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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 486, 2020 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641070

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asymptomatic screening for gonorrhoea in heterosexual men is currently not recommended in many countries including Australia, given the prevalence is relatively low in the heterosexual population. We aimed to determine the proportion of urethral gonorrhoea cases among heterosexual men attending a sexual health clinic that was asymptomatic and symptomatic, the time since last sexual contact to the onset of symptoms and the time to clinic presentation following the onset of symptoms. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study that included heterosexual men aged 16 years or above attending the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre (MSHC) in Australia between August 2017 and August 2018. Gonorrhoea cases were diagnosed by nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) and/or culture. Descriptive analyses were conducted for all gonorrhoea cases including demographic characteristics, recent sexual practices, reported urethral symptoms and duration, sexual contact with a person diagnosed with gonorrhoea, investigations performed and laboratory results. RESULTS: There were 116 confirmed cases of urethral gonorrhoea in heterosexual men over the study period of which 6.0% (95% CI: 2.7-12.1%) were asymptomatic. Typical urethral discharge was present in 80.2% (95% CI: 71.9-86.5%) of men. The mean time between last sexual contact and the onset of symptoms was 7.0 days, and between the onset of symptoms to presentation to the clinic was 5.6 days. CONCLUSIONS: A small proportion of heterosexual men with urethral gonorrhoea do not have any symptoms. Heterosexual men with urethral symptoms usually seek for healthcare within a week, prompting rapid healthcare-seeking behaviour.


Assuntos
Infecções Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Gonorreia/diagnóstico , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Heterossexualidade , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/genética , Saúde Sexual , Doenças Uretrais/diagnóstico , Doenças Uretrais/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Austrália/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Gonorreia/microbiologia , Gonorreia/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Prevalência , Doenças Uretrais/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 419, 2020 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32546213

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Four new variants of Chlamydia trachomatis (nvCTs), detected in several countries, cause false-negative or equivocal results using the Aptima Combo 2 assay (AC2; Hologic). We evaluated the clinical sensitivity and specificity, as well as the analytical inclusivity and exclusivity of the updated AC2 for the detection of CT and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) on the automated Panther system (Hologic). METHODS: We examined 1004 clinical AC2 samples and 225 analytical samples spiked with phenotypically and/or genetically diverse NG and CT strains, and other potentially cross-reacting microbial species. The clinical AC2 samples included CT wild type (WT)-positive (n = 488), all four described AC2 diagnostic-escape nvCTs (n = 170), NG-positive (n = 214), and CT/NG-negative (n = 202) specimens. RESULTS: All nvCT-positive samples (100%) and 486 (99.6%) of the CT WT-positive samples were positive in the updated AC2. All NG-positive, CT/NG-negative, Trichomonas vaginalis (TV)-positive, bacterial vaginosis-positive, and Candida-positive AC2 specimens gave correct results. The clinical sensitivity and specificity of the updated AC2 for CT detection was 99.7 and 100%, respectively, and for NG detection was 100% for both. Examining spiked samples, the analytical inclusivity and exclusivity were 100%, i.e., in clinically relevant concentrations of spiked microbe. CONCLUSIONS: The updated AC2, including two CT targets and one NG target, showed a high sensitivity, specificity, inclusivity and exclusivity for the detection of CT WT, nvCTs, and NG. The updated AC2 on the fully automated Panther system offers a simple, rapid, high-throughput, sensitive, and specific diagnosis of CT and NG, which can easily be combined with detection of Mycoplasma genitalium and TV.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Chlamydia trachomatis/genética , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Candida/genética , Candidíase/diagnóstico , Candidíase/microbiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Reações Cruzadas , Feminino , Gonorreia/diagnóstico , Gonorreia/microbiologia , Humanos , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/genética , RNA Bacteriano/genética , RNA Ribossômico 23S/genética , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Tricomoníase/diagnóstico , Tricomoníase/parasitologia , Trichomonas vaginalis/genética
4.
J Med Life ; 13(1): 75-81, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32341705

