Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 5.183
Filtrar
1.
Sci Total Environ ; 704: 135369, 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31812395

RESUMO

This work investigated the presence of seven major phthalates in nine different kinds of edible oils (i.e. olive, rapeseed, peanut, sesame, tea seed, corn, soybean, sunflower, and blended oil) and their potential impacts on human. The respective total average phthalates concentrations in the oils studied were found to be 6.01, 2.79, 2.63, 2.03, 1.73, 1.66, 1.57, 1.26, and 0.72 mg/kg. On the other hand, the seven main phthalates in the edible oils with the average concentration ranked from high to low were in order of DiNP, DEHP, DiDP, DBP, DiBP, DEP, and BBP, with 0.90, 0.81, 0.79, 0.71, 0.22, 0.17, and 0.10 mg/kg, respectively. The estimated maximum human daily intakes (EDI) of DEHP, DBP, DiBP, DiNP, BBP, DEP, and DiDP via edible oils were determined to be 552, 2996, 121, 356, 268, 66, and 563 µg/p/d, respectively. It was further revealed that the maximum human EDI of DEHP, DBP, BBP, and DiBP through consumption of edible oils were 2.92, 6.79, 1.24, and 1.06 times higher than those via bottled water. The calculated average estrogenic equivalence (EEQ) values of the seven major phthalates in edible oils fell into the range of 2.7-958.1 ng E2/L, which were 45-396 times of those in bottled water. With published works, the complete distributions of 15 phthalates in nine kinds of edible oils were established and assessed for the health risks based on EDI and EEQ. This work provided the first evidence that edible oil is a potential source of phthalates, thus the potential adverse estrogenic effects on human health should need to be assessed in a holistic manner.


Assuntos
Gorduras Insaturadas na Dieta/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Ácidos Ftálicos/análise , Exposição Dietética , Alimentos
2.
J Oleo Sci ; 68(11): 1041-1049, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31695014

RESUMO

An optimal ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 (ω-6/ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the diet prevents the pathogenesis of many inflammatory diseases. This study aimed to synthesize and characterize ternary oil blends with optimal ω-6/ω-3 ratios using olive (OL), sunflower (SU), and cress (CR) oils. The oxidative stability, thermal profile, fatty acid (FA) and tocopherol compositions, and the physicochemical properties of the blends were used to determine their quality. Oil mixtures were prepared with 2, 3, 4, and 5 ω-6/ω-3 ratios. FA composition and tocopherol content were the most important factors affecting the oxidation and thermal stabilities of the oils. All oil mixtures showed good quality indices. Thus, synthetized oil blends with high oxidative stability, high antioxidant content, optimal ω-6/ω-3 ratios, and recommended FA compositions can influence human health. The composition of healthy oil blends with optimal ω-6/ω-3 ratios was expressed mathematically and depicted graphically in a ternary diagram.


Assuntos
Gorduras Insaturadas na Dieta/análise , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/análise , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/análise , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Óleos Vegetais/química , Antioxidantes/análise , Brassicaceae/química , Fenômenos Químicos , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/química , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/química , Azeite de Oliva/química , Oxirredução , Óleo de Girassol/química , Temperatura Ambiente , Tocoferóis/análise
3.
J Oleo Sci ; 68(11): 1073-1084, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31611515

RESUMO

Eucommia ulmoides is a traditional Chinese herb whose seeds can be used to produce edible oils. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and synchronous fluorescence spectroscopic (SyFS) spectra of Eucommia ulmoides seed oil (EUSO) are lacking. The relevant functional and fluorescent groups were determined by FTIR and SyFS techniques for discriminating adulteration of EUSO, respectively. FTIR and SyFS spectra of EUSO and six common-used vegetable oils were recorded from 4000-400 cm-1 and 250-700 nm at wavelength interval of 60 nm, respectively. Principal component analysis (PCA), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), cluster analysis (CA) and partial least square (PLS) regression was used for qualitative and quantitative calibration of EUSO adulteration. The FTIR spectral regions of 1429-1377 cm-1 and 1128-1110 cm-1 based on PCA, LDA, and CA, and the PCA of SyFS spectral regions of 600-700 nm and 300-500 nm were evaluated for qualitative differentiation of EUSO adulteration. The recognition rate of PCA validation was found to be 100% by FTIR regions. PLS calibration was optimal by the spectral normalization vector treatment in the two FTIR spectral regions and SyFS spectra were combined with characteristic absorption peak area, which can achieve quantitative detection of EUSO adulteration. The two techniques are useful for EUSO adulteration detection at levels down to 1% and 0.48% (w/w), respectively. The results indicated that spectral information obtained by FTIR and SyFS of EUSO can be used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of EUSO adulteration with the advantages of high sensitivity, simplicity, and rapidness.


