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1.
Int J Exp Pathol ; 100(3): 153-160, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31321834

RESUMO

Animal models are widely used to study the physiopathology of human diseases. However, the influence of gender on modern society diet style-induced cardiovascular disease has not thus far been explored in these models. Thus, this study investigated cardiovascular remodelling in C57BL/6J mice fed a diet rich in saturated fat, sucrose and salt, evaluating gender effect on this process. Male and female C57BL/6J mice were fed AIN93M diet or a modified AIN93M rich in fat, sucrose and salt (HFSS) for 12 weeks. Body mass, water and food intake and cardiovascular remodelling were assessed. The HFSS diet did not lead to body mass gain or glucose metabolism disturbance as assessed by serum glucose, insulin and oral glucose tolerance test. However, female mice on a HFSS diet had increased visceral and subcutaneous adiposity. Only male mice displayed heart hypertrophy. The left ventricle was not hypertrophied in either male or female mice, but its lumen was dilated. Intramyocardial arteries and the thoracic aorta showed media thickening in male mice, but in the female it was only observed in the thoracic aorta. Finally, intramyocardial artery dilation was present in both genders, but not in the aorta. Therefore changes in LV dimensions and arterial remodelling were influenced by both gender and the HFSS diet. In conclusion, male and female C57BL/6J mice suffered cardiovascular remodelling after 12 weeks of HFSS feeding, although they did not develop obesity or diabetes. Sexual dimorphism occurred in response to diet for body adiposity, heart hypertrophy and intramyocardial artery remodelling.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica , Obesidade/metabolismo , Sacarose/metabolismo , Animais , Gorduras na Dieta/farmacologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Modelos Animais , Caracteres Sexuais
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(24): e15855, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31192916

RESUMO

To investigate the relationship between dietary fatty acid (FA) intake and the lactate FA levels in Chinese women.A total of 2007 samples from 5 regions of China were collected, including 431 in Shandong, 402 in Changchun, 419 in Chongqing, 398 in Guangzhou, and 357 women in Hohhot. All participants were mothers of healthy full-term newborns, collecting the foremilk from day 1 to day 7 and the mature breast milk on day 42 after delivery. The FA composition of the breast milk was analyzed by high resolution capillary gas chromatography.The total FA content of mature breast milk in Shandong was the highest (34.95 g/L), and that was the lowest in Guangzhou (29.72 g/L). The saturated FA content of breast milk was increased from 1 to 7 days after delivery and decreased in mature breast milk. The saturated FA content of breast milk in Hohhot was the highest (37.43%), but that was the lowest in Changchun (32.80%). Maternal dietary FA composition was positively correlated with saturated FAs (SFA), polyunsaturated FAs (PUFA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (P < .001), and negatively with monounsaturated FAs (MUFA) (P > .05) in breast milk.The FA content of breast milk is different in different regions of China, which was affected by maternal dietary FA composition. Lactating women in China should consume more foods rich in polyunsaturated FAs to ensure the growth of infant.


Assuntos
Gorduras na Dieta/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Leite Humano/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , China , Cromatografia Gasosa , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Idade Materna , Leite Humano/química , Estudos Prospectivos
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31071453

RESUMO

An 8 week experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary fat on growth and on the accumulation of lipids and the expression of lipid metabolism-related microRNAs (miRNAs) and genes in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Two diets (normal fat diet (NFD), 60 g/kg lipid content; high fat diet (HFD), 160 g/kg lipid content) were fed to triplicate groups of 35 fish [initial weight of (40.0 ±â€¯0.5) g]. The results showed that increased dietary fat did not lead to significant differences in the feed conversion rate (FCR) and specific growth rate (SGR) (P > .05), but the HFD significantly increased the hepatosomatic index (HSI) (P < .05). The serum high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDLC) level was significantly increased in the HFD group (P < .05). Oil Red O staining showed that both the size and amounts of lipid droplets in the liver of fish fed a diet with 2 g/kg lipid content increased significantly. In the liver of fish fed with 160 g/kg dietary fat, the expression of mir-33a, mir-30, mir-122 and mir-16 significantly decreased (P < .05). In contrast, the expression of sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1 (SREBP1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), liver X receptor alpha (LXRα) and ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) significantly increased (P < .05). In conclusion, 2 g/kg dietary fat did not influence growth but altered the expression of miRNAs and genes related to lipid metabolism in the liver of grass carp, which caused severe lipid deposition.


