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1.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33919760

RESUMO

The excessive consumption of sugar, salt, and fat is associated with an increased risk of non-communicable diseases. Therefore, a study on estimating the added sugar, salt, and fat intake in certain populations is important for establishing specific recommendations aiming at improving diet quality, and thus public health. This study aimed to determine the food consumption pattern and the intakes of added sugar, salt, and fat from different food groups and food sources among the residents of South Jakarta, Indonesia. The study was conducted with a cross-sectional design, involving 323 respondents. Data on socio-economic conditions, health and nutritional status, and food consumption were collected. Food consumption data were acquired through the 2-day weighed food record. Results showed that the daily food consumption in the observed population reached 1868-2334 g/capita/day. The total added sugar intake in different groups of respondents ranged between 34.9 and 45.9 g/capita/day, with the highest values observed in school-age boys. Beverages and snacks were identified as the main added sugar sources in the respondents' diet. The total salt intake ranged from 5.46 to 7.43 g/capita/day, while the observed fat intake reached 49.0-65.1 g/capita/day. The major food source contributing to the salt and fat intake included street/restaurant/fast food. Male subjects tended to consume a higher amount of salt and fat than female subjects. These findings can be used as baseline information for providing a strategy for reducing sugar, salt, and fat intakes, with strong implications for improving public health.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica/prevenção & controle , Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Açúcares da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Comportamento Alimentar , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Bebidas/efeitos adversos , Criança , Cidades , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos sobre Dietas/estatística & dados numéricos , Fast Foods/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Indonésia , Masculino , Lanches , Adulto Jovem
2.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809593

RESUMO

The addition of plant oils such as soybean oil (S) to a diet rich in saturated fatty acids is discussed as a possible route to prevent or diminish the development of metabolic disease. Here, we assessed whether a butterfat-rich diet fortified with S affects the development of early non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and glucose intolerance. Female C57BL/6J mice were fed a standard-control diet (C); a fat-, fructose-, and cholesterol-rich diet (FFC, 25E% butterfat, 50% (wt./wt.) fructose, 0.16% (wt./wt.) cholesterol); or FFC supplemented with S (FFC + S, 21E% butterfat + 4E% S) for 13 weeks. Indicators of liver damage, inflammation, intestinal barrier function, and glucose metabolism were measured. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged J774A.1 cells were incubated with linolenic and linoleic acids (ratio 1:7.1, equivalent to S). The development of early NASH and glucose intolerance was significantly attenuated in FFC + S-fed mice compared to FFC-fed mice associated with lower hepatic toll-like receptor-4 mRNA expression, while markers of intestinal barrier function were significantly higher than in C-fed mice. Linolenic and linoleic acid significantly attenuated LPS-induced formation of reactive nitrogen species and interleukin-1 beta mRNA expression in J774A.1 cells. Our results indicate that fortifying butterfat with S may attenuate the development of NASH and glucose intolerance in mice.


Assuntos
Manteiga/efeitos adversos , Alimentos Fortificados , Intolerância à Glucose/prevenção & controle , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/prevenção & controle , Óleo de Soja/uso terapêutico , Animais , Arginase/metabolismo , Western Blotting , Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Endotoxinas/sangue , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/sangue , Feminino , Intolerância à Glucose/etiologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , PPAR gama/sangue , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Óleo de Soja/administração & dosagem , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue
3.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33916669

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diets have been a central component of lifestyle modification for decades. The Low-Carbohydrate Diet (LCD), originally conceived as a treatment strategy for intractable epilepsy (due to its association with ketogenesis), became popular in the 1970s and since then has risen to prominence as a weight loss strategy. OBJECTIVE: To explore the efficacy, limitations and potential safety concerns of the LCD. DATA SOURCES: We performed a narrative review, based on relevant articles written in English from a Pubmed search, using the terms 'low carbohydrate diet and metabolic health'. RESULTS: Evidence supports the efficacy of the LCD in the short-term (up to 6-months) for reduction in fat mass and remission of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2D). However, the longer-term efficacy of the LCD is disappointing, with diminishment of weight loss potential and metabolic benefits of the LCD beyond 6-months of its adoption. Furthermore, practical limitations of the LCD include the associated restriction of food choices that restrict the acceptability of the LCD for the individual, particularly over the longer term. There are also safety concerns of the LCD that stem from nutritional imbalances (with a relative excess of dietary fat and protein intake with associated dyslipidaemia and increased risk of insulin resistance and T2D development) and ketotic effects. Finally, the LCD often results in a reduction in dietary fibre intake, with potentially serious adverse consequences for overall health and the gut microbiota. CONCLUSIONS: Although widely adopted, the LCD usually has short-lived metabolic benefits, with limited efficacy and practicality over the longer term. Dietary modification needs tailoring to the individual, with careful a priori assessments of food preferences to ensure acceptability and adherence over the longer term, with avoidance of dietary imbalances and optimization of dietary fibre intake (primarily from plant-based fruit and vegetables), and with a posteriori assessments of the highly individual responses to the LCD. Finally, we need to change our view of diets from simply an excipient for weight loss to an essential component of a healthy lifestyle.


