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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(19): e20046, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32384466

RESUMO

The present study evaluated the performance of 2 novel adiposity indicators, body shape index (ABSI), and body roundness index (BRI), to determine the accumulation of visceral fat in type 2 diabetic patients.A cross-sectional study was performed on 233 type 2 diabetic patients from Qinhuangdao, China. Visceral fat area (VFA) was measured using bioelectrical impedance. Accumulation of visceral fat was defined as VFA ≥ 100 cm.In diabetic males, the area under the curve (AUC) values were 0.904 for waist circumference (WC), 0.923 for BRI, and 0.788 for ABSI. In diabetic females, the AUC values were 0.894 for WC, 0.915 for BRI, and 0.668 for ABSI. The AUCs were similar between BRI and WC (P > .05). The AUC for ABSI was lower compared to WC and BRI (P < .05). The optimal cut-off for BRI was 4.25 for diabetic males (sensitivity = 87.8% and specificity = 81.1%) and 4.75 for diabetic females (sensitivity = 80.8% and specificity = 88.1%).BRI was an effective indicator for determining the accumulation of visceral fat in type 2 diabetic patients, however, it was not better compared to WC.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/anatomia & histologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tamanho do Órgão , Circunferência da Cintura
2.
Life Sci ; 245: 117352, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006527

RESUMO

AIMS: The depot-specific differences in lipidome of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) reflect heterogeneity of white adipose tissue (WAT), which plays a central role in its distinct response to outside stimuli. However, the detailed lipidome of depot-specific WAT is largely unknown, especially the minor constitutes including phospholipid and sphingolipid. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To investigate this field, we applied a high-coverage targeted lipidomics approach of VAT and SAT in male C57BL/6J mice to compare the basal level of their lipid profiles. Applying microarray and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, we analyzed the transcriptome of twodepot-specific WAT and verified the differences in individual genes. KEY FINDINGS: In total, 342 lipid species from 19 lipid classes were identified. Our results showed the composition of TAG and FFA were different in length of chain and saturation. Interestingly, low abundance phospholipid, sphingolipid and cardiolipin were significantly higher in SAT. Lipid correlation network analysis vindicated that TAG and phospholipid formed distinct subnet and had more connections with other lipid species. Enriched ontology analysis of gene screened from LIPID MAPS and microarray suggested the differences were mainly involved in lipid metabolism, insulin resistance and inflammatory response. SIGNIFICANCE: Our comprehensive lipidomics and transcriptomics analyses revealed differences in lipid composition and lipid metabolism of two depot-specific WAT, which would offer new insights into the investigation of heterogeneity of visceral and subcutaneous white adipose tissue.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo Branco/metabolismo , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/metabolismo , Lipidômica , Gordura Subcutânea/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Tecido Adiposo Branco/química , Animais , Cardiolipinas/análise , Cardiolipinas/metabolismo , Ceramidas/análise , Ceramidas/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Glicerídeos/análise , Glicerídeos/metabolismo , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/química , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Lipídeos/análise , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fosfolipídeos/análise , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Gordura Subcutânea/química
3.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0228360, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31999771

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Growing evidence indicates that measures of body composition may be related to clinical outcomes in patients with malignancies. The aim of this study was to investigate whether measures of regional adiposity-including subcutaneous adipose tissue index (SATI) and visceral adipose tissue index (VATI)-can be associated with overall survival (OS) in Taiwanese patients with bone metastases. METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data. We examined 1280 patients with bone metastases who had undergone radiotherapy (RT) between March 2005 and August 2013. Body composition (SATI, VATI, and muscle index) was assessed by computed tomography at the third lumbar vertebra and normalized for patient height. Patients were divided into low- and high-adiposity groups (for both SATI and VATI) according to sex-specific median values. RESULTS: Both SATI (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.696; P<0.001) and VATI (HR: 0.87; P = 0.037)-but not muscle index-were independently associated with a more favorable OS, with the former showing a stronger relationship. The most favorable OS was observed in women with high SATI (11.21 months; 95% confidence interval: 9.434-12.988; P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: High SATI and VATI are associated with a more favorable OS in Taiwanese patients with bone metastases referred for RT. The question as to whether clinical measures aimed at improving adiposity may improve OS in this clinical population deserves further scrutiny.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas/radioterapia , Neoplasias Ósseas/secundário , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Gordura Subcutânea/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Ósseas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Ósseas/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Vértebras Lombares/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Taiwan , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Int J Sports Med ; 41(4): 242-247, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31935780