Assuntos
Carpas/metabolismo , Gorduras na Dieta/farmacologia , Proteínas de Peixes/biossíntese , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/biossíntese , Animais
4.
Cell Physiol Biochem ; 52(5): 1151-1165, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30990585

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Adipocyte hypertrophy in obesity is associated with inflammation and adipose tissue fibrosis which both contribute to metabolic diseases. Mechanisms regulating lipid droplet expansion are poorly understood. Knock down of the scaffold protein beta 2 syntrophin (SNTB2) increases lipid droplet size of 3T3-L1 adipocytes and the physiological relevance of SNTB2 in adipose tissue morphology and metabolic health was analyzed herein. METHODS: Wild type and SNTB2-/- mice were challenged with 24 weeks high fat diet. Adipose tissue morphology and expression of various genes / proteins including collagens and caveolin-1 was examined. Glucose, insulin, fasting and fed free fatty acids were measured in serum. SNTB2 expression was determined in adipose tissues of patients. RESULTS: Upon high fat diet SNTB2-/- mice displayed reduced adiposity and adipocyte hypertrophy. Expression of various proteins was normal in the different white fat depots of SNTB2-/- mice while caveolin-1 protein and collagen mRNA levels were diminished. Null mice had reduced systemic glucose while fasting and postprandial insulin and insulin response were normal. Fatty acid clearance in the fed state and after insulin injection was enhanced. SNTB2 and caveolin-1 were increased in fat of ob/ob mice. However, no correlation between body mass index and SNTB2 protein in adipose tissues of seven patients was found. In subcutaneous but not in visceral fat the ratio of SNTB2 to alpha syntrophin protein, which affects lipid droplet size in the opposite manner, was associated with BMI. In subcutaneous fat of extremely obese patients SNTB2 mRNA levels were not correlated with weight loss after bariatric surgery. CONCLUSION: Current study shows that high SNTB2 in obese adipose tissues restricts adipocyte growth and thereby may contribute to metabolic diseases.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/metabolismo , Gorduras na Dieta/farmacologia , Proteínas Associadas à Distrofina , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Obesidade/metabolismo , Período Pós-Prandial , Adipócitos/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Caveolina 1/genética , Caveolina 1/metabolismo , Proteínas Associadas à Distrofina/genética , Proteínas Associadas à Distrofina/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/patologia
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31004746

RESUMO

The replacement of fish oil (FO) with other lipid sources (e.g. animal fats, AF) in aquafeeds improves the sustainability of aquaculture, even though alternatives have different fatty acid (FA) profiles. FO contains a higher proportion of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) than AF. LC-PUFAs have key physiological roles, despite limited biosynthetic capacity in marine fish. Therefore, replacing FO in feeds may limit physiological responses when fish face environmental challenges such as an acute change in salinity. To test this hypothesis, juvenile seabass (62.6 ±â€¯1.6 g, 50 fish/ 500 L tank) were fed three different isoproteic and isolipidic diets in which the replacement levels of FO by AF varied (0%, 75% or 100% AF). Fish were fed the experimental diets at 2% their body weight (BW) daily for 85 days (20.0 ±â€¯1.0 °C; 35‰). Thereafter, half of the fish were transferred to tanks at 15‰ or 35‰ salinity and sampled at 24 h and 72 h. Plasma osmolality, Na+, glucose, cholesterol and lactate levels were altered by the changing salinity, although cortisol remained unchanged. Standard metabolic rate was similar irrespective of the experimental factors. However, maximal metabolic rate decreased by 4-10% in fish subjected to a 15‰ salinity. Intestinal chymotrypsin activity was modified by the diet, with this digestive enzyme along with trypsin showing a two-fold increase in activity at 15‰ salinity. Hepatic lipid peroxidation (LPO) showed a ~1.4-fold increase at 15‰ salinity. Additionally, LPO and glutathione reductase activity were ~1.6-fold higher in fish fed the FO diet. Citrate synthase activity in gills was increased in fish fed the 100% AF diet. Therefore, both dietary replacement of FO by AF and environmental salinity have an impact on the metabolic response of seabass, although interactions between both factors (diet and salinity) are negligible in the metabolic parameters investigated. The results are relevant to the aquaculture industry considering the potential usage of AF to replace FO in aquafeeds and because of the variations in salinity experienced by fish cultured in transitional waters.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Aquicultura/métodos , Bass/metabolismo , Gorduras na Dieta/farmacologia , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Salinidade , Animais , Óleos de Peixe/farmacologia
6.
J Anim Sci ; 97(6): 2583-2597, 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30982899

