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1.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444644

RESUMO

Polar lipids, which are found in human milk, serve essential functions within biological membranes, hence their importance in brain development and cognition. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the longitudinal effects on brain macrostructural and microstructural development and recognition memory of early-life polar lipid supplementation using the translational pig model. Twenty-eight intact (i.e., not castrated) male pigs were provided either a control diet (n = 14) or the control diet supplemented with polar lipids (n = 14) from postnatal day 2 until postnatal week 4. After postnatal week 4, all animals were provided the same nutritionally-adequate diets until postnatal week 24. Pigs underwent magnetic resonance imaging at 8 longitudinal time-points to model brain macrostructural and microstructural developmental trajectories. The novel object recognition task was implemented at postnatal weeks 4 and 8 to evaluate recognition memory. Subtle differences were observed between groups in hippocampal absolute brain volumes and fractional anisotropy, and no differences in myelin water fraction developmental patterns were noted. Behavioral outcomes did not differ in recognition memory, and only minimal differences were observed in exploratory behaviors. Our findings suggest that early-life dietary supplementation of polar lipids has limited effect on brain developmental patterns, object recognition memory, and exploratory behaviors.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Lipídeos/administração & dosagem , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Comportamento Exploratório , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Suínos , Ganho de Peso
2.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444735

RESUMO

We reviewed the literature to evaluate potential associations between vitamins, nutrients, nutritional status or nutritional interventions and presence or healing of foot ulceration in diabetes. Embase, Medline, PubMed, and the Cochrane Library were searched for studies published prior to September 2020. We assessed eligible studies for the association between nutritional status or interventions and foot ulcers. Fifteen studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in this review. Overall, there is a correlation between poor nutritional status and the presence of foot ulceration or a delay in healing. However, there is not enough data to reach conclusions about whether the relationships are causal or only association. Further research is required to test whether any forms of nutritional supplementation improve foot ulcer healing.


Assuntos
Pé Diabético , Suplementos Nutricionais , Desnutrição/complicações , Estado Nutricional , Idoso , Aminoácidos/administração & dosagem , Pé Diabético/complicações , Pé Diabético/fisiopatologia , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Minerais/administração & dosagem , Probióticos , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Cicatrização
3.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371950

RESUMO

Long-chain omega-3 PUFAs, specifically eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are of increasing interest because of their favorable effect on cardiometabolic risk. This study explores the association between omega 6 and 3 fatty acids intake and cardiometabolic risk in four African-origin populations spanning the epidemiological transition. Data are obtained from a cohort of 2500 adults aged 25-45 enrolled in the Modeling the Epidemiologic Transition Study (METS), from the US, Ghana, Jamaica, and the Seychelles. Dietary intake was measured using two 24 h recalls from the Nutrient Data System for Research (NDSR). The prevalence of cardiometabolic risk was analyzed by comparing the lowest and highest quartile of omega-3 (EPA+ DHA) consumption and by comparing participants who consumed a ratio of arachidonic acid (AA)/EPA + DHA ≤4:1 and >4:1. Data were analyzed using multiple variable logistic regression adjusted for age, gender, activity, calorie intake, alcohol intake, and smoking status. The lowest quartile of EPA + DHA intake is associated with cardiometabolic risk 2.16 (1.45, 3.2), inflammation 1.59 (1.17, 2.16), and obesity 2.06 (1.50, 2.82). Additionally, consuming an AA/EPA + DHA ratio of >4:1 is also associated with cardiometabolic risk 1.80 (1.24, 2.60), inflammation 1.47 (1.06, 2.03), and obesity 1.72 (1.25, 2.39). Our findings corroborate previous research supporting a beneficial role for monounsaturated fatty acids in reducing cardiometabolic risk.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/administração & dosagem , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/administração & dosagem , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/análogos & derivados , Feminino , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Inflamação/epidemiologia , Jamaica/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Seicheles/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
4.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198888

