000 estimates. These patterns were robust in the sensitivity analyses. Discussion: This study demonstrated a persistently high prevalence of three major bacterial STIs across four countries in WHO's Western Pacific Region during nearly two decades. Further strengthening of strategies to control and prevent STIs is warranted.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Fiji/epidemiologia , Humanos , Micronésia/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Papua Nova Guiné/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Samoa/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 703, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32977759

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment of gonorrhea is complicated by the development of antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) to the antibiotics recommended for treatment. Knowledge on types of plasmids and the antibiotic resistance genes they harbor is useful in monitoring the emergence and spread of bacterial antibiotic resistance. In Kenya, studies on gonococcal antimicrobial resistance are few and data on plasmid mediated drug resistance is limited. The present study characterizes plasmid mediated resistance in N. gonorrhoeae isolates recovered from Kenya between 2013 and 2018. METHODS: DNA was extracted from 36 sub-cultured GC isolates exhibiting varying drug resistance profiles. Whole genome sequencing was done on Illumina MiSeq platform and reads assembled de-novo using CLC Genomics Workbench. Genome annotation was performed using Rapid Annotation Subsystem Technology. Comparisons in identified antimicrobial resistance determinants were done using Bioedit sequence alignment editor. RESULTS: Twenty-four (66.7%) isolates had both ß-lactamase (TEM) and TetM encoding plasmids. 8.3% of the isolates lacked both TEM and TetM plasmids and had intermediate to susceptible penicillin and tetracycline MICs. Twenty-six (72%) isolates harbored TEM encoding plasmids. 25 of the TEM plasmids were of African type while one was an Asian type. Of the 36 isolates, 31 (86.1%) had TetM encoding plasmids, 30 of which harbored American TetM, whereas 1 carried a Dutch TetM. All analyzed isolates had non-mosaic penA alleles. All the isolates expressing TetM were tetracycline resistant (MIC> 1 mg/L) and had increased doxycycline MICs (up to 96 mg/L). All the isolates had S10 ribosomal protein V57M amino acid substitution associated with tetracycline resistance. No relation was observed between PenB and MtrR alterations and penicillin and tetracycline MICs. CONCLUSION: High-level gonococcal penicillin and tetracycline resistance in the sampled Kenyan regions was found to be mediated by plasmid borne blaTEM and tetM genes. While the African TEM plasmid, TEM1 and American TetM are the dominant genotypes, Asian TEM plasmid, a new TEM239 and Dutch TetM have emerged in the regions.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Gonorreia/tratamento farmacológico , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/genética , Penicilinas/uso terapêutico , Plasmídeos/genética , Resistência a Tetraciclina/genética , Tetraciclina/uso terapêutico , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Gonorreia/microbiologia , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/isolamento & purificação , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , beta-Lactamases/genética
8.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1239, 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32795362

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Repeat Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infections are common. To better understand the characteristics of patients frequently infected with CT at our sexually transmitted infection (STI) care services, we assessed the differences between patients repeatedly infected with CT and those who repeatedly tested negative. METHODS: In this cross-sectional analysis of cohort data, we assessed individuals tested for CT at different STI care providers between 2011 and mid-2018 in Southwest Limburg, the Netherlands (n = 17,616). Patients with ≥2 repeat CT infections in the study period were categorized as "patients with repeat CT infections." Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed for the binary outcome measure: patients with repeat CT infections versus patients who repeatedly tested negative (reference group). Additional analyses were performed for only the STI clinic population. RESULTS: Patients aged < 25 years (OR: 1.83; 95%CI:1.38-2.43), co-infected with HIV (OR: 2.07; 95%CI: 1.02-4.22) or co-infected with Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) (OR: 5.04; 95%CI: 3.33-7.63) had more repeat CT infections. In additional analyses among exclusively STI clinic visitors, patients with urogenital symptoms (OR: 2.17; 95%CI: 1.41-3.35), and patients notified for STIs (OR: 4.55; 95%CI: 3.17-6.54) had more frequent repeat CT infections. CONCLUSIONS: Patients aged < 25 years and patients coinfected with HIV or NG had more frequent repeat CT infections, accounting for ~ 20% of the diagnosed CT infections. These patients are likely at the highest risk for transmitting and acquiring CT. Therefore, testing and retesting this group remains important to enhance CT control.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolamento & purificação , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Coinfecção , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neisseria gonorrhoeae , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726916