Assuntos
Gorduras Insaturadas na Dieta/análise , Eucommiaceae/química , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Óleos Vegetais/química , Sementes/química , Espectrometria de Fluorescência/métodos , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier/métodos , Calibragem , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
4.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 94: 842-851, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585245

RESUMO

Dietary lipids and fatty acids are involved in cell metabolism and animal physiological regulation. However, oxidized lipids could induce oxidative stress and disorder normal growth and physiological health in fish. A 12-week rearing experiment with 6% fish oil (6F), 6% oxidized fish oil (6OF) and emodin supplemented diets (6F + E, 6OF + E) was conducted to evaluate the protective mechanism of emodin on oxidized fish oil stress in Megalobrama amblycephala. Results indicate that, under oxidized fish oil stress, emodin rescued the growth performance inhibition, improved special growth ratio (SGR), and reduced feed conversion ratio (FCR) and hepatosomatic index (HSI); rescued intestine histological impairment, ameliorated the structural expansion and membrane damage of mitochondria in intestine cells, and increased the length and intensity of intestinal villus. Moreover, emodin enhanced serum immune and antioxidant enzyme activity, increased metabolic activity through PPARs signaling, increased antioxidant capacity through PPARs and Nrf2-Keap1 signaling based on the transcriptional expression of specific genes. These results indicate emodin could be used as an effective immunostimulant to protect organism form oxidative stress induced by dietary oxidized lipid. This may provide insights for oxidized lipid prevention in aquaculture production.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae/imunologia , Emodina/farmacologia , Óleos de Peixe/efeitos adversos , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/imunologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Cyprinidae/genética , Cyprinidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cyprinidae/metabolismo , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Dieta/veterinária , Gorduras Insaturadas na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Emodina/administração & dosagem , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo , Substâncias Protetoras/administração & dosagem , Distribuição Aleatória , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 94: 199-210, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499199

RESUMO

The poor understanding of nutrition needed has become a significant obstruction to artificial conservation of Yangtze sturgeon (Acipenser dabryanus) and the relationship between ployunsaturated fatty acid nutrition and the immune response of Yangtze sturgeon is remains unclear. To explore this relationship, the immune response was determined by the activities of serum immune-related enzymes and the transcriptome pattern in the spleen after feeding different fat source diets for 7 weeks. In addition, the gene expression pattern after a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge was investigated in the presence of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Long-term feeding of the fish oil diets increased the serum immune-related enzyme activities, including lysozyme, acid phosphatase, and alkaline phosphatase of Yangtze sturgeon. More than 653,999 transcripts with an N50 length of 1047 bp were obtained and a final set of 280,408 unigenes was generated. After annotating the unigenes, 3549 genes were assigned to the immune system and 2839 were identified to participate in the response to the different fat sources. A transcriptome assay showed the fish oil diets moderately upregulated immune-related signaling pathways in the spleen of Yangtze sturgeon, including NLR signaling, platelet activation, Fc gamma R-mediated phagocytosis, Th17 cell differentiation, and Th1 and Th2 cell differentiation. The quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) results of candidate genes for these pathways showed similar results. The LPS challenge study revealed that DHA and EPA moderately upregulated the candidate immune-related genes and modulated excessive activation of the immune pathway by the pathogen. This study confirmed the immunomodulatory function of unsaturated fatty acids in Yangtze sturgeon. This research will provide a reference for the preparation of artificial diets for Yangtze sturgeon.


Assuntos
Gorduras Insaturadas na Dieta/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/metabolismo , Óleos de Peixe/metabolismo , Peixes/imunologia , Imunidade Inata , Animais , Gorduras Insaturadas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/administração & dosagem , Óleos de Peixe/administração & dosagem , Peixes/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Técnicas Imunoenzimáticas/veterinária , Distribuição Aleatória , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária
6.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4007, 2019 09 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488836