RESUMO

Gonorrhea is the second most common sexually transmitted infection spreading worldwide and a serious public health problem. However, further data are required to improve the management of gonorrhea. Our aim was to review the features of gonococcal infection and characterize the challenges of its management. A retrospective descriptive study of the medical records of 136 adult patients with gonorrhea that visited Ternopil Regional Sexually Transmitted Infections Clinic (Ukraine) in 2013-2018 was performed. The male-to-female ratio was 6.6:1. Homosexually-acquired gonorrhoea was 3.7%. Also, most patients acquired gonorrhea in Ukraine (98.4%). The mean infectious period lasted 2-16 days, including the incubation period of 1-9 days and the period from the onset of symptoms to the first visit of the clinic of 1-7 days. The probability of N. gonorrhoeae transmission within the frame of the epidemiologic sexual chain was 1:2.4. Concurrent T. vaginalis (39.7%) and C. trachomatis (2.2%) were detected. HIV and syphilis screening rates were 1.6% and 0.7%, respectively. The examining rate of sexual partners was 11%, testing extragenital specimens - 0.7%, screening coverage for HIV - 46.3%, compliance with follow-up visits - 41.9%. Part of patients (16.2%) received monotherapy with clarithromycin, doxycycline, benzylpenicillin, azithromycin, or ofloxacin. The management of N. gonorrhoeae infections was compromised by a low rate of examining sexual partners, females and testing extragenital specimens, screening for HIV, compliance to follow-up visits, access to nucleic acid amplification tests, and receiving questionable or even obsolete antimicrobial treatment. Therefore, more accurate and comprehensive management of gonorrhea is urgently needed in Ukraine.


Assuntos
Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Gonorreia/microbiologia , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/fisiologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ucrânia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
APMIS ; 128(6): 440-444, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32202687

RESUMO

Chlamydia trachomatis infection is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection globally, and nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) are recommended for highly sensitive and specific diagnosis. In early 2019, the Finnish new variant of Chlamydia trachomatis (FI-nvCT) was identified. The FI-nvCT has a C1515T mutation in the 23S rRNA gene, making it escaping detection in the Aptima Combo 2 (AC2; Hologic) NAAT, and the FI-nvCT has been subsequently reported in Sweden and Norway. In the present study, we investigated the presence of the FI-nvCT and other AC2 diagnostic-escape CT mutants in July-September 2019 in Denmark. The FI-nvCT was present but rare in Denmark. However, another AC2 diagnostic-escape CT mutant (with a 23S rRNA G1523A mutation) was found to be widespread across Denmark, accounting for 95% (76/80) of AC2 diagnostic-escape nvCT samples from five Danish CT-diagnostic laboratories. This nvCT-G1523A has previously only been detected in one single sample in the United Kingdom and Norway, respectively. It is vital to monitor the continued stability of the NAAT targets in local, national and international settings and monitor as well as appropriately analyse incidence, unexplained shifts in diagnostics rates and/or annual collections of samples diagnosed as negative/equivocal using NAATs with different target(s). Furthermore, diagnostic CT NAATs with dual target sequences are crucial, and fortunately, an updated Hologic AC2 assay including one additional target sequence is in advanced development.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Chlamydia trachomatis/genética , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , RNA Ribossômico 23S/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Gonorreia/diagnóstico , Gonorreia/microbiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/genética , RNA Bacteriano/genética , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
6.
PLoS Biol ; 18(3): e3000651, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191696

RESUMO

Rapid antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) for Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Ng) is critically needed to counter widespread antibiotic resistance. Detection of nucleic acids in genotypic AST can be rapid, but it has not been successful for ß-lactams (the largest antibiotic class used to treat Ng). Rapid phenotypic AST for Ng is challenged by the pathogen's slow doubling time and the lack of methods to quickly quantify the pathogen's response to ß-lactams. Here, we asked two questions: (1) Is it possible to use nucleic acid quantification to measure the ß-lactam susceptibility phenotype of Ng very rapidly, using antibiotic-exposure times much shorter than the 1- to 2-h doubling time of Ng? (2) Would such short-term antibiotic exposures predict the antibiotic resistance profile of Ng measured by plate growth assays over multiple days? To answer these questions, we devised an innovative approach for performing a rapid phenotypic AST that measures DNA accessibility to exogenous nucleases after exposure to ß-lactams (termed nuclease-accessibility AST [nuc-aAST]). We showed that DNA in antibiotic-susceptible cells has increased accessibility upon exposure to ß-lactams and that a judiciously chosen surfactant permeabilized the outer membrane and enhanced this effect. We tested penicillin, cefixime, and ceftriaxone and found good agreement between the results of the nuc-aAST after 15-30 min of antibiotic exposure and the results of the gold-standard culture-based AST measured over days. These results provide a new pathway toward developing a critically needed phenotypic AST for Ng and additional global-health threats.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , DNA Bacteriano/metabolismo , Desoxirribonuclease I/metabolismo , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/efeitos dos fármacos , Tensoativos/farmacologia , beta-Lactamas/farmacologia , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Gonorreia/microbiologia , Gonorreia/urina , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/isolamento & purificação , Fenótipo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Tempo , Fluxo de Trabalho
9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 110, 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32033533