RESUMO

The use of distiller's grains (DG) in beef cattle finishing diets is a common practice. However, the effects of supplemental fat on performance and nutrient losses of cattle fed diets containing DG are not known. Therefore, we fed 398 crossbred yearling heifers (initial BW = 373.5 kg) for 106 d to determine the effects of dietary fat concentration and sorghum-based wet distiller's grains with solubles (SWDGS) on performance, carcass characteristics, and nutrient losses of finishing cattle. Treatments included two 92% concentrate, steam-flaked corn (SFC)-based diets with 0% or 3% added fat from yellow grease and 3 SFC-based diets with 15% SWDGS (DM basis) that contained either 0%, 1.5%, or 3% added fat (8 pens per treatment) in a randomized block design. Overall DMI and ADG were 5% to 6% greater (P < 0.01) for heifers fed 15% SWDGS than for those fed 0% SWDGS. Among heifers fed 15% SWDGS, DMI was greatest (P = 0.04; quadratic effect) and ADG tended (P = 0.12; quadratic effect) to be greatest for heifers fed 1.5% fat. The ADG:DMI did not differ between 0% SWDGS with 0% or 3% fat, and was not altered by replacing a portion of SFC with SWDGS (P > 0.36). However, ADG:DMI tended to increase as more fat was added to diets with 15% SWDGS (P = 0.06). Average hot carcass weight (HCW) was 5 kg greater (P = 0.05) when SWDGS was fed, but HCW tended to be greatest for heifers fed 15% SWDGS with 1.5% fat (P = 0.09, quadratic effect). Heifers fed 0% SWDGS with 0% fat tended to have a lower marbling score, less rib fat, lower average yield grade (P < 0.08), and more (P < 0.01) yield grade 1 carcasses than heifers fed 0% SWDGS with 3% fat. Averaged across fat levels, heifers fed 15% SWDGS had more rib fat and a higher yield grade (P < 0.03) than heifers fed 0% SWDGS. Feeding 15% SWDGS did not alter carcass quality grade distribution compared to feeding 0% SWDGS, but 15% SWDGS produced fewer yield grade 3 carcasses (P = 0.03) than 0% SWDGS. The calculated NEg of SWDGS (1.36 Mcal/kg) was 91% of the tabular value for dry rolled corn (1.50 Mcal/kg) and 84% of the tabular value for SFC (1.62 Mcal/kg). Nitrogen intake, and N excretion were greater (P < 0.05) in heifers fed 15% SWDGS than in heifers fed the 0% SWDGS diets, but N loss as a % of N intake was less (P < 0.05). Our results suggest adding 1.5% fat to diets containing 15% SWDGS may improve beef cattle performance; however, feeding logistics need to be considered when pricing wet DG.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Bovinos/fisiologia , Gorduras na Dieta/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Métodos de Alimentação/veterinária , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Animais , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Feminino , Nutrientes , Sorghum , Vapor , Zea mays
7.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr ; 74(2): 216-222, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30838503

RESUMO

Shortbread biscuits have become one of the most desirable snacks in all population groups but due to its high fat content it is searching for new solutions of fat reduction such as the use of carbohydrate-based fat mimetics. However, the thermal processing of food containing lipids in the presence of certain carbohydrates can contribute to the formation of toxic compounds or alter its levels. Therefore, the aim of the study was to evaluate the use of inulin and pectin gels as partial fat replacers (10-40%) in classical shortbread biscuits in a view of the changes of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol ester (3-MCPDE) and glycidyl ester (GE) levels after baking, and also after a two-months storage. The experiment showed that the amount of inulin gel higher than 10% promoted the endogenous formation of 3-MCPDE probably due to the higher amount of Maillard products formed in the biscuits, but after two months the levels decreased and were comparable with those transferred from shortening. Pectin did not demonstrate such phenomenon, owing to the presence of bound water in gel. Glycidyl esters were partially decomposed during baking and also during storage, particularly in the samples with the addition of pectin gel, which presumably caused by low stability of GE under acidic conditions resulting from the occurrence of galacturonic acid in pectin.


Assuntos
Carboidratos/farmacologia , Gorduras na Dieta/farmacologia , Compostos de Epóxi/análise , Substitutos da Gordura/farmacologia , alfa-Cloridrina/análise , Pão , Ésteres/análise , Análise de Alimentos , Inulina/farmacologia , Pectinas/farmacologia
8.
Fish Physiol Biochem ; 45(3): 1117-1127, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30847627

RESUMO

The activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), DNA damage-inducible transcript 3 (DDIT3), growth arrest, and DNA damage-inducible protein 34 (GADD34), endoplasmic reticulum oxidoreductin 1α (ERO1α), and tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor 2 (TRAF2) cDNAs were first characterized from yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. Compared to corresponding genes of mammals, all of these proteins shared similar conserved domains. Their mRNAs were widely expressed in various tissues, but at variable levels. Dietary lipid levels did not significantly influence ATF4 mRNA expression. mRNA expression of DDIT3 and GADD34 was highest for fish fed the low-lipid diets and lowest for fish fed middle-lipid diets. The mRNA levels of ERO1α and TRAF2 declined with increasing dietary lipid levels. For the first time, we characterized the full-length cDNA sequences of ATF4, DDIT3, GADD34, ERO1α, and TRAF2 and determined their tissue expression profiles and transcriptional responses to dietary lipid levels, which would contribute to our exploration into their biological functions, and providing new insights on relations between ER stress and lipid metabolism in fish.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Peixes-Gato/metabolismo , Gorduras na Dieta/farmacologia , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Filogenia , Distribuição Aleatória
9.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0210828, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30735525