Assuntos
Carboidratos/deficiência , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/dietoterapia , Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos/efeitos adversos , Carboidratos da Dieta/metabolismo , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos/métodos , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Obesidade/metabolismo , Indução de Remissão/métodos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Perda de Peso
4.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33916877

RESUMO

The western dietary pattern is known for its frequent meals rich in saturated fat and protein, resulting in a postprandial state for a large part of the day. Therefore, our aim was to investigate the postprandial glucose and lipid metabolism in response to high (HP) or normal (NP) protein, high-fat hypercaloric diet and to identify early biomarkers of protein intake and hepatic lipid accumulation. In a crossover design, 17 healthy subjects were randomly assigned to consume a HP or NP hypercaloric diet for two weeks. In parallel, a control group (CD; n = 10) consumed a weight-maintaining control diet. Biomarkers of postprandial lipid and glucose metabolism were measured in 24 h urine and in plasma before and following a meal challenge. The metabolic profile of urine but not plasma, showed increased excretion of 13C, carnitine and short chain acyl-carnitines after adaptation to the HP diet. Urinary excretion of decatrienoylcarnitine and octenoylcarnitine increased after adaptation to the NP diet. Our results suggest that the higher excretion of short-chain urinary acyl-carnitines could facilitate the elimination of excess fat of the HP diet and thereby reduce hepatic fat accumulation previously reported, whereas the higher excretion medium-chains acyl-carnitine could be early biomarkers of hepatic lipid accumulation.


Assuntos
Carnitina/análogos & derivados , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Dieta Rica em Proteínas/efeitos adversos , Dieta Ocidental/efeitos adversos , Síndrome Metabólica/diagnóstico , Adulto , Biomarcadores/urina , Carnitina/metabolismo , Carnitina/urina , Estudos Cross-Over , Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Feminino , Glucose/metabolismo , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/fisiologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/metabolismo , Síndrome Metabólica/urina , Período Pós-Prandial/fisiologia , Eliminação Renal/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33920966

RESUMO

Dietary control plays an important role in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). However, few studies have examined the relationship between dietary intake and symptoms of IBS in Koreans. The current cross-sectional study aimed to examine the diet in food consumption and nutrient intake in Korean adults aged 20 to 40 with IBS. The data collected were completed by 857 subjects using a community-based web survey. The questionnaire covered functional bowel disorders based on Rome III, the semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (SQ-FFQ), and the food items causing symptoms. In total, 186 of 857 subjects (21.7%) were diagnosed with IBS. The non-IBS group had a fat intake of 76.9 ± 47.9 g/day, while the IBS group had a fat intake of 86.6 ± 55.1 g/day (p = 0.014). The non-IBS group had a total fermentable oligosaccharide, disaccharide, monosaccharide, and polyol (FODMAP) intake of 12.6 ± 9.7 g/day, whereas the IBS group had a total FODMAP intake of 13.9 ± 9.9 g/day (p = 0.030). Foods that contributed to the onset of symptoms in the IBS group were instant noodles (70.8%), Chinese noodles with vegetables and seafood (68.7%), pizza (67.2%), and black bean sauce noodles (66.3%) which are mostly classified as high fat and high gluten foods. The dietary intake of IBS patients differs from that of non-IBS subjects. Increased intake of gluten-containing or high-fat foods due to the westernized diet caused more IBS symptoms than high FODMAPs and dairy products in Korean adults in their 20 s to 40 s.


