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1.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids ; 1868(1): 159238, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36206853

RESUMO

Proximal intestinal enterocytes expresses both intestinal-fatty acid binding protein (IFABP; FABP2) and liver-FABP (LFABP; FABP1). These FABPs are thought to be important in the net uptake of dietary lipid from the intestinal lumen, however their specific and potentially unique functions in the enterocyte remain incompletely understood. We previously showed markedly divergent phenotypes in LFABP-/- vs. IFABP-/- mice fed high-fat diets, with the former becoming obese and the latter remaining lean relative to wild-type (WT) mice, supporting different functional roles for each protein. Interestingly, neither mouse model displayed increased fecal lipid concentration, raising the question of whether the presence of one FABP was sufficient to compensate for absence of the other. Here, we generated an LFABP and IFABP double knockout mouse (DKO) to determine whether simultaneous ablation would lead to fat malabsorption, and to further interrogate the individual vs. overlapping functions of these proteins. Male WT, IFABP-/-, LFABP-/-, and DKO mice were fed a low-fat (10 % kcal) or high-fat (45 % kcal) diet for 12 weeks. The body weights and fat mass of the DKO mice integrated those of the LFABP-/- and IFABP-/- single knockouts, supporting the notion that IFABP and LFABP have distinct functions in intestinal lipid assimilation that result in downstream alterations in systemic energy metabolism. Remarkably, no differences in fecal fat concentrations were found in the DKO compared to WT, revealing that the FABPs are not required for net intestinal uptake of dietary lipid.


Assuntos
Gorduras na Dieta , Proteínas de Ligação a Ácido Graxo , Masculino , Camundongos , Animais , Camundongos Knockout , Proteínas de Ligação a Ácido Graxo/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a Ácido Graxo/metabolismo , Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Homeostase
2.
Int J Cancer ; 152(2): 123-136, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35904874

RESUMO

Data on diet and survival among people with metastatic colorectal cancer are limited. We examined dietary fat in relation to all-cause mortality and cancer progression or death among 1149 people in the Cancer and Leukemia Group B (Alliance)/Southwest Oncology Group (SWOG) 80405 trial who completed a food frequency questionnaire at initiation of treatment for advanced or metastatic colorectal cancer. We examined saturated, monounsaturated, total and specific types (n-3, long-chain n-3 and n-6) of polyunsaturated fat, animal and vegetable fats. We hypothesized higher vegetable fat intake would be associated with lower risk of all-cause mortality and cancer progression. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Over median follow-up of 6.1 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 5.3, 7.2 y), we observed 974 deaths and 1077 events of progression or death. Participants had a median age of 59 y; 41% were female and 86% identified as White. Moderate or higher vegetable fat was associated with lower risk of mortality and cancer progression or death (HRs comparing second, third and fourth to first quartile for all-cause mortality: 0.74 [0.62, 0.90]; 0.75 [0.61, 0.91]; 0.79 [0.63, 1.00]; P trend: .12; for cancer progression or death: 0.74 [0.62, 0.89]; 0.78 [0.64, 0.95]; 0.71 [0.57, 0.88]; P trend: .01). No other fat type was associated with all-cause mortality and cancer progression or death. Moderate or higher vegetable fat intake may be associated with lower risk of cancer progression or death among people with metastatic colorectal cancer.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Neoplasias do Colo , Neoplasias Retais , Feminino , Animais , Masculino , Gorduras na Dieta , Dieta , Causas de Morte
3.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 2010, 2022 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36324096

