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1.
Life Sci ; 260: 118415, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32918974

RESUMO

AIMS: Previous studies have shown the effect of niacin on dairy cow production, but no study on the role of niacin in milk fat synthesis has been performed. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effect of niacin on milk fat synthesis and its specific mechanism in BMECs. MAIN METHODS: In this study, 0.5 mM niacin, a GPR109A-inhibiting plasmid, and an AMPK inhibitor were added to BMECs. Milk fat was measured by a triglyceride kit and BODIPY staining. The protein expression of GPR109A, FASN, SREBP1, AMPK, ACC, mTOR and S6K was measured by Western blotting. The gene expression of GPR109A, FASN, and SREBP1 was analysed by RT-PCR. KEY FINDINGS: Our results showed that 0.5 mM niacin could significantly reduce milk fat synthesis in BMECs and activate the AMPK/ACC signalling pathway by stimulating GPR109A, reducing the protein expression of p-mTOR and p-S6K, and reducing the expression of SREBP1 and FASN in BMECs. SIGNIFICANCE: The present study clarified the effect of niacin on milk fat synthesis. The results show that niacin inhibits the synthesis of milk fat in BMECs through the downstream signalling pathway mediated by GPR109A. The function of niacin has been expanded, and knowledge of the new mechanism and signalling pathway will help improve the biosynthesis of milk fat.


Assuntos
Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/metabolismo , Leite/metabolismo , Niacina/farmacologia , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/metabolismo , Animais , Bovinos , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Hipolipemiantes/farmacologia , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/efeitos dos fármacos , Leite/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/genética
2.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 112(2): 293-302, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520346

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend the consumption of 3 servings/d of low-fat/nonfat dairy. The effects of higher dairy consumption and its fat content are unknown in patients with type 2 diabetes. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the impact of higher consumption of high- compared with low-fat dairy on glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), body weight, and cardiovascular disease risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We enrolled 111 subjects with type 2 diabetes (aged 58.5 ± 8.9 y, 47% females, diabetes duration 13.2 ± 8.3 y, HbA1c 8.09 ± 0.96%) who consumed <3 servings of dairy/d. We randomly assigned them into 3 groups: control group maintained baseline dairy intake, low-fat (LF) group incorporated ≥3 servings/d of LF dairy, and the high-fat (HF) group incorporated ≥3 servings/d of HF dairy. We evaluated HbA1c, body weight, BMI, body composition parameters, blood pressure (BP), lipid parameters, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and total energy and macronutrient intake at baseline, and after 12 and 24 wk. RESULTS: At 24 wk, percent energy from saturated fat increased from baseline in the HF group by 3.6%, (95% CI: 2.2, 5.1) and decreased in the LF group by -1.9% (95% CI: -3.3, -0.4). The LF group increased their percent energy from protein by 4.5% (95% CI: 2.6, 6.4), whereas the HF group decreased their percent energy from carbohydrates by -3.4% (95% CI: -0.2, -6.7). There were no differences in the mean changes in HbA1c, body weight, BMI, body composition or lipid parameters, or BP between the 3 groups at 24 wk. CONCLUSION: In patients with type 2 diabetes, increased dairy consumption to ≥3 servings/d compared with <3 servings/d, irrespective of its fat content, while maintaining energy intake has no effect on HbA1c, body weight, body composition, lipid profile, or BP. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02895867.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/dietoterapia , Dieta com Restrição de Gorduras , Adulto , Idoso , Glicemia/metabolismo , Pressão Sanguínea , Peso Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Gorduras na Dieta/análise , Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
3.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 112(1): 19-24, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32491166

RESUMO

The proposition that dietary SFAs should be restricted to the maximal extent possible (e.g., to achieve approximately half of current consumption) is based primarily on observational and clinical trial data that are interpreted as indicating a benefit of such limitation on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Further support is believed to derive from the capacity of SFAs to raise LDL cholesterol, and the evidence that LDL-cholesterol lowering reduces CVD incidence. Despite their apparent merit, these arguments are flawed. In fact, although it is possible that dietary intake of SFAs has a causal role in CVD, the evidence to support this contention is inconclusive. Moreover, other considerations argue against a guideline focused primarily on limiting SFA intake, including the heterogeneity of individual SFAs, the likelihood of clinically meaningful interindividual variation in response to SFA reduction, the potential for unintended health consequences of population-wide promotion of severe restriction, and the critical differences in health impacts among individual SFA-containing foods.