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Foods rich in saturated fatty acids (SFAs) have been discouraged by virtue of their cholesterol-raising potential, but this effect is modulated by the food source and background level of carbohydrate. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to compare the consumption of palm stearin (PS) versus butter on circulating cholesterol responses in the setting of both a low-carbohydrate/high-fat (LC/HF) and high-carbohydrate/low-fat (HC/LF) diet in healthy subjects. We also explored effects on plasma lipoprotein particle distribution and fatty acid composition. METHODS: We performed a randomized, controlled-feeding, cross-over study that compared a PS- versus a Butter-based diet in a group of normocholesterolemic, non-obese adults. A controlled canola oil-based 'Run-In' diet preceded the experimental PS and Butter diets. All diets were eucaloric, provided for 3-weeks, and had the same macronutrient distribution but varied in primary fat source (40% of the total fat). The same Run-In and cross-over experiments were done in two separate groups who self-selected to either a LC/HF (n = 12) or a HC/LF (n = 12) diet track. The primary outcomes were low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-C, triglycerides, and LDL particle distribution. RESULTS: Compared to PS, Butter resulted in higher LDL-C in both the LC/HF (13.4%, p = 0.003) and HC/LF (10.8%, p = 0.002) groups, which was primarily attributed to large LDL I and LDL IIa particles. There were no differences between PS and Butter in HDL-C, triglycerides, or small LDL particles. Oxidized LDL was lower after PS than Butter in LC/HF (p = 0.011), but not the HC/LF group. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that Butter raises LDL-C relative to PS in healthy normocholesterolemic adults regardless of background variations in carbohydrate and fat, an effect primarily attributed to larger cholesterol-rich LDL particles.


Assuntos
Manteiga , Colesterol/sangue , Dieta/métodos , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Óleo de Palmeira/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Cross-Over , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Dieta da Carga de Carboidratos/efeitos adversos , Dieta da Carga de Carboidratos/métodos , Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos/efeitos adversos , Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos/métodos , Dieta com Restrição de Gorduras/efeitos adversos , Dieta com Restrição de Gorduras/métodos , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Dieta Hiperlipídica/métodos , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Óleo de Palmeira/química , Adulto Jovem
5.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209561

RESUMO

Obesity is one of the major health problems worldwide. Following healthy dietary patterns can be difficult in some countries due to the lack of availability of certain foods; thus, alternative foods are needed. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of a dietary pattern consisting of fruit, avocado, whole grains, and trout (FAWGT) on postprandial insulinemia and lipemia in obese Colombian subjects. A randomized controlled crossover study was conducted, in which 44 subjects with BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 followed either a FAWGT diet or a diet high in saturated fat and rich in processed carbohydrates. Levels of lipids and carbohydrates were measured during the postprandial state. The FAWGT diet reduced fasting insulin, VLDL, and HOMA-IR after 8 weeks (p < 0.05), while there was a lower postprandial increase in TG, VLDL, and insulin levels after both acute and chronic intake of FAWGT diet (p < 0.05). The intake of FAWGT-diet was characterized by high consumption of foods rich in fiber, MUFAs, and vitamins C and E (p < 0.05). The consumption of a diet composed of fruit, avocado, whole grains, and trout has emerged as a valid alternative to the foods included in other heart-healthy diets since it improves postprandial lipemia and insulinemia in obese people and has similar beneficial effects to these healthy models.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável/métodos , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Hiperinsulinismo/dietoterapia , Hiperlipidemias/dietoterapia , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Animais , Glicemia/análise , Índice de Massa Corporal , VLDL-Colesterol/sangue , Estudos Cross-Over , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Jejum/sangue , Feminino , Frutas , Humanos , Hiperinsulinismo/sangue , Hiperinsulinismo/etiologia , Hiperlipidemias/sangue , Hiperlipidemias/etiologia , Insulina/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/complicações , Persea , Período Pós-Prandial/fisiologia , Alimentos Marinhos , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Truta , Grãos Integrais
6.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206176