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The consumption of trans-fatty acids (TFA) is directly associated with cardiovascular disease risk and is responsible for a significant health burden globally. The policy strategies for reducing TFA include limiting their content in foods and eliminating partially hydrogenated oils (PHO) in the market. This study aims to describe a comparative risk assessment macrosimulation model and to apply this tool to estimate the potential reductions in CVD mortality gained from the compared scenarios of TFA reduction/elimination in Brazil. METHODOLOGY: We developed and implemented a comparative risk assessment macrosimulation model estimates the potential CVD mortality reduction (coronary heart disease - CHD- and stroke) if TFA intake is reduced in diets. The TFA macrosimulation model estimates the change in the annual number of NCD deaths between baseline with current TFA consumption levels and alternate or counterfactual scenarios, such as considering different limits to TFA content in foods and the elimination of PHO in Brazil in 2018. The model incorporated additional outputs related to other impacts of TFA reduction on DPP, such as Years of Life Lost, Years of Productive Life Lost, and related economic impacts of premature deaths. RESULTS: In 2018, a 2% limit for TFA in the oils and fats and a 5% limit of TFAs for other foods could avert or postpone approximately 2,000 deaths (UI 95% 1,899-2,142) and save US$ 32.1 million savings in productivity losses to the economy associated to premature deaths. An intermediate scenario, applying a 2% limit of TFA in all food products In Brazil could prevent or postpone approximately 6,300 deaths (UI 95% 5,925-6,684) and the premature deaths prevented would represent US$ 100.2 million in economic saving. Finally, by banning PHO, approximately 10,500 deaths could be prevented or postponed (UI 95% 9,963 - 10,909), corresponding to US$ 166.7 million in savings to the economy because of premature deaths. CONCLUSION: The TFA macrosimulation model can efficiently compare different policy scenarios for trans fats reduction policies at the country level and proves that the elimination of PHOs from the food market in Brazil may significantly reduce the health burden of trans fatty acids in the country compared to other policy options. The model also represents a useful public health tool to support TFA reduction and elimination policies in other countries.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias , Ácidos Graxos trans , Humanos , Ácidos Graxos trans/efeitos adversos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Gorduras na Dieta , Fatores de Risco , Políticas , Óleos
4.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 30(11): 2156-2166, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36321270

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The protein leverage hypothesis (PLH) postulates that strong regulation of protein intake drives energy overconsumption and obesity when human diets are diluted by fat and carbohydrates. The two predictions of the PLH are that humans (i) regulate intake to maintain protein within a narrow range and that (ii) energy intake is an inverse function of percentage energy from protein because absolute protein intake is maintained within narrow limits. METHODS: Multidimensional nutritional geometry was used to test the predictions of the PLH using dietary data from the Australian National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey. RESULTS: Both predictions of the PLH were confirmed in a population setting: the mean protein intake was 18.4%, and energy intake decreased with increasing energy from protein (L = -0.18, p < 0.0001). It was demonstrated that highly processed discretionary foods are a significant diluent of protein and associated with increased energy but not increased protein intake. CONCLUSIONS: These results support an integrated ecological and mechanistic explanation for obesity, in which low-protein highly processed foods lead to higher energy intake because of the biological response to macronutrient imbalance driven by a dominant appetite for protein. This study supports a central role for protein in the obesity epidemic, with significant implications for global health.


Assuntos
Carboidratos da Dieta , Proteínas na Dieta , Humanos , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Carboidratos da Dieta/metabolismo , Austrália , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Nutrientes , Dieta , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Gorduras na Dieta
5.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 156: 113940, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36411627

RESUMO

Dyslipidemia is a condition of high levels of triglycerides and cholesterol in the blood, and high levels of cholesterol is associated with a variety of systemic diseases. The effects of a high-fat diet on bone have been reported, however, it is not clear which components of a high-fat diet affect bone. This study was conducted to examine the effects of dietary lipids and cholesterol on bone homeostasis maintenance. Eight-week-old male mice (C57BL/6 J) were fed five types of feed with different amounts of fat (14 %, 36 %) and cholesterol (0.01 %, 1.25 %, 5 %) for 12 weeks. Blood, femur, tibia, and tooth samples were examined, and serum lipid markers and bone morphology were determined using µCT and histological analysis. Additionally, bone marrow cells were obtained and cultured, and osteoclast differentiation markers analyzed using qPCR. Mice fed a diet high in both fat (36 %) and cholesterol (1.25 %) showed increased total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein levels in blood, and decreased bone volume fraction as compared to the standard diet group. However, bone mass was unaffected in the high fat only (36 %) and high cholesterol only (1.25 %, 5 %) groups. Mice given a high fat (36%) diet also demonstrated significantly narrowed incisor pulp. In contrast, osteoclast formation was not significantly different among the groups. These results suggest that a diet with high amounts of both fat and cholesterol induces bone loss.