Assuntos
Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos/efeitos adversos , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/epidemiologia , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/etiologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos/métodos , Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Gorduras na Dieta/análise , Dissacarídeos , Feminino , Fermentação , Glutens/efeitos adversos , Glutens/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Monossacarídeos , Oligossacarídeos , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(3): 939-949, 2021 03 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33549429

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: There is some promising evidence regarding the beneficial effect of coconut oil on cardiometabolic risk factors. This study aimed to assess the effects of virgin coconut oil (VCO) consumption on metabolic syndrome (MetS) components, as well as, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) in adults with MetS. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this randomized controlled trial, 48 subjects, aged 20-50 years, with MetS were allocated into two groups; the intervention group was given 30 ml of VCO per day to substitute the same amounts of fat in their usual diet for four weeks. The control group was advised to follow their usual diet. VCO consumption significantly reduced serum levels of triglyceride (TG) (P = 0.001), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) (P = 0.001), and fasting blood sugar (FBS) (P = 0.015) compared to the control group. The levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and total cholesterol (TC) were significantly increased in the VCO group when compared to the control group (P = 0.001). Circulatory ADMA also increased in the VCO group compared to the control group (P = 0.003). No significant differences were observed in the LDL-C/HDL-C ratio, anthropometric parameters, and blood pressure measurements between the two groups at the end of the study (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: VCO consumption increased the values of HDL-C while reduced TG and FBS levels. Blood pressure and waist circumference did not change. However, levels of TC, LDL-C, and ADMA elevated by VCO consumption. Caution is warranted until the results of further studies become available to explain the long-term effects of VCO consumption. REGISTRATION NUMBER: IRCT20131125015536N11.


Assuntos
Arginina/análogos & derivados , Glicemia/metabolismo , Óleo de Coco/administração & dosagem , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Lipídeos/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Adulto , Arginina/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Óleo de Coco/efeitos adversos , Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/diagnóstico , Síndrome Metabólica/prevenção & controle , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
7.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 2: CD002777, 2021 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33620090

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In-hospital growth of preterm infants remains a challenge in clinical practice. The high nutrient demands of preterm infants often lead to growth faltering. For preterm infants who cannot be fed maternal or donor breast milk or may require supplementation, preterm formulas with fat in the form of medium chain triglycerides (MCTs) or long chain triglycerides (LCTs) may be chosen to support nutrient utilization and to improve growth. MCTs are easily accessible to the preterm infant with an immature digestive system, and LCTs are beneficial for central nervous system development and visual function. Both have been incorporated into preterm formulas in varying amounts, but their effects on the preterm infant's short-term growth remain unclear. This is an update of a review originally published in 2002, then in 2007. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of formula containing high as opposed to low MCTs on early growth in preterm infants fed a diet consisting primarily of formula.  SEARCH METHODS: We used the standard search strategy of Cochrane Neonatal to search Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2020, Issue 8), in the Cochrane Library; Ovid MEDLINE Epub Ahead of Print, In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE(R) Daily, and Ovid MEDLINE(R); MEDLINE via PubMed for the previous year; and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), on 16 September 2020. We also searched clinical trials databases and the reference lists of retrieved articles for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included all randomized and quasi-randomized trials comparing the effects of feeding high versus low MCT formula (for a minimum of five days) on the short-term growth of preterm (< 37 weeks' gestation) infants. We defined high MCT formula as 30% or more by weight, and low MCT formula as less than 30% by weight. The infants must be on full enteral diets, and the allocated formula must be the predominant source of nutrition. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: The review authors assessed each study's quality and extracted data on growth parameters as well as adverse effects from included studies. All data used in analysis were continuous; therefore, mean differences with 95% confidence intervals were reported. We used the GRADE approach to assess the certainty of evidence. MAIN RESULTS: We identified 10 eligible trials (253 infants) and extracted relevant growth data from 7 of these trials (136 infants). These studies were found to provide evidence of very low to low certainty. Risk of bias was noted, as few studies described specific methods for random sequence generation, allocation concealment, or blinding. We found no evidence of differences in short-term growth parameters when high and low MCT formulas were compared. As compared to low MCT formula, preterm infants fed high MCT formula showed little to no difference in weight gain velocity (g/kg/d) during the intervention, with a typical mean difference (MD) of -0.21 g/kg/d (95% confidence interval (CI) -1.24 to 0.83; 6 studies, 118 infants; low-certainty evidence). The analysis for weight gain (g/d) did not show evidence of differences, with an MD of 0.00 g/d (95% CI -5.93 to 5.93; 1 study, 18 infants; very low-certainty evidence), finding an average weight gain of 20 ± 5.9 versus 20 ± 6.9 g/d for high and low MCT groups, respectively. We found that length gain showed no difference between low and high MCT formulas, with a typical MD of 0.10 cm/week (95% CI -0.09 to 0.29; 3 studies, 61 infants; very low-certainty evidence). Head circumference gain also showed little to no difference during the intervention period, with an MD of -0.04 cm/week (95% CI -0.17 to 0.09; 3 studies, 61 infants; low-certainty evidence). Two studies reported skinfold thickness with different measurement definitions, and evidence was insufficient to determine if there was a difference (2 studies, 32 infants; very low-certainty evidence). There are conflicting data (5 studies) as to formula tolerance, with 4 studies reporting narrative results of no observed clinical difference and 1 study reporting higher incidence of signs of gastrointestinal intolerance in high MCT formula groups. There is no evidence of effect on the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), based on small numbers in two trials. Review authors found no studies addressing long-term growth parameters or neurodevelopmental outcomes. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We found evidence of very low to low certainty suggesting no differences among short-term growth data for infants fed low versus high MCT formulas. Due to lack of evidence and uncertainty, neither formula type could be concluded to improve short-term growth outcomes or have fewer adverse effects. Further studies are necessary because the results from included studies are imprecise due to small numbers and do not address important long-term outcomes. Additional research should aim to clarify effects on formula tolerance and on long-term growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes, and should include larger study populations to better evaluate effect on NEC incidence.