RESUMO

Gut microbiota mediates the effects of diet, thereby modifying host metabolism and the incidence of metabolic disorders. Increased consumption of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) that is abundant in Western diet contributes to obesity and related diseases. Although gut-microbiota-related metabolic pathways of dietary PUFAs were recently elucidated, the effects on host physiological function remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that gut microbiota confers host resistance to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity by modulating dietary PUFAs metabolism. Supplementation of 10-hydroxy-cis-12-octadecenoic acid (HYA), an initial linoleic acid-related gut-microbial metabolite, attenuates HFD-induced obesity in mice without eliciting arachidonic acid-mediated adipose inflammation and by improving metabolic condition via free fatty acid receptors. Moreover, Lactobacillus-colonized mice show similar effects with elevated HYA levels. Our findings illustrate the interplay between gut microbiota and host energy metabolism via the metabolites of dietary omega-6-FAs thereby shedding light on the prevention and treatment of metabolic disorders by targeting gut microbial metabolites.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Gorduras Insaturadas na Dieta/uso terapêutico , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/farmacologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Obesidade/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Dieta Ocidental , Suplementos Nutricionais , Metabolismo Energético , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/uso terapêutico , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Ácido Linoleico/metabolismo , Doenças Metabólicas/dietoterapia , Doenças Metabólicas/metabolismo , Doenças Metabólicas/prevenção & controle , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Modelos Animais , Ácidos Oleicos/metabolismo
7.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398808

RESUMO

AIM: We studied the effect of the addition of an oral nutrition supplement (ONS) on the rate of hypoglyemia among hospitalized type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. METHODS: In this retrospective analysis, all DM patients with hypoalbuminemia (albumin < 3.5 g/dL) admitted to internal medicine "E" at Wolfson Medical Center between 1 June 2016 and 30 April 2017 were included. One bottle of ONS (Glucerna, 330 KCAL, 28 g carbohydrates, 17 g protein, 17 g fat) was added to the morning meal. The consumption of the ONS was verified during the morning rounds. All glucose measurements were recorded automatically in the patients' electronic medical records. A logistic regression model was used to evaluate the effect of the nutrition support on the occurrence of hypoglycemia. RESULTS: 218 patients (mean age 77.4 ± 12.0 years, 63.3% female, mean albumin 3.13 ± 0.32 g/dL), of whom 27.9% had documented hypoglycemia during hospitalization were included. The patients consumed 69.5% ± 37.1 of the ONS provided, and ONS was started 4.3 ± 5.3 days from admission. A logistic regression model indicated that age (Odds ratio [OR] 1.048, 95% CI 1.014-1.083, p = 0.005), insulin treatment (OR 3.059, 95% CI 1.497-6.251, p = 0.002), and the day of ONS started from admission (OR 1.094, 95% CI 1.021-1.173, p = 0.011) were associated with an increased risk of hypoglycemia. Complete consumption of the ONS was associated with a reduced risk of hypoglycemia: OR 0.364, 95% CI 0.149-0.890, p = 0.027. Age, other DM medications and serum albumin did not affect the risk. CONCLUSION: The intake of a complete serving of ONS may be associated with a reduction of the risk of hypoglycemia among diabetes in-patients with hypoalbuminemia.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras Insaturadas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Hipoalbuminemia/etiologia , Hipoglicemia/terapia , Idoso , Glicemia/análise , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/etiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Albumina Sérica/análise
8.
J Chromatogr A ; 1606: 460380, 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378532

RESUMO

Extraction of chlorinated paraffins (CPs) in samples with high fat content is generally performed by a sulfuric acid treatment and liquid-liquid partitioning in n-hexane, followed by clean-up by column chromatography. Analysis and quantitation are commonly carried out via gas chromatography coupled with electron capture negative ionization mass spectrometry (GC/ECNI-MS) when low- and high-resolution MS (LRMS and HRMS) are used. In this work, we present a completely different and innovative approach for the determination of CPs by applying the planar solid phase extraction (pSPE) concept for a rapid and selective screening. pSPE offers the concentration of the analytes in a single target zone followed by the densitometric determination of the total CP content. After sulfuric acid treatment and liquid-liquid partition into n-hexane, pSPE was performed on silica gel plates employing a twofold development with cyclohexane/toluene (94:6, v/v) and methylene chloride/n-hexane (9:1, v/v) as mobile phases. CPs were quantified via the visual (VIS) absorption of the target zone after derivatization with o-tolidine, and amounts were calculated as the sum by means of a reference CP. Limits of detection and quantitation for the reference CP were 0.2 and 0.7 mg/kg oil, respectively, and recoveries from different vegetable oils were near 100%. The analysis of total CPs in dietary supplement samples by pSPE-VIS compared to GC/ECNI-HRMS proved the method as a reliable and suitable screening tool providing an appropriate alternative to existing time-consuming and complex methods.