RESUMO

This study aimed to examine body composition using dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in male and female NCAA Division I collegiate basketball athletes. Two-hundred ten (male [M]/female [F]=88/122) basketball athletes' total and regional fat mass, lean mass, bone mineral density, and visceral adipose tissue were measured. Athletes were classified as: point guards (M/F=27/34), shooting guards (M/F=18/27), small forwards (M/F=13/18), power forwards (M/F=21/27), and centers (M/F=9/16). ANOVA and Tukey's HSD assessed positional differences by sex. In males, centers and power forwards had greater total fat mass (p<0.025), lean mass (p≤0.001), and visceral adipose tissue (p<0.001) than other positions. Male centers had greater arm and leg fat mass and lean mass than point guards, shooting guards, and small forwards (p≤0.049), and greater arm bone mineral density than point guards (p=0.015). In females, centers had greater total fat mass (p<0.001) vs. other positions and greater total lean mass, arm fat and lean masses, arm and leg bone mineral density, and visceral adipose tissue vs. point guards and shooting guards (p≤0.005). Female point guards had lower total bone mineral density than power forwards (p=0.008). In conclusion, these sex- and position-specific total and regional body composition measurements in collegiate basketball players provide population-specific normative data.


Assuntos
Basquetebol/fisiologia , Composição Corporal , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adolescente , Distribuição da Gordura Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Densidade Óssea , Feminino , Humanos , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/anatomia & histologia , Masculino , Valores de Referência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
5.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227154, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910243

RESUMO

Mesenteric fat is a visceral fat depot that increases with cattle maturity and can be influenced by diet. There may be a relationship between the accumulation of mesenteric fat and feed efficiency in beef cattle. The purpose of this study was to identify genes that may be differentially expressed in steers with high and low BW gain and feed intake. RNA-Seq was used to evaluate the transcript abundance of genes in the mesenteric fat from a total of 78 steers collected over 5 different cohorts. A meta-analysis was used to identify genes involved with gain, feed intake or the interaction of both phenotypes. The interaction analysis identified 11 genes as differentially expressed. For the main effect of gain, a total of 87 differentially expressed genes (DEG) were identified (PADJ<0.05), and 24 were identified in the analysis for feed intake. Genes identified for gain were involved in functions and pathways including lipid metabolism, stress response/protein folding, cell proliferation/growth, axon guidance and inflammation. The genes for feed intake did not cluster into pathways, but some of the DEG for intake had functions related to inflammation, immunity, and/or signal transduction (JCHAIN, RIPK1, LY86, SPP1, LYZ, CD5, CD53, SRPX, and NF2). At PADJ<0.1, only 4 genes (OLFML3, LOC100300716, MRPL15, and PUS10) were identified as differentially expressed in two or more cohorts, highlighting the importance of evaluating the transcriptome of more than one group of animals and incorporating a meta-analysis. This meta-analysis has produced many mesenteric fat DEG that may be contributing to gain and feed intake in cattle.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/genética , Regulação do Apetite/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/metabolismo , Ganho de Peso/genética , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Bovinos , Masculino , RNA-Seq , Transcriptoma
6.
Gene ; 733: 144353, 2020 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978509

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The present study investigates the association of dietary intake of fruit and green Vegetables with PTEN and P53 mRNA gene expression in visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissues (SAT) of obese and non-obese adults. METHODS: VAT and SAT were obtained from 151 individuals, aged ~40 years, who had undergone elective abdominal surgery. The participants were grouped according to their body mass index (BMI), as obese (BMI > 30 kg/m2) and non-obese (BMI = 18.5-30 kg/m2). Dietary intakes were obtained using a valid and reliable food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Real-time PCR was carried out for PTEN and P53 mRNA expressions. Associations between expression levels and dietary parameters were analyzed. RESULTS: P53 mRNA expression of obese participants was significantly higher than the non-obese, only in VAT (p < 0.001). After adjusting for total energy intake, age and BMI, fruit intake was inversely associated with P53 gene expression in both VAT (ß = -0.38, P = 0.01) and SAT (ß = -0.35, P = 0.03) among non-obese participants. Furthermore, fruit consumption was inversely associated with P53 gene expression in obese individuals, only in VAT (ß = -0.21, P = 0.05). More so, intake of green vegetables in obese subjects was negatively associated with P53 gene expression in VAT (ß = -0.27, P = 0.01) and SAT (ß = -0.28, P < 0.001). On the other hand, after adjustment for total energy intake, age and BMI, a positive association was observed between fruit intake and PTEN in VAT (ß = 0.27, P = 0.01) and SAT (ß = 0.34, P < 0.001) among obese participants. In addition, dietary consumption of fruits in non-obese individuals was negatively associated withPTEN expression in SAT (ß = -0.48, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Dietary intake of fruit and green vegetables was associated with P53 gene expression in VAT and SAT of obese participants, suggesting their protective role in regulating P53 mRNA expression in adipose tissue. Furthermore, higher fruit intake was inversely associated with PTEN mRNA levels in non-obese participants, implying the anti-adipogenic role of PTEN gene expression.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Frutas , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/metabolismo , Gordura Subcutânea/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Verduras , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/patologia , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 181, 2020 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31924761