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: Surveillance of syphilis and gonorrhea in Romania is case-based and makes use of European case definitions. Adolescence is a period characterized by vulnerabilities and opportunities, a period when health decisions, including those related to sexually transmitted infections, may have a lifetime impact. The present study investigates the trends recorded in the incidence of syphilis and gonorrhea in 15-19 year-old adolescents in the central and northwestern regions of Romania. Materials and Methods: An observational study was conducted and this included surveillance data for syphilis and gonorrhea in the period 2005-2017 (n = 939). The distribution of demographic and epidemiological variables in adolescents with syphilis and gonorrhea was evaluated, as well as the tendency of the incidence of syphilis and gonorrhea in the studied population. Joinpoint regression analysis was used to characterize the incidence trend for syphilis and gonorrhea. Results: Between 2005 and 2017, 773 cases of syphilis and 166 cases of gonorrhea were reported. The incidence of syphilis and gonorrhea decreased. Most cases of syphilis have been found out by active detection. Most cases of gonorrhea have been found out by passive detection. The age distribution in the group diagnosed with syphilis was similar to that in the group diagnosed with gonorrhea. There was a higher frequency of syphilis in females and gonorrhea was more common in males. Syphilis was more common in rural areas. Gonorrhea was more common in urban areas. Conclusions: There was a decreasing tendency in the incidence of syphilis and gonorrhea in adolescents aged 15-19 during the studied period.


Assuntos
Gonorreia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Sífilis , Adolescente , Feminino , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Análise de Regressão , Romênia/epidemiologia , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Ann Epidemiol ; 47: 13-18, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32713502

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Adolescents aged 13-18 years bear a large burden of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and changing adolescent sexual risk behavior is a key component of reducing this burden. We demonstrate a novel publicly available modeling tool (teen-SPARC) to help state and local health departments predict the impact of behavioral change on gonorrhea, chlamydia, and HIV burden among adolescents. METHODS: Teen-SPARC is built in Excel for familiarity and ease and parameterized using data from CDC's Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System. We present teen-SPARC's methods, including derivation of national parameters and instructions to obtain local parameters. We model multiple scenarios of increasing condom use and estimate the impact on gonorrhea, chlamydia, and HIV incidence, comparing national and New York State (NYS) results. RESULTS: A 1% annual increase in condom use (consistent with Healthy People 2020 goals) could prevent nearly 10,000 cases of STIs nationwide. Increases in condom use of 17.1%, 2.2%, and 25.5% in NYS would be necessary to avert 1000 cases of gonorrhea, 1000 cases of chlamydia, and 10 cases of HIV infection, respectively. Additional results disaggregate outcomes by age, sex, partner sex, jurisdiction, and pathogen. CONCLUSION: Teen-SPARC may be able to assist health departments aiming to tailor behavioral interventions for STI prevention among adolescents.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Sexo Seguro , Comportamento Sexual , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Infecções por Chlamydia/prevenção & controle , Preservativos , Feminino , Gonorreia/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , New York/epidemiologia , Assunção de Riscos , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 486, 2020 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641070

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asymptomatic screening for gonorrhoea in heterosexual men is currently not recommended in many countries including Australia, given the prevalence is relatively low in the heterosexual population. We aimed to determine the proportion of urethral gonorrhoea cases among heterosexual men attending a sexual health clinic that was asymptomatic and symptomatic, the time since last sexual contact to the onset of symptoms and the time to clinic presentation following the onset of symptoms. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study that included heterosexual men aged 16 years or above attending the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre (MSHC) in Australia between August 2017 and August 2018. Gonorrhoea cases were diagnosed by nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) and/or culture. Descriptive analyses were conducted for all gonorrhoea cases including demographic characteristics, recent sexual practices, reported urethral symptoms and duration, sexual contact with a person diagnosed with gonorrhoea, investigations performed and laboratory results. RESULTS: There were 116 confirmed cases of urethral gonorrhoea in heterosexual men over the study period of which 6.0% (95% CI: 2.7-12.1%) were asymptomatic. Typical urethral discharge was present in 80.2% (95% CI: 71.9-86.5%) of men. The mean time between last sexual contact and the onset of symptoms was 7.0 days, and between the onset of symptoms to presentation to the clinic was 5.6 days. CONCLUSIONS: A small proportion of heterosexual men with urethral gonorrhoea do not have any symptoms. Heterosexual men with urethral symptoms usually seek for healthcare within a week, prompting rapid healthcare-seeking behaviour.