Assuntos
Gorduras Insaturadas na Dieta/análise , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Halogenação , Parafina/análise , Óleos Vegetais/análise , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Limite de Detecção
9.
Prog Lipid Res ; 75: 100997, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442526

RESUMO

A typical feature of marine foods is that they are rich in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), which have formed a large-scale global industry. DHA/EPA phospholipids (PLs) are ubiquitous in marine foods and are the main DHA/EPA molecular forms in fish roe, shrimp and shellfish. Much attention has been focused on the bioavailability and health benefits that are influenced by the type and esterified form of dietary fatty acids. Recently, numerous findings have suggested that dietary DHA/EPA-PLs are superior to the triacylglycerol (TAG) or ethyl ester forms in exerting their functional properties through specific mechanisms of action. However, there is no comprehensive review covering the health benefits of dietary marine DHA/EPA-enriched PLs. In this paper, we review publications on the nutritional functions of DHA/EPA-enriched glycerophospholipids, including the effects on brain function, antitumor activity, lipid metabolism, and glucose metabolism. The current research status regarding the active ingredients, sources, models, treatment, duration, and mechanisms are presented. In addition, the way in which the structure-activity relationship of DHA/EPA-PLs is affected by ester-bond structure at the sn-1 position, fatty acid at the sn-2 position and polar head group at the sn-3 position is also reviewed. DHA/EPA-PLs are one of the major n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid dietary forms in our diet, and we should maximize the ability to fully exploit the nutritional properties of DHA/EPA.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos/química , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/farmacocinética , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/farmacocinética , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacocinética , Disponibilidade Biológica , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Gorduras Insaturadas na Dieta , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 19(1): 308, 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443707

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia is a major cause of maternal, fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality, particularly in developing countries. Considering the burden of preeclampsia and its associated complications, it is important to understand the underlying risk factors and mechanisms involved in its etiology. There is considerable interest in the potential for dietary long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) as a therapeutic intervention to prevent preeclampsia, as they are involved in angiogenesis, oxidative stress, and inflammatory pathways. METHODS: The REVAMP study (Research Exploring Various Aspects and Mechanisms in Preeclampsia) follows a cohort of pregnant women from early pregnancy until delivery to examine longitudinally the associations of maternal LCPUFA with clinical outcome in preeclampsia. A multisite centre for advanced research was established and pregnant women coming to Bharati hospital and Gupte hospital, Pune, India for their first antenatal visit are recruited and followed up at 11-14 weeks, 18-22 weeks, 26-28 weeks, and at delivery. Their personal, obstetric, clinical, and family history are recorded. Anthropometric measures (height, weight), food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), physical activity, socioeconomic status, fetal ultrasonography, and color Doppler measures are recorded at different time points across gestation. Maternal blood at all time points, cord blood, and placenta at delivery are collected, processed and stored at - 80 °C. The children's anthropometry is assessed serially up to the age of 2 years, when their neurodevelopmental scores will be assessed. DISCUSSION: This study will help in early identification of pregnant women who are at risk of developing preeclampsia. The prospective design of the study for the first time will establish the role of LCPUFA in understanding the underlying biochemical and molecular mechanisms involved in preeclampsia and their association with developmental programming in children.


Assuntos
Gorduras Insaturadas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Pré-Eclâmpsia/etiologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/prevenção & controle , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Sangue Fetal/metabolismo , Humanos , Índia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Placenta/metabolismo , Gravidez , Trimestres da Gravidez/sangue , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Estudos Prospectivos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
11.
BMJ ; 366: l4697, 2019 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434641

