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1.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(1): 132-138, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34057739

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The human tongue is important in the oral processing of food and in sensory perception. Tongue topography could influence delicate differences in sensory perception. It is hypothesized that tongue surface roughness could alter oral lubrication status and affect perception of smoothness. Fifteen participants with varying levels of tongue surface roughness were recruited and tested. Participants' in situ oral lubrication status without and after consumption of fluid food (milk with varying fat content and maltodextrin solutions with different shear viscosities) was measured. Participants' smoothness sensory scores were also recorded. RESULTS: The in situ friction coefficient (0.299-1.505) was significantly positively correlated with tongue-surface roughness (54.6-140.0 µm) in all types of test fluid samples across participants. Oral lubrication was significantly decreased when participants consumed the test fluid samples compared with no liquid food consumption, for all test fluid sample types (P < 0.05). No significant differences in in situ friction coefficient were found after participants consumed different test fluid samples, and this was mainly attributed to the limited quantities of fluid residuals in the oral cavity after expectoration. Participants whose tongue surface roughness differed did not exhibit significant differences in smoothness perception with different test fluid samples. CONCLUSION: Tongue surface roughness has a strong impact on in situ oral lubrication, and fluid food intake reduces in situ oral lubrication significantly. Saliva film and tongue surface roughness might play greater roles in oral lubrication and smoothness sensory perception if fluid is expectorated after consumption. The association between oral physiology and texture perception still needs further elucidation. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Percepção Gustatória , Língua/química , Adulto , Animais , Gorduras/química , Gorduras/metabolismo , Feminino , Fricção , Humanos , Lubrificação , Masculino , Leite/química , Leite/metabolismo , Saliva/química , Saliva/fisiologia , Propriedades de Superfície , Língua/fisiologia , Viscosidade , Adulto Jovem
2.
Life Sci ; 285: 119997, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597608

RESUMO

AIM: Sirtuin 2 (SIRT2) is a NAD+-dependent deacetylase involved in various biological functions via deacetylation of proteins, including histone protein. Hepatic fat accumulation from aging and excess caloric intake contribute to development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The study aim was to elucidate the role of SIRT2 in lipid metabolism homeostasis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: SIRT2+/+ (C57BL/6) and SIRT2-/- were randomly assigned to normal diet or high-fat diet (HFD) groups and fed for 6 weeks. Histological features of the livers were evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome staining, and the levels of selected factors were determined by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. KEY FINDINGS: Although the SIRT2-/- mice were viable, their livers exhibited higher glycogen accumulation, and skeletal muscle showed features of increased metabolic demand. The SIRT2-/- mice attenuated HFD-induced weight gain, visceral adipose tissue formation, and fat accumulation in the liver in which the expressions of genes involved in metabolic substrate transport were modified. Additionally, the hepatocellular senescence and upregulated cell-cycle factors upon HFD intake in SIRT2-/- livers suggested a role of SIRT2 in gene expression during abnormal metabolism. Moreover, the fibrotic phenotype of liver tissue without fat accumulation and the increased expression of genes involved in liver fibrosis in the HFD-fed SIRT2-/- mice indicated that SIRT2 had a role in hepatocyte and hepatic stellate cell activation. SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicated that SIRT2 has a critical role in regulating lipid metabolic homeostasis and in sustaining liver integrity by modulating related gene expression.


Assuntos
Gorduras/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática/metabolismo , Sirtuína 2/fisiologia , Animais , Senescência Celular , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Glicogênio/metabolismo , Homeostase , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/metabolismo , Fígado/citologia , Fígado/patologia , Cirrose Hepática/genética , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Sirtuína 2/genética , Ganho de Peso/genética
3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 18573, 2021 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34535697

RESUMO

"Western diet" containing high concentrations of sugar and fat consumed during pregnancy contributes to development of obesity and diabetes type 2 in offspring. To mimic effects of this diet in animals, a cafeteria (CAF) diet is used. We hypothesized that CAF diet given to rats before, and during pregnancy and lactation differently influences fat content, metabolic and inflammation profiles in offspring. Females were exposed to CAF or control diets before pregnancy, during pregnancy and lactation. At postnatal day 25 (PND 25), body composition, fat contents were measured, and blood was collected for assessment of metabolic and inflammation profiles. We have found that CAF diet lead to sex-specific alterations in offspring. At PND25, CAF offspring had: (1) higher percentage of fat content, and were lighter; (2) sex-specific differences in levels of glucose; (3) higher levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin-10 (IL-10) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α); (4) sex-specific differences in concentration of IL-6 and TNF-α, with an increase in CAF females; (5) higher level of IL-10 in both sexes, with a more pronounced increase in females. We concluded that maternal CAF diet affects fat content, metabolic profiles, and inflammation parameters in offspring. Above effects are sex-specific, with female offspring being more susceptible to the diet.