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionally affected by sexually transmitted infections (STI). STI are often extragenital and asymptomatic. Both can delay diagnosis and treatment. Approval of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) might have influenced sexual behaviour and STI-prevalence of HIV- MSM. We estimated STI-prevalence and risk factors amongst HIV- and HIV+ MSM in Germany to plan effective interventions. METHODS: We conducted a nationwide, cross-sectional study between February and July 2018. Thirteen MSM-friendly STI-practices screened MSM for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Mycoplasma genitalium (MG), Neisseria gonorrhea (NG), and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) using self-collected rectal and pharyngeal swabs, and urine samples. APTIMA™ STI-assays (Hologic™ Inc., San Diego, USA) were used for diagnostics, and samples were not pooled. We collected information on socio-demographics, HIV-status, clinical symptoms, sexual behaviour within the last 6 months, and PrEP use. We combined HIV status and PrEP use for defining risk groups, and used directed acyclic graphs and multivariable logistic regression to identify risk factors for STI. RESULTS: Two thousand three hundred three MSM were included: 50.5% HIV+, median age 39 [18-79] years. Median number of male sex partners within the last 6 months was five. Sex without condom was reported by 73.6%, use of party drugs by 44.6%. 80.3% had a STI history, 32.2% of STI+ MSM reported STI-related symptoms. 27.6% of HIV- MSM used PrEP. Overall STI-prevalence was 30.1, 25.0% in HIV-/PrEP- MSM (CT:7.2%; MG:14.2%; NG:7.4%; TV:0%), 40.3% in HIV-/PrEP+ MSM (CT:13.8%; MG:19.4%; NG:14.8%; TV:0.4%), and 30.8% in HIV+ MSM (CT:10.1%; MG:18.4%; NG:8.6%; TV:0.1%). Being HIV+ (OR 1.7, 95%-CI 1.3-2.2), using PrEP (OR 2.0, 95%-CI 1.5-2.7), having > 5 sex partners (OR:1.65; 95%-CI:1.32-2.01.9), having condomless sex (OR:2.11.9; 95%-CI:1.65-2.86), and using party drugs (OR:1.65; 95%-CI:1.32-2.0) were independent risk factors for being tested positive for at least one STI. CONCLUSIONS: We found a high STI-prevalence in MSM in Germany, especially in PrEP users, frequently being asymptomatic. As a relevant proportion of PrEP users will not use a condom, counselling and comprehensive STI screening is essential and should be low threshold and preferably free of cost. Counselling of PrEP users should also address use of party drugs.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Chlamydia trachomatis/genética , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Homossexualidade Masculina , Infecções por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Mycoplasma genitalium/genética , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/genética , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolamento & purificação , Preservativos , Aconselhamento , Estudos Transversais , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Gonorreia/diagnóstico , Gonorreia/microbiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycoplasma genitalium/isolamento & purificação , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/isolamento & purificação , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Sexual , Parceiros Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
10.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228467, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040516

RESUMO

Urethritis, or inflammation of the urethra, is one of the most common reasons men seek clinical care. Sexually transmitted pathogens including Neisseria gonorrhoeae are responsible for over half of the symptomatic urethritis cases in U.S. men. Recently, clinics in Indianapolis, Columbus, Atlanta, and other U.S. cities began to note increasing numbers of men presenting with urethritis and Gram-negative intracellular diplococci in their urethral smears who test negative for N. gonorrhoeae. Many of these discordant cases, which have periodically reached highs of more than 25% of presumed gonococcal cases in some sexually transmitted infection clinics in the U.S. Midwest, are infected with strains in a novel urethrotropic clade of Neisseria meningitidis ST-11 (US_NmUC). However, no cultivation-independent tests are available for the US_NmUC strains, and prior studies relied on microbial culture and genome sequencing to identify them. Here, we describe a PCR test that can identify the US_NmUC strains and distinguish them from commensal and invasive N. meningitidis strains as well as N. gonorrhoeae. Our SimpleProbe®-based real-time PCR assay targets a conserved nucleotide substitution in a horizontally acquired region of US_NmUC strain genomes. We applied the assay to 241 urine specimens whose microbial compositions had previously been determined by deep shotgun metagenomic sequencing. The assay detected the single US_NmUC positive case in this cohort, with no false positives. Overall, our simple and readily adaptable assay could facilitate investigation of the pathogenesis and epidemiology of the US_NmUC clade.