Assuntos
Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Saúde Pública/normas , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , LDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , Gorduras na Dieta/análise , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Humanos , Política Nutricional
4.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 112(1): 25-26, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32491172

RESUMO

There is ongoing debate as to whether public health guidelines should advocate reducing SFA consumption as much as possible to reduce the risk of chronic diseases, especially cardiovascular disease (CVD). In considering both sides of this question, we identified a number of points of agreement, most notably that the overall dietary patterns in which SFAs are consumed are of greater significance for cardiometabolic and general health than SFA intake alone. Nevertheless, there remained significant disagreements, centered largely on the interpretation of evidence bearing on 4 major questions: 1) does reducing dietary SFAs lower the incidence of CVD, 2) is the LDL-cholesterol reduction with lower SFA intake predictive of reduced CVD risk, 3) do dietary SFAs affect factors other than LDL cholesterol that may impact CVD risk, and 4) is there a sufficient rationale for setting a target for maximally reducing dietary SFAs? Finally, we identified specific research needs for addressing knowledge gaps that have contributed to the controversies.


Assuntos
Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Saúde Pública/normas , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , LDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , Consenso , Gorduras na Dieta/análise , Gorduras na Dieta/normas , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Ácidos Graxos/normas , Humanos , Política Nutricional
5.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 112(1): 13-18, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32491173

RESUMO

Based on decades of research, there is strong evidence that supports ongoing dietary recommendations to decrease intakes of SFAs and, more recently, to replace SFAs with unsaturated fat, including PUFAs and MUFAs. Epidemiologic research has shown that replacement of SFAs with unsaturated fat, but not refined carbohydrate and added sugars, is associated with a reduction in coronary heart disease events and death. There is much evidence from controlled clinical studies demonstrating that SFAs increase LDL cholesterol, a major causal factor in the development of cardiovascular disease. When each (nonprotein) dietary macronutrient isocalorically replaces SFA, the greatest LDL-cholesterol-lowering effect is seen with PUFA, followed by MUFA, and then total carbohydrate. New research on full-fat dairy products high in saturated fat, particularly fermented dairy foods, demonstrates some benefits for cardiometabolic diseases. However, compared with food sources of unsaturated fats, full-fat dairy products increase LDL cholesterol. Thus, current dietary recommendations to decrease SFA and replace it with unsaturated fat should continue to the basis for healthy food-based dietary patterns.


Assuntos
Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , LDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/metabolismo , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Saúde Pública/história , Saúde Pública/normas , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Recomendações Nutricionais/história
6.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232685, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32384122

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the primary analysis of a 12-month double-blind randomized active placebo-controlled trial, treatment of children with cystic fibrosis (CF) and pancreatic insufficiency (PI) with a readily absorbable structured lipid (Encala™, Envara Health, Wayne, PA) was safe, well-tolerated and improved dietary fat absorption (stool coefficient of fat absorption [CFA]), growth, and plasma fatty acids (FA). OBJECTIVE: To determine if the Encala™ treatment effect varied by severity of baseline fat malabsorption. METHODS: Subjects (n = 66, 10.5±3.0 yrs, 39% female) with baseline CFA who completed a three-month treatment with Encala™ or a calorie and macronutrient-matched placebo were included in this subgroup analysis. Subjects were categorized by median baseline CFA: low CFA (<88%) and high CFA (≥88%). At baseline and 3-month evaluations, CFA (72-hour stool, weighed food record) and height (HAZ), weight (WAZ) and BMI (BMIZ) Z-scores were calculated. Fasting plasma fatty acid (FA) concentrations were also measured. RESULTS: Subjects in the low CFA subgroup had significantly improved CFA (+7.5±7.2%, mean 86.3±6.7, p = 0.002), and reduced stool fat loss (-5.7±7.2 g/24 hours) following three months of EncalaTM treatment. These subjects also had increased plasma linoleic acid (+20%), α-linolenic acid (+56%), and total FA (+20%) (p≤0.005 for all) concentrations and improvements in HAZ (0.06±0.08), WAZ (0.17±0.16), and BMIZ (0.20±0.25) (p≤0.002 for all). CFA and FA were unchanged with placebo in the low CFA group, with some WAZ increases (0.14±0.24, p = 0.02). High CFA subjects (both placebo and Encala™ groups) had improvements in WAZ and some FA. CONCLUSIONS: Subjects with CF, PI and more severe fat malabsorption experienced greater improvements in CFA, FA and growth after three months of Encala™ treatment. Encala™ was safe, well-tolerated and efficacious in patients with CF and PI with residual fat malabsorption and improved dietary energy absorption, weight gain and FA status in this at-risk group.


Assuntos
Fibrose Cística/terapia , Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Insuficiência Pancreática Exócrina/terapia , Lipídeos/uso terapêutico , Síndromes de Malabsorção/terapia , Administração Oral , Criança , Fibrose Cística/complicações , Fibrose Cística/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Método Duplo-Cego , Insuficiência Pancreática Exócrina/complicações , Insuficiência Pancreática Exócrina/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Lipídeos/administração & dosagem , Síndromes de Malabsorção/complicações , Síndromes de Malabsorção/metabolismo , Masculino , Efeito Placebo
7.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab ; 319(1): E175-E186, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32459526