Assuntos
Gorduras/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Composição Corporal , Dieta , Gorduras/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Gravidez , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Pré-Natal , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Caracteres Sexuais
4.
Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj ; 1865(11): 129991, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419510

RESUMO

Mitochondrial-derived peptides (MDPs) are encoded by the mitochondrial genome and hypothesised to form part of a retrograde signalling network that modulates adaptive responses to metabolic stress. To understand how metabolic stress regulates MDPs in humans we assessed the association between circulating MOTS-c and SHLP2 and components of metabolic syndrome (MS), as well as depot-specific fat mass in participants without overt type 2 diabetes or cardiovascular disease. One-hundred and twenty-five Chinese participants (91 male, 34 female) had anthropometry, whole body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans and fasted blood samples analysed. Chinese female participants and an additional 34 European Caucasian female participants also underwent magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy (MRI/S) for visceral, pancreatic and liver fat quantification. In Chinese participants (age = 41 ± 1 years, BMI = 27.8 ± 3.9 kg/m2), plasma MOTS-c (315 ± 27 pg/ml) and SHLP2 (1393 ± 82 pg/ml) were elevated in those with MS (n = 26). While multiple components of the MS sequelae positively associated with both MOTS-c and SHLP2, including blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose and triglycerides, the most significant of these was waist circumference (p < 0.0001). Android fat had a greater effect on increasing plasma MOTS-c (p < 0.004) and SHLP2 (p < 0.009) relative to whole body fat. Associations with MRI/S parameters corrected for total body fat mass revealed that liver fat positively associated with plasma MOTS-c and SHLP2 and visceral fat with SHLP2. Consistent with hepatic stress being a driver of circulating MDP concentrations, plasma MOTS-c and SHLP2 were higher in participants with elevated liver damage markers and in male C57Bl/6j mice fed a diet that induces hepatic lipid accumulation and damage. Our findings provide evidence that in the absence of overt type 2 diabetes, components of the MS positively associated with levels of MOTS-c and SHLP2 and that android fat, in particular liver fat, is a primary driver of these associations. MOTS-c and SHLP2 have previously been shown to have cyto- and metabolo-protective properties, therefore we suggest that liver stress may be a mitochondrial peptide signal, and that mitochondrial peptides are part of a hepatic centric-hormetic response intended to restore metabolic balance.


Assuntos
Gorduras/metabolismo , Metiltestosterona/metabolismo , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Feminino , Humanos , Fígado/química , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Mitocondriais/sangue , Adulto Jovem
5.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444773

RESUMO

Structural differences in dietary fatty acids modify their rate of oxidation and effect on satiety, endpoints that may influence the development of obesity. This study tests the hypothesis that meals containing fat sources with elevated unsaturated fats will result in greater postprandial energy expenditure, fat oxidation, and satiety than meals containing fats with greater saturation. In a randomized, 5-way crossover design, healthy men and women (n = 23; age: 25.7 ± 6.6 years; BMI: 27.7 ± 3.8 kg/m2) consumed liquid meals containing 30 g of fat from heavy cream (HC), olive oil (OO), sunflower oil (SFO), flaxseed oil (FSO), and fish oil (FO). Energy expenditure and diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) were determined by metabolic rate over a 240 min postprandial period. Serum concentrations of ghrelin, glucose, insulin, and triacylglycerol (TAG) were assessed. DIT induced by SFO was 5% lower than HC and FO (p = 0.04). Energy expenditure and substrate oxidation did not differ between fat sources. Postprandial TAG concentrations were significantly affected by fat source (p = 0.0001). Varying fat sources by the degree of saturation and PUFA type modified DIT but not satiety responses in normal to obese adult men and women.


Assuntos
Gorduras na Dieta/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos/farmacologia , Saciação/efeitos dos fármacos , Termogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Gorduras/química , Gorduras/metabolismo , Gorduras/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos/química , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/química , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Refeições , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/metabolismo , Azeite de Oliva/farmacologia , Oxirredução , Período Pós-Prandial/efeitos dos fármacos , Resposta de Saciedade/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto Jovem
6.
Cells ; 10(8)2021 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34440862