Assuntos
Infecções Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Gonorreia/diagnóstico , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Heterossexualidade , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/genética , Saúde Sexual , Doenças Uretrais/diagnóstico , Doenças Uretrais/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Austrália/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Gonorreia/microbiologia , Gonorreia/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Prevalência , Doenças Uretrais/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Rev Chilena Infectol ; 37(1): 32-36, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730397

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sex workers, people with drug addiction, early onset of sexual activity population, and criminal population, are considered the groups most at risk of contracting sexually transmitted infections (STIs). AIM: To determine the prevalence of infection by Neisseria gonorrhoeae in inmates of the Preventive Detention Center (CDP) at Arica and Parinacota Region, Chile. The Scientific Ethical Committee of Universidad de Tarapacá approved this study. METHOD: 140 inmates participated, who voluntarily agreed to be part of the study and signed an informed consent. A sample of urethral meatus was taken to investigate N. gonorrhoeae, and an epidemiological survey was applied, which included age, drug use, overcrowding, among others. RESULTS: The prevalence of the agent was 16.4% in inmates of the Arica CDP, a result lower than that reported in other similar studies. CONCLUSION: Knowing the reality of the prevalence of this STI and some risk factors associated with the situation of deprivation of freedom in a tri-border area of northern Chile, contributes to the proposals for prevention programs in this vulnerable and at-risk population.


Assuntos
Gonorreia , Prisioneiros , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Chile/epidemiologia , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Gonorreia/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/isolamento & purificação , Prevalência , Prisioneiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Profissionais do Sexo/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle
13.
Womens Health (Lond) ; 16: 1745506520940095, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628574

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to determine the risk factors associated with gonorrhea and syphilis infections among pregnant women attending antenatal care clinic at Dilla University Referral Hospital. METHOD: A hospital-based unmatched case-control study (64 cases and 128 controls) with 1:2 ratios was conducted from 29 January 2018 to 20 June 2018, at the antenatal care clinic of the Dilla University Referral Hospital. Venous blood and vaginal swab were collected to screen for gonorrhea and syphilis. A pretested interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to gather data on sociodemographic and predisposing factors. Logistic regression analysis used to identify risk factors for sexually transmitted infections among pregnant women at 95% confidence interval and p-value < 0.05. RESULT: A total of 64 cases of syphilis or gonorrhea were identified with a mean age of 26 years (±4.1 years.). Of those cases, 40 were syphilis seropositive and the remaining were gonorrhea cases. Lower educational status (adjusted odds ratio = 2.4, 95% confidence interval: 1.1-4.9), age of first sex <18 years (adjusted odds ratio = 2.8, 95% confidence interval: 1.3-5.9), history of abortion (adjusted odds ratio = 3.1, 95% confidence interval: 1.4-6.6), and having two or more sexual partners in the past year (adjusted odds ratio = 2.5, 95% confidence interval: 1.1-5.7) were significantly associated with gonorrhea and syphilis infection. CONCLUSION: Demographic, behavioral, and obstetric factors are associated with the occurrence of syphilis or gonorrhea among pregnant women. Strengthening the existing antenatal care services, providing health education on risk factors, and prioritizing women with the risk characteristics and initiation of gonorrhea and syphilis screening during antennal care are mandatory.


Assuntos
Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Natl Vital Stat Rep ; 69(3): 1-11, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32510315

RESUMO

Objectives-This report presents data on recent trends for three sexually transmitted infections (STIs)-chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis-reported among women giving birth in the United States from 2016 through 2018, and rates by selected characteristics for 2018. Methods-Data are from birth certificates and are based on 100% of births registered in the United States for 2016, 2017, and 2018. Birth certificate data on infections during pregnancy are recommended to be collected from the mother's medical records (1). Mothers are to be reported as having an infection if there is a confirmed diagnosis or documented treatment for the infection in their medical record (2). Results-Among women giving birth in 2018, the overall rates of chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis were 1,843.9, 310.2, and 116.7 per 100,000 births, respectively. The rates for these STIs increased 2% (chlamydia), 16% (gonorrhea), and 34% (syphilis) from 2016 through 2018. In 2018, rates of chlamydia and gonorrhea decreased with advancing maternal age, whereas those for syphilis decreased with maternal age through 30-34 years and then increased for women aged 35 and over. In 2018, rates of all three STIs were highest for non-Hispanic black women, women who smoked during pregnancy, women who received late or no prenatal care, and women for whom Medicaid was the principal source of payment for the delivery. Among women aged 25 and over, rates of each of the STIs decreased with increasing maternal education.