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess effects of increasing omega-3, omega-6, and total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on diabetes diagnosis and glucose metabolism. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analyses. DATA SOURCES: Medline, Embase, Cochrane CENTRAL, WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, Clinicaltrials.gov, and trials in relevant systematic reviews. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials of at least 24 weeks' duration assessing effects of increasing α-linolenic acid, long chain omega-3, omega-6, or total PUFA, which collected data on diabetes diagnoses, fasting glucose or insulin, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), and/or homoeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). DATA SYNTHESIS: Statistical analysis included random effects meta-analyses using relative risk and mean difference, and sensitivity analyses. Funnel plots were examined and subgrouping assessed effects of intervention type, replacement, baseline risk of diabetes and use of antidiabetes drugs, trial duration, and dose. Risk of bias was assessed with the Cochrane tool and quality of evidence with GRADE. RESULTS: 83 randomised controlled trials (mainly assessing effects of supplementary long chain omega-3) were included; 10 were at low summary risk of bias. Long chain omega-3 had little or no effect on likelihood of diagnosis of diabetes (relative risk 1.00, 95% confidence interval 0.85 to 1.17; 58 643 participants, 3.7% developed diabetes) or measures of glucose metabolism (HbA1c mean difference -0.02%, 95% confidence interval -0.07% to 0.04%; plasma glucose 0.04, 0.02 to 0.07, mmol/L; fasting insulin 1.02, -4.34 to 6.37, pmol/L; HOMA-IR 0.06, -0.21 to 0.33). A suggestion of negative outcomes was observed when dose of supplemental long chain omega-3 was above 4.4 g/d. Effects of α-linolenic acid, omega-6, and total PUFA on diagnosis of diabetes were unclear (as the evidence was of very low quality), but little or no effect on measures of glucose metabolism was seen, except that increasing α-linolenic acid may increase fasting insulin (by about 7%). No evidence was found that the omega-3/omega-6 ratio is important for diabetes or glucose metabolism. CONCLUSIONS: This is the most extensive systematic review of trials to date to assess effects of polyunsaturated fats on newly diagnosed diabetes and glucose metabolism, including previously unpublished data following contact with authors. Evidence suggests that increasing omega-3, omega-6, or total PUFA has little or no effect on prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42017064110.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Gorduras Insaturadas na Dieta/uso terapêutico , Prevenção Primária/métodos , Prevenção Secundária/métodos , Adulto , Glicemia/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Suplementos Nutricionais , Jejum/sangue , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/uso terapêutico , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/uso terapêutico , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
12.
J Oleo Sci ; 68(8): 781-792, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366855

RESUMO

The possibility of improving brain function coupled with its preferential uptake in the brain has garnered attention for docosahexaenoic acid-bound lysophosphatidylcholine (DHA-LPC). However, studies focusing on the health benefits of dietary DHA-LPC are lacking. We prepared a dietary oil rich in DHA-LPC (DHA-LPC rich oil) via enzymatic modification of phospholipids (PL) extracted from squid (Todarodes pacificus) meal and purification of active carbon, ion exchange resin, and silica gel. We then examined the effects of dietary DHA-LPC rich oil on male Wistar rats by evaluating serum and liver lipid profiles, fatty acid (FA) metabolizing enzyme activity, and the FA composition of serum and brain. The rats were fed a basal diet containing either soybean oil alone (7%) or soybean oil (4.5%) with DHA-LPC rich oil (2.5%) for 28 days, and then evaluated. The rats fed the diet containing DHA-LPC rich oil showed reduced triacylglycerol concentration due, in part, to the enhancement of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2 and acyl-CoA oxidase activities and suppression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities in the liver. Moreover, the dietary DHA-LPC rich oil moderately increased DHA in the FA composition of the rat hippocampus, which may be due to elevated DHA composition in serum LPC. These results suggest that DHA-LPC rich oil has hypolipidemic effect and moderate increase in hippocampal DHA amount in normal rats.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Gorduras Insaturadas na Dieta/farmacologia , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/farmacologia , Hipolipemiantes/farmacologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Lisofosfatidilcolinas/farmacologia , Administração Oral , Animais , Química Encefálica , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/química , Decapodiformes/química , Gorduras Insaturadas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/administração & dosagem , Hipocampo/química , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Hipolipemiantes/administração & dosagem , Fígado/química , Lisofosfatidilcolinas/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Fosfolipídeos/química , Fosfolipídeos/isolamento & purificação , Ratos Wistar , Rhizopus/enzimologia
13.
Nutr Hosp ; 36(Spec No3): 70-74, 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368343

RESUMO

Introduction: Cholelithiasis and kidney stones are frequent pathologies in developed countries. Gallstones can be pigmentary, cholesterol (75%) or mixed. Age, female sex, obesity, rapid weight loss, consumption of refined sugars, saturated fat, iron deficiency, vitamin D and low intake of fiber and vitamin C are factors associated with an increased risk of cholelithiasis. On the other hand, the intake of ω-3 fatty acids, oleic acid, calcium, magnesium, fiber, fruits and vegetables, dairy products, nuts, coffee, moderate consumption of alcohol, vitamin C supplements, physical exercise and a regular diet have a protective paper. The most frequent kidney stones are calcium oxalate followed by mixed ones (oxalate and calcium phosphate), struvite, uric acid and cystine. A high water intake is recommended (> 2.5 l / day), varying the type of recommended or unadvisable food depending on the type of calculus. In oxalic lithiasis it is recommended to reduce the consumption of meat, moderate that of spinach, Swiss chard, asparagus, chocolate and avoid excessive sodium intake. The administration of oxalate-degrading probiotics (Lactobacillus) may reduce intestinal absorption, although further studies are necessary to corroborate these results. In calcium phosphate acidifying diet is recommended and limit the consumption of coffee and tea. The prevention of uric calculus is based on hydration with alkalizing drinks and vegetarian diet, decreasing foods rich in purines (liver, kidney, fish eggs, anchovies, sardines and seafood) and in calculus of cystine diet is recommended alkalizing. Since the formation of struvite calculi is due to urinary infections, pharmacological treatment and the consumption of acidifying diets, moderation of the intake of phosphate-rich foods and limiting the contribution of fats and citrus fruits are necessary. The nutritional intervention is an effective measure in the prevention of biliary and renal lithiasis and prevent its recurrence.