RESUMO

Energy restriction is a first therapy in the treatment of obesity, but the underlying biological mechanisms have not been completely clarified. We analyzed the effects of restriction of high-fat diet (HFD) on weight loss, circulating gut hormone levels and expression of hypothalamic neuropeptides. Ten-week-old male Wistar rats (n = 40) were randomly distributed into four groups: two fed ad libitum a normal diet (ND) (N group) or a HFD (H group) and two subjected to a 25% caloric restriction of ND (NR group) or HFD (HR group) for 9 weeks. A 25% restriction of HFD over 9 weeks leads to a 36% weight loss with regard to the group fed HFD ad libitum accompanied by normal values in adiposity index and food efficiency ratio (FER). This restriction also carried the normalization of NPY, AgRP and POMC hypothalamic mRNA expression, without changes in CART. Caloric restriction did not succeed in improving glucose homeostasis but reduced HFD-induced hyperinsulinemia. In conclusion, 25% restriction of HFD reduced adiposity and improved metabolism in experimental obesity, without changes in glycemia. Restriction of the HFD triggered the normalization of hypothalamic NPY, AgRP and POMC expression, as well as ghrelin and leptin levels.


Assuntos
Restrição Calórica/métodos , Dieta com Restrição de Gorduras/métodos , Doenças Metabólicas/prevenção & controle , Neuropeptídeos/metabolismo , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Adiposidade/fisiologia , Proteína Relacionada com Agouti/metabolismo , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Grelina/metabolismo , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Leptina/metabolismo , Masculino , Doenças Metabólicas/etiologia , Neuropeptídeo Y/metabolismo , Obesidade/complicações , Pró-Opiomelanocortina/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Perda de Peso/fisiologia
7.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205362

RESUMO

Modification of lifestyle, including healthy nutrition, is the primary approach for metabolic syndrome (MetS) therapy. The aim of this study was to estimate how individual nutrition intervention affects the reduction of MetS components. Subjects diagnosed with MetS were recruited in the Lomza Medical Centre. The study group consisted of 90 participants and was divided into one intervention group (individual nutrition education group (INEG)) and one control group (CG). The research was conducted over 3 months. The following measurements were obtained during the first visit and after completion of the 3 months intervention: body mass, waist circumference, body composition, blood pressure, fasting glucose, and blood lipids. Dietary assessments were performed before and post-intervention using 3-day 24-h dietary recalls. Dietary knowledge was evaluated with the KomPAN questionnaire. The total polyphenol content of the diet was calculated. Sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics were collected from a self-reported questionnaire. The physical activity was assessed by the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). It was found that the individual nutrition education was an effective method to improve the knowledge, dietary habits, and physical activity of the study participants. The modification of the diet in terms of higher intake of polyphenols (flavonoids and anthocyanins), fiber, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), PUFA n-3, and lower intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA) had a significant impact on the improvement of some MetS risk factors (waist circumference, fasting glucose, and HDL-cholesterol).


Assuntos
Dieta , Síndrome Metabólica/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Flavonoides/administração & dosagem , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/fisiopatologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ciências da Nutrição/educação , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Polifenóis/administração & dosagem , Circunferência da Cintura
8.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205413

RESUMO

The aim of this research was to reveal the characteristics of gut microbiome altered by acarbose intervention in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and its possible association with habitual dietary intake. Eighteen patients with T2D were administered acarbose for four weeks. The abundances of two major phyla, namely Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes, were reciprocally changed accompanied by the acarbose intervention. There were also significant changes in the abundances of ten genera, including the greater abundance of Bifidobacterium, Eubacterium, and Lactobacillus and the lower abundance of Bacteroides in the group after the intervention than that before the intervention. Hierarchical clustering of habitual dietary intake was performed based on the pattern of changes in the gut microbiota and were classified into distinct three clusters. Cluster I consisted of sucrose, cluster II mainly included fat intake, and cluster III mainly included carbohydrate intake. Moreover, the amount of change in Faecalibacterium was positively correlated with the intake of rice, but negatively correlated with the intake of bread. The intake of potato was negatively correlated with the amount of change in Akkermansia and Subdoligranulum. Acarbose altered the composition of gut microbiome in Japanese patients with T2D, which might be linked to the habitual dietary intake.