RESUMO

Excessive visceral fat accumulation is a primary risk factor for metabolically unhealthy obesity and related diseases. The visceral fat is highly susceptible to the availability of external nutrients. Nutrient flux into the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway leads to protein posttranslational modification by O-linked ß-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) moieties. O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) is responsible for the addition of GlcNAc moieties to target proteins. Here, we report that inducible deletion of adipose OGT causes a rapid visceral fat loss by specifically promoting lipolysis in visceral fat. Mechanistically, visceral fat maintains a high level of O-GlcNAcylation during fasting. Loss of OGT decreases O-GlcNAcylation of lipid droplet-associated perilipin 1 (PLIN1), which leads to elevated PLIN1 phosphorylation and enhanced lipolysis. Moreover, adipose OGT overexpression inhibits lipolysis and promotes diet-induced obesity. These findings establish an essential role for OGT in adipose tissue homeostasis and indicate a unique potential for targeting O-GlcNAc signaling in the treatment of obesity.


Assuntos
Dieta/efeitos adversos , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipólise/efeitos dos fármacos , N-Acetilglucosaminiltransferases/antagonistas & inibidores , Obesidade/metabolismo , Acetilglucosamina/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Jejum , Deleção de Genes , Células HEK293 , Células HeLa , Homeostase , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C3H , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , N-Acetilglucosaminiltransferases/genética , Perilipina-1/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Transdução de Sinais
8.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 111(3): 515-525, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31879755

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Race differences in body composition and fat distribution may in part explain the differences in insulin sensitivity and the disproportionate burden of type 2 diabetes in African Americans. OBJECTIVE: To determine if differences in body composition and fat distribution explain race differences in insulin sensitivity and identify obesity measures that were independently associated with insulin sensitivity. METHODS: Participants were 113 lean, overweight, and obese African-American and Caucasian-American adults without diabetes. Skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity was determined using a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (SIClamp, insulin rate:120 mU/m2/min). Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT), intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT), and liver fat were measured by MRI; leg fat, total fat, and lean mass were measured by DXA. RESULTS: Race-by-adiposity interactions were significant in cross-sectional analyses utilizing multiple linear regression models for SIClamp (P < 0.05); higher BMI, fat mass, SAAT, leg fat, and liver fat were associated with lower SIClamp in Caucasian Americans but not African Americans. Race-by-IAAT interaction was not significant (P = 0.65). A central fat distribution (SAAT adjusted for leg fat) was associated with lower SIClamp in African Americans (ß = -0.45, SE = 0.11, P < 0.001) but not Caucasian Americans (ß = -0.42, SE = 0.30, P = 0.17). A peripheral fat distribution (leg fat adjusted for IAAT/SAAT) was associated with a higher SIClamp in African Americans (ß = 0.11, SE = 0.05, P = 0.02) but lower SIClamp in Caucasian Americans (ß = -0.28, SE = 0.14, P = 0.049). Lean mass was inversely associated with SIClamp in African Americans (ß = -0.05, SE = 0.03, P = 0.04) but not Caucasian Americans (ß = 0.08, SE = 0.05, P = 0.10) in the model for leg fat. CONCLUSIONS: Measures of overall adiposity were more strongly associated with SIClamp in Caucasian Americans, whereas body fat distribution and lean mass showed stronger correlations with SIClamp in African Americans. Insulin sensitivity may have a genetic basis in African Americans that is reflected in the pattern of body fat distribution. These findings suggest a race-specific pathophysiology of insulin resistance, which has implications for the prevention of diabetes and related cardiometabolic diseases.


Assuntos
Resistência à Insulina , Obesidade/etnologia , Adiposidade , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/etnologia , Composição Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Insulina/metabolismo , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 145: 102857, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31881452

RESUMO

Abdominal visceral fat is a well-recognized a risk for colorectal cancer (CRC). In contrast to the risk for CRC, the impact of adiposity in disease staging and patient survival is less well-established. Our aim was to critically review the literature on the influence of adiposity assessed by different methods routinely used in clinical settings, on CRC staging and prognosis. In the 32 studies reviewed, overweight was initially identified as a survival advantage, an evidence that was later challenged by studies suggesting that body adiposity is likely to have a deleterious effect in CRC outcomes, particularly in males. Hence, whether obesity has a negative impact in CRC staging or prognosis remains controversial. In sum, addressing the impact of body fat in CRC biological behavior is still an unmet need. Understanding how adiposity influences CRC staging and prognosis could allow further patient risk stratification for devising targeted interventions and improve clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Neoplasias Colorretais , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Gordura Intra-Abdominal , Masculino , Obesidade , Prognóstico
10.
Nat Med ; 25(12): 1851-1857, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31792462