Assuntos
Gorduras na Dieta/análise , Alimentos Infantis/análise , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triglicerídeos/análise , Viés , Estatura , Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Cabeça/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Lactente , Alimentos Infantis/efeitos adversos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Triglicerídeos/efeitos adversos , Triglicerídeos/química , Ganho de Peso
8.
Nutrients ; 13(1)2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33445809

RESUMO

Consumption of trans fatty acids (TFAs) has been unequivocally linked to several adverse health effects, with the increased risk of cardiovascular disease being one of the most well understood. To reduce TFA-related morbidity and mortality, several countries have imposed voluntary or mandatory measures to minimize the content of industrial TFAs (iTFAs) in the food supply. In 2018, Slovenia introduced a ban on iTFAs on top of preceding voluntary calls to industry to reduce its use of partially hydrogenated oils (PHOs) as the main source of iTFAs. To investigate the consumption of TFAs, data available from the nationally representative dietary survey SI.Menu were analyzed. The survey consisted of two 24-h non-consecutive day recalls from 1248 study participants from three age groups (10-17, 18-64, 65-74 years old), combined with socio-demographic, socio-economic, and lifestyle parameters. The analyses demonstrated that, on average, TFAs accounted for 0.38-0.50% of total energy intake (TEI). However, 13% of adolescents, 29.4% of adults, and 41.8% of the elderly population still consumed more than 0.50% TEI with TFAs. The main sources of TFAs in the diet were naturally present TFAs from butter, meat dishes, and meat products, regardless of the age group. Results indicate that following the reformulation activities, the major sources of TFAs in the diets of the Slovenian population now represent foods which are natural sources of TFAs.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Ingestão de Energia , Ácidos Graxos Trans/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Eslovênia/epidemiologia
9.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 113(2): 277-289, 2021 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33471045

RESUMO

SFAs play the leading role in 1 of the greatest controversies in nutrition science. Relative to PUFAs, SFAs generally increase circulating concentrations of LDL cholesterol, a risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). However, the purpose of regulatory mechanisms that control the diet-induced lipoprotein cholesterol dynamics is rarely discussed in the context of human adaptive biology. We argue that better mechanistic explanations can help resolve lingering controversies, with the potential to redefine aspects of research, clinical practice, dietary advice, public health management, and food policy. In this paper we propose a novel model, the homeoviscous adaptation to dietary lipids (HADL) model, which explains changes in lipoprotein cholesterol as adaptive homeostatic adjustments that serve to maintain cell membrane fluidity and hence optimal cell function. Due to the highly variable intake of fatty acids in humans and other omnivore species, we propose that circulating lipoproteins serve as a buffer to enable the rapid redistribution of cholesterol molecules between specific cells and tissues that is necessary with changes in dietary fatty acid supply. Hence, circulating levels of LDL cholesterol may change for nonpathological reasons. Accordingly, an SFA-induced raise in LDL cholesterol in healthy individuals could represent a normal rather than a pathologic response. These regulatory mechanisms may become disrupted secondarily to pathogenic processes in association with insulin resistance and the presence of other ASCVD risk factors, as supported by evidence showing diverging lipoprotein responses in healthy individuals as opposed to those with metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance and obesity. Corresponding with the model, we suggest alternative contributing factors to the association between elevated LDL cholesterol concentrations and ASCVD, involving dietary factors beyond SFAs, such as an increased endotoxin load from diet-gut microbiome interactions and subsequent chronic low-grade inflammation that interferes with fine-tuned signaling pathways.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Colesterol/sangue , Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Modelos Biológicos , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
10.
Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol ; 64(3): 379-390, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351709