Assuntos
Colesterol , Hipercolesterolemia , Camundongos , Masculino , Animais , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Gorduras na Dieta/farmacologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Homeostase
6.
Nutrients ; 14(20)2022 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36296979

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dietary fats, and especially saturated fatty acid (SFA), have been blamed for being the culprit in the dramatic increase in obesity and its associated diseases. However multiple systematic reviews and recent meta-analyses do not support the association between SFA and cardiovascular diseases. Thus, the objective of this study was to test whether specific types and subtypes of dietary fats are associated with metabolic outcomes in a cohort of Italian adults. METHODS: Nutritional and demographic data of 1936 adults living in the south of Italy were examined. Food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) were administered to assess the intake of total dietary fat and each specific class of dietary fat, such as SFA, monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA). The intake of fatty acids was also examined according to the carbon-chain length of each individual class. Cases of hypertension, type-2 diabetes and dyslipidemias were collected from previous doctor-confirmed diagnosis records (or direct measurement of blood pressure). RESULTS: After adjustment for potential confounding factors, individuals reporting higher intakes of total and saturated fats were associated with lower likelihood of having hypertension (odds ratio (OR) = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.35, 0.91 and OR = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.34, 0.89, respectively). Moreover, higher intake of short-chain saturated fatty acids (SCSFAs) and medium-chain saturated fatty acids (MCSFAs) was inversely associated with dyslipidemia and diabetes (OR = 0.43, 95% CI: 0.23, 0.82 and OR = 0.25, 95% CI: 0.09, 0.72, respectively). Among MUFAs, C18:1 was inversely associated with hypertension and diabetes (OR = 0.52, 95% CI: 0.30, 0.92 and OR = 0.21, 95% CI: 0.07, 0.67, respectively), while C14:1 intake was inversely associated only with hypertension (OR = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.37, 0.88). In contrast, C20:1 intake was associated with dyslipidemia (OR = 3.35, 95% CI: 1.33, 8.42). Regarding PUFA, C18:2 and 20:5 were inversely associated with hypertension (OR = 0.33, 95% CI: 0.18, 0.60 and OR = 0.30, 95% CI: 0.10, 0.89, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The consumption of SFA does not seem to be harmful to cardio-metabolic health and, on the contrary, SCSFA may exert beneficial effects. Further studies are needed to clearly validate the results of the present study.


Assuntos
Gorduras na Dieta , Hipertensão , Adulto , Humanos , Ácidos Graxos , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/etiologia , Carbono
7.
Nutrients ; 14(20)2022 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36297003

RESUMO

The polyamine spermidine is discussed as a caloric restriction mimetic and therapeutic option for obesity and related comorbidities. This study tested oral spermidine supplementation with regard to the systemic, hepatic and pulmonary lipid metabolism under different diet conditions. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed a purified control (CD), high sucrose (HSD) or high fat (HFD) diet with (-S) or without spermidine for 30 weeks. In CD-fed mice, spermidine decreased body and adipose tissue weights and reduced hepatic lipid content. The HSD induced hepatic lipid synthesis and accumulation and hypercholesterolemia. This was not affected by spermidine supplementation, but body weight and blood glucose were lower in HSD-S compared to HSD. HFD-fed mice showed higher body and fat depot weights, prediabetes, hypercholesterolemia and severe liver steatosis, which were not altered by spermidine. Within the liver, spermidine diminished hepatic expression of lipogenic transcription factors SREBF1 and 2 under HSD and HFD and affected the expression of other lipid-related enzymes. In contrast, diet and spermidine exerted only minor effects on pulmonary parameters. Thus, oral spermidine supplementation affects lipid metabolism in a diet-dependent manner, with significant reductions in body fat and weight under physiological nutrition and positive effects on weight and blood glucose under high sucrose intake, but no impact on dietary fat-related parameters.