Assuntos
Neisseria meningitidis/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Uretrite/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Reações Falso-Positivas , Gonorreia/diagnóstico , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Gonorreia/microbiologia , Gonorreia/urina , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/genética , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/isolamento & purificação , Neisseria meningitidis/classificação , Neisseria meningitidis/isolamento & purificação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Doenças Bacterianas Sexualmente Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Doenças Bacterianas Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doenças Bacterianas Sexualmente Transmissíveis/microbiologia , Doenças Bacterianas Sexualmente Transmissíveis/urina , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Uretra/microbiologia , Uretra/patologia , Uretrite/diagnóstico , Urinálise/métodos , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Adulto Jovem
11.
Sex Transm Infect ; 96(3): 204-210, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019895

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: International spread has contributed substantially to the high prevalence of antimicrobial resistant (AMR) Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections worldwide. We compared the prevalence of AMR gonococcal isolates among native persons to foreign-born (reporting country different from country of birth) persons, and describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of foreign-born patients and their associations to AMR. METHODS: We analysed isolates and patient data reported to the European Gonococcal Antimicrobial Surveillance Programme (Euro-GASP) 2010-2014 (n=9529). RESULTS: Forty-three per cent of isolates had known country of birth and 17.2% of these were from persons born abroad. Almost 50% of foreign-born were from the WHO European Region (13.1% from non-European Union [EU] and the European Economic Area [EEA] countries). Compared with isolates from natives, isolates from foreign-born had a similar level (p>0.05) of azithromycin resistance (7.5% vs 7.2%), ciprofloxacin resistance (50.0% vs 46.3%) and of decreased susceptibility to ceftriaxone (1.9% vs 2.8%); a lower rate of cefixime resistance (5.7% vs 3.6%, p=0.02), and a higher proportion of isolates producing penicillinase (8.4% vs 11.7%, p=0.02). Among isolates from persons born outside EU/EEA, the level of decreased susceptibility to ceftriaxone was higher (1.8% vs 3.5%, p=0.02), particularly in those from the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region and non-EU/EEA WHO European countries (1.9% vs 9.6% and 8.7%, respectively, p<0.01). In multivariable analysis, foreign-born patients with AMR isolates were more likely to be from non-EU/EEA WHO European countries (adjusted OR [aOR]: 3.2, 95% CI 1.8 to 5.8), WHO Eastern Mediterranean countries (aOR: 1.8, 95% CI 1.1 to 3.3) and heterosexual males (aOR: 1.8, 95% CI 1.2 to 2.7). CONCLUSIONS: Importation of AMR strains remains an important threat in the EU/EEA. Research to improve understanding of sexual networks within foreign born and sexual tourism populations could help to inform effective tailor-made interventions. The Euro-GASP demonstrates the public health value of quality-assured surveillance of gonococcal AMR and the need for strengthened AMR surveillance, particularly in the non-EU/EEA WHO European Region.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Gonorreia/microbiologia , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/efeitos dos fármacos , Grupos Populacionais , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
12.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227985, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945133