RESUMO

Obesity and type 2 diabetes are nutrition-related conditions associated with lung function impairment and pulmonary diseases; however, the underlying pathomechanisms are incompletely understood. Pulmonary surfactant is essential for lung function, and surfactant synthesis by AT2 (alveolar epithelial type 2) cells relies on nutrient uptake. We hypothesized that dietary amounts of carbohydrates or fat affect surfactant homeostasis and composition. Feeding mice a starch-rich diet (StD), sucrose-rich diet (SuD), or fat-rich diet (FaD) for 30 weeks resulted in hypercholesterolemia and hyperinsulinemia compared with a fiber-rich control diet. In SuD and FaD groups, lung mechanic measurements revealed viscoelastic changes during inspiration, indicating surfactant alterations, and interfacial adsorption of isolated surfactant at the air-liquid interface was decreased under FaD. The composition of characteristic phospholipid species was modified, including a shift from dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine (PC16:0/16:0) to palmitoyl-palmitoleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (PC16:0/16:1) in response to carbohydrates and decreased myristic acid-containing phosphatidylcholine species (PC14:0/14:0; PC16:0/14:0) on excess fat intake, as well as higher palmitoyl-oleoyl-phosphatidylglycerol (PG16:0/18:1) and palmitoyl-linoleoyl-phosphatidylglycerol (PG16:0/18:2) fractions in StD, SuD, and FaD groups than in the control diet. Moreover, mRNA expression levels of surfactant synthesis-related proteins within AT2 cells were altered. Under the StD regimen, AT2 cells showed prominent lipid accumulations and smaller lamellar bodies. Thus, in an established mouse model, distinct diet-related surfactant alterations were subtle, yet detectable, and may become challenging under conditions of reduced respiratory capacity. Dietary fat was the only macronutrient significantly affecting surfactant function. This warrants future studies examining alimentary effects on lung surfactant, with special regard to pulmonary complications in obesity and type 2 diabetes.


Assuntos
Carboidratos da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Surfactantes Pulmonares/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais Alveolares/citologia , Células Epiteliais Alveolares/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais Alveolares/metabolismo , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Forma Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucose/metabolismo , Homeostase , Espaço Intracelular/metabolismo , Gotículas Lipídicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Gotículas Lipídicas/metabolismo , Gotículas Lipídicas/ultraestrutura , Pulmão/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fosfolipídeos/sangue
11.
Toxicol Lett ; 339: 23-31, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33359558

RESUMO

Interesterified fat (IF) currently substitutes the hydrogenated vegetable fat (HVF) in processed foods. However, the IF consumption impact on the central nervous system (CNS) has been poorly studied. The current study investigated connections between IF chronic consumption and locomotor impairments in early life period and adulthood of rats and access brain molecular targets related to behavior changes in adulthood offspring. During pregnancy and lactation, female rats received soybean oil (SO) or IF and their male pups received the same maternal supplementation from weaning until adulthood. Pups' motor ability and locomotor activity in adulthood were evaluated. In the adult offspring striatum, dopaminergic targets, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDFN) and lipid profile were quantified. Pups from IF supplementation group presented impaired learning concerning complex motor skill and sensorimotor behavior. The same animals showed decreased locomotion in adulthood. Moreover, IF group showed decreased immunoreactivity of all dopaminergic targets evaluated and GDNF, along with important changes in FA composition in striatum. This study shows that the brain modifications induce by IF consumption resulted in impaired motor control in pups and decreased locomotion in adult animals. Other studies about health damages induced by IF consumption may have a contribution from our current outcomes.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Locomoção/fisiologia , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Sistema Nervoso/metabolismo , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/fisiopatologia , Ácidos Graxos Trans/efeitos adversos , Fatores Etários , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Modelos Animais , Fenômenos Fisiológicos do Sistema Nervoso , Gravidez , Ratos , Ácidos Graxos Trans/metabolismo
12.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 11: 591559, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33324346

RESUMO

Excessive dietary fat intake has extensive impacts on several physiological systems and can lead to metabolic and nonmetabolic disease. In animal models of ingestion, exposure to a high fat diet during pregnancy predisposes offspring to increase intake of dietary fat and causes increase in weight gain that can lead to obesity, and without intervention, these physiological and behavioral consequences can persist for several generations. The hypothalamus is a region of the brain that responds to physiological hunger and fullness and contains orexigenic neuropeptide systems that have long been associated with dietary fat intake. The past fifteen years of research show that prenatal exposure to a high fat diet increases neurogenesis of these neuropeptide systems in offspring brain and are correlated to behavioral changes that induce a pro-consummatory and obesogenic phenotype. Current research has uncovered several potential molecular mechanisms by which excessive dietary fat alters the hypothalamus and involve dietary fatty acids, the immune system, gut microbiota, and transcriptional and epigenetic changes. This review will examine the current knowledge of dietary fat-associated changes in the hypothalamus and the potential pathways involved in modifying the development of orexigenic peptide neurons that lead to changes in ingestive behavior, with a special emphasis on inflammation by chemokines.