Assuntos
Hipercolesterolemia , Doenças Metabólicas , Masculino , Camundongos , Animais , Camundongos Obesos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Espermidina/farmacologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Glicemia/metabolismo , Poliaminas/metabolismo , Hipercolesterolemia/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fígado/metabolismo , Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Doenças Metabólicas/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Sacarose/farmacologia , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
8.
Nutrients ; 14(20)2022 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36297011

RESUMO

Shift healthcare workers are a group particularly exposed to an increased risk of poor eating habits and are affected by many diseases. The aim of the study was to evaluate the dietary patterns (DPs), including the Polish-adapted Mediterranean Diet (Polish-aMED®) score, and dietary fat intake in association with the shift work of healthcare workers. This cross-sectional study involved 445 healthcare workers from the West Pomeranian in Poland. Dietary data were collected using an FFQ-6®. A posteriori DPs were derived with a Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The Polish-aMED® score and the individual's percentage of energy from dietary fat (Pfat) were calculated. Healthcare shift work compared to the daily work was associated with approximately 2-times higher odds of adherence to the 'Meat/fats/alcohol/fish' DP in the upper tertile (OR: 2.38; 95% Cl: 1.27-4.47; p < 0.01) and higher Pfat >35% of total energy intake (OR: 1.73; 95% Cl: 1.06-2.83; p < 0.05). Healthcare shift work compared to the daily work was associated with approximately 50% lower odds of adherence to the 'Pro-healthy' DP in the middle tertile (OR: 0.48; 95% Cl: 0.26-0.89; p < 0.05) and a higher level of the Polish-aMED® score (OR: 0.57; 95% Cl: 0.33-0.98; p < 0.05), as well as lower odds of the constants of mealtime (OR: 0.54; 95% Cl: 0.33-0.89; p < 0.05). The obtained findings highlight the unhealthy food choices among shift healthcare workers. Thus, to avoid the negative health consequences, there is a need for nutritional education for healthcare workers, especially those working shifts.


Assuntos
Dieta Mediterrânea , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Gorduras na Dieta , Pessoal de Saúde , Atenção à Saúde
9.
Nutrients ; 14(20)2022 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36297059

RESUMO

Associations of dietary fatty acids with the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) remain controversial. The objective of this study was to examine whether dietary-derived fatty acid patterns were related to CRC risk among Chinese people. A total of 2806 CRC patients and 2806 frequency-matched controls were interviewed in this case-control study between July 2010 and May 2021. A food frequency questionnaire was used to gather information on dietary intake. Four fatty acid patterns were identified using factor analysis. The even-long-chain fatty acid pattern had no statistically significant association with CRC risk (adjusted Odds ratio (aOR), 1.16; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.97-1.39; ptrend = 0.129). However, significant inverse associations were found between the medium-chain and long-chain saturated fatty acid (SFA) pattern (aOR, 0.34; 95%CI, 0.27-0.42), the highly unsaturated fatty acid pattern (aOR, 0.73; 95%CI, 0.60-0.88), the odd-chain fatty acid pattern (aOR, 0.69; 95%CI, 0.57-0.83), and CRC risk. The interaction between fatty acid patterns and sex was observed, and the association between the highly unsaturated fatty acid pattern and CRC risk differed by subsite. In conclusion, increasing the intakes of foods rich in medium-chain SFAs, highly unsaturated fatty acids, and odd-chain fatty acids may be related to a lower risk of CRC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Gorduras na Dieta , Humanos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco , Ácidos Graxos/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados , China/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle
10.
J Oleo Sci ; 71(11): 1613-1624, 2022 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36198580