RESUMO

CEACAM1 regulates endothelial barrier integrity. Because insulin signaling in extrahepatic target tissues is regulated by insulin transport through the endothelium, we aimed at investigating the metabolic role of endothelial CEACAM1. To this end, we generated endothelial cell-specific Ceacam1 null mice (VECadCre+Cc1fl/fl) and carried out their metabolic phenotyping and mechanistic analysis by comparison to littermate controls. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp analysis showed intact insulin sensitivity in VECadCre+Cc1fl/fl mice. This was associated with the absence of visceral obesity and lipolysis and normal levels of circulating non-esterified fatty acids, leptin, and adiponectin. Whereas the loss of endothelial Ceacam1 did not affect insulin-stimulated receptor phosphorylation, it reduced IRS-1/Akt/eNOS activation to lower nitric oxide production resulting from limited SHP2 sequestration. It also reduced Shc sequestration to activate NF-κB and increase the transcription of matrix metalloproteases, ultimately inducing plasma IL-6 and TNFα levels. Loss of endothelial Ceacam1 also induced the expression of the anti-inflammatory CEACAM1-4L variant in M2 macrophages in white adipose tissue. Together, this could cause endothelial barrier dysfunction and facilitate insulin transport, sustaining normal glucose homeostasis and retaining fat accumulation in adipocytes. The data assign a significant role for endothelial cell CEACAM1 in maintaining insulin sensitivity in peripheral extrahepatic target tissues.


Assuntos
Antígeno Carcinoembrionário/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Animais , Antígeno Carcinoembrionário/genética , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Gorduras/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Inflamação , Insulina/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina/genética , Fígado/citologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
7.
Gene ; 802: 145864, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352300

RESUMO

Milk fat is the most important energy substance in milk and contributes to its quality and health benefits. Water buffalo milk is well known for its high milk quality with higher fat contents compared with cattle milk. Dehong buffalo is a unique local swamp breed in Yunnan Province with higher milk fat and excellent milk quality which provides a good model for the investigation of the molecular mechanisms of milk fat deposition. In this study, we used RNA-seq to obtain mammary tissue transcriptomics of buffalo with different milk fat phenotypes including high(H), medium (M)and low (L) fat content groups. Comparative analyses of buffalo among three groups yielded differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Analyzing the number of different genes among H_VS_L, H_VS_M, and M_VS_L showed the same expression pattern between H_VS_M. The increasing expression levels of genes including CSN1S1, BTN1A1, LALBA, ALDH1L2, SCD and MUC15, and down-regulated expression levels of genes containing CCL2, CRABP2, ADTRP, CLU and C4A in H_VS_L and M_VS_L were found. GO and KEGG enriched pathways revealed these DEGs involved in milk protein and fat as well as immune response. The findings would enhance the understanding of the interplay between the milk composition and immune response, which suggests that the immune capacity should be considered when we tried to improve the milk quality.


Assuntos
Búfalos/metabolismo , Gorduras/metabolismo , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/metabolismo , Leite/metabolismo , Animais , Búfalos/genética , Feminino , RNA-Seq/veterinária , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Transcriptoma
8.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 220: 112417, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34126306

RESUMO

Pesticides are a major cause of the reduction in the global amphibian population. In this study, the acute toxicity and chronic effects of metamifop on Xenopus laevis (X. laevis) tadpoles were investigated. The 96 h-LC50 value of metamifop on X. laevis tadpoles was 0.634 mg/L, which indicated that metamifop was highly toxic to tadpoles. In the chronic toxicity study, tadpoles were exposed to 0.063 mg/L of metamifop. After 14, 21 and 35 d of exposure, metamifop significantly inhibited the body weight and neurotransmitter synthesis of tadpoles, caused abnormal behavior and interfered with fat metabolism. According to the results of antioxidant enzymes and malondialdehyde (MDA), tadpoles exposed to 0.063 mg/L metamifop suffered severe lipid oxidative damage. Compared with the control group, the thyroid hormone (TH) levels and related gene expression in tadpoles in the treatment group were affected, reflecting the endocrine interference effect of metamifop. The data of this study can enrich our knowledge of the effects of aryloxyphenoxy propionate pesticides on amphibians and highlight the role of metamifop and other pesticides play in global decline of amphibians.


Assuntos
Anilidas/toxicidade , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Benzoxazóis/toxicidade , Neurotransmissores/biossíntese , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Glândula Tireoide/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Gorduras/metabolismo , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Dose Letal Mediana , Glândula Tireoide/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Glândula Tireoide/metabolismo , Hormônios Tireóideos/genética , Hormônios Tireóideos/metabolismo , Xenopus laevis
9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13415, 2021 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34183740