RESUMO

Proteins are effector molecules that mediate the functions of genes1,2 and modulate comorbidities3-10, behaviors and drug treatments11. They represent an enormous potential resource for personalized, systemic and data-driven diagnosis, prevention, monitoring and treatment. However, the concept of using plasma proteins for individualized health assessment across many health conditions simultaneously has not been tested. Here, we show that plasma protein expression patterns strongly encode for multiple different health states, future disease risks and lifestyle behaviors. We developed and validated protein-phenotype models for 11 different health indicators: liver fat, kidney filtration, percentage body fat, visceral fat mass, lean body mass, cardiopulmonary fitness, physical activity, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, diabetes risk and primary cardiovascular event risk. The analyses were prospectively planned, documented and executed at scale on archived samples and clinical data, with a total of ~85 million protein measurements in 16,894 participants. Our proof-of-concept study demonstrates that protein expression patterns reliably encode for many different health issues, and that large-scale protein scanning12-16 coupled with machine learning is viable for the development and future simultaneous delivery of multiple measures of health. We anticipate that, with further validation and the addition of more protein-phenotype models, this approach could enable a single-source, individualized so-called liquid health check.


Assuntos
Proteínas Sanguíneas/genética , Composição Corporal/genética , Exercício Físico , Medicina de Precisão , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/metabolismo , Estilo de Vida , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
11.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 67(12): 38-40, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31801329

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to determine the association of Computed tomography quantified visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using CKD-EPI formula, diabetes mellitus, body mass index (BMI), proteinuria, lipid profile, and hypertension. Increased adipose tissue is the primary phenotypic characteristic of obesity. The amount and distribution of adipose tissue is associated with many adverse consequences, as hypertension, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease etc. Abdominal CT with semi-automated software can quantify adipose tissue and predict the risk for metabolic diseases. This cross-sectional study was carried out of 101 individuals (71 Males and 30 Females) with the mean age of 59.4 ± 5.2 years. Axial sections of non-contrast CT abdomen between L4-5 intervertebral disc (10 mm) were selected to quantify VAT and SAT utilizing GE advanced workstation software. We took 18.5-22.9 kg/ m2 as the normal BMI for Indian population is. Hypertension was defined as per JNC 8 guidelines. The mean eGFR among hypertensives (no of ppl) was 78.1 ± 38.1, compared to 106 ± 29.8 in normotensives (p<0.001). A trend was observed towards lower eGFR with higher VAT (r=-0.194, p= 0.052). The mean eGFR among diabetics (82.1 ± 38 ml/min) was lower compared with non-diabetics (104.7 ±31.9ml/min, p= 0.002). There is a significant increase in VAT with increasing age (p=0.003). In a sample of 72 individuals' with high TGL and low HDL, showed trend towards increased adipose tissue in subcutaneous and visceral compartment. BMI showed positive association with VAT (p<0.001) and SAT(p<0.001). CT quantification of adipose tissue can be used as a predictive tool to assess risk for metabolic diseases and decline in renal function. Further, it helps in early implementation of pharmacological or life-style based modification for better survival.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Gordura Intra-Abdominal , Abdome , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
12.
Arch. med. deporte ; 36(194): 350-355, nov.-dic. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-187293

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to realize an anthropometric analysis to identify both the association and plausibility of measurements and indicators of general obesity and whole-body fat on the risk prediction for myocardial infarction (MI) in men. MATERIAL AND METHOD: A case-control study in 244 European men aged 30-74 years was conducted. We measured weight, height, waist and hip perimeters and skinfolds: triceps, subscapular and supraspinale, according to standardized protocols. We calculated the areas under the ROC curves, the odds ratios and correlations for indicators. RESULTS: Body mass index (BMI) [AUC: 0.687, 95% CI (0.619-0.715); OR: 3.5]. Waist circumference (WC) [AUC: 0.742, 95% CI (0.679-0.805); OR: 5.9]. Waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) [AUC: 0.780, 95% CI (0.721-0.839); OR: 8.4]. Endomorphy [AUC: 0.721, 95% CI (0.656-0.785); OR: 2.4]. Body fat percentage (%BF) [AUC: 0.774, 95% CI (0.714-0.834); OR: 10.2]. Lean body mass (LBM) [AUC: 0.490, 95% CI (0.413-0.568); OR: 1]. BMI correlated with %BF (0.84), endomorphy (0.80), WC (0.69), WHtR (0.72) and LBM (0.65). WHtR correlated with WC (0.97), %BF (0.92), endomorphy (0.62) and LBM (0.32). %BF correlated with WC (0.86) and endomorphy (0.78). The correlations between WHtR and body fat-associated indicators were strong (all r ≥ 0.62, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In MI men, body fat-associated indicators show different discriminative ability. BMI-defined obesity presents moderate discrimination and anthropometric association bias that do not lent support their suitability as risk predictor. Abdo-minal adiposity and whole-body fat percentage show the highest discriminative abilities and robust anthropometric reasons related with the true biological risk. We defend the use of WHtR as concept of risk volume and individual visceral adiposity for the early identification of adult men at risk of myocardial infarction