RESUMO

Little is known about the effects of the development of metabolic syndrome (MS) on protein and amino acid (AA) metabolism. During this study, we took advantage of the variability in interindividual susceptibility to high fat diet-induced MS to study the relationships between MS, protein synthesis, and AA catabolism in multiple tissues in rats. After 4 mo of high-fat feeding, an MS score (ZMS) was calculated as the average of the z-scores for individual MS components [weight, adiposities, homeostasis model for the assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and triglycerides]. In the small intestine, liver, plasma, kidneys, heart, and muscles, tissue protein synthesis was measured by 2H2O labeling, and we evaluated the proportion of tissue AA catabolism (relative to protein synthesis) and nutrient routing to nonindispensable AAs in tissue proteins using natural nitrogen and carbon isotopic distances between tissue proteins and nutrients (Δ15N and Δ13C), respectively. In the liver, protein mass and synthesis increased, whereas the proportion of AA catabolism decreased with ZMS. By contrast, in muscles, we found no association between ZMS and protein mass, protein synthesis (except for a weak positive association in the gastrocnemius muscle only), and proportion of AA catabolism. The development of MS was also associated with altered metabolic flexibility and fatty acid oxidation, as shown by less routing of dietary lipids to nonindispensable AA synthesis in liver and muscle. In conclusion, MS development is associated with a greater gain of both fat and protein masses, with higher protein anabolism that mainly occurs in the liver, whereas muscles probably develop anabolic resistance due to insulin resistance.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Intestino Delgado/metabolismo , Rim/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Síndrome Metabólica/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Animais , Isótopos de Carbono , Óxido de Deutério , Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Isótopos de Nitrogênio , Obesidade/metabolismo , Plasma , Biossíntese de Proteínas , Proteínas/metabolismo , Ratos
8.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(6): 5647-5653, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32307179

RESUMO

The objective was to investigate the effects of species (cow vs. goat) and of various dietary lipid supplements, known to modulate milk fat content, on selected metabolites and enzymes in milk and to explore their correlations with performance traits. Twelve Holstein cows and 12 Alpine goats, all multiparous and nonpregnant, and at 86 ± 24.9 and 61 ± 1.8 DIM, respectively, were fed a basal diet (45% forage + 55% concentrate) not supplemented (CTL) or supplemented with corn oil plus wheat starch [COS, 5% of diet dry matter (DM)], marine algae powder (MAP, 1.5% of diet DM), or hydrogenated palm oil (HPO, 3% of diet DM) in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 28-d experimental periods. Intake, milk production and composition, milk fatty acid profile, and plasma metabolite concentrations were previously reported. Concentrations of 9 milk metabolites [ß-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), glucose, glucose-6-phosphate, isocitrate, choline, glutamate, urea, cholesterol, and free amino groups] and 2 milk enzyme activities (alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase) were measured on d 24 of each experimental period. Dairy performance data showed marked species and diet effects on milk fat content. Irrespective of diet, cow milk was richer in alkaline phosphatase and glucose compared with goat milk (16 and 3 times more, respectively), whereas goat milk had greater urea and glucose-6-phosphate concentrations compared with cow milk (1.9 and 5.3 times more, respectively). In cows, COS decreased milk BHB and choline (-25 and -43%, respectively) compared with CTL, whereas no effects were observed in goats. The COS and MAP diets increased milk isocitrate compared with CTL in cows, but COS decreased isocitrate concentrations in goat milk. Milk choline was correlated with milk fat content in cows (Spearman r, rS = +0.73) and goats (rs = +0.58), and lactate dehydrogenase activity was correlated with milk somatic cell count (rs = +0.66) in cows but not in goats. We provide evidence of different milk metabolite responses according to species and diets. Metabolites and enzymes secreted in milk may be indicators of specificities of lipid metabolism among ruminant species and may contribute to a better understanding of mechanisms regulating milk fat secretion. Changes in the concentrations of some metabolites considered minor components of milk may be valuable diagnostic tools of mammary gland and animal metabolism as well as of milk processing characteristics.


Assuntos
Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Cabras , Leite/química , Óleo de Palmeira/administração & dosagem , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Óleo de Milho/metabolismo , Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Feminino , Lactação/fisiologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Lipídeos , Leite/metabolismo , Amido/metabolismo
9.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(1): e20181127, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32321021

RESUMO

Obesity is characterized by the excess of body fat and, therefore, may cause musculoskeletal alterations that can negatively influence the tendons. Such overweight-influenced alterations are exercise sensitive though. Morphological and biochemical alterations were reported in the calcaneal tendon of mice submitted to a lipid-rich diets along with practicing exercises, with the following groups: normal diet without exercise (ND), normal diet with exercise (NDex), lipid-rich diet without exercise (LD), lipid-rich diet without exercise (LDex). The calcaneal tendons were removed and subjected to histological and biochemical analysis. Layers of the tissue were stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin, Picrosirius Red and Von Kossa while a protein dosage was conduce by the Bradford method. The morphologicals analysis there was no statistical difference concerning the number of fibroblasts among the groups. Groups submitted to exercises showed higher amount of collagen and non-collagenous protein deposition. The lipid-rich diet without exercse group had a more disorganized collagen matrix with intense basophilia. The same group had areas of calcification confirmed by Von Kossa technique. Practicing physical activity, such as swimming, can improve the changes caused in the calcaneal tendon in mice submitted to a lipid-rich diets, having a better collagen organization and the synthesis.