RESUMO

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the main causes of chronic liver disease. NAFLD begins with excessive lipid accumulation in the liver and progresses to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and cirrhosis. NAFLD is closely linked to dysregulated hepatic lipid metabolism. Although recent studies have reported that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling regulates lipid metabolism, the roles of EGFR and EGFR inhibitors as modulators of lipid metabolism are largely unknown. Here, we investigated whether inhibiting EGFR using the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) PD153035 improves NAFLD. Our results demonstrate that EGFR was activated in liver tissues from high fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD mice. Inhibiting EGFR using PD153035 significantly reduced phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B signaling and sterol responsive elementary binding protein 1 and 2 expression, which prevented HFD-induced hepatic steatosis and hypercholesterolemia by reducing de novo lipogenesis and cholesterol synthesis and enhancing fatty acid oxidation. Additionally, inhibiting EGFR improved HFD-induced glucose intolerance. In conclusion, these results indicate that EGFR plays an important role in NAFLD and is a potential therapeutic target.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Receptores ErbB/antagonistas & inibidores , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Quinazolinas/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Gorduras na Dieta/farmacologia , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Humanos , Lipogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/induzido quimicamente , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/enzimologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia
10.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(4): 3000-3009, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30799102

RESUMO

The effects of feeding rumen-inert fat sources on production responses of lactating dairy cows have been well reported but less thoroughly described in lactating dairy buffalo. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of oil and 2 different rumen-inert fat sources on dry matter intake, milk yield, milk composition, and milk fatty acid (FA) profile in Nili Ravi buffalo. Twelve multiparous mid-lactating Nili Ravi buffaloes received 4 treatments in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with a period length of 21 d. The treatments were (1) the basal diet without supplementation of oil or fats (CTRL), (2) the basal diet supplemented with canola oil (CO), (3) the basal diet supplemented with calcium salts of palm FA (Ca-FA), and (4) the basal diet supplemented with high palmitic acid (PA). Dry matter intake was decreased by 4.4% in the CO compared with Ca-FA and PA. Milk yield and milk fat yield were increased by 7.8 and 14.3%, respectively, in CO, Ca-FA, and PA compared with the CTRL. Milk fat content increased by 7.5%, whereas milk fat yield tended to increase with the supplementation of Ca-FA and PA compared with CO. No effect on milk yield and milk composition was observed in Ca-FA versus PA treatments. The yield of medium-chain FA was increased by Ca-FA and PA versus CO. The CO treatment increased the yield of long-chain FA compared with Ca-FA and PA treatments. Plasma glucose level was higher in CO, Ca-FA, and PA compared with the CTRL. In conclusion, feeding rumen-inert fats in the lactating buffalo diet proved to be a useful strategy to increase the 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield due to the higher milk fat content in this study.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Búfalos/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Gorduras na Dieta/farmacologia , Lactação , Leite , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Feminino , Leite/química , Ácido Palmítico/farmacologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Óleo de Brassica napus/farmacologia , Rúmen
11.
PLoS One ; 14(1): e0211071, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30677086

RESUMO

The roles of retinoids in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) remain unclear and a better understanding may lead to therapies that prevent or limit NAFLD progression. We examined the actions of retinoic acid receptor (RAR) agonists- AM80 for RARα and AC261066 for RARß2- in a murine model of NAFLD. We fed wild type C57Bl/6 mice a chow or a 45% high fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks, followed by 4 additional weeks with the HFD+AM80; HFD+AC261066; or HFD. The HFD+AM80 group showed greater hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance compared to other groups. Histopathological evaluation of the livers showed the highest degree of steatosis, triglycerides levels, and inflammation, assessed by F4/80 staining, in the HFD+AM80-treated compared to the HFD, the HFD+AC261066, and chow-fed mice. Liver vitamin A (retinol (ROL)) and retinyl palmitate levels were markedly lower in all HFD groups compared to chow-fed controls. HFD+AC261066-treated mice showed higher levels of a key intracellular ROL transporter, retinol-binding protein-1 (RBP1) compared to the HFD and HFD+AM80 groups. In conclusion, these data demonstrate that the selective RARα agonist AM80 exacerbates HFD-induced NAFLD and hyperglycemia. These findings should inform future studies examining the therapeutic potential of RAR agonists in HFD-related disorders.