Assuntos
Acarbose/administração & dosagem , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/microbiologia , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Idoso , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , DNA Bacteriano/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Sacarose na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
9.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205416

RESUMO

Understanding the role in pediatric obesity of early life feeding practices and dietary intake at school age is essential for early prevention. The study aimed to examine associations of early life feeding practices, environmental and health-related exposures, and dietary intake at school age as determinants of obesity in children aged 10-12 years. In an earlier study of 233 healthy infants in two Arab towns in northern Israel, neonatal history, feeding practices, and health information were obtained up to age 18 months. This follow-up study assessed dietary intake and anthropometric measurements at age 10-12 years using the 24 h recall method. Overall, 174 children participated in this study. Almost all (98%) the children were breastfed. The prevalence of obesity at school age was 42%. A multivariable model adjusted for energy intake and socioeconomic status showed positive associations of total fat intake and of weight-for-height z score, but not feeding practices in infancy, with obesity. Higher gestational age at birth was associated with lower odds of obesity at age 10-12 years. In conclusion, in a population with near universal breastfeeding, gestational age at birth, weight indicators but not feeding practices in infancy, and total fat intake at school age were associated with increased likelihood of obesity.


Assuntos
Dieta , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Árabes , Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Cultura , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Energia , Comportamento Alimentar , Métodos de Alimentação , Feminino , Seguimentos , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Israel/epidemiologia , Masculino , Fatores Socioeconômicos
10.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208201

RESUMO

Over the past 4 decades, China has experienced a nutritional transition and has developed the largest population of internet users. In this study, we evaluated the impacts of internet access on the nutritional intake in Chinese rural residents. An IV-Probit-based propensity score matching method was used to determine the impact of internet access on nutritional intake. The data were collected from 10,042 rural households in six Chinese provinces. The results reveal that rural residents with internet access have significantly higher energy, protein, and fat intake than those without. Chinese rural residents with internet access consumed 1.35% (28.62 kcal), 5.02% (2.61 g), and 4.33% (3.30 g) more energy, protein, and fat, respectively. There was heterogeneity in regard to the intake of energy, protein, and fat among those in different income groups. Moreover, non-staple food consumption is the main channel through which internet access affects nutritional intake. The results demonstrate that the local population uses the internet to improve their nutritional status. Further studies are required to investigate the impact of internet use on food consumed away from home and micronutrient intake.


Assuntos
Dieta , Ingestão de Alimentos , Acesso à Internet , Estado Nutricional , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , China , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , População Rural
11.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208400

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity is a state of excess energy storage resulting in body fat accumulation, and postmenopausal obesity is a rising issue. In this study using ovariectomized (OVX) rats, we mimicked low estrogen levels in a postmenopausal state in order to investigate the effects of different amounts and types of dietary fatty acids on body fat accumulation and body lipid metabolism. METHODS: At 9 weeks of age, rats (n = 40) were given an ovariectomy, eight of which were sham-operated to serve as a control group (S). We then divided OVX rats into four different intervention groups: diet with 5% soybean oil (C), and diet with 5% (L), 15% (M), and 20% (H) (w/w) experimental oil, containing 60% monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and with a polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid (P/S) ratio of 5. RESULTS: After OVX, compared to the S group, the C group showed significantly higher body weight, and insulin and leptin levels. Compared to the C group, the H group had lower hepatic triglyceride level and FAS enzyme activity, and higher hepatic ACO and CPT-1 gene expressions and enzyme activities. CONCLUSIONS: An OVX leads to severe weight gain and lipid metabolism abnormalities, while according to previous studies, high fat diet may worsen the situation. However, during our experiment, we discovered that the experimental oil mixture with 60% MUFAs and P/S = 5 may ameliorate these imbalances.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo , Gorduras Insaturadas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos/administração & dosagem , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Animais , Dieta com Restrição de Gorduras , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Ácido Graxo Sintases/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Insulina/sangue , Leptina/sangue , Fígado/metabolismo , Ovariectomia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Óleo de Soja/administração & dosagem , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo , Ganho de Peso
12.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199231