Assuntos
Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Adulto , Declaração de Nascimento , Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/etnologia , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Parto Obstétrico/economia , Escolaridade , Feminino , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Gonorreia/etnologia , Humanos , Idade Materna , Medicaid/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/etnologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/etnologia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/etnologia , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Sífilis/etnologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234261, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516318

RESUMO

The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence and proportion of laboratory-confirmed urethral Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) infections that were asymptomatic among individuals presenting to clinics in Shenzhen and the risk factors related to asymptomatic CT infection. In a cross-sectional study, eligible individuals were invited to participate in the questionnaire, and urine specimens were collected to identify CT and NG infections using a nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT). Considering the differences in the presentation of symptoms between men and women, this study was stratified by gender. Corresponding outcomes were analyzed by Chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression. A total of 2,871 participants were asymptomatic and included in our analyses: 1120 (39.0%) men and 1751 (61.0%) women. The prevalence of asymptomatic NG and CT infections was 0.9% and 6.2% in men, and 0.4% and 7.9% in women, respectively. The proportion of asymptomatic urethral CT among men with urethral CT was 28.3%; for women, it was 34.2%. For asymptomatic men with CT, 3 independent risk factors were identified: (1) men under the age of 30 (aOR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.11-3.03); (2) being employed in the commercial service work (2.82; 1.36-5.84); and (3) being recruited through the urological department (2.12; 1.19-3.79). For asymptomatic women with urethral CT, age less than 30 years was a risk factor. In conclusion, a substantial prevalence of asymptomatic CT infections was found among men and women presenting to clinics in Shenzhen. The significant correlation between asymptomatic CT infection and these risk factors could help identify high-risk populations and guide screening.


Assuntos
Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Chlamydia trachomatis/fisiologia , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/fisiologia , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo
16.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 20(8): 976-982, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32530426

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: WHO recommends that men who have sex with men (MSM) receive gonorrhoea and chlamydia testing, but many evidence-based preventive services are unaffordable. The pay-it-forward strategy offers an individual a gift (eg, a test for sexually transmitted diseases) and then asks whether they would like to give a gift (eg, a future test) to another person. This study examined the effectiveness of a pay-it-forward programme to increase gonorrhoea and chlamydia testing among MSM in China. METHODS: We did a randomised controlled superiority trial at three HIV testing sites run by MSM community-based organisations in Guangzhou and Beijing, China. We included MSM aged 16 years or older who were seeking HIV testing and met indications for gonorrhoea and chlamydia testing. Restricted randomisation was done using computer-generated permuted blocks. 30 groups were randomised into three arms (1:1:1): a pay-it-forward arm in which men were offered free gonorrhoea and chlamydia testing and then asked whether they would like to donate for testing of prospective participants, a pay-what-you-want arm in which men were offered free testing and given the option to pay any desired amount for the test, and a standard-of-care arm in which testing was offered at ¥150 (US$22). There was no masking to arm assignment. The primary outcome was gonorrhoea and chlamydia test uptake ascertained by administrative records. We used generalised estimating equations to estimate intervention effects with one-sided 95% CIs and a prespecified superiority margin of 20%. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03741725. FINDINGS: Between Dec 8, 2018, and Jan 19, 2019, 301 men were recruited and included in the analysis. 101 were randomly assigned to the pay-it-forward group, 100 to the pay-what-you-want group, and 100 to the standard-of-care group. Test uptake for gonorrhoea and chlamydia was 56% (57 of 101 participants) in the pay-it-forward arm, 46% (46 of 100 participants) in the pay-what-you-want arm, and 18% (18 of 100 participants) in the standard-of-care arm. The estimated difference in test uptake between the pay-it-forward and standard-of-care group was 38·4% (95% CI lower bound 28·4%). Among men in the pay-it-forward arm, 54 of 57 (95%) chose to donate to support testing for others. INTERPRETATION: The pay-it-forward strategy can increase gonorrhoea and chlamydia testing uptake among Chinese MSM and could be a useful tool for scaling up preventive services that carry a mandatory fee. FUNDING: US National Institute of Health; Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases, sponsored by UNICEF, UNDP, World Bank, and WHO; the National Key Research and Development Program of China; Doris Duke Charitable Foundation; and Social Entrepreneurship to Spur Health.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Homossexualidade Masculina , Reembolso de Seguro de Saúde , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Gonorreia/diagnóstico , Gonorreia/microbiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/microbiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Int J STD AIDS ; 31(7): 627-636, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32403988