INTRODUCCIÓN: Nuestro objetivo era realizar un análisis por antropometría para identificar la asociación y plausibilidad de mediciones e indicadores de obesidad general y grasa corporal total en la predicción de riesgo de infarto en varones. MATERIAL Y MÉTODO: estudio caso-control en 244 varones de 30 a 74 años de edad. Medimos peso y talla, perímetros de cintura y cadera, y pliegues de triceps, subescapular y supraespinal, según protocolos estandarizados. Obtuvimos las áreas bajo la curva ROC y las odds ratios para la asociación de indicadores. RESULTADOS: índice de masa corporal (IMC) [ABC: 0,687, 95% CI (0,619-0,715); OR: 3,5]. Circunferencia de cintura (CC) [ABC: 0,742, 95% CI (0,679-0,805); OR: 5,9]. Índice cintura-talla (ICT) [ABC: 0,780, 95% CI (0,721-0,839); OR: 8.4]. Endomorfia [ABC: 0,721, 95% CI (0,656-0,785); OR: 2,4]. Porcentaje de grasa corporal (GC%) [ABC: 0,774, 95% CI (0,714-0,834); OR: 10,2]. Masa magra (MM) [ABC: 0,490, 95% CI (0,413-0,568); OR: 1]. IMC correlacionó con GC% (0,84), endomorfia (0,80), CC (0,69), ICT (0,72) y MM (0,65). ICT correlacionó con CC (0,97), GC% (0,92), endomorfia (0,62) y MM (0,32). GC% correlacionó con CC (0,86) y endomorfia (0,78). Las correlaciones entre ICT y los indicadores asociados a la grasa corporal fueron fuertes (todas r ≥ 0,62, p < 0,001). CONCLUSIONES: En los varones infartados, los indicadores asociados a la grasa corporal muestran diferente capacidad discriminativa. El IMC presenta moderada discriminación y sesgos de asociación antropométrica que no avalan su idoneidad como predictor de riesgo. La obesidad abdominal y el porcentaje de grasa corporal muestran las mayores capacidades discriminativas y robustas razones antropométricas relacionadas con el verdadero riesgo biológico. Nosotros defendemos el uso del índice cintura-talla como concepto de volumen de riesgo y adiposidad visceral individual para la temprana identificación de varones adultos en riesgo de infarto de miocardio


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Distribuição da Gordura Corporal , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/fisiopatologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Estudos de Casos e Controles
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(24)2019 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31847097

RESUMO

Dysfunctional adipose tissue phenotype underpins type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) development. The disruption of circadian rhythms contributes to T2DM development. We investigated the effects of high-energy diet and photoperiod length on visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue phenotype. Psammomys obesus sand rats exposed to neutral (12 light:12 dark) or short (5 light:19 dark) photoperiod were fed a low- (LE) or high- (HE) energy diet. The HE diet and/or short photoperiod reduced subcutaneous expression of adipocyte differentiation/function markers C/ebpα, Pparδ, Pparγ and Adipoq. Visceral Pparα levels were elevated in the 5:19HE group; however, the HE diet and/or short photoperiod decreased visceral Pparγ and Adipoq expression. 5:19HE animals had elevated Ucp1 yet lower Pgc-1α levels. The HE diet increased visceral Tgf-ß1, Ccl2 and Cd68 levels, suggestive of a pro-inflammatory state. Daily visceral rhythms of these genes were affected by a short photoperiod and/or HE diet. The 12:12HE, 5:19LE or 5:19HE animals had a higher proportion of larger adipocytes, indicating increased adipocyte hypertrophy. Collectively, the HE diet and/or shorter light exposure drives a dysfunctional adipose tissue phenotype. Daily rhythms are affected by a short photoperiod and HE diet in a site-specific manner. These findings provide mechanistic insight on the influence of disrupted circadian rhythms and HE diet on adipose tissue phenotype.