Assuntos
Benzoatos/farmacologia , Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Fígado/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Tetra-Hidronaftalenos/farmacologia , Tiazóis/farmacologia , Animais , Gorduras na Dieta/farmacologia , Intolerância à Glucose/induzido quimicamente , Intolerância à Glucose/tratamento farmacológico , Intolerância à Glucose/metabolismo , Intolerância à Glucose/patologia , Hiperglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Hiperglicemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperglicemia/metabolismo , Hiperglicemia/patologia , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/induzido quimicamente , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Receptores do Ácido Retinoico/agonistas , Receptores do Ácido Retinoico/metabolismo , Proteínas Celulares de Ligação ao Retinol/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo , Vitamina A/metabolismo
12.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 109(2): 433-441, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30649213

RESUMO

Background: For low-carbohydrate diets, a public health approach has focused on the replacement of carbohydrates with unsaturated fats. However, little research exists on the impacts of saturated fat intake on the lipid profile in the context of whole-food-based low-carbohydrate weight-loss diets. Objectives: The primary aim of this secondary analysis of the DIETFITS weight loss trial was to evaluate the associations between changes in percentage of dietary saturated fatty acid intake (%SFA) and changes in low-density lipoproteins, high-density lipoproteins, and triglyceride concentrations for those following a healthy low-carbohydrate (HLC) diet. The secondary aim was to examine these associations specifically for HLC dieters who had the highest 12-month increases in %SFA. Methods: In the DIETFITS trial, 609 generally healthy adults, aged 18-50 years, with body mass indices of 28-40 kg/m2 were randomly assigned to a healthy low-fat (HLF) or HLC diet for 12 months. In this analysis, linear regression, both without and with adjustment for potential confounders, was used to measure the association between 12-month change in %SFA and blood lipids in 208 HLC participants with complete diet and blood lipid data. Results: Participants consumed an average of 12-18% of calories from SFA. An increase of %SFA, without significant changes in absolute saturated fat intake, over 12 months was associated with a statistically significant decrease in triglycerides in the context of a weight-loss study in which participants simultaneously decreased carbohydrate intake. The association between increase in %SFA and decrease in triglycerides was no longer significant when adjusting for 12-month change in carbohydrate intake, suggesting carbohydrate intake may be a mediator of this relationship. Conclusions: Those on a low-carbohydrate weight-loss diet who increase their percentage intake of dietary saturated fat may improve their overall lipid profile provided they focus on a high-quality diet and lower their intakes of both calories and refined carbohydrates. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01826591.


Assuntos
Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos , Dieta Redutora , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras na Dieta/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos/farmacologia , Lipídeos/sangue , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Registros de Dieta , Carboidratos da Dieta/normas , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Energia , Ácidos Graxos/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Dieta Saudável , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Perda de Peso , Adulto Jovem
13.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids ; 1864(4): 466-488, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30658097

RESUMO

With obesity rates reaching epidemic proportions, more studies concentrated on reducing the risk and treating this epidemic are vital. Redox stress is an important metabolic regulator involved in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease, Type 2 diabetes, and obesity. Oxygen and nitrogen-derived free radicals alter glucose and lipid homeostasis in key metabolic tissues, leading to increases in risk of developing metabolic syndrome. Oxidants derived from dietary fat differ in their metabolic regulation, with numerous studies showing benefits from a high omega 3 rich diet compared to the frequently consumed "western diet" rich in saturated fat. Omega 3 (OM3) fatty acids improve lipid profile, lower inflammation, and ameliorate insulin resistance, possibly through maintaining redox homeostasis. This study is based on the hypothesis that altering endogenous antioxidant production and/or increasing OM3 rich diet consumption will improve energy metabolism and maintain insulin sensitivity. We tested the comparative metabolic effects of a diet rich in saturated fat (HFD) and an omega 3-enriched diet (OM3) in the newly developed 'stress-less' mice model that overexpresses the endogenous antioxidant catalase. Eight weeks of dietary intervention showed that mice overexpressing endogenous catalase compared to their wild-type controls when fed an OM3 enriched diet, in contrast to HFD, activated GPR120-Nrf2 cross-talk to maintain balanced energy metabolism, normal circadian rhythm, and insulin sensitivity. These findings suggest that redox regulation of GPR120/FFAR4 might be an important target in reducing risk of metabolic syndrome and associated diseases.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/metabolismo , Animais , Composição Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Catalase/genética , Catalase/metabolismo , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras na Dieta/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/farmacologia , Resistência à Insulina , Camundongos
14.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(3): 2714-2723, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30660414