RESUMO

Inflammation is a risk factor for the onset and progression of schizophrenia, and dietary factors are related to chronic inflammation. We investigated whether the dietary inflammatory index (DII) is associated with schizophrenia in the Korean population. Of the 256 subjects who responded to the questionnaire, 184 subjects (117 controls; 67 individuals with schizophrenia) were included in this case-control study. A semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to evaluate the dietary intakes of the study participants. The energy-adjusted DII (E-DII) was used to assess the inflammatory potential of the participants' diets. Dietary intakes of vitamin C, niacin, and folate were significantly reduced in the patients with schizophrenia. The patients with schizophrenia had higher E-DII scores than the controls (p = 0.011). E-DII was positively associated with schizophrenia (odds ratio = 1.254, p = 0.010). The additional analysis confirmed that E-DII was significantly associated with schizophrenia, especially in the third tertile group of E-DII scores (odds ratio = 2.731, p = 0.016). Our findings suggest that patients with schizophrenia have more pro-inflammatory diets.


Assuntos
Dieta , Inflamação , Esquizofrenia , Adolescente , Adulto , Ácido Ascórbico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Ácido Fólico/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Masculino , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Niacina/administração & dosagem , República da Coreia , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem
13.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199239

RESUMO

We aimed to differentiate gut microbiota composition of overweight/obese and lean subjects and to determine its association with clinical variables and dietary intake. A cross-sectional study was performed with 96 overweight/obese subjects and 32 lean subjects. Anthropometric parameters were positively associated with Collinsella aerofaciens, Dorea formicigenerans and Dorea longicatena, which had higher abundance the overweight/obese subjects. Moreover, different genera of Lachnospiraceae were negatively associated with body fat, LDL and total cholesterol. Saturated fatty acids (SFAs) were negatively associated with the genus Intestinimonas, a biomarker of the overweight/obese group, whereas SFAs were positively associated with Roseburia, a biomarker for the lean group. In conclusion, Dorea formicigenerans, Dorea longicatena and Collinsella aerofaciens could be considered obesity biomarkers, Lachnospiraceae is associated with lipid cardiovascular risk factors. SFAs exhibited opposite association profiles with butyrate-producing bacteria depending on the BMI. Thus, the relationship between diet and microbiota opens new tools for the management of obesity.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Dieta , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Obesidade/microbiologia , Sobrepeso/microbiologia , Magreza/microbiologia , Actinobacteria/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Actinobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Adulto , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Índice de Massa Corporal , Clostridiales/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Clostridiales/isolamento & purificação , Estudos Transversais , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Alimentos , Ingestão de Energia , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Potássio/administração & dosagem
14.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34065380

RESUMO

Fasting and postprandial hypertriglyceridemia are causal risk factors for atherosclerosis. The prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia is approximately 25-30% and most hypertriglyceridemic patients suffer from mild to moderate hypertriglyceridemia. Data regarding dietary interventions on postprandial triglyceride metabolism of mildly to moderately hypertriglyceridemic patients is, however, sparse. In a randomized controlled trial, eight mildly hypertriglyceridemic patients and five healthy, normolipidemic controls received three separate standardized fat-meals containing either saturated fatty acids (SFA), mono-unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), or medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) in a randomized order. Fasting and postprandial lipid parameters were determined over a 10 h period and the (incremental) area under the curve (AUC/iAUC) for plasma triglycerides and other parameters were determined. MCFA do not lead to a significant elevation of postprandial total plasma triglycerides and other triglyceride parameters, while both SFA (patients: p = 0.003, controls: p = 0.03 compared to MCFA) and MUFA (patients: p = 0.001; controls: p = 0.14 compared to MCFA) do lead to such an increase. Patients experienced a significantly more pronounced increase of plasma triglycerides than controls (SFA: patients iAUC = 1006 mg*h/dL, controls iAUC = 247 mg*h/dL, p = 0.02; MUFA: patients iAUC = 962 mg*h/dL, controls iAUC = 248 mg*h/dL, p = 0.05). Replacing SFA with MCFA may be a treatment option for mildly to moderately hypertriglyceridemic patients as it prevents postprandial hypertriglyceridemia.