Assuntos
Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Ingestão de Alimentos , Transtornos da Nutrição Fetal/patologia , Hipotálamo/patologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/patologia , Animais , Feminino , Transtornos da Nutrição Fetal/etiologia , Transtornos da Nutrição Fetal/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Inflamação/etiologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Neuropeptídeos/metabolismo , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/etiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/metabolismo
13.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0235875, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33022003

RESUMO

The oral lipid tolerance test (OLTT) has been known to assess intestinal fat metabolism and whole-body lipid metabolism, but rodent models for OLTT are not yet established. Differences in OLTT methodology preclude the generation of definitive results, which may cause some confusion about the anti-hypertriglyceridemia effects of the test materials. To standardize and generate more appropriate methodology for the OLTT, we examined the effects of mice strain, dietary lipid sources, fasting period, and gender on lipid-induced hypertriglyceridemia in mice. First, lipid-induced hypertriglyceridemia was more strongly observed in male ddY mice than in C57BL/6N or ICR mice. Second, the administration of olive and soybean oils remarkably represented lipid-induced hypertriglyceridemia. Third, fasting period before the OLTT largely affected the plasma triglyceride elevation. Fasting for 12 h, but less than 48 h, provoked lipid-induced hypertriglyceridemia. Fourth, we explored the suppressive effects of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a green tea polyphenol, on lipid-induced hypertriglyceridemia. The administration of 100 mg/kg of EGCG suppressed lipid-induced hypertriglyceridemia and intestinal lipase activity. Fifth, EGCG-induced suppressive effects were observed after lipid-induced hypertriglyceridemia was observed in male mice, but not in female mice. Lastly, lipid-induced hypertriglyceridemia could be more effectively induced in mice fed a high-fat diet for 1 week before the OLTT. These findings indicate that male ddY mice after 12 h fasting displayed marked lipid-induced hypertriglyceridemia in response to soybean oil. Hence, the defined experiment condition may be a more appropriate OLTT model for evaluating lipid-induced hypertriglyceridemia.


Assuntos
Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Hipertrigliceridemia/sangue , Lipídeos/efeitos adversos , Chá/química , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Animais , Hipertrigliceridemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertrigliceridemia/etiologia , Lipídeos/administração & dosagem , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Ratos Wistar
14.
PLoS Med ; 17(8): e1003234, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764760

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In common with many other low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), rural to urban migrants in India are at increased risk of obesity, but it is unclear whether this is due to increased energy intake, reduced energy expenditure, or both. Knowing this and the relative contribution of specific dietary and physical activity behaviours to greater adiposity among urban migrants could inform policies for control of the obesity epidemic in India and other urbanising LMICs. In the Indian Migration Study, we previously found that urban migrants had greater prevalence of obesity and diabetes compared with their nonmigrant rural-dwelling siblings. In this study, we investigated the relative contribution of energy intake and expenditure and specific diet and activity behaviours to greater adiposity among urban migrants in India. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The Indian Migration Study was conducted between 2005 and 2007. Factory workers and their spouses from four cities in north, central, and south of India, together with their rural-dwelling siblings, were surveyed. Self-reported data on diet and physical activity was collected using validated questionnaires, and adiposity was estimated from thickness of skinfolds. The association of differences in dietary intake, physical activity, and adiposity between siblings was examined using multivariable linear regression. Data on 2,464 participants (median age 43 years) comprised of 1,232 sibling pairs (urban migrant and their rural-dwelling sibling) of the same sex (31% female) were analysed. Compared with the rural siblings, urban migrants had 18% greater adiposity, 12% (360 calories/day) more energy intake, and 18% (11 kilojoules/kg/day) less energy expenditure (P < 0.001 for all). Energy intake and expenditure were independently associated with increased adiposity of urban siblings, accounting for 4% and 6.5% of adiposity difference between siblings, respectively. Difference in dietary fat/oil (10 g/day), time spent engaged in moderate or vigorous activity (69 minutes/day), and watching television (30 minutes/day) were associated with difference in adiposity between siblings, but no clear association was observed for intake of fruits and vegetables, sugary foods and sweets, cereals, animal and dairy products, and sedentary time. The limitations of this study include a cross-sectional design, systematic differences in premigration characteristics of migrants and nonmigrants, low response rate, and measurement error in estimating diet and activity from questionnaires. CONCLUSIONS: We found that increased energy intake and reduced energy expenditure contributed equally to greater adiposity among urban migrants in India. Policies aimed at controlling the rising prevalence of obesity in India and potentially other urbanising LMICs need to be multicomponent, target both energy intake and expenditure, and focus particularly on behaviours such as dietary fat/oil intake, time spent on watching television, and time spent engaged in moderate or vigorous intensity physical activity.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/fisiologia , Dieta/tendências , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , População Rural/tendências , Migrantes , População Urbana/tendências , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato
15.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 30(10): 1673-1678, 2020 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32736955