Assuntos
Tendão do Calcâneo/metabolismo , Colágeno/metabolismo , Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Lipídeos/administração & dosagem , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/metabolismo , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Natação , Animais , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Camundongos
10.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1339, 2020 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32165635

RESUMO

Proper membrane physiology requires maintenance of biophysical properties, which must be buffered from external perturbations. While homeostatic adaptation of membrane fluidity to temperature variation is a ubiquitous feature of ectothermic organisms, such responsive membrane adaptation to external inputs has not been directly observed in mammals. Here, we report that challenging mammalian membranes by dietary lipids leads to robust lipidomic remodeling to preserve membrane physical properties. Specifically, exogenous polyunsaturated fatty acids are rapidly incorporated into membrane lipids, inducing a reduction in membrane packing. These effects are rapidly compensated both in culture and in vivo by lipidome-wide remodeling, most notably upregulation of saturated lipids and cholesterol, resulting in recovery of membrane packing and permeability. Abrogation of this response results in cytotoxicity when membrane homeostasis is challenged by dietary lipids. These results reveal an essential mammalian mechanism for membrane homeostasis wherein lipidome remodeling in response to dietary lipid inputs preserves functional membrane phenotypes.


Assuntos
Membrana Celular/química , Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Lipídeos de Membrana/metabolismo , Animais , Biofísica , Linhagem Celular , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/química , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Feminino , Homeostase , Humanos , Lipidômica , Fluidez de Membrana , Lipídeos de Membrana/química , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Ratos
11.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 111(4): 893-902, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32135010

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although diet response prediction for cardiometabolic risk factors (CRFs) has been demonstrated using single genetic variants and main-effect genetic risk scores, little investigation has gone into the development of genome-wide diet response scores. OBJECTIVE: We sought to leverage the multistudy setup of the Women's Health Initiative cohort to generate and test genetic scores for the response of 6 CRFs (BMI, systolic blood pressure, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and fasting glucose) to dietary fat. METHODS: A genome-wide interaction study was undertaken for each CRF in women (n ∼ 9000) not participating in the dietary modification (DM) trial, which focused on the reduction of dietary fat. Genetic scores based on these analyses were developed using a pruning-and-thresholding approach and tested for the prediction of 1-y CRF changes as well as long-term chronic disease development in DM trial participants (n ∼ 5000). RESULTS: Only 1 of these genetic scores, for LDL cholesterol, predicted changes in the associated CRF. This 1760-variant score explained 3.7% (95% CI: 0.09, 11.9) of the variance in 1-y LDL cholesterol changes in the intervention arm but was unassociated with changes in the control arm. In contrast, a main-effect genetic risk score for LDL cholesterol was not useful for predicting dietary fat response. Further investigation of this score with respect to downstream disease outcomes revealed suggestive differential associations across DM trial arms, especially with respect to coronary heart disease and stroke subtypes. CONCLUSIONS: These results lay the foundation for the combination of many genome-wide gene-diet interactions for diet response prediction while highlighting the need for further research and larger samples in order to achieve robust biomarkers for use in personalized nutrition.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Saúde da Mulher
12.
J Med Food ; 23(3): 281-288, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32119806

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a high-fat diet (HFD) on energy substrate utilization during long-term endurance exercise in mice. Male ICR mice (n = 32; 6 weeks old) were divided into two groups: low-fat diet (LFD, n = 16) and HFD (n = 16) and acclimatized to LFD or HFD feeding over 12 weeks. After 12 weeks, the two dietary groups were each divided into two groups with or without exercise (EX): LF-CON, LF-EX, HF-CON, and HF-EX groups. The exercise groups were trained to run on a treadmill for 12 weeks. At the end of the experimental protocol, energy metabolism in the whole body was measured at rest for 24 h and during exercise for 1 h using respiratory gas analysis. Furthermore, molecules involved in skeletal muscle fat metabolism were analyzed. Substrate utilization for energy metabolism in the whole body indicated that fat utilization was high in HFD intake. Notably, when HFD intake and exercise were combined, fat utilization was markedly increased during endurance exercise. In contrast, exercise showed no effect when combined with LFD intake. The gene expressions of Fat/Cd36, Fatp1, Fabp-pm, and Cpt1 were upregulated by HFD intake, with Fat/Cd36 and Cpt1 considerably elevated during long-term endurance exercise. In contrast, exercise showed no effect when combined with LFD intake. These results suggest that HFD intake effectively increased fat utilization as an energy substrate during long-term endurance exercise.