RESUMO

Diet is the most direct and rapid contributor to the gut microbiome. Oils and fats are important nutrients in the human body. The effects of lard or vegetable blend oil on gut microbiota were investigated. Kunming mice were given lard or vegetable blend oil for six weeks. Changes in microbiota composition and abundance in lard or vegetable blend oil diets were analyzed by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Our study shows that the gut microbiota of mice changed significantly after ingestion of lard or vegetable blend oil. Lard may synergize with Coriobacteriaceae_UCG-002. Vegetable blend oil has synergistic effects with Akkermansia, Roseburia, and Enteractinococcus. Coriobacteriaceae_UCG-002 showed a significant negative correlation with Glycolysis/Gluconeogenesis. Roseburia was most strongly associated with Starch and sucrose metabolism. According to bacterial function prediction and correlation analysis, long-term consumption of lard or vegetable oil may affect glycolipid metabolism, but lard has a greater impact on human health and consequently host health.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Camundongos , Animais , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Verduras , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Dieta
11.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(19): 7245-7255, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36263535

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study is to design N5-(1H-pyrazol-3-yl)-3H-benzo[d]imidazole-2,5-diamine derivatives and evaluate its anti-obesity activity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A few pyrazole-fused benzimidazole derivatives were designed as potential Pancreatic Lipase (PL) inhibitors. The designed N5-(1H-pyrazol-3-yl)-3H-benzo[d]imidazole-2,5-diamine derivatives have been screened using the Lipinski rule of five, ADMET analysis, acute toxicity prediction, and molecular docking. Later on, the derivatives which possess the most drug-likeness properties and displayed the most potent inhibition of the enzyme in molecular docking were synthesized. Then, in vitro enzyme assay was performed. RESULTS: Orlistat used as the standard exhibited 91±1.68% inhibition of the enzyme, displayed binding affinity (BA) of only -4.5 kcal/mol with Pancreatic Lipase (PL), and made only one salt bridge attractive charge and carbon-hydrogen bond with ASP79 and TRP252, respectively. Compound 9 displayed the most potent activity (93±1.12% inhibition of P.L. and -9.5 kcal/mol BA). It has formed five conventional H- bonds with GLU253, ILE78, ASP79, PHE258, and one Pi-donor H- bond with ILE78. From the present investigation, we hereby reported (E)-N2-((naphthalene-1-yl)methylene)-N5-(1H-pyrazol-3-yl)-3H-benzo[d]imidazole-2,5-diamine as most potent PL inhibitor for the treatment of obesity, which can be further optimized by undergoing more studies using in vivo and in vitro models. CONCLUSIONS: (E)-N2-((naphthalene-1-yl)methylene)-N5-(1H-pyrazol-3-yl)-3H-benzo[d]imidazole-2,5-diamine as most potent PL inhibitor for the treatment of obesity which can be further optimized better using more in vivo and in vitro models. PL plays a critical role in digesting dietary fat. Therefore, PL inhibitors are verified as a potential therapy for treating obesity.


Assuntos
Diaminas , Lipase , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Orlistate/farmacologia , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Imidazóis , Benzimidazóis/farmacologia , Naftalenos , Gorduras na Dieta , Carbono , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
12.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 16726, 2022 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36202919

RESUMO

Reproductive performances, and the factors affecting them, are of major importance especially for farmed fish in the context of the development of a sustainable aquaculture. Dietary maternal lipids have been identified as a major factor affecting reproductive performances. Nevertheless, the consequences of carbohydrates have been little studied while plant-derived carbohydrates could be increasingly used in broodstock diets. To explore this issue, 2-year-old female trout were fed either a control diet that contains no carbohydrate and a high protein content (65.7%) or a diet formulated with plant-derived carbohydrates containing 32.5% carbohydrate and 42.9% protein ('HC diet') for an entire reproductive cycle. The reproductive performances, the quality of the unfertilized eggs and the development of the progeny were carefully monitored. Although the one year HC nutrition had not impaired female growth nor spawns quality, such nutrition had increased the variability of eggs size within spawns (+ 34.0%). Moreover, the eggs produced had a modified fatty acid profile, including a significant reduction in EPA content (- 22.9%) and a significant increase in the AA/EPA ratio (+ 33.3%). The progeny were impacted by such alterations as their survival rates were significantly reduced. A lower plant-derived carbohydrate inclusion (20%) should be considered in aquafeed for female broodstock in trout.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Aquicultura , Carboidratos , Dieta , Gorduras na Dieta , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Truta/metabolismo
13.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 17832, 2022 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36284115