RESUMO

Pharyngeal gonorrhoea is a common sexually transmitted infection among 'men having sex with other men' (MSM). Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) pharyngeal infections are usually characterized by the absence of symptoms, acting as an important reservoir for their further spread. To the best of our knowledge, no information about the composition of the pharyngeal microbiome during an ongoing NG infection is currently available. Therefore, in this study, we characterized the pharyngeal bacterial community profiles associated with NG infection in a well-selected cohort of HIV-negative MSM reporting unsafe oral intercourse. A total of 70 pharyngeal swabs were considered, comparing non-infected subjects (n = 45) versus patients with pharyngeal gonorrhoea (n = 25) whose microbiota composition was analyzed from pharyngeal swabs through sequencing of hypervariable V3-V4 regions of the 16S rRNA gene. The pharyngeal microbiome of all subjects was dominated by Prevotellaceae, Veillonellaceae and Streptococcaceae families. Patients with pharyngeal gonorrhoea harboured a pharyngeal microbiome quite similar to negative subjects. Nevertheless, when looking to less-represented bacterial species (relative abundance approximately 1% or less), an imbalance between aerobe and anaerobe microorganisms was observed in NG-infected patients. In particular, the pharyngeal microbiome of NG-positive individuals was richer in several anaerobes (e.g. Treponema, Parvimonas, Peptococcus, Catonella, Filifactor) and poorer in various aerobe genera (i.e. Pseudomonas, Escherichia), compared to non-infected controls. No significant differences were noticed in the distribution of commensal Neisseria species of the oropharynx between NG-positive and negative subjects. Metabolic variations induced by changes in the microbiome abundance were assessed by a functional prediction of the bacterial metabolic pathways: a more abundant involvement of D-glutamine and D-glutamate metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, as well as a greater activation of the energy metabolism was observed in patients with pharyngeal gonorrhoea compared to non-infected individuals. Information about the bacterial composition of the pharyngeal microbiome in case of gonorrhoea could shed light on the pathogenesis of the infection and open new perspectives for the prevention and control of this condition.


Assuntos
Gonorreia/microbiologia , Microbiota/genética , Doenças Faríngeas/microbiologia , Faringe/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Sexo sem Proteção
13.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 20(4): 478-486, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978353

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Characterising sexual networks with transmission of sexually transmitted infections might allow identification of individuals at increased risk of infection. We aimed to investigate sexual mixing in Neisseria gonorrhoeae transmission networks between women, heterosexual men, and men who report sex with men (MSM), and between people with and without HIV. METHODS: In this cross-sectional observational study, we whole-genome sequenced N gonorrhoeae isolates from the archive of the Gonococcal Resistance to Antimicrobials Surveillance Programme (GRASP).w Isolates that varied by five single nucleotide polymorphisms or fewer were grouped into clusters that represented sexual networks with N gonorrhoeae transmission. Clusters were described by gender, sexual risk group, and HIV status. FINDINGS: We sequenced 1277 N gonorrhoeae isolates with linked clinical and sociodemographic data that were collected in five clinics in England during 2013-16 (July 1 to Sept 30 in 2013-15; July 1 to Sept 9 in 2016). The isolates grouped into 213 clusters. 30 (14%) clusters contained isolates from heterosexual men and MSM but no women and three (1%) clusters contained isolates from only women and MSM. 146 (69%) clusters comprised solely people with negative or unknown HIV status and seven (3%) comprised only HIV-positive people. 60 (28%) clusters comprised MSM with positive and negative or unknown HIV status. INTERPRETATION: N gonorrhoeae molecular data can provide information indicating risk of HIV or other sexually transmitted infections for some individuals for whom such risk might not be known from clinical history. These findings have implications for sexual health care, including offering testing, prevention advice, and preventive treatment, such as HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis. FUNDING: National Institute for Health Research Health Protection Research Unit; Wellcome; Public Health England.


Assuntos
Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Gonorreia/transmissão , Infecções por HIV , Neisseria gonorrhoeae , Filogenia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Gonorreia/microbiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Heterossexualidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/classificação , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/genética , Parceiros Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
14.
Sex Transm Infect ; 96(1): 10-18, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31217322

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: There are limited data on the prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium (Mgen) coinfection with rectal chlamydia (Chlamydia trachomatis (CT)) and rectal gonorrhoea (Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG)) infections and few studies examining the prevalence of pharyngeal Mgen in men who have sex with men (MSM). Using transcription-mediated amplification assay, this study aimed to determine the proportion of rectal CT and rectal NG infections in MSM who are coinfected with rectal Mgen, and the proportion of MSM with Mgen detected in the pharynx in order to inform clinical practice. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted at Melbourne Sexual Health Centre in Australia. Consecutively collected rectal swabs from MSM that tested positive for CT (n=212) or NG (n=212), and consecutively collected pharyngeal samples (n=480) from MSM were tested for Mgen using the Aptima Mycoplasma genitalium Assay (Hologic, San Diego). Samples were linked to demographic data and symptom status. RESULTS: Rectal Mgen was codetected in 27 of 212 rectal CT (13%, 95% CI 9 to 18) and in 29 of 212 rectal NG (14%, 95% CI 9 to 19) samples, with no difference in the proportion positive for Mgen. MSM with rectal CT/Mgen coinfection had more sexual partners than those with rectal CT monoinfection (mean 6 vs 11, p=0.06). MSM with rectal NG/Mgen coinfection were more likely to be HIV-positive than those with rectal NG monoinfection (OR=2.96, 95% CI 1.21 to 7.26, p=0.023). MSM with rectal CT/Mgen coinfection were more likely to be using pre-exposure prophylaxis than MSM with rectal NG/Mgen coinfection (OR 0.25, 95% CI 0.10 to 0.65, p=0.002). Pharyngeal Mgen was uncommon and detected in 8 of 464 samples (2%, 95% CI 1% to 3%). Pharyngeal Mgen was associated with having a rectal STI (OR=10.61, 95% CI 2.30 to 48.87, p=0.002), and there was a borderline association with being HIV-positive (p=0.079). CONCLUSION: These data indicate one in seven MSM treated for rectal CT or rectal NG will have undiagnosed Mgen that is potentially exposed to azithromycin during treatment of these STIs. Rectal Mgen coinfection was associated with specific risk factors which may inform testing practices. Pharyngeal Mgen was uncommon.