Assuntos
Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Gorduras na Dieta/análise , Metabolismo Energético , Proteínas de Transporte de Ácido Graxo/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Ácido Graxo/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a Ácido Graxo/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a Ácido Graxo/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Oxirredução , Condicionamento Físico Animal
13.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 111(4): 739-748, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32020168

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Modifying dairy fat composition by increasing the MUFA content is a potential strategy to reduce dietary SFA intake for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention in the population. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of consuming SFA-reduced, MUFA-enriched (modified) dairy products, compared with conventional dairy products (control), on the fasting cholesterol profile (primary outcome), endothelial function assessed by flow-mediated dilatation (FMD; key secondary outcome), and other cardiometabolic risk markers. METHODS: A double-blind, randomized, controlled crossover 12-wk intervention was conducted. Participants with a 1.5-fold higher (moderate) CVD risk than the population mean replaced habitual dairy products with study products (milk, cheese, and butter) to achieve a high-fat, high-dairy isoenergetic daily dietary exchange [38% of total energy intake (%TE) from fat: control (dietary target: 19%TE SFA; 11%TE MUFA) and modified (16%TE SFA; 14%TE MUFA) diet]. RESULTS: Fifty-four participants (57.4% men; mean ± SEM age: 52 ± 3 y; BMI: 25.8 ± 0.5 kg/m2) completed the study. The modified diet attenuated the rise in fasting LDL cholesterol observed with the control diet (0.03 ± 0.06 mmol/L and 0.19 ± 0.05 mmol/L, respectively; P = 0.03). Relative to baseline, the %FMD response increased after the modified diet (0.35% ± 0.15%), whereas a decrease was observed after the control diet (-0.51% ± 0.15%; P< 0.0001). In addition, fasting plasma nitrite concentrations increased after the modified diet, yet decreased after the control diet (0.02 ± 0.01 µmol/L and -0.03 ± 0.02 µmol/L, respectively; P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: In adults at moderate CVD risk, consumption of a high-fat diet containing SFA-reduced, MUFA-enriched dairy products for 12 wk showed beneficial effects on fasting LDL cholesterol and endothelial function compared with conventional dairy products. Our findings indicate that fatty acid modification of dairy products may have potential as a public health strategy aimed at CVD risk reduction. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02089035.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , LDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , Gorduras Insaturadas/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/dietoterapia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Dilatação , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
14.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 53(3): e9039, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32077465

RESUMO

We previously reported that both the high-carbohydrate diet (HCD) and high-fat diet (HFD) given for two months promote lipid deposition and inflammation in the liver and brain of mice. The results obtained indicate a tissue-specific response to both diets. Herein, we compared the effects of HCD and HFD on fatty acid (FA) composition and inflammation in the gastrocnemius muscle. Male Swiss mice were fed with HCD or HFD for 1 or 2 months. Saturated FA (SFA), monounsaturated FA (MUFA), n-3 polyunsaturated FA (n-3 PUFA), and n-6 PUFA were quantified. The activities of stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD-1), Δ-6 desaturase (D6D), elongase 6, and de novo lipogenesis (DNL) were estimated. As for indicators of the inflammatory tissue state, we measured myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and gene expression of F4/80, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, and IL-10. The HCD led to a lower deposition of SFA, MUFA, n-3 PUFA, and n-6 PUFA compared to HFD. However, the HCD increased arachidonic acid levels, SFA/n-3 PUFA ratio, DNL, SCD-1, D6D, and MPO activities, and expression of IL-6, contrasting with the general idea that increased lipid deposition is associated with more intense inflammation. The HCD was more potent to induce skeletal muscle inflammation than the HFD, regardless of the lower lipid accumulation.


Assuntos
Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Inflamação/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Animais , Peso Corporal , Carboidratos da Dieta/metabolismo , Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Ingestão de Energia , Expressão Gênica , Masculino , Camundongos
15.
Endocrinol. diabetes nutr. (Ed. impr.) ; 67(1): 43-52, ene. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-186146