RESUMO

Various fatty acyl lipid mediators are derived from dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and modulate nociception. The modern diet is rich in linoleic acid, which is associated with nociceptive hypersensitivities and may present a risk factor for developing pain conditions. Although recommendations about fatty acid intake exist for some diseases (e.g. cardiovascular disease), the role of dietary fatty acids in promoting pain disorders is not completely understood. To determine how dietary linoleic acid content influences the accumulation of pro- and anti-nociceptive fatty acyl lipid mediators, we created novel rodent diets using custom triglyceride blends rich in either linoleic acid or oleic acid. We quantified the fatty acyl lipidome in plasma of male and female rats fed these custom diets from the time of weaning through nine weeks of age. Dietary fatty acid composition determined circulating plasma fatty acyl lipidome content. Exposure to a diet rich in linoleic acid was associated with accumulation of linoleic and arachidonic acid-derived pro-nociceptive lipid mediators and reduction of anti-nociceptive lipid mediators derived from the omega-3 PUFAs. Our findings provide mechanistic insights into exaggerated nociceptive hypersensitivity associated with excessive dietary linoleic acid intake and highlight potential biomarkers for pain risk stratification.


Assuntos
Eicosanoides , Ácido Linoleico , Masculino , Feminino , Ratos , Animais , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados , Ácidos Graxos , Dieta , Triglicerídeos , Ácido Oleico , Ácido Araquidônico , Dor , Gorduras na Dieta , Ácidos Linoleicos
14.
Discov Med ; 33(170): 121-127, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36274240

RESUMO

The increase of dietary fat energy supply ratio has led to a gradual increase in obesity, and the risk of hypertension in patients with obesity is much higher than that in the normal population. Weight loss has become a popular method to control obesity and hypertension. Metabolic bariatric surgery (MBS), which is also called weight loss surgery, can have significant effects on the weight and body metabolism of the patients. Recent studies have shown that the blood pressure of obese patients with hypertension is significantly improved after MBS. Therefore, in this review we will briefly describe the relationship between obesity and hypertension, summarize the effects of MBS on hypertension, and then focus on the mechanisms by which MBS achieves satisfactory efficacy to treat hypertension.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica , Hipertensão , Humanos , Cirurgia Bariátrica/métodos , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/cirurgia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Redução de Peso , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/terapia , Gorduras na Dieta
15.
Nutrients ; 14(18)2022 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36145067

RESUMO

High carbohydrate, lower fat (HCLF) diets are recommended to reduce cardiometabolic disease (CMD) but low carbohydrate high fat (LCHF) diets can be just as effective. The effect of LCHF on novel insulin resistance biomarkers and the metabolome has not been fully explored. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of an ad libitum 8-week LCHF diet compared with a HCLF diet on CMD markers, the metabolome, and insulin resistance markers. n = 16 adults were randomly assigned to either LCHF (n = 8, <50 g CHO p/day) or HCLF diet (n = 8) for 8 weeks. At weeks 0, 4 and 8, participants provided fasted blood samples, measures of body composition, blood pressure and dietary intake. Samples were analysed for markers of cardiometabolic disease and underwent non-targeted metabolomic profiling. Both a LCHF and HCLF diet significantly (p < 0.01) improved fasting insulin, HOMA IR, rQUICKI and leptin/adiponectin ratio (p < 0.05) levels. Metabolomic profiling detected 3489 metabolites with 78 metabolites being differentially regulated, for example, an upregulation in lipid metabolites following the LCHF diet may indicate an increase in lipid transport and oxidation, improving insulin sensitivity. In conclusion, both diets may reduce type 2 diabetes risk albeit, a LCHF diet may enhance insulin sensitivity by increasing lipid oxidation.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Resistência à Insulina , Adiponectina/metabolismo , Adulto , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos , Carboidratos da Dieta/metabolismo , Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Humanos , Insulina/metabolismo , Leptina/metabolismo , Lipídeos , Metaboloma
16.
Nutrients ; 14(18)2022 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36145098