Assuntos
Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Hipertrigliceridemia/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Refeições/fisiologia , Período Pós-Prandial/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Jejum/sangue , Ácidos Graxos/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Triglicerídeos/sangue
15.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34065444

RESUMO

Resveratrol and its 2-methoxy derivative pterostilbene are two phenolic compounds that occur in foodstuffs and feature hepato-protective effects. This study is devoted to analysing and comparing the metabolic effects of pterostilbene and resveratrol on gut microbiota composition in rats displaying NAFLD induced by a diet rich in saturated fat and fructose. The associations among changes induced by both phenolic compounds in liver status and those induced in gut microbiota composition were also analysed. For this purpose, fifty Wistar rats were distributed in five experimental groups: a group of animals fed a standard diet (CC group) and four additional groups fed a high-fat high-fructose diet alone (HFHF group) or supplemented with 15 or 30 mg/kg bw/d of pterostilbene (PT15 and PT30 groups, respectively) or 30 mg/kg bw/d of resveratrol (RSV30 group). The dramatic changes induced by high-fat high-fructose feeding in the gut microbiota were poorly ameliorated by pterostilbene or resveratrol. These results suggest that the specific changes in microbiota composition induced by pterostilbene (increased abundances of Akkermansia and Erysipelatoclostridium, and lowered abundance of Clostridum sensu stricto 1) may not entirely explain the putative preventive effects on steatohepatitis.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Resveratrol/farmacologia , Estilbenos/farmacologia , Animais , Dieta da Carga de Carboidratos/efeitos adversos , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Frutose/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/microbiologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
16.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34067248

RESUMO

Personalized nutrition may be more effective in changing lifestyle behaviors compared to population-based guidelines. This single-arm exploratory study evaluated the impact of a 10-week personalized systems nutrition (PSN) program on lifestyle behavior and health outcomes. Healthy men and women (n = 82) completed the trial. Individuals were grouped into seven diet types, for which phenotypic, genotypic and behavioral data were used to generate personalized recommendations. Behavior change guidance was also provided. The intervention reduced the intake of calories (-256.2 kcal; p < 0.0001), carbohydrates (-22.1 g; p < 0.0039), sugar (-13.0 g; p < 0.0001), total fat (-17.3 g; p < 0.0001), saturated fat (-5.9 g; p = 0.0003) and PUFA (-2.5 g; p = 0.0065). Additionally, BMI (-0.6 kg/m2; p < 0.0001), body fat (-1.2%; p = 0.0192) and hip circumference (-5.8 cm; p < 0.0001) were decreased after the intervention. In the subgroup with the lowest phenotypic flexibility, a measure of the body's ability to adapt to environmental stressors, LDL (-0.44 mmol/L; p = 0.002) and total cholesterol (-0.49 mmol/L; p < 0.0001) were reduced after the intervention. This study shows that a PSN program in a workforce improves lifestyle habits and reduces body weight, BMI and other health-related outcomes. Health improvement was most pronounced in the compromised phenotypic flexibility subgroup, which indicates that a PSN program may be effective in targeting behavior change in health-compromised target groups.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Estilo de Vida , Terapia Nutricional/métodos , Estado Nutricional , Adulto , Idoso , Peso Corporal , Dieta/métodos , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Energia , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
17.
J Nutr Biochem ; 95: 108764, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33964465