Assuntos
Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Doenças Retais/epidemiologia , Reto/microbiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Austrália/epidemiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Chlamydia trachomatis/classificação , Chlamydia trachomatis/genética , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolamento & purificação , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Estudos Transversais , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Gonorreia/microbiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Mycoplasma genitalium/classificação , Mycoplasma genitalium/genética , Mycoplasma genitalium/isolamento & purificação , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/classificação , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/genética , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/isolamento & purificação , Faringe/microbiologia , Doenças Retais/microbiologia , Comportamento Sexual , Adulto Jovem
15.
Nat Rev Microbiol ; 18(2): 84-96, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705134

RESUMO

Meningococcal disease remains an important cause of morbidity and death worldwide despite the development and increasing implementation of effective vaccines. Elimination of the disease is hampered by the enormous diversity and antigenic variability of the causative agent, Neisseria meningitidis, one of the most variable bacteria in nature. These features are attained mainly through high rates of horizontal gene transfer and alteration of protein expression through phase variation. The recent availability of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of large-scale collections of N. meningitidis isolates from various origins, databases to facilitate storage and sharing of WGS data and the concomitant development of effective bioinformatics tools have led to a much more thorough understanding of the diversity of the species, its evolution and population structure and how virulent traits may emerge. Implementation of WGS is already contributing to enhanced epidemiological surveillance and is essential to ascertain the impact of vaccination strategies. This Review summarizes the recent advances provided by WGS studies in our understanding of the biology of N. meningitidis and the epidemiology of meningococcal disease.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Variação Genética , Genômica , Neisseria meningitidis/genética , Neisseria meningitidis/patogenicidade , Gonorreia/microbiologia , Humanos
17.
PLoS Pathog ; 15(12): e1008136, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31790511

RESUMO

Sexually transmitted infections are a critical public health issue. However, the mechanisms underlying sexually transmitted infections in women and the link between the infection mechanism and the wide range of clinical outcomes remain elusive due to a lack of research models mimicking human infection in vivo. We established a human cervical tissue explant model to mimic local Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) infections. We found that GC preferentially colonize the ectocervix by activating integrin-ß1, which inhibits epithelial shedding. GC selectively penetrate into the squamocolumnar junction (TZ) and endocervical epithelia by inducing ß-catenin phosphorylation, which leads to E-cadherin junction disassembly. Epithelial cells in various cervical regions differentially express carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecules (CEACAMs), the host receptor for GC opacity-associated proteins (OpaCEA). Relatively high levels were detected on the luminal membrane of ecto/endocervical epithelial cells but very low levels intracellularly in TZ epithelial cells. CEACAM-OpaCEA interaction increased ecto/endocervical colonization and reduced endocervical penetration by increasing integrin-ß1 activation and inhibiting ß-catenin phosphorylation respectively, through CEACAM downstream signaling. Thus, the intrinsic properties of cervical epithelial cells and phase-variation of bacterial surface molecules both play a role in controlling GC infection mechanisms and infectivity, preferential colonization or penetration, potentially leading to asymptomatic or symptomatic infection.