RESUMO

Adequate complementary feeding practices are important for short- and long-term child health. In industrialized countries, the formulation of several commercial baby foods (CBFs) and an increase in their consumption has been noticed. AIM: To update and analyze the nutritional composition of CBFs available in the Italian market. METHODS: Data collection carried out in two steps (July 2018-January 2019) and updated in May-September 2021. The information on CBFs was taken from the websites of the major CBF producers available in Italy. The collected information were: Suggested initial and final age of consumption; Ingredients; Energy value; Macronutrients (protein, lipids, and carbohydrates); Fiber; Micronutrients (sodium, iron, and calcium); Presence of salt and added sugars, flavorings, and other additives. RESULTS: Time-space for which CBFs are recommended starts too early and ends too late; protein content is adequate and even too high in some food; Amount of fats and their quality must be improved, keeping the intake of saturated fats low; Sugar content is too high in too many CBFs and salt is unnecessarily present in some of them. Finally, the texture of too many products is purée, and its use is recommended for too long, hindering the development of infants' chewing abilities.


Assuntos
Cálcio , Avaliação Nutricional , Criança , Gorduras na Dieta/análise , Fibras na Dieta , Humanos , Lactente , Alimentos Infantis/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Ferro , Micronutrientes , Valor Nutritivo , Sódio , Açúcares
17.
Nutrients ; 14(18)2022 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36145142

RESUMO

Depression is a common mental disorder that occurs all over the world with treatment resistance commonly seen in clinical practice. Ketamine exhibits an antidepressant that is more often used in the case of treatment-resistant depression (TRD) in MDD and BP. Research emphasizes that a healthy diet and the nutrients it contains can lower the risk of developing depression and form a strategy that supports conventional treatment. The aim of the study was to evaluate the patients' diet and to analyze the effect of ketamine on food intake among patients with TRD. The study involved 15 patients suffering from treatment-resistant depression and 15 healthy volunteers. The data required for the analysis were collected using the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and 4-day food diaries. The study group was statistically significantly less likely to consume milk and plain milk beverages, plain white cheese, wholemeal bread, various vegetables, wine, and drinks. Our results show several disorders in the eating habits of patients with treatment-resistant depression. After the administration of ketamine, the patients consumed significantly less protein, fats, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), fiber, tryptophan, vitamins, and minerals compared to the control group. There is a lack of research describing the effects of ketamine on nutrition. In order to confirm the results of the study, more participants are required, and the assessment of food diaries filled in at the patient's home with a longer interval after the last dose of ketamine as well.


Assuntos
Ketamina , Depressão , Gorduras na Dieta , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados , Humanos , Triptofano , Vitaminas
18.
Nutrients ; 14(18)2022 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36145171

RESUMO

Dietary lipids derived from plants have different compositions of individual fatty acids (FA), providing different physical and chemical properties with positive or adverse health effects on humans. To evaluate the nutritional value and assess the FA composition of various plants, the atherogenicity (AI) and thrombogenicity (TI) indices were calculated and reviewed for nine different categories of fats and oils. This included common oils, unconventional oils, nut oils originating from temperate regions, Amazonian and tropical fats and oils, chia seed oil, traditional nuts originating from temperate regions, unconventional nuts, seeds, and fruits, and their products. The main factors influencing fatty acid composition in plants are growth location, genotype, and environmental variation, particularly temperature after flowering, humidity, and frequency of rainfall (exceeding cultivar variation). The lowest AI was calculated for rapeseed oil (0.05), whereas the highest value was obtained for tucuman seeds (16.29). Chia seed oil had the lowest TI (0.04), and murumuru butter had the highest (6.69). The differences in FA composition and subsequent changes in the lipid health indices of the investigated fats and oils indicate their importance in the human diet.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos , Óleos Vegetais , Manteiga , Gorduras na Dieta , Gorduras , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Humanos , Valor Nutritivo , Óleos Vegetais/química , Plantas , Óleo de Brassica napus
19.
Nutrients ; 14(18)2022 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36145214