Assuntos
Adipócitos , Antígenos de Diferenciação/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Gordura Intra-Abdominal , Luz , Gordura Subcutânea , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Adipócitos/patologia , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Gerbillinae , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/metabolismo , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/patologia , Obesidade/induzido quimicamente , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/patologia , Fotoperíodo , Gordura Subcutânea/metabolismo , Gordura Subcutânea/patologia
14.
BMC Med Imaging ; 19(1): 95, 2019 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31847832

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Excess abdominal adiposity cause metabolic disturbances, particularly in pregnancy. Methods of accurate measurement are limited in pregnancy due to risks associated with these procedures. This study outlines a non-invasive methodology for the measurement of adipose tissue in pregnancy and determines the intra- and inter-observer reliability of ultrasound (US) measurements of the two components of adipose tissue (subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT)) within a pregnant population. METHODS: Thirty pregnant women were recruited at the end of their first trimester, from routine antenatal clinic at the University Maternity Hospital Limerick, Ireland. Measurements of adipose tissue thickness were obtained using a GE Voluson E8 employing a 1-5 MHz curvilinear array transducer. Two observers, employing methodological rigour in US technique, measured thickness of adipose tissue three times, and segmented the US image systematically in order to define measurements of SAT and VAT using specifically pre-defined anatomical landmarks. RESULTS: Intra-observer and inter-observer precision was assessed using Coefficient of Variation (CV). Measurements of SAT and total adipose for both observers were < 5% CV and < 10% CV for VAT in measures by both observers. Inter-observer reliability was assessed by Limits of Agreement (LoA). LoA were determined to be - 0.45 to 0.46 cm for SAT and - 0.34 to 0.53 cm for VAT values. Systematic bias of SAT measurement was 0.01 cm and 0.10 cm for VAT. Inter-observer precision was also assessed by coefficient of variation (CV: SAT, 3.1%; VAT, 7.2%; Total adipose, 3.0%). CONCLUSION: Intra-observer precision was found to be acceptable for measures of SAT, VAT and total adipose according to anthropometric criterion, with higher precision reported in SAT values than in VAT. Inter-observer reliability assessed by Limits-Of-Agreement (LoA) confirm anthropometrically reliable to 0.5 cm. Systematic bias was minimal for both measures, falling within 95% confidence intervals. These results suggest that US can produce reliable, repeatable and accurate measures of SAT and VAT during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/diagnóstico por imagem , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Gordura Subcutânea/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Gravidez , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Interpretação de Imagem Radiográfica Assistida por Computador , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Ultrassonografia
15.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0226642, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31869368

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity has increased worldwide. Although the visceral-to-subcutaneous fat ratio (VS ratio) is an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease, its clinical impact on the long-term prognosis of patients with acute aortic dissection (AAD) remains unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study included 111 patients with AAD admitted to our hospital from 2013 to 2016. Patients who died during hospitalization, and those diagnosed with Marfan's syndrome were excluded. Visceral and subcutaneous fat accumulation (VFA, SFA) at umbilical level were calculated on a dedicated workstation. Major Adverse Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Events (MACCE) and worsening renal function (WRF) at 3 years were evaluated. RESULTS: Patient characteristics were as below: age, 73 ± 13; male, 55%; Stanford type A, 53%. Average VFA, SFA, and VS ratio on admission were 98 (52-145) cm2, 141 (90-185) cm2, and 0.75 (0.47-0.97), respectively. VFA was higher in male than in female (male, 134 [84-179] cm2; female, 71 [46-99] cm2; p < 0.001), whereas SFA was similar (male, 141 [91-174] cm2: female, 134 [90-205] cm2; p = 0.687). VS ratio was also higher in male (male, 0.88 [0.75-1.17]; female, 0.49 [0.39-0.65]; p < 0.001). Both MACCE and WRF at 3 years were observed in 17 (15%) and 32 (29%) patients, respectively. Multivariate Cox regression analysis demonstrated that VS ratio tended to be associated with the 3-year MACCE (HR for an increase of 0.5 unit, 1.49; 95% CI, 0.99-2.24; p = 0.056). This result persisted in male (HR for an increase of 0.5 unit, 1.54; 95% CI, 0.96-2.48; p = 0.073) but not female. The VS ratio was not related to the 3-year WRF. CONCLUSION: The VS ratio tends to be associated with the 3-year MACCE in patients with AAD. This finding is inconclusive owing to a small sample and low incidence of adverse events. Further studies with larger samples are needed to confirm the clinical significance of VS ratio.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Dissecante/patologia , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/patologia , Gordura Subcutânea/patologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aneurisma Dissecante/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
BMC Surg ; 19(1): 181, 2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779610