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The present study analyzes the relation between diet and all-cause mortality in a cohort of Italian men residing in different regions of Italy. METHODS AND RESULTS: The cohort was established using the members of the Associazione Nazionale Alpini, a voluntary organization that enlists individuals who have served in the Alpine troup; a mountain warfare infantry corps of the Italian Army. For the purpose of these analyses a total of 5049 participants were followed for an average of seven years. At baseline information was collected regarding age, education, life style habits, with special emphasis on diet (with the use of a validated dietary questionnaire), smoking and alcohol use. A total of 190 deaths were ascertained. In multivariate analyses the consumption of a Mediterranean type diet was inversely associated with mortality. Additional findings of relevance include: an inverse association between mortality and intake of vegetable fats and proteins, monounsaturated (MUFA) fats of vegetable origins, starch and folic acid. Positive association were evident between mortality and intake of animal fats, MUFA of animal origins and sugar. CONCLUSIONS: This study, focusing on a homogenous cohort characterized by a varied intake and high intake of monounsaturated fats, confirms the inverse association between a Mediterranean type diet and mortality and points out that the nature of the MUFA may be relevant for their effects on health. In addition, the study confirms that fats of animal origins and dietary sugar are associated with an overall deleterious effect on mortality.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte , Dieta Saudável , Dieta Mediterrânea , Comportamento Alimentar , Adulto , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Açúcares da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde Militar , Fatores de Proteção , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
16.
Nat Rev Cancer ; 20(8): 455-469, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32546840

RESUMO

Prostate cancer is a major cause of cancer morbidity and mortality. Intra-prostatic inflammation is a risk factor for prostate carcinogenesis, with diet, chemical injury and an altered microbiome being causally implicated. Intra-prostatic inflammatory cell recruitment and expansion can ultimately promote DNA double-strand breaks and androgen receptor activation in prostate epithelial cells. The activation of the senescence-associated secretory phenotype fuels further 'inflammatory storms', with free radicals leading to further DNA damage. This drives the overexpression of DNA repair and tumour suppressor genes, rendering these genes susceptible to mutagenic insults, with carcinogenesis accelerated by germline DNA repair gene defects. We provide updates on recent advances in elucidating prostate carcinogenesis and explore novel therapeutic and prevention strategies harnessing these discoveries.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/imunologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Próstata/imunologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/imunologia , Receptores Androgênicos/imunologia , Carcinogênese/genética , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/imunologia , Doença Crônica , Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla , Dano ao DNA/genética , Dano ao DNA/imunologia , Reparo do DNA/genética , Reparo do DNA/imunologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Gorduras na Dieta/imunologia , Humanos , Inflamação/etiologia , Inflamação/genética , Masculino , Microbiota/imunologia , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/imunologia , Comunicação Parácrina/imunologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/etiologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Receptores Androgênicos/genética , Microambiente Tumoral/genética , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
17.
J Nutr ; 150(8): 2101-2111, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32470979