Assuntos
Aderência Bacteriana/fisiologia , Colo do Útero/microbiologia , Gonorreia/microbiologia , Membrana Mucosa/microbiologia , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/patogenicidade , Colo do Útero/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Membrana Mucosa/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cultura de Órgãos
18.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 1040, 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31822275

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: European Gonococcal Antimicrobial Surveillance Programme (Euro-GASP) antimicrobial resistance (AMR) data are used to inform gonorrhoea treatment guidelines; therefore the data need to be robust and representative. We assessed the extent to which Euro-GASP reflects national measures of the AMR situation for Neisseria gonorrhoeae across the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA). METHODS: We compared data from Euro-GASP with published national gonococcal AMR data from 15 countries for azithromycin, cefixime and ciprofloxacin for the period 2009 to 2013 and performed Poisson regression to identify differences (p < 0.05) between the proportions of resistant isolates. The 2014 Euro-GASP AMR data for each country (n = 19) were weighted to account for differences in the distribution of patient characteristics between Euro-GASP and EU/EEA epidemiological gonorrhoea surveillance data. Data were compared to determine whether estimates of resistance levels differed with regards to the 5% threshold used to assess the clinical utility of first-line gonorrhoea treatments. We assessed the quality of decentralised testing by comparing AMR data for isolates tested both centrally and in the participating laboratories, and by evaluating external quality assessment (EQA) performance. RESULTS: There was no significant difference for azithromycin, cefixime and ciprofloxacin resistance when Euro-GASP country data were compared with data from national reports. Weighting slightly altered the Euro-GASP AMR estimates (by between - 4.7 and 4.7% from the unweighted estimates). Weighting resulted in greater changes in estimates of resistance to azithromycin (from - 9.5 to 2.7%) and ciprofloxacin (from - 14.8 to 17.9%) in countries with low isolate numbers and low completeness of reporting (n = 3). Weighting caused AMR levels to fall below or above the 5% threshold for cefixime or azithromycin, respectively in only two countries. Susceptibility category data submitted from the decentralised Euro-GASP laboratories were concordant with the Euro-GASP data (> 90%). EQA performance was also good; < 5% of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) results differed by > 4-fold from the modal MIC of the EQA isolate. CONCLUSIONS: The overall prevalence of AMR reported by Euro-GASP reflects closely the AMR situation for N. gonorrhoeae in the EU/EEA. Euro-GASP data can be used to provide robust AMR estimates to inform the European guideline for the management of gonorrhoea.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Azitromicina/farmacologia , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Cefixima/farmacologia , Cefixima/uso terapêutico , Ciprofloxacino/farmacologia , Ciprofloxacino/uso terapêutico , União Europeia , Gonorreia/diagnóstico , Gonorreia/microbiologia , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/isolamento & purificação
19.
Pediatr Emerg Care ; 35(12): 837-839, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31790072

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Interventions aimed at reducing teen pregnancy rates in the United States have focused on clinics and schools. Teens disproportionately seek care in emergency departments (EDs), making these an important and understudied arena for interventions to prevent subsequent unwanted pregnancies. Establishing the risk of subsequent pregnancy (SP) in this population is a necessary prelude to effective interventions. Therefore, we set out to measure the incidence and imminence of pregnancy in sexually active teens after an ED visit. METHODS: A medical record review was conducted in an urban medical center with a general ED and a pediatric ED. Subjects were included if they were female individuals aged 13 to 19 years, were tested for gonorrhea and chlamydia in the EDs from 2004 to 2006, and were patients in the primary care clinics at the affiliated institution. Subsequent pregnancies were determined from the primary clinic charts. The duration of follow-up was 4 years. RESULTS: Three hundred ninety-eight subjects were included in the study. The mean age at ED visit was 17.3 years. A majority (70.1%) had a documented SP. For patients with an SP, the mean interval from ED visit to conception was 15.8 months. Patients who had an SP were significantly more likely to be an ethnic minority, to have tested positive for gonorrhea, and to have visited the adult ED. CONCLUSIONS: In this population of sexually active teens, 70.1% became pregnant within 4 years of being tested for gonorrhea and chlamydia in the ED. The encounter in the ED represents a potential opportunity for pregnancy-prevention interventions.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Gravidez na Adolescência/prevenção & controle , Gravidez/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Chlamydia/genética , Chlamydia/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Feminino , Gonorreia/diagnóstico , Gonorreia/microbiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Grupos Minoritários , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Taxa de Gravidez/etnologia , Taxa de Gravidez/tendências , Gravidez na Adolescência/etnologia , Gravidez não Desejada/etnologia , Medicina Preventiva/métodos , Medicina Preventiva/tendências , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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