RESUMO

Diets that contain high proportions of either wheat or supplementary fat have been individually reported to reduce enteric methane production. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of dietary fat supplementation on methane emissions and milk yield from cows fed diets containing either corn or wheat grains. It was hypothesized that cows fed a diet containing wheat would produce less methane and have lower methane yield (methane per kg of dry matter intake; MY) than cows fed a diet containing corn and that methane mitigation from fat supplementation would occur irrespective of the type of grain in the basal diet. The experiment involved 32 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows allocated to 1 of 4 treatment groups (n = 8) and individually fed different diets restricted to approximately 90% of their mean ad libitum intake measured during a covariate period. All animals were offered 11.5 kg of dry matter/d of alfalfa hay, 1.8 kg of dry matter/d of solvent-extracted canola meal, and 1 of 4 dietary supplements. Dietary supplements were 8 kg of dry matter/d of either corn or wheat, or these same treatments with the addition of 0.8 kg of canola oil. In this 5-wk experiment, d 1 to 7 served as the covariate period, d 8 to 14 as the transition period, d 15 to 28 as the adaptation period, and d 29 to 35 as the experimental period. Cows were fed their full treatment diets from d 15 to 35 during which time milk production and feed intake were measured daily. During d 29 to 35, methane production was measured for individual cows daily using the sulfur hexafluoride tracer method. The resulting averages for milk production and feed intake were analyzed by analysis of covariance with factorial grain by fat as treatment structure, animal as the unit within blocks, and the corresponding milk production or feed intake covariate averages as principal covariate. Data on milk fatty acids, ruminal fluid data on pH, ammonia, volatile fatty acids, protozoa, and methane were analyzed by ANOVA using the same treatment and blocking structures excluding the principal covariate. Cows fed a diet containing wheat had greater MY than cows fed a diet containing corn. Irrespective of the type of grain in the diet, increasing the fat concentration from 2 to 6% dry matter reduced MY. It is concluded that the grain component in the basal diet does not affect the mitigating effects of dietary fat supplements on MY.


Assuntos
Bovinos , Gorduras na Dieta/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Metano/metabolismo , Triticum , Zea mays , Animais , Indústria de Laticínios , Dieta/veterinária , Grão Comestível , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Feminino , Lactação , Leite/química , Poaceae
15.
Nutrients ; 11(1)2019 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30669704

RESUMO

Sucrose overfeeding increases intrahepatocellular (IHCL) and intramyocellular (IMCL) lipid concentrations in healthy subjects. We hypothesized that these effects would be modulated by diet protein/fat content. Twelve healthy men and women were studied on two occasions in a randomized, cross-over trial. On each occasion, they received a 3-day 12% protein weight maintenance diet (WM) followed by a 6-day hypercaloric high sucrose diet (150% energy requirements). On one occasion the hypercaloric diet contained 5% protein and 25% fat (low protein-high fat, LP-HF), on the other occasion it contained 20% protein and 10% fat (high protein-low fat, HP-LF). IHCL and IMCL concentrations (magnetic resonance spectroscopy) and energy expenditure (indirect calorimetry) were measured after WM, and again after HP-LF/LP-HF. IHCL increased from 25.0 ± 3.6 after WM to 147.1 ± 26.9 mmol/kg wet weight (ww) after LP-HF and from 30.3 ± 7.7 to 57.8 ± 14.8 after HP-LF (two-way ANOVA with interaction: p < 0.001 overfeeding x protein/fat content). IMCL increased from 7.1 ± 0.6 to 8.8 ± 0.7 mmol/kg ww after LP-HF and from 6.2 ± 0.6 to 6.9 ± 0.6 after HP-LF, (p < 0.002). These results indicate that liver and muscle fat deposition is enhanced when sucrose overfeeding is associated with a low protein, high fat diet compared to a high protein, low fat diet.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Dieta , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Sacarose na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Adiposidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas/efeitos adversos , Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Gorduras na Dieta/farmacologia , Proteínas na Dieta/farmacologia , Ingestão de Energia , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipídeos , Fígado/citologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/citologia , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
16.
Nutrients ; 11(1)2019 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30626117

RESUMO

Inflammation and its resolution is a tenuous balance that is under constant contest. Though several regulatory mechanisms are employed to maintain homeostasis, disruptions in the regulation of inflammation can lead to detrimental effects for the host. Of note, the gut and microbial dysbiosis are implicated in the pathology of systemic chronic low-grade inflammation which has been linked to several metabolic diseases. What remains to be described is the extent to which dietary fat and concomitant changes in the gut microbiota contribute to, or arise from, the onset of metabolic disorders. The present review will highlight the role of microorganisms in host energy regulation and several mechanisms that contribute to inflammatory pathways. This review will also discuss the immunomodulatory effects of the endocannabinoid system and its link with the gut microbiota. Finally, a brief discussion arguing for improved taxonomic resolution (at the species and strain level) is needed to deepen our current knowledge of the microbiota and host inflammatory state.