Assuntos
Colelitíase/prevenção & controle , Cálculos Biliares/prevenção & controle , Cálculos Renais/prevenção & controle , Fatores Etários , Deficiência de Ácido Ascórbico/complicações , Cálcio na Dieta , Colelitíase/química , Colelitíase/etiologia , Gorduras Insaturadas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Exercício , Frutas , Cálculos Biliares/química , Cálculos Biliares/etiologia , Humanos , Ferro na Dieta , Cálculos Renais/química , Cálculos Renais/etiologia , Magnésio , Fatores Sexuais , Urolitíase/etiologia , Urolitíase/prevenção & controle
14.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 94: 157-165, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465874

RESUMO

A feeding experiment was conducted to determine the effects of fish oil replaced by olive oil (OO) on growth performance, serum biochemical, antioxidant capacity and inflammatory response in large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea). Four iso-nitrogenous and iso-lipidic diets were formulated by replacing fish oil (FO) with 0% (the control group), 33.3%, 66.7% and 100% OO. Fish fed the diet with 100% OO had the lowest growth performance among dietary treatments. However, there were no significant differences in SGR and FI among fish fed diets with 0% (the control group), 33.3% and 66.7% OO (P > 0.05). As to morphological parameters, HSI was significantly increased in fish fed the diet with 100% OO than the control group (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the lipid content of the liver in fish fed the diet with 100% OO was significantly higher than the control group (P < 0.05). Fish fed the diet with 100% OO had the highest content of C18:1n-9 among dietary treatments. Serum total triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels and activity of serum alanine transaminase (ALT) were significantly increased in fish fed the diet with 100% OO compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, dietary OO decreased the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) in fish fed diets with increasing dietary OO levels. However, the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) was significantly increased in fish fed the diet with 100% OO compared with the control group (P < 0.05). The expression of pro-inflammatory genes, COX-2, IL-1ß and TNFα, were significantly increased in the liver of fish fed the diet with 100% OO compared with the control group (P < 0.05), which was probably due to the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) pathways and Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) as the increased protein ratio of p-p38 MAPK to p38 MAPK and p-JNK to JNK. These results suggested that high level of dietary OO decreased the growth performance and antioxidant capacity but induced inflammation via the activation of p38 MAPK and JNK pathways in large yellow croaker.


Assuntos
Gorduras Insaturadas na Dieta/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/genética , Azeite de Oliva/metabolismo , Perciformes/imunologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Perciformes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Perciformes/metabolismo
15.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426326

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Metabolites related to dietary factors can be used to identify biological markers to prevent metabolic disease. However, most studies have been conducted in the United States and Europe, and those in the Asian region are limited. We investigated the effects of dietary monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and metabolites on new-onset hypertension in the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study. METHOD AND RESULTS: A total of 1529 subjects without hypertension were divided into tertiles of dietary MUFAs intake. After a 4-year follow-up, 135 serum metabolites were measured using the AbsoluteIDQ p180 kit. During the 4-year follow-up period, 193 new-onset hypertension incidences were observed. The highest MUFAs intake group was inversely associated with the risk of hypertension compared with the lowest MUFAs intake group (odds ratio (OR) = 0.49, (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.29-0.82)). Of the 135 metabolites, eight were significantly associated with MUFAs intake. Phosphatidylcholine-diacyl (PC aa) C 38:1 and hydroxysphingomyelin (SM OH) C 16:1 were associated with a decrease in hypertension risk (PC aa C 38:1, OR = 0.60 (95% CI = 0.37-0.96); SM OH C 16:1, OR = 0.42 (95% CI = 0.20-0.90)). The highest MUFAs intake group had a significantly decreased risk of hypertension, even considering PC aa C 38:1 and SM (OH) C 16:1 as a mediator. CONCLUSION: We confirmed that dietary MUFAs intake, and PC aa C 38:1 and SM (OH) C 16:1 had protective effects against hypertension. Furthermore, high MUFAs intake combined with PC aa C 38:1 and SM (OH) C 16:1 has the most significant effect on reducing the risk hypertension.