RESUMO

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most common complication in hemodialysis patients. Nutritional education provided by dietitians could improve overall dietary quality and dietary fat quality to reduce the risk of CVD. However, no studies have investigated the relationship between dietary fat quality (using the hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic ratio, or the h/H) and CVD risk factors in hemodialysis patients. The aim of this study was to examine the association between the h/H and CVD risk factors, and further explore how nutritional education intervention models could improve dietary fat quality and CVD risk factors in hemodialysis patients. A quasi-experimental design was conducted from May 2019 to April 2021 on four groups, including 'no course for patients and nurses' as the non-C group, a "course for nurses" as the CN group, a "course for patients" as the CP group, and a "course for patients and nurses" as the CPN group. Nutritional education booklets based on a healthy eating index for hemodialysis patients were developed and provided to patients and nurses. Data of 119 patients were collected at baseline, intervention, and follow-up periods, including patients' basic information, blood biochemical data, dietary content, and calculated h/H. The results showed that the h/H was negatively correlated with body mass index (BMI) and positively correlated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Compared with the non-C group, the CPN group was significantly higher in the h/H as well as HDL-C, and significantly lower in serum total cholesterol. In conclusion, the h/H was found to predict CVD risk factors, which helps in improving dyslipidemia. Nutritional education for both patients and nurses showed a beneficial impact on reducing CVD risks in hemodialysis patients.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Gorduras na Dieta , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , HDL-Colesterol , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Diálise Renal/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco
20.
Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig ; 73(3): 303-313, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36169351

RESUMO

Background: Currently, T1D is one of the most common chronic diseases in children and adolescents. The International Diabetes Federation (IDF) estimates that more than 1.1 million children and adolescents are living with (T1D). A few studies have evaluated the relationship between dietary intake and glycemic control (GC) in people with T1D, and in particular, children and adolescents. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between anthropometric characteristics, lipid profile, inflammation, dietary intake and GC in comparison with international guidelines. Materials and methods: The study included a sample of 240 children, aged 15 years old or less with T1D. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information on the socio-demographic status, disease characteristics, and diet of the participants. Weight, height, and WC were measured and WHtR and BMI were calculated. Biochemical measurements were determined. Dietary intake was assessed using three 24-hour recalls. Results: Saturated fat intake was five times higher than recommended. Only 8.3% of participants reached the recommended level of fiber. Overweight, obesity, TC, TG, HDL and CRP were significantly higher in children with poor GC to those with good GC. In addition, participants with poor GC had significantly low intakes of calories, carbohydrates, fiber, MUFAs, and PUFAs and high intakes of fat and SFAs. The use of Bivariate correlation analyses showed that calorie, protein, fat and fiber intake were positively correlated with weight, height, WC, and GO, whereas carbohydrate intake was negatively associated with these parameters. On the contrary, CO showed a negative correlation with calorie, protein, fat and fiber intake and a positive correlation with carbohydrate intake. Conclusions: The results revealed that the dietary quality was poor and adherence to dietary recommendations was low with insufficient fiber intake and excess SFA. These results suggest that GC can be improved by a healthy, balanced diet by increasing fiber intake and limiting SFA intake. Liczba pobran: 2.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Estado Nutricional , Adolescente , Criança , Dieta , Gorduras na Dieta , Fibras na Dieta , Ingestão de Alimentos , Ingestão de Energia , Humanos
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