RESUMO

Obesity-associated inflammation in white adipose tissue (WAT) is a causal factor of systemic insulin resistance. To better understand how adipocytes regulate WAT inflammation, the present study generated chimeric mice in which inducible 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase was low, normal, or high in WAT while the expression of 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase 3 (Pfkfb3) was normal in hematopoietic cells, and analyzed changes in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced WAT inflammation and systemic insulin resistance in the mice. Indicated by proinflammatory signaling and cytokine expression, the severity of HFD-induced WAT inflammation in WT â†’ Pfkfb3+/- mice, whose Pfkfb3 was disrupted in WAT adipocytes but not hematopoietic cells, was comparable with that in WT â†’ WT mice, whose Pfkfb3 was normal in all cells. In contrast, the severity of HFD-induced WAT inflammation in WT â†’ Adi-Tg mice, whose Pfkfb3 was over-expressed in WAT adipocytes but not hematopoietic cells, remained much lower than that in WT â†’ WT mice. Additionally, HFD-induced insulin resistance was correlated with the status of WAT inflammation and comparable between WT â†’ Pfkfb3+/- mice and WT â†’ WT mice, but was significantly lower in WT â†’ Adi-Tg mice than in WT â†’ WT mice. In vitro, palmitoleate decreased macrophage phosphorylation states of Jnk p46 and Nfkb p65 and potentiated the effect of interleukin 4 on suppressing macrophage proinflammatory activation. Taken together, these results suggest that the Pfkfb3 in adipocytes functions to suppress WAT inflammation. Moreover, the role played by adipocyte Pfkfb3 is attributable to, at least in part, palmitoleate promotion of macrophage anti-inflammatory activation.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Macrófagos/fisiologia , Fosfofrutoquinase-2/metabolismo , Adipócitos Brancos/metabolismo , Transferência Adotiva , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras na Dieta/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/metabolismo , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Intolerância à Glucose , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Camundongos , Fosfofrutoquinase-2/genética , Transdução de Sinais
18.
J Nutr Biochem ; 95: 108765, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33965535

RESUMO

Maternal diabetes increases the risk of embryo resorptions and impairs embryo development. Decidualization is crucial for embryo development and regulated by mTOR signaling. However, little is known about how maternal diabetes affects the decidua at early postimplantation stages and whether dietary treatments enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) can prevent decidual alterations. Here, we determined resorption rates, decidual mTOR pathways and markers of decidual function and remodeling in diabetic rats fed or not with diets enriched in PUFAs exclusively during the early postimplantation period. Pregestational streptozotocin-induced diabetic Albino Wistar rats and controls were fed or not with diets enriched in 6% sunflower oil or 6% chia oil (enriched in n-6 or n-3 PUFAs, respectively) on days 7, 8 and 9 of pregnancy and evaluated on day 9 of pregnancy. Maternal diabetes induced an 11-fold increase in embryo resorptions, which was prevented by both PUFAs-enriched diets despite no changes in maternal glycemia. The activity of mTOR pathway was decreased in the decidua from diabetic rats, an alteration prevented by the PUFAs-enriched diets. PUFAs-enriched diets prevented increased expression of Foxo1 (a negative regulator of mTOR) and reduced expression of miR-21 (a negative regulator of Foxo1). These diets also prevented reduced markers of decidual function (leukemia inhibitory factor and IGFBP1 expression and MMPs activity) in diabetic rat decidua. We identified the early post implantation as a crucial stage for pregnancy success, in which dietary PUFAs can protect diabetic pregnancies from embryo resorptions, decidual mTOR signaling impairments, and altered markers of decidual function and remodeling.