Assuntos
Gorduras Insaturadas na Dieta/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/farmacologia , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta , Registros de Dieta , Gorduras Insaturadas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Estudos Prospectivos , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
16.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0218464, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291265

RESUMO

There is evidence that replacing saturated fat (SFA) with polyunsaturated fat (PUFA) lowers ischemic heart disease (IHD). In order to improve the population's diet, the World Health Organization has called for the taxation of foods that are high in SFA. We aimed to assess the potential health gains of a European fat tax by applying the SFA intake reduction that has been observed under the Danish fat tax to six other European countries. For each country, we created a fat tax scenario with a decreased SFA intake and a corresponding increase in PUFA. We compared this fat tax scenario to a reference scenario with no change in SFA intake, and to a guideline scenario with a population-wide SFA intake in line with dietary recommendations. We used DYNAMO-HIA to dynamically project the policy-attributable IHD cases of these three scenarios 10 years into the future. A fat tax would reduce prevalent IHD cases by a minimum of 500 and 300 among males and females in Denmark, respectively, up to a maximum of 5,600 and 4,000 among males and females in the UK. Thereby, the prevented IHD cases under a fat tax scenario would correspond to between 11.0% (in females in the Netherlands) and 29.5% (in females in Italy) of the prevented IHD cases under a guideline scenario, which represents the maximum preventable disease burden. Henceforth, our quantification of beneficial health impacts makes the case for the policy debate on fat taxes.


Assuntos
Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Isquemia Miocárdica/etiologia , Isquemia Miocárdica/prevenção & controle , Dieta/economia , Dieta/métodos , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Dieta Hiperlipídica/economia , Gorduras na Dieta/economia , Gorduras Insaturadas na Dieta/economia , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Avaliação do Impacto na Saúde , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Impostos
17.
Molecules ; 24(14)2019 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323813

RESUMO

Heavy metals from industrial effluents and sewage contribute to serious water pollution in most developing countries. The constant penetration and contamination of heavy metals into natural water sources may substantially raise the chances of human exposure to these metals through ingestion, inhalation, or skin contact, which could lead to liver damage, cancer, and other severe conditions in the long term. Biosurfactant as an efficient biological surface-active agent may provide an alternative solution for the removal of heavy metals from industrial wastes. Biosurfactants exhibit the properties of reducing surface and interfacial tension, stabilizing emulsions, promoting foaming, high selectivity, and specific activity at extreme temperatures, pH, and salinity, and the ability to be synthesized from renewable resources. This study aimed to produce biosurfactant from renewable feedstock, which is used cooking oil (UCO), by a local isolate, namely Bacillus sp. HIP3 for heavy metals removal. Bacillus sp. HIP3 is a Gram-positive isolate that gave the highest oil displacement area with the lowest surface tension, of 38 mN/m, after 7 days of culturing in mineral salt medium and 2% (v/v) UCO at a temperature of 30 °C and under agitation at 200 rpm. An extraction method, using chloroform:methanol (2:1) as the solvents, gave the highest biosurfactant yield, which was 9.5 g/L. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis confirmed that the biosurfactant produced by Bacillus sp. HIP3 consists of a lipopeptide similar to standard surfactin. The biosurfactant was capable of removing 13.57%, 12.71%, 2.91%, 1.68%, and 0.7% of copper, lead, zinc, chromium, and cadmium, respectively, from artificially contaminated water, highlighting its potential for bioremediation.


Assuntos
Bacillus/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Gorduras Insaturadas na Dieta/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/química , Tensoativos/química , Tensoativos/metabolismo , Adsorção , Bacillus/classificação , Bacillus/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Filogenia , Tensoativos/isolamento & purificação
18.
Nutr Hosp ; 36(Spec No1): 65-67, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31232589

RESUMO

Introduction: Objectives: review the knowledge on the nutritional situation of the Aragonese population and on Aragón's own gastronomy as necessary elements for the welfare and health of its population. Methods: literature review in relation to the subject. Results: a gastronomy characteristic of Aragón is identified. The main finding identified on the literature review is to do with the historical evolution of the population in the Aragonese territory. At present, the population tends to concentrate in provincial urban centers, mainly in Zaragoza, where the food tradition tends to be diluted by external influences. The health authorities qualify quality foods by PGI (Protected Geographical Indication) certifications in wines and oils, as well as vegetables and meats. Aragón is the fifth county in food consumption per inhabitant in Spain with the highest consumption of potatoes and fresh vegetables from Spain. Meat consumption is high and are those who have a greater energy intake from lipids of all the autonomous communities. These data are related to the fact that most men are overweight or obese. Conclusions: there is a lack of updated studies that assess the nutritional status of the population in Aragón. The last study was promoted by the National Pharmacists Vocalic of Nutrition of the CGCOF (General Council of Pharmaceutical Associations of Spain) throughout Spain for adults who perform some kind of physical activity. The nutritional education of the population must be improved so that they are able to choose rations and foods that promote their health and well-being and integrate traditional gastronomy into their daily diet as part of their cultural heritage.