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dietary polyphenols including anthocyanins target multiple organs. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the involvement of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), leptin, insulin and fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) in mediating metabolic beneficial effects of purified anthocyanin cyanidin-3-glucoside (Cy3G). METHODS: Intestinal proglucagon gene (Gcg; encoding GLP-1) and liver Fgf21 expression were assessed in 6-wk-old male C57BL-6J mice fed a low-fat-diet (LFD; 10% of energy from fat), alone or with 1.6 mg Cy3G/L in drinking water for 3 wk [experiment (Exp.) 1; n = 5/group]. Similar mice were fed the LFD or a high-fat diet (HFD; 60% energy from fat) with or without Cy3G for 20 wk. Half of the mice administered Cy3G also received 4 broad-spectrum antibiotics (ABs) in drinking water between weeks 11 and 14, for a total of 6 groups (n = 8/group). Metabolic tolerance tests were conducted between weeks 2 and 16. Relevant hormone gene expression and plasma hormone concentrations were assessed mainly at the end of 20 wk (Exp. 2). RESULTS: In Exp. 1, Cy3G administration increased ileal but not colonic Gcg level by 2-fold (P < 0.05). In Exp. 2, Cy3G attenuated HFD-induced body-weight gain (20.3% at week 16), and improved glucose tolerance (26.5% at week 15) but not insulin tolerance. Although Cy3G had no effect on glucose tolerance in LFD mice, LFD/Cy3G/AB mice showed better glucose tolerance than LFD/Cy3G mice (23%). In contrast, HFD/Cy3G/AB mice showed worse glucose tolerance compared with HFD/Cy3G mice (15%). Beneficial effects of Cy3G in HFD mice were not associated with changes in plasma leptin, insulin or GLP-1 concentrations. However, Cy3G increased hepatic Fgf21 expression in mice in Exp. 1 by 4-fold and attenuated Fgf21 overexpression in HFD mice (Exp. 2, 22%), associated with increased expression of genes that encode FGFR1 and ß-klotho (>3-fold, P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Dietary Cy3G may reduce body weight and exert metabolic homeostatic effects in mice via changes in hepatic FGF21.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/farmacologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Intolerância à Glucose , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/metabolismo , Incretinas/genética , Incretinas/metabolismo , Leptina/metabolismo , Fígado , Masculino , Camundongos , Distribuição Aleatória , Perda de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 396: 114997, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32259528

RESUMO

High-fat high-fructose diet (HFF) in obesity can induce dyslipidemia and lipid accumulation both in kidney and liver which related to insulin resistance and lipotoxicity-induced cellular damage. We investigated whether dapagliflozin with or without atorvastatin could improve lipid accumulation-induced kidney and liver injury in HFF-induced insulin resistant rats. Male Wistar rats were fed with HFF for 16 weeks and then received drug treatments for 4 weeks; vehicle, dapagliflozin, atorvastatin and dapagliflozin plus atorvastatin treatment groups. HFF rats demonstrated insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, liver injury and renal dysfunction associated with impaired renal lipid metabolism and lipid accumulation. Dapagliflozin and combination treatment could improve HFF-induced insulin resistance, lipogenesis and lipotoxicity-related renal oxidative stress, inflammation, fibrosis and apoptosis leading to kidney dysfunction recovery. Liver injury-associated inflammation was also improved by these two regimens. Notably, the reduced lipid accumulation in liver and kidney that linked to an improvement of lipid oxidation was prominent in the combination treatment. Therefore, dapagliflozin combined with atorvastatin treatment exert the beneficial effects on lipid metabolism and lipotoxicity in liver and kidney injury via the attenuation of oxidative stress, fibrosis and apoptosis in insulin resistant model.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Atorvastatina/uso terapêutico , Compostos Benzidrílicos/uso terapêutico , Carboidratos da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Fígado Gorduroso/tratamento farmacológico , Frutose/efeitos adversos , Glucosídeos/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Resistência à Insulina , Animais , Atorvastatina/administração & dosagem , Compostos Benzidrílicos/administração & dosagem , Western Blotting , Carboidratos da Dieta/farmacologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Frutose/farmacologia , Glucosídeos/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
20.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 7072, 2020 04 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32341369

RESUMO

Balloon catheter endothelial denudation in New Zealand white rabbits fed high cholesterol diet is a validated atherosclerosis model. Well-characterized in terms of atherosclerosis induction and progression, the metabolic changes associated with the atherosclerosis progression remain indeterminate. Non-targeted metabolomics permits to develop such elucidation and allows to evaluate the metabolic consequences of colchicine treatment, an anti-inflammatory drug that could revert these changes. 16 rabbits underwent 18 weeks of atherosclerosis induction by diet and aortic denudation. Thereafter animals were randomly assigned to colchicine treatment or placebo for 18 weeks while on diet. Plasma samples were obtained before randomization and at 36 weeks. Multiplatform (GC/MS, CE/MS, RP-HPLC/MS) metabolomics was applied. Plasma fingerprints were pre-processed, and the resulting matrixes analyzed to unveil differentially expressed features. Different chemical annotation strategies were accomplished for those significant features. We found metabolites associated with either atherosclerosis progression, or colchicine treatment, or both. Atherosclerosis was profoundly associated with an increase in circulating bile acids. Most of the changes associated with sterol metabolism could not be reverted by colchicine treatment. However, the variations in lysine, tryptophan and cysteine metabolism among others, have shown new potential mechanisms of action of the drug, also related to atherosclerosis progression, but not previously described.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Colchicina/farmacologia , Animais , Aterosclerose/sangue , Aterosclerose/induzido quimicamente , Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Gorduras na Dieta/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Metabolômica , Coelhos , Distribuição Aleatória
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