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Various body composition indices have been reported as prognostic factors for different cancers. However, whether body composition affects prognosis after lower gastrointestinal tract perforation requiring emergency surgery and multidisciplinary treatment has not been clarified. This study examined whether body composition evaluations that can be measured easily and quickly from computed tomography (CT) are useful for predicting prognosis. METHODS: Subjects comprised 64 patients diagnosed with perforation at final diagnosis after emergency surgery for a preoperative diagnosis of lower gastrointestinal tract perforation and penetration. They were divided into a survival group and a non-survival (in-hospital mortality) group and compared. Body composition indices (psoas muscle index (PMI); psoas muscle attenuation (PMA); subcutaneous adipose tissue index (SATI); visceral adipose tissue index (VATI); visceral-to-subcutaneous fat area ratio (VSR)) were measured from preoperative CT. Cross-sectional psoas muscle area at the level of the 3rd lumbar vertebra was quantified. Optimal cut-off values were calculated using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Poor prognostic factors were investigated from multivariate logistic regression analyses that included patient factors, perioperative factors, intraoperative factors, and body composition indices as explanatory variables. RESULTS: The cause of perforation was malignant disease in 12 cases (18.7%), and benign disease in 52 cases (81.2%). The most common cause was diverticulum of the large intestine. Emergency surgery for the 64 patients led to survival in 52 patients and death in 12 patients. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, independent predictors of poor prognosis were Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score (odds ratio 1.908; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.235-3.681; P = 0.0020) and PMI (odds ratio 13.478; 95%CI 1.342-332.690; P = 0.0252). The cut-off PMI was 4.75 cm2/m2 for males and 2.89 cm2/m2 for females. Among survivors, duration of hospitalization was significantly longer in the low PMI group (29 days) than in the high PMI group (22 days, p = 0.0257). CONCLUSIONS: PMI is easily determined from CT and allows rapid evaluation of prognosis following lower gastrointestinal perforation.


Assuntos
Traumatismos Abdominais/diagnóstico por imagem , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Músculos Psoas/diagnóstico por imagem , Gordura Subcutânea/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Composição Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(46): e17879, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725632

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is recognized as a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome because of the association with visceral obesity. However, the association between NAFLD and subcutaneous fat accumulation remains unclear.The study population included 3197 participants in regular health checkups, who were both hepatitis B virus surface antigen and hepatitis C virus antibody-negative, and consumed <20 g of alcohol per day. They were divided according to 4 quantiles of subcutaneous fat area (SFA) and visceral fat area (VFA) on computed tomography. Fatty liver was diagnosed using ultrasonography (FL-US).The prevalence of FL-US increased across the SFA categories, even after adjusting for the VFA, in both men (P < .001) and women (P < .001). This significant association between FL-US and the SFA was already detected from the second SFA quantile. It is noteworthy that the mean body mass index (BMI) of the subjects in the second quantile was 23.7 kg/m in men and 22.6 kg/m in women. Independent positive associations were observed between alanine aminotransferase elevation, and both the SFA and VFA in men, while gamma glutamyl transpeptidase elevation was independently associated with the VFA, but not the SFA, in both men and women. Similarly, the components of metabolic syndrome were independently associated with the VFA, but were less strongly associated (or not associated at all) with the SFA.This cross-sectional study suggests that NAFLD is independently associated with both visceral and subcutaneous adiposity ab initio, which is a characteristic that distinguishes NAFLD from other components of metabolic syndrome.


Assuntos
Gordura Intra-Abdominal/fisiopatologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/fisiopatologia , Gordura Subcutânea/fisiopatologia , Adiposidade , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lipídeos/sangue , Testes de Função Hepática , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
18.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 22(11): 1600-1605, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719283

RESUMO

Background: Findings from studies on obesity and benign prostatic enlargement (BPE) have been inconsistent. With a previous study done in our facility showing no correlation between anthropometric indices of obesity and BPE, this study aimed at reevaluating the association between obesity and BPE using sonographic indices of abdominal/central obesity. Materials and Methods: Ninety consenting subjects with clinically confirmed BPE had their height and weight [(to calculate body mass index (BMI)] as well as waist and hip circumference [to calculate waist-hip ratio (WHR)] done. The subcutaneous, preperitoneal, and visceral fat thicknesses (SFT, PFT, and VFT, respectively) of these subjects and their prostate volumes were measured on transabdominal Ultrasonography (USS). Transrectal USS was also done to measure the total prostate and transitional zone volumes. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 22. Results: WHR and waist circumference correlated positively with SFT (r = 0.325, P = 0.002 and r = 0.370, P = 0.000, respectively) and PFT (r = 0.209, P = 0.048 and r = 0.313, P = 0.003, respectively). While BMI correlated positively (r = 0.23, P = 0.029) with transrectal transitional zone volume, all three sonographic indices of adiposity correlated negatively (SFT: r = -0.223, P = 0.035; PFT: r = -0.321, P = 0.002; VFT: r = -0.242, P = 0.021) with transrectal total prostate volume. In addition, PFT correlated negatively with transabdominal prostate volume (r = -0.222, P = 0.037) and transrectal transitional zone volume (r = -0.211, P = 0.046). Conclusion: The relationship of BMI with transrectal transitional zone volume was a direct one, while that of SFT, PFT, and VFT with transrectal total prostate volume as well as PFT with transabdominal prostate volume and transrectal transitional zone volume was an inverse one.