RESUMO

ANTECEDENTES Y OBJETIVOS: El alelo de riesgo (G) de la variante rs10830963 en el gen del receptor de melatonina 1 B (MTNR1B) se relaciona con la obesidad. En este trabajo evaluamos el efecto de este SNP sobre los factores de riesgo cardiovascular y la pérdida de peso secundaria a 2 dietas hipocalóricas. MÉTODOS: Trescientos sesenta y un sujetos obesos fueron asignados aleatoriamente durante 3 meses (dieta M: dieta hipocalórica alta en grasas monoinsaturadas vs. dieta P: dieta hipocalórica alta en grasas poliinsaturadas). Se midieron los parámetros antropométricos, glucemia en ayunas, proteína C reactiva, concentración de insulina, resistencia a la insulina (HOMA-IR), perfil de lípidos y los niveles de adipocitoquinas. Se evaluó el genotipo del polimorfismo del gen MTNR1B (rs10830963). RESULTADOS: Todos los parámetros antropométricos, la presión arterial sistólica y los niveles de leptina disminuyeron en todos los sujetos después de ambas dietas. Esta mejora de los parámetros antropométricos fue mayor en los no portadores del alelo G que en los portadores del alelo G. Tras la intervención con dieta M (CC vs. CG + GG), el colesterol total (delta: -10,4 ± 2,1 mg/dl vs. -6,4 ± 1,2 mg/dl: p < 0,05), colesterol LDL (delta: -7,1 ± 0,9 mg/dl vs. -2,8 ± 0,8 mg/dl: p < 0,05), insulina (delta: -3,0 ± 0.8 UI/l vs. -2,0 ± 1,0 UI/l: p < 0,05) y HOMA IR (delta: -3,4 ± 1,0 unidades vs. -2,9 ± 0,9 unidades: p < 0,05) mejoraron en los no portadores del alelo G. Tras la dieta P, en el grupo de sujetos sin alelo G, los niveles de insulina (delta: -2,9 ± 1,0 UI/l vs. -0,6 ± 0,2 UI/l: p < 0,05) y HOMA-IR (delta [CC vs. CG + GG]: -0,8 ± 0,2 unidades vs. -0,4 ± 0,3 unidades: p < 0,05) también disminuyeron. CONCLUSIONES: Nuestro estudio detectó una relación de la variante rs10830963 de MTNR1B con la pérdida de peso corporal y la modificación de la resistencia a la insulina inducida por 2 dietas hipocalóricas diferentes. Solo la dieta hipocalórica enriquecida en grasa monoinsaturada y los no portadores del alelo G mostraron un efecto significativo sobre las lipoproteínas


BACKGROUND & AIMS: The risk allele (G) of rs10830963 in the melatonin receptor 1 B (MTNR1B) gene presents an association with obesity. We study the effect of this SNP on cardiovascular risk factors and weight loss secondary to 2hypocaloric diets. Methods: 361 obese subjects were randomly allocated during 3 months (Diet M - high monounsaturated fat hypocaloric diet vs. Diet P - high polyunsaturated fat hypocaloric diet). Anthropometric parameters, fasting blood glucose, C-reactive protein (CRP), insulin concentration, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), lipid profile and adipocytokines levels were measured. Genotype of MTNR1B gene polymorphism (rs10830963) was evaluated. Results: All anthropometric parameters, systolic blood pressure and leptin levels decreased in all subjects after both diets. This improvement of anthropometric parameters was higher in non G allele carriers than G allele carriers. After dietary intervention with Diet M, (CC vs. CG + GG); total cholesterol (delta: -10.4 ± 2.1 mg/dl vs. -6.4 ± 1.2 mg/dl: P <.05), LDL-cholesterol (delta:-7.1 ± 0.9 mg/dl vs. -2.8 ± 0.8 mg/dl: P <.05), insulin (delta:-3.0 ± 0.8 UI/L vs. -2.0 ± 1.0 UI/L: P<.05) and HOMA-IR (delta:-3.4 ± 1.0 units vs. -2.9 ± 0.9 units: P<.05) improved in no G allele carriers. After Diet P, in the group of subjects without G allele CC, insulin levels (delta: -2.9 ± 1.0 UI/L vs. -0.6 ± 0.2 UI/L: P <.05) and HOMA-IR (delta (CC vs. CG + GG): -0.8 ± 0.2 units vs. -0.4 ± 0.3 units: P <.05) decreased, too. Conclusions: Our study detected a relationship of rs10830963 MTNR1B SNP with body weight loss and insulin resistance modification induced by 2 different hypocaloric. Only monounsaturated enriched hypocaloric diet and in no-G allele carriers showed a significant effect on lipoproteins


Assuntos
Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Polimorfismo Genético , Gorduras na Dieta/uso terapêutico , Resistência à Insulina , Perda de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Fatores de Risco , Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Antropometria , Glicemia , Composição Corporal , Relação Cintura-Quadril , Radioimunoensaio/métodos
16.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 111(1): 42-51, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31584063

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The extent to which dairy products and their fat content influence cardiovascular health remains uncertain. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess how consumption of low-fat milk and regular-fat cheese enriched in γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) influences daytime ambulatory blood pressure (BP) and other cardiometabolic risk factors. METHODS: In this crossover controlled feeding study, 55 healthy men and women with high-normal daytime BP were randomly assigned to sequences of three 6-wk isoenergetic diets, each comprising 1) no dairy (control diet), 2) 3 daily servings of 1% fat milk, and 3) 1 daily serving of 31% fat cheddar cheese naturally enriched in GABA. Total proteins, carbohydrates, and fats were matched across all 3 diets. The additional 2% of energy from SFAs in the cheese diet was replaced by n-6 PUFAs in the other diets. RESULTS: Comparison of postdiet ambulatory systolic BP revealed no difference (P = 0.34), which was also the case for ambulatory diastolic BP (P = 0.45). The cheese diet increased serum LDL-cholesterol concentrations compared with the control and milk diets (+5.8%, P = 0.006 and +7.0%, P = 0.0008, respectively) and increased LDL particle size compared with the milk diet (P = 0.02). HDL-cholesterol concentrations after the milk diet were lower than after the control diet (-4.1%; P = 0.009). The milk and cheese diets increased triglycerides compared with the control diet (+9.9%, P = 0.01 and +10.5%, P = 0.007, respectively). There was no significant difference between all diets for C-reactive protein concentrations and markers of glucose/insulin homeostasis. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that short-term consumption of dairy products, whether low or regular in fat, has no overall effect on daytime ambulatory BP compared with a dairy-free diet. Other cardiometabolic risk factors may be differently modified according to the fat content of the dairy product. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02763930.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Queijo/análise , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Dieta com Restrição de Gorduras , Gorduras na Dieta/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Leite/química , Leite/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
17.
Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis ; 23(1): 127-135, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31439889