RESUMO

Partner notification and treatment are essential components of sexually transmitted infection (STI) management, but little is known about such practices among adolescents and young adults. Using data from a prospective cohort study (AYAZAZI) of youth aged 16-24 years in Durban, South Africa, we assessed the STI care cascade across participant diagnosis, STI treatment, partner notification, and partner treatment; index recurrent STI and associated factors; and reasons for not notifying partner of STI. Participants completed laboratory-based STI screening (Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma genitalium, Trichomonas vaginalis) at enrollment and at 12 months. Of the 37/216 participants with STI (17%), 27/37 (73%) were women and 10/37 (27%) were men. Median age was 19 years (IQR: 18-20). Of the participants with STI, 23/37 (62%) completed a Treatment and Partner Tracing Survey within 6 months of diagnosis. All survey participants reported completing STI treatment (100%), 17/23 (74%) notified a partner, and 6/23 (35%) reported partner treatment. Overall, 4/23 (11%) participants had 12-month recurrent C. trachomatis infection, with no association with partner notification or treatment. Stigma and lack of STI knowledge were reasons for not notifying partner of STI. STI partner notification and treatment is a challenge among youth. Novel strategies are needed to overcome barriers along the STI care cascade.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Chlamydia/tratamento farmacológico , Busca de Comunicante/estatística & dados numéricos , Gonorreia/tratamento farmacológico , Parceiros Sexuais , Adolescente , Infecções por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Gonorreia/diagnóstico , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Neisseria gonorrhoeae , Estudos Prospectivos , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Estigma Social , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32418513

RESUMO

Background: Notification rates of gonorrhoea in Australia for heterosexual young adults rose by 63% between 2012 and 2016. In Western Australian major cities, there was a 612% increase among non-Aboriginal females and a 358% increase in non-Aboriginal males in the ten-year period 2007-2016. A qualitative public health investigation was initiated to inform appropriate action. Methods: Eighteen semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with non-Aboriginal heterosexual young adults aged 18-34 years living in Perth, Western Australia, who had recently been notified to the Department of Health with gonorrhoea, to explore the context of their sexual interactions and lifestyles which could have predisposed them to contracting gonorrhoea. Data were thematically analysed. Results: Common themes were having several casual sexual partners, limited communication between sexual partners about condom use or sexual history prior to engaging in sexual activity, inconsistent condom use, normalisation of some sexually transmissible infections amongst young people, and poor understandings and assessment of sexually transmissible infection risk. Conclusion: The findings support public health interventions that focus on communication between sexual partners and shifting of risk perceptions in sexual health education programs, ensuring accessibility of quality sexual health information, increasing condom accessibility and acceptability, and on strategies for addressing misperceptions of young people in relation to sexually transmitted infections.


Assuntos
Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Comportamento Sexual , Adulto , Feminino , Heterossexualidade , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Pública , Fatores de Risco , Saúde Sexual , Parceiros Sexuais , Austrália Ocidental/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Sex Transm Infect ; 96(6): 417-421, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32404400

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: As Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) are the most commonly reported STIs in Belgium and the majority of women infected are asymptomatic, targeted screening of patients in specified risk groups is indicated. To prevent long-term complications and interrupt transmission, extragenital samples should be included. As this comes with a substantial extra cost, analysis of a pooled sample from vaginal and extragenital sites could be a solution. In this study, we evaluated the feasibility of molecular testing for CT and NG in pooled versus single-site samples in a large cohort of female sex workers. METHODS: Women were sampled from three anatomical sites: a pharyngeal, a vaginal and a rectal swab. Each sample was vortexed, and 400 µL of transport medium from each sample site was pooled into an empty tube. NAAT was performed using the Abbott RealTime CT/NG assay on the m2000sp/rt system. RESULTS: We included 489 patients: 5.1% were positive for CT; 2.0% were positive for NG and 1.4% were coinfected, resulting in an overall prevalence of 6.5% (95% CI 4.5% to 9.1%) for CT and 3.5% (95% CI 2.0% to 5.5%) for NG. From the 42 patients positive on at least one non-pooled sample, only 5 gave a negative result on the pooled sample, resulting in a sensitivity of 94% (95% CI 79% to 99%) for CT and 82% (95% CI 57% to 96%) for NG. The missed pooled samples were all derived from single-site infections with low bacterial loads. The possibility of inadequate self-sampling as a cause of false negativity was excluded, as 4/5 were collected by the physician. Testing only vaginal samples would have led to missing 40% of CT infections and 60% of NG infections. CONCLUSIONS: Pooling of samples is a cost-saving strategy for the detection of CT and NG in women, with minimal decrease in sensitivity. By reducing costs, more patients and more extragenital samples can be tested, resulting in higher detection rates.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Gonorreia/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Faringe/microbiologia , Reto/microbiologia , Profissionais do Sexo , Vagina/microbiologia , Infecções Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Chlamydia trachomatis , Feminino , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos
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