Assuntos
Gordura Intra-Abdominal , Obesidade/complicações , Hiperplasia Prostática/diagnóstico por imagem , Gordura Subcutânea Abdominal , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Adiposidade , Adulto , Antropometria , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade Abdominal , Hiperplasia Prostática/epidemiologia , Hiperplasia Prostática/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Circunferência da Cintura , Relação Cintura-Quadril
19.
Br J Radiol ; 92(1104): 20190526, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31595778

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Unsuspected pulmonary embolism (UPE) has been increasingly diagnosed as an incidental finding on CT scans for routine staging in cancer patients. Previous studies suggest that obesity is an independent risk factor for venous thromboembolism in patients with malignant tumors. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association between abdominal adipose tissue, especially visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and the occurrence of UPE in hospitalized patients with gastrointestinal cancer. METHODS: Routine contrast-enhanced chest and abdominal CT scans of 1974 patients were retrospectively assessed for the presence of UPE, of which 58 patients were identified with UPE and 108 non-UPE patients were selected as the non-UPE control group based on several matching criteria. Abdominal adipose tissue was measured by volumes of VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) at the navel level. RESULTS: VAT, SAT, indwelling venous catheters, surgery, chemotherapy, and bed rest or immobilization were associated with the occurrence of UPE. Higher VAT volumes were associated with increased risk of UPE (odds ratio: 1.96; 95% confidence interval: 1.25, 3.06; p = 0.003) adjusting body mass index (BMI), bed rest or immobilization, surgery, chemotherapy and smoking, while SAT was not associated with UPE adjusting the same confounders (p = 0.117). No statistical association was found between BMI and UPE (p = 0.102). CONCLUSION: Higher VAT rather than SAT is associated with an increased risk of unsuspected pulmonary embolism on routine CT scans in hospitalized gastrointestinal cancer patients. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: Our findings indicate that VAT is a stronger risk factor for unsuspected pulmonary embolism than BMI and SAT in hospitalized patients with gastrointestinal cancer.


Assuntos
Embolia Gordurosa/etiologia , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Embolia Pulmonar/etiologia , Gordura Subcutânea Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Repouso em Cama/efeitos adversos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cateteres de Demora/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/complicações , Embolia Gordurosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais , Humanos , Imobilização/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
20.
Food Funct ; 10(11): 7216-7226, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31612177

RESUMO

Offspring of dams exposed to excess folic acid during the perigestational period have been shown by us to be predisposed to metabolic dysfunction revealed by hyperglycemia, glucose intolerance, increased insulin and decreased adiponectin in late adulthood. This work aims to characterize adipocyte phenotype and expression profile of genes in the regulation of lipid and glucose metabolism in visceral adipose tissue and in skeletal muscle. From mating until weaning, a recommended dose of folic acid for pregnancy (C, 2 mg of folic acid per kg of diet) or a high folic acid dose (HFA, 40 mg of folic acid per kg of diet) was administered to Sprague-Dawley females. At 10 months of age progeny were divided into groups fed the standard chow (C/STD and HFA/STD) and groups fed the standard chow plus drinking water with 10% fructose (C/FRU and HFA/FRU), as an additional metabolic challenge. Adipocyte morphology and quantification of key genes involved in lipid and glucose metabolism were studied in visceral adipose tissue and skeletal muscle of 13 months old offspring. HFA exposure led to an enlargement of visceral adipose cells most likely mediated by an upregulation of lipoprotein lipase, and it tended to downregulate Glut4 in visceral adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. Fructose exposure in a background of perigestational excess folic acid, but not in controls, induced an upregulation of lipogenesis pathway genes and it decreased jejunal expression of the proton-coupled folate transporter (Pcft1). In addition, fructose exposure led to a downregulation of jejunal Sglt1 in control animals. Our data suggest that high folic acid exposure during the perigestational period caused morphologic and genic alterations related to insulin resistant states indicating that this intervention may act as an effective programmer of long-term metabolic dysfunction.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Ácido Fólico/efeitos adversos , Doenças Metabólicas/etiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/etiologia , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Feminino , Ácido Fólico/administração & dosagem , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 4/genética , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 4/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/metabolismo , Masculino , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Doenças Metabólicas/genética , Doenças Metabólicas/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/genética , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/metabolismo , Transportador de Folato Acoplado a Próton/genética , Transportador de Folato Acoplado a Próton/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
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