Assuntos
Dieta , Gorduras na Dieta/farmacologia , Disbiose , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/microbiologia , Doenças Metabólicas/patologia , Animais , Disbiose/complicações , Endocanabinoides/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/patologia , Humanos , Inflamação/complicações , Doenças Metabólicas/etiologia , Doenças Metabólicas/metabolismo , Doenças Metabólicas/microbiologia , Especificidade da Espécie
17.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(2): 1630-1641, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30594381

RESUMO

Increases in milk replacer dietary energy subsequently increase growth and weight in preweaned dairy heifers. However, the underlying effects of dietary component increases on key functional pathways have yet to be fully investigated. Elucidating these relationships may provide insights into the mechanisms through which protein and fat are partitioned for tissue growth and metabolism. We hypothesized that genes within key growth and metabolic pathways would be differentially expressed between calves fed a protein- and fat-restricted diet and calves fed a protein- and fat-enhanced diet. The objectives of this study were to (1) identify genes differentially expressed between dietary restricted calves and enhanced calves and (2) determine the key regulatory pathways influenced by these genes. Preweaned Holstein heifers (n = 12; 6 ± 0.02 d of age) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 milk replacer diets: enhanced (28.9% crude protein, 26.2% fat; n = 6) or restricted (20.9% crude protein, 19.8% fat; n = 6). Growth measures included average daily gain and gain-to-feed ratio. After 56 d, calves were killed for tissue collection. Samples from longissimus dorsi, adipose, and liver tissues were collected and RNA was isolated for RNA sequencing analysis. The MIXED procedure of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) was used to evaluate relationships of growth with dietary energy. Fixed effects included date of collection and time (day). Random effects included sire and birth weight. The RNA sequencing analysis was performed using CLC Genomics Workbench (Qiagen, Germantown, MD), and the Robinson and Smith exact test was used to identify differentially expressed genes between diets. The Protein Analysis Through Evolutionary Relationships (PANTHER) database was then used to identify functional categories of differentially expressed genes. Enhanced calves had increased growth rates and feed efficiency compared with restricted calves (average daily gain = 0.76 and 0.22, respectively; gain-to-feed ratio = 0.10 and 0.06, respectively). There were 238 differentially expressed genes in adipose, 227 in longissimus dorsi, and 40 in liver. We identified 10 genes concordant among tissues. As expected, functional analyses suggested that the majority of genes were associated with metabolic or cellular processes, predominantly cell communication and cell cycle. Overall, it appears that varying levels of dietary protein and fat influence calf growth and development through metabolic processes, including oxidative phosphorylation and glyceroneogenesis. However, protein- and fat-restricted calves appeared to experience metabolic stress at a cellular level, as evidenced by an upregulation in stress response pathways, including genes in the p53 pathway. Calves could be fed at a higher level of protein and fat to decrease the prevalence of metabolic stress at the cellular level, but evidence indicating the presence of inflammatory stress and adipose fibrosis in enhanced calves prompts further investigation of the effects of milk replacer component levels.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Bovinos , Gorduras na Dieta/farmacologia , Proteínas na Dieta/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Leite , Obesidade , Transcriptoma , Desmame
18.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 17835, 2018 12 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30546028

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that an experimental high fat (HF) animal with metabolic syndrome results in structural degeneration of the aortic valve. Domestic pigs were divided (n = 12) and administered either a normal or HF diet. After 16-weeks, the HF diet group had increased weight (p ≤ 0.05), total cholesterol (p ≤ 0.05), and systolic and diastolic pressure (p ≤ 0.05). The aortic valve extracellular matrix showed loss of elastin fibers and increased collagen deposition in the HF diet group. Collagen was quantified with ELISA, which showed an increased concentration of collagen types 1 and 3 (p ≤ 0.05). In the HF diet group, the initial stages of microcalcification were observed. Uniaxial mechanical testing of aortic cusps revealed that the HF diet group expressed a decrease in ultimate tensile strength and elastic modulus compared to the control diet group (p ≤ 0.05). Western blot and immunohistochemistry indicated the presence of proteins: lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2, osteopontin, and osteocalcin with an increased expression in the HF diet group. The current study demonstrates that experimental metabolic syndrome induced by a 16-week HF diet was associated with a statistically significant alteration to the physical architecture of the aortic valve.


Assuntos
Valva Aórtica , Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas , Síndrome Metabólica , 1-Alquil-2-acetilglicerofosfocolina Esterase/metabolismo , Animais , Valva Aórtica/metabolismo , Valva Aórtica/patologia , Gorduras na Dieta/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Matriz Extracelular/patologia , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/induzido quimicamente , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/metabolismo , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/patologia , Síndrome Metabólica/induzido quimicamente , Síndrome Metabólica/metabolismo , Síndrome Metabólica/patologia , Osteocalcina/metabolismo , Osteopontina/metabolismo , Suínos
19.
Nutr Res ; 60: 106-115, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30527254

RESUMO

Obesity induced by high-fat diets (HFDs) is inversely associated with vitamin D status and bone health. However, the associations and effects of excessive fat intake on hepatic and renal vitamin D metabolism have not been addressed. The primary objective was to determine if excessive energy and fat intake, or the type of fat, affects serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol concentration and whether this can be explained by an alteration of vitamin D-regulating enzymes in older mice. The second objective was a follow up of our recent findings that a high intake of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) is not detrimental to bone in lean mice and whether this is also true under conditions of diet-induced obesity. In the study, twenty-one 8-month-old female C57BL/6 J mice were fed ad libitum for 10 weeks with a 10% normal-fat diet (NFD) or 45% HFD enriched with MUFA or saturated fatty acids (SFA). We found that the HFD, compared with NFD, resulted in greater energy intake, weight gain, total body fat, and liver fat (P < .05). Only the high SFA feeding resulted in higher mRNA but lower protein abundance of hepatic Cyp2r1 and lower renal Cyp24a1 mRNA expression than the NFD group (P < .05). Moreover, although bone mineral density did not differ among groups, the percent difference compared with NFD was significantly lower for SFA (P < .05) but not MUFA. Also, femoral trabecular bone volume fraction was lower (P < .05) only in the SFA compared with the NFD group. In conclusion, high SFA and MUFA feeding differentially affected gene and protein expressions of major vitamin D hydroxylases compared with NFD, but this was unrelated to the lower circulating 25-hydroxycholecalciferol concentration. In addition, only the SFA diet alters vitamin D metabolism and bone changes, indicating the importance of dietary fat composition.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Gorduras na Dieta/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos/farmacologia , Oxigenases de Função Mista/metabolismo , Obesidade/complicações , Vitamina D/sangue , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Densidade Óssea , Calcifediol/sangue , Colestanotriol 26-Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Ingestão de Energia/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Graxos/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/farmacologia , Feminino , Fígado/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Obesos , Vitamina D3 24-Hidroxilase/metabolismo , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
PLoS One ; 13(12): e0209859, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30589890

RESUMO

Obesity and diabetes increase the risk of depression, and the incidence of these conditions increases rapidly after menopause, but few animal models of postmenopausal obesity have been available. We developed a mouse model of postmenopausal obesity that exhibited anxiety and depressive phenotypes in behavioral tests. To examine the effect of estradiol (E2) in the model, we prepared 4 experimental groups: 1) control, sham-operated female C57BL/6 mice fed a regular diet; 2) OVX-HF, ovariectomized (OVX) mice fed a high-fat diet (HF); 3) E2-SC, OVX-HF mice administered subcutaneous (SC) E2 (50 µg/kg/day); and 4) E2-ICV, OVX-HF mice administered intracerebroventricular (ICV) E2 (1 µg/kg/day). OVX-HF mice exhibited anxiety phenotypes in the open field test, but not in the light-dark box test, and E2 treatment via both routes effectively ameliorated it. OVX-HF mice demonstrated depressive phenotypes in the tail suspension test and forced swim test. Both E2 treatments achieved significant improvement in the tail suspension test, but not in the forced swim test. Serum corticosterone levels did not differ among the groups. Hippocampal expression of glucocorticoid receptor mRNA and serotonin 1A receptor mRNA was significantly increased in OVX-HF mice and was decreased in E2-treated mice. The hypothalamic level of pro-brain-derived neurotrophic factor (proBDNF) protein was tended to decrease in OVX-HF mice, but neither E2 treatment increased it. Since this mouse model exhibited anxiety and depressive phenotypes in relatively short experimental periods without genetic manipulations, it would be useful for further exploring psychiatric phenotypes or screening of therapeutic candidates in postmenopausal obesity.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Depressão , Estrogênios/uso terapêutico , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal , Obesidade , Fenótipo , Pós-Menopausa/metabolismo , Animais , Ansiedade/induzido quimicamente , Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Ansiedade/metabolismo , Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Depressão/induzido quimicamente , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Depressão/metabolismo , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Gorduras na Dieta/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Infusões Intraventriculares , Injeções Subcutâneas , Camundongos , Obesidade/induzido quimicamente , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Ovariectomia
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