Assuntos
Decídua/metabolismo , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Perda do Embrião/prevenção & controle , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/farmacologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Pré-Natal , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Glicemia , Decídua/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína 1 de Ligação a Fator de Crescimento Semelhante à Insulina/genética , Proteína 1 de Ligação a Fator de Crescimento Semelhante à Insulina/metabolismo , Fator Inibidor de Leucemia/genética , Fator Inibidor de Leucemia/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Gravidez , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ratos , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/genética
19.
J Nutr Biochem ; 95: 108769, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34000413

RESUMO

Protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) is a member of G protein-coupled receptors. There are two types of PAR2 signaling pathways: Canonical G-protein signaling and ß-arrestin signaling. Although PAR2 signaling has been reported to aggravate hepatic steatosis, the exact mechanism is still unclear, and the role of PAR2 in autophagy remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the regulatory role of PAR2 in autophagy during high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hepatic steatosis in mice. Increased protein levels of PAR2 and ß-arrestin-2 and their interactions were detected after four months of HFD. To further investigate the role of PAR2, male and female wild-type (WT) and PAR2-knockout (PAR2 KO) mice were fed HFD. PAR2 deficiency protected HFD-induced hepatic steatosis in male mice, but not in female mice. Interestingly, PAR2-deficient liver showed increased AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation with decreased interaction between Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase ß (CAMKKß) and ß-arrestin-2. In addition, PAR2 deficiency up-regulated autophagy in the liver. To elucidate whether PAR2 plays a role in the regulation of autophagy and lipid accumulation in vitro, PAR2 was overexpressed in HepG2 cells. Overexpression of PAR2 decreased AMPK activation with increased interaction of CAMKKß with ß-arrestin-2 and significantly inhibited autophagic responses in HepG2 cells. Inhibition of autophagy by PAR2 overexpression further exacerbated palmitate-induced lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells. Collectively, these findings suggest that the increase in the PAR2-ß-arrestin-2-CAMKKß complex by HFD inhibits AMPK-mediated autophagy, leading to the alleviation of hepatic steatosis.


Assuntos
Adenilato Quinase/metabolismo , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/induzido quimicamente , Receptor PAR-2/metabolismo , Adenilato Quinase/genética , Animais , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Hep G2 , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Receptor PAR-2/genética , Regulação para Cima , beta-Arrestina 2/genética , beta-Arrestina 2/metabolismo
20.
Clin Nutr ; 40(5): 2527-2534, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33932799

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of global death. Hypercholesterolemia is among the main risk factors for developing cardiovascular events, and is highly prevalent in the Mexican population. The primary objective of the present work was to assess the effect of a dietary portfolio (DP) with functional foods containing dehydrated nopal, soy protein, chia seeds, inulin, and oats in LDL-C and TC concentrations of subjects with mild hypercholesterolemia. Also, we explored the changes in the profile of the lipoprotein subclasses measured by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). METHODS: Sixty-two subjects (47 women, 15 men) with mild hypercholesterolemia (LDL-C, ≥130 ≤ 190 mg/dL, TC > 200 mg/dL) completed the randomized, parallel, controlled study. The dietary intervention was given in two stages. First, a dietary standardization stage with a low saturated fat diet (LSFD) which matched the habitual energy intake of the volunteers for 2-weeks, followed by 2.5 months of dietary intervention with a LSFD plus placebo (PL) or DP. RESULTS: Subjects who consumed the LSFD + DP interventions had a significantly higher reduction of LDL-C (-18.05%, P = 0.003) and TC (-17.08%, P = 0.02) compared to volunteers who consumed an LSFD for the same period. Furthermore, the lipoprotein subclass profiling showed that the small low-density-lipoproteins, and the small high-density-lipoproteins significantly decreased (P = 0.04, P < 0.001, respectively), conveying a less atherogenic state. At the end of the study, 78% of the subjects who consumed LSFD + DP reduced their LDL-C below 160 mg/dL, and of these, 47% reduced it below 130 mg/dL. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the results obtained from this study, the inclusion of functional foods as part of the lifestyle modifications is recommended to treat mild hypercholesterolemia and reduce cardiovascular risk. Registered under ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier no. NCT04148976.


Assuntos
LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Hipercolesterolemia/dietoterapia , Lipoproteínas/sangue , Lipoproteínas/classificação , Sobrepeso/sangue , Adulto , Feminino , Análise de Alimentos , Alimento Funcional , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
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