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: M2-like macrophages are associated with the pathogenesis of castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). We sought to determine if dietary omega-3 fatty acids (ω-3 FAs) delay the development and progression of CRPC and inhibit tumor-associated M2-like macrophages. METHODS: MycCap cells were grown subcutaneously in immunocompetent FVB mice. Mice were castrated when tumors reached 300 mm2. To study effects of dietary ω-3 FAs on development of CRPC, ω-3 or ω-6 diets were started 2 days after castration and mice sacrificed after early regrowth of tumors. To study ω-3 FA effects on progression of CRPC, tumors were allowed to regrow after castration before starting the diets. M2 (CD206+) macrophages were isolated from allografts to examine ω-3 FA effects on macrophage function. Omega-3 fatty acid effects on androgen-deprived RAW264.7 M2 macrophages were studied by RT-qPCR and a migration/ invasion assay. RESULTS: The ω-3 diet combined with castration lead to greater MycCap tumor regression (tumor volume reduction: 182.2 ± 33.6 mm3) than the ω-6 diet (tumor volume reduction: 148.3 ± 35.2; p = 0.003) and significantly delayed the time to CRPC (p = 0.006). Likewise, the ω-3 diet significantly delayed progression of established castrate-resistant MycCaP tumors (p = 0.003). The ω-3 diet (as compared to the ω-6 diet) significantly reduced tumor-associated M2-like macrophage expression of CSF-1R in the CRPC development model, and matrix metallopeptidase-9 (MMP-9) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the CRPC progression model. Migration of androgen-depleted RAW264.7 M2 macrophages towards MycCaP cells was reversed by addition of docosahexaenoic acid (ω-3). CONCLUSIONS: Dietary omega-3 FAs (as compared to omega-6 FAs) decreased the development and progression of CRPC in an immunocompetent mouse model, and had inhibitory effects on M2-like macrophage function. Clinical trials are warranted evaluating if a fish oil-based diet can delay the time to castration resistance in men on androgen deprivation therapy, whereas further preclinical studies are warranted evaluating fish oil for more advanced CRPC.


Assuntos
Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Microambiente Tumoral , Animais , Biomarcadores , Quimiotaxia de Leucócito/efeitos dos fármacos , Quimiotaxia de Leucócito/genética , Quimiotaxia de Leucócito/imunologia , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Progressão da Doença , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/metabolismo , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Modelos Biológicos , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/genética , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/imunologia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Microambiente Tumoral/genética , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
18.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 111(1): 207-218, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31697329

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Undernutrition is associated with an elevated risk of mortality among children in low- and middle-income countries. Small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) have been evaluated as a method to prevent undernutrition and improve infant development, but the effects on mortality are unknown. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to evaluate the effect of LNS on all-cause mortality among children 6-24 mo old. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of LNS designed to prevent undernutrition, with or without other interventions. Literature was searched in May 2019 and trials were included if they enrolled children between 6 and 24 mo old and the period of supplementation lasted ≥6 mo. We extracted data from participant flow diagrams and contacted study investigators to request data. We conducted a meta-analysis to produce summary RR estimates. RESULTS: We identified 18 trials conducted in 11 countries that enrolled 41,280 children and reported 586 deaths. The risk of mortality was lower in the LNS arms than in the non-LNS comparison arms (RR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.59, 0.89; 13 trials). Estimates were similar when trials with maternal LNS intervention arms were added or when alternative formulations of LNS were excluded. The results appeared stronger in trials in which LNS were compared with passive control arms. Excluding these contrasts and only comparing multicomponent arms with LNS groups and comparison groups that contained all the same components without LNS attenuated the effect estimate (RR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.61, 1.10). CONCLUSIONS: LNS provided for the prevention of undernutrition may reduce the risk of mortality, but more trials with appropriate comparison groups allowing isolation of the effect of LNS alone are needed.This study was registered at www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO as CRD42019128718.