Assuntos
Dieta , Preferências Alimentares , Estado Nutricional , Animais , Bovinos , Culinária/normas , Dieta/normas , Dieta/tendências , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras Insaturadas na Dieta/normas , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Frutas , Humanos , Masculino , Carne , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Densidade Demográfica , Fatores Sexuais , Espanha/epidemiologia , Verduras , Vinho/normas
19.
Nutr Hosp ; 36(Spec No1): 47-55, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31232594

RESUMO

Introduction: Objectives: the nutritional status of a population is one of the factors that most affect its health and quality of life. The gastronomy of a region as well as being an immaterial cultural asset of its inhabitants' conditions the food model of the same. Determining the evolution of the food model of the Community of La Rioja and its adaptation to the recommendations, assessing the influence that gastronomy has on it and defining the nutritional profile of the people of La Rioja has been the basis of this review. Methods: data provided by the Mapama Food Consumption Panel. Bibliographic searches on the topics described. Results: a decrease in the consumption of fresh fruits, vegetables, bread, vegetables and fresh vegetables is observed. Olive oil consumption is high. Gastronomy in La Rioja is simple but laborious, limiting the preparation of traditional dishes. The consumption of distilled drinks has increased. It has been estimated a low intake of carbohydrates and high fat. Calcium. Zinc, vitamin D and folates are nutrients that are deficient in the diet of the people of La Rioja. Conclusions: the decrease in the consumption of food of vegetable origin distances the food model from the Mediterranean diet while the high consumption of olive oil keeps it within it. The increase in the consumption of spirits with a higher content of ethanol, ethanol and ethyl carbamate is worrying. The intake of fatty acids, especially saturated fatty acids, should be moderated and a higher intake of carbohydrates from fruits, vegetables and legumes should be considered.


Assuntos
Dieta/tendências , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Preferências Alimentares , Estado Nutricional , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/tendências , Bebidas Alcoólicas , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras Insaturadas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Frutas , Humanos , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Minerais/administração & dosagem , Política Nutricional , Valor Nutritivo , Azeite de Oliva/administração & dosagem , Espanha , Verduras , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem
20.
Nutr Hosp ; 36(Spec No1): 105-109, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31232598

RESUMO

Introduction: Introduction: the castellanomanchega's gastronomy has a wide variety of popular dishes, mostly (rott en pot, gauls or gazpachos…), he made known Cervantes through his work The Quixote. It ends its peculiarities in each province. Objectives: to identify the most significant gastronomic modalities and to know the food consumption pattern and nutritional prolife of the community of Castilla-La Mancha (CCLM). Methods: bibliographical review of different gastronomic variants and food consumption. Results: the Community of Castilla-Mancha (CCLM) presents a high availability of food of excellent quality and gastronomic variety. It is one of the Autonomous Comumunities (CCAA) with the lowest consumption and food expenditure. The intake of dairy, vegetables, vegetables, fruits, sugars, oils and legumes is lower than the national average, being the autonomous regions with lower consumption of sugars and oils especially extra olive oil. The caloric and lipid profile of the diet exceeds the nutritional objectives of protein and fat at the expense of carbohydrates, increased the intake of saturated fatty acids. It is observed an inadequate consumption of zinc, calcium, folic acid and vitamin D, in addition to low fiber intake, not covering the recommended intake. Although Castilla-La Mancha is one of the autonomous regions with the lowest consumption of food and caloric intake, its prevalence rate of excess weight is high being the fourth highest percentage of obesity. Conclusions: the gastronomy castellanomanchega is rich and varied offering a high quality. The food pattern is unbalanced showing a high intake of fats, especially saturated and protein, at the expense of carbohydrates. These disorders, together with inadequate consumption of micronutrients and the high weight taking rate, make it necessary to improve eating habits by means of nutritional training and dissemination strategies.


Assuntos
Culinária/métodos , Preferências Alimentares , Valor Nutritivo , Laticínios , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras Insaturadas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Açúcares da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Energia , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Frutas , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Humanos , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Estado Nutricional , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Espanha/epidemiologia , Verduras
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA