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1.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261506, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34941910

RESUMO

New Zealand farm working dogs are supreme athletes that are crucial to agriculture in the region. The effects that low or high dietary carbohydrate (CHO) content might have on their interstitial glucose (IG) and activity during work are unknown. The goals of the study were to determine if the concentration of IG and delta-g (a measurement of activity) will be lower in dogs fed an ultra-low CHO high fat diet in comparison to dogs fed a high CHO low fat diet, and to determine if low concentrations of IG are followed by reduced physical activity. We hypothesized that feeding working farm dogs an ultra-low CHO diet would reduce their IG concentrations which in turn would reduce physical activity during work. We prospectively recruited 22 farm dogs from four farms. At each farm, dogs were randomized to one of two diets and had a month of dietary acclimation to their allocated diet. The macronutrient proportions as a percentage of metabolizable energy (%ME) for the high CHO low fat diet (Diet 1) were 23% protein, 25% fat, and 52% CHO, and for the ultra-low CHO high fat diet (Diet 2) 37% protein, 63% fat, and 1% CHO. Following the acclimation period, we continuously monitored IG concentrations with flash glucose monitoring devices, and delta-g using triaxial accelerometers for 96 h. Dogs fed Diet 2 had a lower area under the curve (±SE) for IG (AUC Diet 2 = 497 ± 4 mmol/L/96h, AUC Diet 1 = 590 ± 3 mmol/L/96h; P = 0.002) but a higher area under the curve (±SE) for delta-g (AUC Diet 2 = 104,122 ± 6,045 delta-g/96h, AUC Diet 1 = 80,904 ± 4,950 delta-g/96h; P< 0.001). Interstitial glucose concentrations increased as the activity level increased (P < 0.001) and were lower for Diet 2 within each activity level (P < 0.001). The overall incidence of low IG readings (< 3.5 mmol/L) was 119/3810 (3.12%), of which 110 (92.4%) readings occurred in the Diet 2 group (P = 0.001). In the Diet 2 group, 99/110 (90%) of the low IG events occurred during the resting period (19:00-06:00). We conclude that feeding Diet 2 (ultra-low CHO high fat diet) to working farm dogs was associated with increased delta-g despite decreased IG concentrations. Interstitial glucose concentrations were positively associated with dogs' activity levels independent of diet. Lastly, events of low IG occurred at a low incidence and were predominantly seen between 19:00-06:00 in dogs fed the ultra-low CHO high fat diet.


Assuntos
Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos , Carboidratos da Dieta , Cães Trabalhadores/fisiologia , Animais , Dieta com Restrição de Gorduras , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Carboidratos da Dieta/metabolismo , Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Cães , Feminino , Glucose/análise , Glucose/metabolismo , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória
3.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684463

RESUMO

We aimed to evaluate the relationship between food intake of lipids with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and/or liver fibrosis in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). In this cross-sectional study, transient elastography was used to detect the presence of NAFLD and/or liver fibrosis. The dietary intake of fats and fatty acids (FA) were assessed by two 24 h dietary recalls (24-HDR) (n = 451). Multivariate logistic regression models were performed. Participants with higher intake of total fat were associated with higher odds for NAFLD compared to those with lower consumption [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.91 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.06-3.44)]. Furthermore, participants with intermediate intake of n6-PUFA (n6-poly-unsaturated FA) and lauric FA had lower odds for NAFLD, respectively aOR = 0.54 (95% CI 0.3-0.98) and aOR = 0.42 (95% CI 0.22-0.78). Additionally, a higher intake of myristoleic FA (fourth quartile) was a significant protective factor for NAFLD [aOR = 0.56 (95% CI 0.32-0.99)]. Participants with higher intake of lauric FA [0.38 (95% CI 0.18-0.80)], myristic FA [0.38 (0.17-0.89)], palmitoleic FA [0.40 (0.19-0.82)] and oleic FA [0.35 (0.16-0.79)] had positively less odds of having liver fibrosis. On the other hand, higher intake of n-6 PUFA was significantly associated with fibrosis [aOR = 2.45 (95% CI 1.12-5.32)]. Dietary assessment of total fat and FA should be incorporated into HIV care as a tool for preventing NAFLD and fibrosis in PLWHA.


Assuntos
Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/etiologia , Cirrose Hepática/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Adulto , Biomarcadores , Estudos Transversais , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade , Ácidos Graxos/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico , Cirrose Hepática/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/diagnóstico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5323, 2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493722

RESUMO

The role of intestine clock in energy homeostasis remains elusive. Here we show that mice with Bmal1 specifically deleted in the intestine (Bmal1iKO mice) have a normal phenotype on a chow diet. However, on a high-fat diet (HFD), Bmal1iKO mice are protected against development of obesity and related abnormalities such as hyperlipidemia and fatty livers. These metabolic phenotypes are attributed to impaired lipid resynthesis in the intestine and reduced fat secretion. Consistently, wild-type mice fed a HFD during nighttime (with a lower BMAL1 expression) show alleviated obesity compared to mice fed ad libitum. Mechanistic studies uncover that BMAL1 transactivates the Dgat2 gene (encoding the triacylglycerol synthesis enzyme DGAT2) via direct binding to an E-box in the promoter, thereby promoting dietary fat absorption. Supporting these findings, intestinal deficiency of Rev-erbα, a known BMAL1 repressor, enhances dietary fat absorption and exacerbates HFD-induced obesity and comorbidities. Moreover, small-molecule targeting of REV-ERBα/BMAL1 by SR9009 ameliorates HFD-induced obesity in mice. Altogether, intestine clock functions as an accelerator in dietary fat absorption and targeting intestinal BMAL1 may be a promising approach for management of metabolic diseases induced by excess fat intake.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição ARNTL/genética , Ritmo Circadiano/genética , Diacilglicerol O-Aciltransferase/genética , Fígado Gorduroso/genética , Hiperlipidemias/genética , Membro 1 do Grupo D da Subfamília 1 de Receptores Nucleares/genética , Obesidade/genética , Fatores de Transcrição ARNTL/deficiência , Animais , Diacilglicerol O-Aciltransferase/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Fígado Gorduroso/etiologia , Fígado Gorduroso/metabolismo , Fígado Gorduroso/prevenção & controle , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Homeostase/efeitos dos fármacos , Homeostase/genética , Hiperlipidemias/etiologia , Hiperlipidemias/metabolismo , Hiperlipidemias/prevenção & controle , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Membro 1 do Grupo D da Subfamília 1 de Receptores Nucleares/antagonistas & inibidores , Membro 1 do Grupo D da Subfamília 1 de Receptores Nucleares/metabolismo , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Ligação Proteica , Pirrolidinas/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais , Tiofenos/farmacologia , Triglicerídeos/biossíntese
5.
Physiol Rep ; 9(18): e15044, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34553504

RESUMO

In humans, exercise-induced thermogenesis is a markedly variable component of total energy expenditure, which had been acutely affected worldwide by COVID-19 pandemic-related lockdowns. We hypothesized that dietary macronutrient composition may affect metabolic adaptation/fuel selection in response to an acute decrease in voluntary activity. Using mice fed short-term high-fat diet (HFD) compared to low-fat diet (LFD)-fed mice, we evaluated whole-body fuel utilization by metabolic cages before and 3 days after omitting a voluntary running wheel in the cage. Short-term (24-48 h) HFD was sufficient to increase energy intake, fat oxidation, and decrease carbohydrate oxidation. Running wheel omission did not change energy intake, but resulted in a significant 50% decrease in total activity and a ~20% in energy expenditure in the active phase (night-time), compared to the period with wheel, irrespective of the dietary composition, resulting in significant weight gain. Yet, while in LFD wheel omission significantly decreased active phase fat oxidation, thereby trending to increase respiratory exchange ratio (RER), in HFD it diminished active phase carbohydrate oxidation. In conclusion, acute decrease in voluntary activity resulted in positive energy balance in mice on both diets, and decreased oxidation of the minor energy (macronutrient) fuel source, demonstrating that dietary macronutrient composition determines fuel utilization choices under conditions of acute changes in energetic demand.


Assuntos
Dieta com Restrição de Gorduras , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Metabolismo Energético , Adaptação Fisiológica , Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Ingestão de Energia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Estado Nutricional , Valor Nutritivo , Corrida , Fatores de Tempo
6.
J Oleo Sci ; 70(8): 1157-1164, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34349090

RESUMO

Liquid chicken oil is similar to the human lipid ratio, and is similar to the ideal fatty acids ratio suggested by Hayes, but its benefits remain unclear (Hwang, K.N.; Tung, H.P.; Shaw, H.M. J. Oleo. Sci. 69, 199-206 (2020)). Using soybean oil as a control, liquid chicken oil, coconut oil, lard oil, and olive oil, were tested on SD rats with the rodent diet 5001 plus 1% of high cholesterol addition and moderate 10 % of test oils. Positive results showed that a 10% liquid chicken oil diet reduced LDL and triglycerides, atherogenic index while increasing superoxide dismutase more than the soybean oil control (0.05 ≦ p < 0.10). Moreover, increment of hepatic endogenous glutathione peroxidase was found to be significantly different from the soybean oil control (p < 0.05). In this study, liquid chicken oil had more benefits than vegetable soybean dietary oil, with little evidence of hyperlipidemia. Comparison of the test oils with categories of fatty acids to the idea ratio SFA : MUFA : PUFA = 1 : 1.5 : 1, scored by its average weight implied a parallel trend of lipidemia and hepatic antioxidant activity to its score. It is difficult to use the test of rat to reflect human physiology, it remain 19% different of the fatty acids ratio from human ratio, however, this study reveal that the healthiness of a dietary oil seems relate well to its compatibility to the idea ratio or the host oil ratio, in this case, it is the human ratio.


Assuntos
Gorduras Insaturadas na Dieta/metabolismo , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Catalase/metabolismo , Galinhas , Cocos/química , Gorduras na Dieta/análise , Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Gorduras Insaturadas na Dieta/análise , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/enzimologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Olea/química , Azeite de Oliva/análise , Azeite de Oliva/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Óleo de Soja/análise , Óleo de Soja/metabolismo , Soja/química , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299233

RESUMO

Intestinal tract is the boundary that prevents harmful molecules from invading into the mucosal tissue, followed by systemic circulation. Intestinal permeability is an index for intestinal barrier integrity. Intestinal permeability has been shown to increase in various diseases-not only intestinal inflammatory diseases, but also systemic diseases, including diabetes, chronic kidney dysfunction, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases. Chronic increase of intestinal permeability is termed 'leaky gut' which is observed in the patients and animal models of these diseases. This state often correlates with the disease state. In addition, recent studies have revealed that gut microbiota affects intestinal and systemic heath conditions via their metabolite, especially short-chain fatty acids and lipopolysaccharides, which can trigger leaky gut. The etiology of leaky gut is still unknown; however, recent studies have uncovered exogenous factors that can modulate intestinal permeability. Nutrients are closely related to intestinal health and permeability that are actively investigated as a hot topic of scientific research. Here, we will review the effect of nutrients on intestinal permeability and microbiome for a better understanding of leaky gut and a possible mechanism of increase in intestinal permeability.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Permeabilidade , Animais , Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/metabolismo , Intestinos/microbiologia , Intestinos/fisiologia , Microbiota/fisiologia , Junções Íntimas/metabolismo
8.
J Sports Sci Med ; 20(3): 413-420, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34267580

RESUMO

During a 7-day training and/or competition period, macronutrient intake and distribution was assessed using food diaries, supported by remote food photography and 24-hr multiple pass recalls of youth tennis players categorised by under 12s, under 14s and under 16+ age groups (n = 27). Total energy did not differ between age groups nor type of day (training [TD], competition day [CD]), irrespective of a significant increase in body mass reported in the older players (U16+; p < 0.05). Average intakes were consistently below 2250 kcal·day-1 (range 1965 ± 317-2232 ± 612 kcal·day-1). Carbohydrate consumption was below guidelines for all groups (≤6g·kg-1). Conversely, protein intake met or exceeded guidelines throughout, with intakes ≥2 g·kg-1 for both the U12 and U14 age groups on both days. Protein intake was ~17% higher on TDs than CDs (p < 0.05), with protein intake at lunch significantly higher on TDs than CDs (p < 0.05). No further differences were observed between breakfast, lunch or dinner between group or day. Inconsistent snacking was reported, with players consuming snacks on less than half of the days reported (46 ± 12% of TDs and 43 ± 30% of CDs). In conclusion, youth tennis players present sub-optimal nutrition practices, appearing to under fuel and under consume carbohydrate for performance, adaptation, recovery and health.


Assuntos
Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Carboidratos da Dieta/metabolismo , Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Humano/fisiologia , Tênis/fisiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Registros de Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fotografação , Lanches
9.
Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 18(11): 770-786, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34257427

RESUMO

The global prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has dramatically increased in parallel with the epidemic of obesity. Controversy has emerged around dietary guidelines recommending low-fat-high-carbohydrate diets and the roles of dietary macronutrients in the pathogenesis of metabolic disease. In this Review, the topical questions of whether and how dietary fats and carbohydrates, including free sugars, differentially influence the accumulation of liver fat (specifically, intrahepatic triglyceride (IHTG) content) are addressed. Focusing on evidence from humans, we examine data from stable isotope studies elucidating how macronutrients regulate IHTG synthesis and disposal, alter pools of bioactive lipids and influence insulin sensitivity. In addition, we review cross-sectional studies on dietary habits of patients with NAFLD and randomized controlled trials on the effects of altering dietary macronutrients on IHTG. Perhaps surprisingly, evidence to date shows no differential effects between free sugars, with both glucose and fructose increasing IHTG in the context of excess energy. Moreover, saturated fat raises IHTG more than polyunsaturated or monounsaturated fats, with adverse effects on insulin sensitivity, which are probably mediated in part by increased ceramide synthesis. Taken together, the data support the use of diets that have a reduced content of free sugars, refined carbohydrates and saturated fat in the treatment of NAFLD.


Assuntos
Carboidratos da Dieta/metabolismo , Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Açúcares da Dieta/metabolismo , Frutose/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Ceramidas/biossíntese , Gorduras Insaturadas na Dieta/metabolismo , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Fígado/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/dietoterapia , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204176

RESUMO

Age-related bone disorders such as osteoporosis or osteoarthritis are a major public health problem due to the functional disability for millions of people worldwide. Furthermore, fractures are associated with a higher degree of morbidity and mortality in the long term, which generates greater financial and health costs. As the world population becomes older, the incidence of this type of disease increases and this effect seems notably greater in those countries that present a more westernized lifestyle. Thus, increased efforts are directed toward reducing risks that need to focus not only on the prevention of bone diseases, but also on the treatment of persons already afflicted. Evidence is accumulating that dietary lipids play an important role in bone health which results relevant to develop effective interventions for prevent bone diseases or alterations, especially in the elderly segment of the population. This review focuses on evidence about the effects of dietary lipids on bone health and describes possible mechanisms to explain how lipids act on bone metabolism during aging. Little work, however, has been accomplished in humans, so this is a challenge for future research.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Animais , Autofagia/genética , Biomarcadores , Remodelação Óssea , Dieta , Instabilidade Genômica , Hormônios/metabolismo , Humanos , Osteíte/etiologia , Osteíte/metabolismo , Osteíte/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo
11.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34072180

RESUMO

Herein, we prepared 1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-oleoyl glycerol (POP)-rich fats with reduced levels of diacylglycerols (DAGs), adversely affecting the tempering of chocolate, via two-step hexane fractionation of palm stearin. DAG content in the as-prepared fats was lower than that in POP-rich fats obtained by previously reported conventional two-step acetone fractionation. Cocoa butter equivalents (CBEs) were fabricated by blending the as-prepared fats with 1,3-distearoyl-2-oleoyl glycerol (SOS)-rich fats obtained by hexane fractionation of degummed shea butter. POP-rich fats achieved under the best conditions for the fractionation of palm stearin had a significantly lower DAG content (1.6 w/w%) than that in the counterpart (4.6 w/w%) prepared by the previously reported method. The CBEs fabricated by blending the POP- and SOS-rich fats in a weight ratio of 40:60 contained 63.7 w/w% total symmetric monounsaturated triacylglycerols, including 22.0 w/w% POP, 8.6 w/w% palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-3-stearoyl-rac-glycerol, 33.1 w/w% SOS, and 1.3 w/w% DAGs, which was not substantially different from the DAG content in cocoa butter (1.1 w/w%). Based on the solid-fat content results, it was concluded that, when these CBEs were used for chocolate manufacture, they blended with cocoa butter at levels up to 40 w/w%, without distinctively altering the hardness and melting behavior of cocoa butter.


Assuntos
Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Diglicerídeos/química , Hexanos/química , Óleo de Palmeira/química , Cacau/química , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Ácidos Graxos/química , Glicerol/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Temperatura , Triglicerídeos/química
12.
Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol ; 321(1): G75-G86, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34009042

RESUMO

The absorptive cells of the small intestine, namely, enterocytes, contribute to postprandial blood lipid levels by secreting dietary triacylglycerol in chylomicrons. The rate and amount of dietary triacylglycerol absorbed vary along the length of the small intestine. Excess dietary triacylglycerol not immediately secreted in chylomicrons can be temporarily stored in cytoplasmic lipid droplets (CLDs) and repackaged in chylomicrons at later times. The characteristics of CLDs, including their size, number per cell, and associated proteins, may influence CLD metabolism and reflect differences in lipid processing or storage in each intestinal region. However, it is unknown whether the characteristics or proteomes of CLDs differ in enterocytes of each intestine region in response to dietary fat. Furthermore, it is unclear if obesity influences the characteristics or proteomes of CLDs in each intestine region. To address this, we used transmission electron microscopy and shotgun liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis to assess the characteristics and proteome of CLDs in the proximal, middle, and distal regions of the small intestine of lean and diet-induced obese (DIO) mice 2 h after an oil gavage. We identified differences in lipid storage along the length of the small intestine and between lean and DIO mice, as well as distinct CLD proteomes reflecting potentially unique roles of CLDs in each region. This study reveals differences in lipid processing along the length of the small intestine in response to dietary fat in lean and DIO mice and reflects distinct features of the proximal, middle, distal region of the small intestine.NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study reflects the dynamics of fat absorption along the length of the small intestine in lean and obese mice in the physiological response to dietary fat. We identified unique features of cytoplasmic lipid droplets (CLDs) in the proximal, middle, and distal regions of the small intestine of lean and obese mice that may contribute to regional differences in dietary fat processing, absorption, or CLD metabolism.


Assuntos
Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Intestino Delgado/metabolismo , Gotículas Lipídicas/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/fisiologia , Animais , Citosol/metabolismo , Enterócitos/metabolismo , Intestinos , Camundongos , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
13.
Mar Drugs ; 19(5)2021 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33946805

RESUMO

Fish vary in their ability to biosynthesise long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) depending upon the complement and function of key enzymes commonly known as fatty acyl desaturases and elongases. It has been reported in Solea senegalensis the existence of a Δ4 desaturase, enabling the biosynthesis of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), which can be modulated by the diet. The present study aims to evaluate the combined effects of the partial replacement of fish oil (FO) with vegetable oils and reduced environmental salinity in the fatty acid composition of relevant body compartments (muscle, hepatocytes and enterocytes), the enzymatic activity over α-linolenic acid (ALA) to form n-3 LC-PUFA through the incubation of isolated hepatocytes and enterocytes with [1-14C] 18:3 n-3, and the regulation of the S. senegalensis fads2 and elovl5 in the liver and intestine. The presence of radiolabelled products, including 18:4n-3, 20:4n-3 and EPA, provided compelling evidence that a complete pathway enabling the biosynthesis of EPA from ALA, establishing S. senegalensis, has at least one Fads2 with ∆6 activity. Dietary composition prevailed over salinity in regulating the expression of fads2, while salinity did so over dietary composition for elovl5. FO replacement enhanced the proportion of DHA in S. senegalensis muscle and the combination with 20 ppt salinity increased the amount of n-3 LC-PUFA in hepatocytes.


Assuntos
Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/biossíntese , Óleos de Peixe/metabolismo , Linguados/metabolismo , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Ração Animal , Animais , Aquicultura , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Enterócitos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Dessaturases/genética , Ácidos Graxos Dessaturases/metabolismo , Elongases de Ácidos Graxos/genética , Elongases de Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Óleos de Peixe/administração & dosagem , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Músculos/metabolismo , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Salinidade , Fatores de Tempo , Água/química
14.
Front Immunol ; 12: 635704, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34054805

RESUMO

The large surfaces of gastrointestinal (GI) organs are well adapted to their diverse tasks of selective nutritional uptake and defense against the external environment. To maintain a functional balance, a vast number of immune cells is located within the mucosa. A strictly regulated immune response is required to impede constant inflammation and to maintain barrier function. An increasing prevalence of GI diseases has been reported in Western societies over the past decades. This surge in GI disorders has been linked to dietary changes followed by an imbalance of the gut microbiome, leading to a chronic, low grade inflammation of the gut epithelium. To counteract the increasing health care costs associated with diseases, it is paramount to understand the mechanisms driving immuno-nutrition, the associations between nutritional compounds, the commensal gut microbiota, and the host immune response. Dietary compounds such as lipids, play a central role in GI barrier function. Bioactive sphingolipids (SLs), e.g. sphingomyelin (SM), sphingosine (Sph), ceramide (Cer), sphingosine-1- phosphate (S1P) and ceramide-1-phosphate (C1P) may derive from dietary SLs ingested through the diet. They are not only integral components of cell membranes, they additionally modulate cell trafficking and are precursors for mediators and second messenger molecules. By regulating intracellular calcium levels, cell motility, cell proliferation and apoptosis, SL metabolites have been described to influence GI immune homeostasis positively and detrimentally. Furthermore, dietary SLs are suggested to induce a shift in the gut microbiota. Modes of action range from competing with the commensal bacteria for intestinal cell attachment to prevention from pathogen invasion by regulating innate and immediate defense mechanisms. SL metabolites can also be produced by gut microorganisms, directly impacting host metabolic pathways. This review aims to summarize recent findings on SL signaling and functional variations of dietary SLs. We highlight novel insights in SL homeostasis and SL impact on GI barrier function, which is directly linked to changes of the intestinal microbiota. Knowledge gaps in current literature will be discussed to address questions relevant for understanding the pivotal role of dietary SLs on chronic, low grade inflammation and to define a balanced and healthy diet for disease prevention and treatment.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Imunidade nas Mucosas , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Esfingolipídeos/metabolismo , Animais , Bactérias/imunologia , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Disbiose , Homeostase , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/imunologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/metabolismo , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/microbiologia , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Valor Nutritivo , Esfingolipídeos/administração & dosagem
15.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 29(6): 995-1002, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33938613

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate whether a 12-week, weight-maintaining, macronutrient-stable dietary intervention that varies only by meat, fish, or soda consumption alters 24-hour energy expenditure (24hrEE) and substrate oxidation. METHODS: Healthy males were recruited to participate in a 12-week inpatient study and were randomized to a weight-maintaining dietary intervention that contained varying combinations of meat (0% or 19%), fish (0% or 6%), or soda (0% or 14%) in a factorial design. Macronutrient composition across dietary intervention groups was as follows: 50% of energy from carbohydrates, 30% of energy from fat, and 20% of energy from protein. Whole-room indirect calorimetry at baseline and week 12 were used to measure 24hrEE and substrate oxidation. RESULTS: Twenty-six males (mean [SEM], age: 46.6 [10.4] years; BMI: 26.9 [4.1] kg/m2 ) completed all measurements. Fish consumption resulted in higher 24hrEE by 126 (55) kcal/d compared with no fish consumption (P = 0.03), whereas 24hrEE for soda consumption was 132 (56) kcal/d (P = 0.03) lower. Approximately 80% of the decrease in 24hrEE with soda consumption was due to lower awake-inactive energy expenditure (EE; P = 0.001). No specific EE component accounted for the differences observed with fish consumption. CONCLUSIONS: The data indicate that dietary sources of protein and carbohydrates appear to influence 24hrEE and inactive EE.


Assuntos
Bebidas Gaseificadas , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Peixes , Carne , Adulto , Animais , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Calorimetria Indireta , Bebidas Gaseificadas/efeitos adversos , Dieta , Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Ingestão de Energia , Humanos , Pacientes Internados , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxirredução , Projetos Piloto
16.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 18(1): 38, 2021 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34001166

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Isomaltulose has been discussed as a low glycaemic carbohydrate but evidence concerning performance benefits and physiological responses has produced varying results. Therefore, we primarily aimed to investigate the effects of isomaltulose ingestion compared to glucose and maltodextrin on fat and carbohydrate oxidation rates, blood glucose levels and serum hormone concentrations of insulin and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP). As secondary aims, we assessed running performance and gastrointestinal discomfort. METHODS: Twenty-one male recreational endurance runners performed a 70-min constant load trial at 70% maximal running speed (Vmax), followed by a time to exhaustion (TTE) test at 85% Vmax after ingesting either 50 g isomaltulose, maltodextrin or glucose. Fat and carbohydrate oxidation rates were calculated from spiroergometric data. Venous blood samples for measurement of GIP and insulin were drawn before, after the constant load trial and after the TTE. Capillary blood samples for glucose concentrations and subjective feeling of gastrointestinal discomfort were collected every 10 min during the constant load trial. RESULTS: No between-condition differences were observed in the area under the curve analysis of fat (p = 0.576) and carbohydrate oxidation rates (p = 0.887). Isomaltulose ingestion led to lower baseline postprandial concentrations of blood glucose compared to maltodextrin (percent change [95% confidence interval], - 16.7% [- 21.8,-11.6], p < 0.001) and glucose (- 11.5% [- 17.3,-5.7], p = 0.001). Similarly, insulin and GIP concentrations were also lower following isomaltulose ingestion compared to maltodextrin (- 40.3% [- 50.5,-30.0], p = 0.001 and - 69.1% [- 74.3,-63.8], p < 0.001, respectively) and glucose (- 32.6% [- 43.9,-21.2], p = 0.012 and - 55.8% [- 70.7,-40.9], p < 0.001, respectively). Furthermore, glucose fluctuation was lower after isomaltulose ingestion compared to maltodextrin (- 26.0% [- 34.2,-17.8], p < 0.001) and glucose (- 17.4% [- 29.1,-5.6], p < 0.001). However, during and after exercise, no between-condition differences for glucose (p = 0.872), insulin (p = 0.503) and GIP (p = 0.244) were observed. No between-condition differences were found for TTE (p = 0.876) or gastrointestinal discomfort (p = 0.119). CONCLUSION: Isomaltulose ingestion led to lower baseline postprandial concentrations of glucose, insulin and GIP compared to maltodextrin and glucose. Consequently, blood glucose fluctuations were lower during treadmill running after isomaltulose ingestion, while no between-condition differences were observed for CHO and fat oxidation rates, treadmill running performance and gastrointestinal discomfort. Further research is required to provide specific guidelines on supplementing isomaltulose in performance and health settings.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Carboidratos da Dieta/metabolismo , Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Polipeptídeo Inibidor Gástrico/sangue , Insulina/sangue , Isomaltose/análogos & derivados , Corrida/fisiologia , Administração Oral , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Glucose/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Isomaltose/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Oxirredução , Polissacarídeos/administração & dosagem
17.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 114(2): 564-577, 2021 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33871574

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Blood lipid concentrations display high interindividual variability in response to dietary interventions, partly due to genetic factors. Existing studies have focused on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) analyzed individually, which only explain a limited fraction of the variability of these complex phenotypes. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify combinations of SNPs associated with the variability in LDL cholesterol and triglyceride (TG) concentration changes following 5 dietary interventions. DESIGN: In a multicenter randomized crossover trial, 92 participants with elevated waist circumference and low HDL cholesterol concentrations consumed 5 isoenergetic diets for 4 wk: a diet rich in saturated fatty acids (SFAs) from cheese, SFA from butter, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and a diet higher in carbohydrates (CHO). The association between 22 candidate SNPs in genes involved in lipid and bile acid metabolism and transport and changes in LDL cholesterol and TG concentrations was assessed with univariate statistics followed by partial least squares regression. RESULTS: Endpoint LDL cholesterol concentrations were significantly different (cheese: 3.18 ± 0.04, butter: 3.31 ± 0.04, MUFA: 3.00 ± 0.04, PUFA: 2.81 ± 0.04, CHO: 3.11 ± 0.04 mmol/L; P < 0.001) while endpoint TG concentrations were not (P = 0.117). Both displayed consistently elevated interindividual variability following the dietary interventions (CVs of 34.5 ± 2.2% and 55.8 ± 1.8%, respectively). Among the 22 candidate SNPs, only ABCA1-rs2066714 and apolipoprotein E (APOE) isoforms exhibited consistent significant effects, namely on LDL cholesterol concentrations. However, several SNPs were significantly associated with changes in LDL cholesterol and TG concentrations in a diet-specific fashion. Generated multivariate models explained from 16.0 to 33.6% of the interindividual variability in LDL cholesterol concentration changes and from 17.5 to 32.0% of that in TG concentration changes. CONCLUSIONS: We report combinations of SNPs associated with a significant part of the variability in LDL cholesterol and TG concentrations following dietary interventions differing in their fatty acid profiles.


Assuntos
Dieta , Ácidos Graxos/administração & dosagem , Lipídeos/sangue , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Hiperlipidemias/sangue , Hiperlipidemias/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
18.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33921805

RESUMO

Diet-induced obesity (DIO) reduces the orosensory perception of lipids in rodents and in some humans. Although bariatric surgery partially corrects this alteration, underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. To explore whether metabolic changes might explain this fat taste disturbance, plasma metabolome analyses, two-bottle choice tests and fungiform papillae (Fun) counting were performed in vertical sleeve gastrectomized (VSG) mice and sham-operated controls. An exploratory clinic study was also carried out in adult patients undergone a VSG. In mice, we found that (i) the VSG reduces both the plasma neurotoxic signature due to the tryptophan/kynurenine (Trp/Kyn) pathway overactivation and the failure of fat preference found in sham-operated DIO mice, (ii) the activity of Trp/Kyn pathway is negatively correlated to the density of Fun, and (iii) the pharmacological inhibition of the Kyn synthesis mimics in non-operated DIO mice the positive effects of VSG (i.e., decrease of Kyn synthesis, increase of Fun number, improvement of the fat taste perception). In humans, a reduction of the plasma Kyn level is only found in patients displaying a post-surgery improvement of their fat taste sensitivity. Altogether these data provide a plausible metabolic explanation to the degradation of the orosensory lipid perception observed in obesity.


Assuntos
Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Cinurenina/sangue , Obesidade/sangue , Distúrbios do Paladar/sangue , Triptofano/sangue , Adulto , Animais , Feminino , Preferências Alimentares/fisiologia , Gastrectomia , Humanos , Masculino , Metaboloma , Camundongos , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/cirurgia , Período Pós-Operatório , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Distúrbios do Paladar/etiologia , Percepção Gustatória/fisiologia
19.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33916877

RESUMO

The western dietary pattern is known for its frequent meals rich in saturated fat and protein, resulting in a postprandial state for a large part of the day. Therefore, our aim was to investigate the postprandial glucose and lipid metabolism in response to high (HP) or normal (NP) protein, high-fat hypercaloric diet and to identify early biomarkers of protein intake and hepatic lipid accumulation. In a crossover design, 17 healthy subjects were randomly assigned to consume a HP or NP hypercaloric diet for two weeks. In parallel, a control group (CD; n = 10) consumed a weight-maintaining control diet. Biomarkers of postprandial lipid and glucose metabolism were measured in 24 h urine and in plasma before and following a meal challenge. The metabolic profile of urine but not plasma, showed increased excretion of 13C, carnitine and short chain acyl-carnitines after adaptation to the HP diet. Urinary excretion of decatrienoylcarnitine and octenoylcarnitine increased after adaptation to the NP diet. Our results suggest that the higher excretion of short-chain urinary acyl-carnitines could facilitate the elimination of excess fat of the HP diet and thereby reduce hepatic fat accumulation previously reported, whereas the higher excretion medium-chains acyl-carnitine could be early biomarkers of hepatic lipid accumulation.


Assuntos
Carnitina/análogos & derivados , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Dieta Rica em Proteínas/efeitos adversos , Dieta Ocidental/efeitos adversos , Síndrome Metabólica/diagnóstico , Adulto , Biomarcadores/urina , Carnitina/metabolismo , Carnitina/urina , Estudos Cross-Over , Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Feminino , Glucose/metabolismo , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/fisiologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/metabolismo , Síndrome Metabólica/urina , Período Pós-Prandial/fisiologia , Eliminação Renal/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(2)2021 02 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672704

RESUMO

The forkhead box O (FoxO) subfamily is a member of the forkhead transcription factor family. It has regulation functions in glucose metabolism in mammals and fish. In the present study, a gene of the foxo homolog in abalone Haliotis discus hannai was cloned. A conservative forkhead (FH) domain and a transactivation (FoxO-TAD) domain were identified. Abalone foxo-specific siRNA (small interfering RNA) was injected to investigate the functions of foxo on glucose metabolism. Knockdown of foxo inhibited expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (pepck) and significantly increased expressions of hexokinase (hk) and pyruvate kinase (pk), but it failed to inhibit the relative mRNA level of glucose-6-phosphatase (g6pase). Then, a 100-day feeding trial was conducted to investigate the response of foxo and glucose metabolism in abalone fed with 1.57% (LFD, low-fat diet), 3.82% (MFD, middle-fat diet) and 6.72% (HFD, high-fat diet) of dietary lipid, respectively. The insulin-signaling pathway (AKT) was depressed and FoxO was activated by the HFD, but it did not inhibit glycolysis (hk) or improved gluconeogenesis significantly (pepck and g6pase). At the same time, impaired hepatopancreas glycogen storage raised hemolymph glucose levels. In conclusion, abalone foxo can be regulated by dietary lipid and can regulate gluconeogenesis or glycolysis in response to changes of dietary lipid levels, in which glycogen metabolism plays an important role.


Assuntos
Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Gastrópodes/genética , Gastrópodes/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Biomarcadores , Clonagem Molecular , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/química , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Gastrópodes/classificação , Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Especificidade de Órgãos , Filogenia
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