Assuntos
Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Desnutrição/dietoterapia , Desnutrição/mortalidade , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Masculino , Desnutrição/metabolismo , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
19.
J Nutr ; 150(1): 64-72, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495898

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The presence of triacylglycerol (TAG) cystallinity is assumed to influence digestibility and postprandial lipemia (PPL), although studies to date are limited. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate whether the presence of solid fat compared with undercooled liquid oil, specifically, plays a role in determining PPL by comparing emulsion droplets differing only in terms of physical state. METHODS: Ten percent palm stearin and 0.4% sorbitan monostearate emulsions were tempered to contain identically sized, charged, and shaped (spherical) undercooled liquid (LE) compared with partially crystalline solid (SE; mean ± SEM: 33.2% ± 0.03% solid fat at 37°C) droplets. Fifteen healthy fasting adult men (mean ± SD age: 27.5 ± 5.7 y; BMI: 24.1 ± 2.5 kg/m2) consumed 500 mL of each emulsion on separate occasions and plasma TAG concentrations, particle size of the plasma chylomicron-rich fraction (CMRF), and fatty acid (FA) composition of the CMRF-TAG were serially determined in a 6-h postprandial randomized double-blind crossover acute meal study. Changes from baseline values were analyzed by repeated-measures ANOVA. RESULTS: An earlier (2 compared with 3 h, P < 0.05) significant rise, a 39.9% higher mean postprandial TAG change from baseline (P = 0.08), and higher peak concentration (mean ± SEM: 1.47 ± 0.19 compared with 1.20 ± 0.15 mmol/L, P = 0.04) and iAUC (1.95 ± 0.39 compared with 1.45 ± 0.31 mmol/L × h, P = 0.03) values were observed for LE compared with SE. The compositions of the CMRF-TAG FAs shifted toward those of the ingested palm stearin by 4 h but did not differ between SE and LE (P = 0.90). Nor were there differences in postprandial changes in CMRF particle size (P = 0.79) or nonesterified FAs (P = 0.72) based on lipid physical state. CONCLUSIONS: Despite their identical compositions and colloidal properties, differences in lipid absorption were observed between SE and LE in healthy adult men. This is direct evidence that TAG physical state contributes to PPL, with the presence of solid fat having an attenuating influence.This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03515590.


Assuntos
Gorduras na Dieta/análise , Emulsões/metabolismo , Refeições , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Método Duplo-Cego , Emulsões/química , Humanos , Masculino , Período Pós-Prandial , Triglicerídeos/química , Adulto Jovem
20.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 111(1): 28-41, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31742316

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Altered meal-related gut hormone secretion seems important for weight loss and diabetes remission after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Elucidating the responsible meal components and receptors could aid discovery of new treatments of obesity and diabetes. Enteroendocrine cells respond to digestion products of dietary triacylglycerol, especially long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) and 2-oleoyl-glycerol (2-OG), but not medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs). OBJECTIVE: We examined the impact of olive oil (20 mL) and its derivates, LCFAs and 2-OG, on enteroendocrine secretions [glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), cholecystokinin (CCK), peptide YY (PYY), and neurotensin (NT)] and on glucose, lipid, and bile acid metabolism in RYGB-operated and unoperated individuals. METHODS: In an exploratory randomized crossover design, 10 RYGB-operated patients and 10 matched controls ingested 3 equimolar triacylglycerol formulations on separate days: olive oil (digested to 2-OG + LCFAs), C8-dietary oil (2-OG + MCFAs), and tricaprylin (MCFAs; negative control). Hormone responses were calculated as area under the curve (AUC). RESULTS: Independent of group status, olive oil had greater effects than C8-dietary oil on AUCs of plasma GLP-1 (+32%; 95% CI: 23%, 43%; P < 0.01), CCK (+53%, P < 0.01), and NT (+71%, P < 0.01), whereas the effect on GIP differed between groups (+90% in controls, P < 0.01; +24% in RYGB, P = 0.10). Independent of group status, C8-dietary oil had greater effects than tricaprylin on AUCs of plasma CCK (+40%, P < 0.01) and NT (+32%, P < 0.01), but not GLP-1 (+5%; 95% CI: -2.9%, 13%; P = 0.22), whereas the effect on GIP again differed between groups (+78% in controls, P < 0.01; +39% in RYGB, P = 0.01). Distal (GLP-1/PYY/NT), but not proximal (CCK/GIP), enteroendocrine responses were generally greater in RYGB patients than in controls. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of LCFAs plus 2-OG was substantially more effective than 2-OG plus MCFAs in stimulating enteroendocrine secretion in RYGB-operated and matched control individuals. Distal lipid-induced gut hormone release was greater after RYGB.This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03223389.


Assuntos
Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Obesidade/cirurgia , Adulto , Colecistocinina/sangue , Feminino , Derivação Gástrica , Polipeptídeo Inibidor Gástrico/sangue , Hormônios Gastrointestinais/sangue , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/sangue , Glicerídeos/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/metabolismo , Peptídeo YY/sangue , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
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