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is likely to be associated with increased circulating branched-chain amino acids. We investigated the relationship between changes in branched-chain amino acids levels in the serum and improvement in liver fat content caused by exercise intervention in individuals with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The exploratory study included 208 central obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease individuals from an exercise intervention randomized clinical trial for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The participants were randomly assigned to control, moderate, and vigorous-moderate exercise groups for 12 months. Changes in total branched-chain amino acids, leucine, isoleucine, and valine levels from baseline to 6 months were calculated. Liver fat content was determined by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Reductions in circulating levels of total branched-chain amino acids, leucine, and valine levels from baseline to 6 months were significantly associated with the improvement of liver fat content at 6 months and 12 months (p < 0.01 for all) after adjustments for age, sex, total energy intake, protein intake, intervention groups, HOMA-IR, BMI, liver fat content, total branched-chain amino acids, leucine, and valine at baseline, respectively. These associations were still significant after further adjustments for changes in HOMA-IR and BMI from baseline to 6 months (p < 0.05 for all). Our findings indicated that reductions in circulating branched-chain amino acids levels were associated with an improvement in liver fat content by exercise intervention among patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, which was independent of changes in BMI or HOMA-IR.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos de Cadeia Ramificada/sangue , Aminoácidos de Cadeia Ramificada/metabolismo , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Gorduras/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/sangue , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
10.
Cell Prolif ; 54(6): e13035, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33939201

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Adiponectin signalling has been considered to be a promising target to treat diabetes-related osteoporosis. However, contradictory results regarding bone formation were observed due to the various isoforms of adiponectin. Therefore, it would be necessary to investigate the effect of adiponectin receptor signals in regulating bone-fat balance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We primarily applied a newly found specific activator for adiponectin receptor, AdipoRon, to treat bone metabolism-related cells to investigate the role of Adiponectin receptor signals on bone-fat balance. We then established femur defect mouse model and treated them with AdipoRon to see whether adiponectin receptor activation could promote bone regeneration. RESULTS: We found that AdipoRon could slightly inhibit the proliferation of pre-osteoblast and pre-osteoclast, but AdipoRon showed no effect on the viability of mesenchymal stromal cells. AdipoRon could remarkably promote cell migration of mesenchymal stromal cells. Additionally, AdipoRon promoted osteogenesis in both pre-osteoblasts and mesenchymal cells. Besides, AdipoRon significantly inhibited osteoclastogenesis via its direct impact on pre-osteoclast and its indirect inhibition of RANKL in osteoblast. Moreover, mesenchymal stromal stems cells showed obviously decreased adipogenesis when treated with AdipoRon. Consistently, AdipoRon-treated mice showed faster bone regeneration and repressed adipogenesis. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated a pro-osteogenic, anti-adipogenic and anti-osteoclastogenic effect of adiponectin receptor activation in young mice, which suggested adiponectin receptor signalling was involved in bone regeneration and bone-fat balance regulation.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osso e Ossos/lesões , Gorduras/metabolismo , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Receptores de Adiponectina/agonistas , Células 3T3 , Animais , Regeneração Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Osso e Ossos/patologia , Células Cultivadas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Camundongos , Piperidinas/uso terapêutico , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores de Adiponectina/metabolismo
11.
Res Vet Sci ; 137: 194-200, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34020334

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fat metabolism is a complex process regulated by a number of factors. Adiponectin receptor 1 (ADIPOR1) gene takes active part in lipid metabolism. Although, there have been some researches indicating that ADIPOR1 could influence the milk fat metabolism through targeting some factors, little is known about the effect of ADIPOR1 on goat milk fat metabolism. To investigate the regulatory role of ADIPOR1 on milk fat metabolism in GMECs, we analysed overexpression in the presence and absence of AdipoRon (50 µM) and examined knockdown using siRNA. Using RT-qPCR, we assessed ADIPOR1 mRNA expressions among different lactation stages in goat mammary gland and the expression of six genes that regulate milk fat metabolism in GMECs. RESULTS: ADIPOR1 mRNA expression level was higher during the various lactation stages, except dry-off period. Knockdown and overexpression results revealed a significant decrease and increase in mRNA expression of ADIPOR1 and genes considered: SREBF1, ACACA, FASN, SCD, ATGL, and HSL, respectively. Treatment of GMECs with AdipoRon 50 µM resulted in a significant (p < 0.05) increase in the mRNA expression of all measured genes, except SREBF1. CONCLUSION: Overall, ADIPOR1 plays a central role in regulating the transcription of several genes involved in milk fat metabolism.


Assuntos
Gorduras/metabolismo , Cabras/genética , Cabras/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/metabolismo , Leite/metabolismo , Receptores de Adiponectina/genética , Animais , Contagem de Células/veterinária , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Lactação/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Receptores de Adiponectina/metabolismo
12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 7751, 2021 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33833245

RESUMO

Numerous cases of evolutionary trait loss and regain have been reported over the years. Here, we argue that such reverse evolution can also become apparent when trait expression is plastic in response to the environment. We tested this idea for the loss and regain of fat synthesis in parasitic wasps. We first show experimentally that the wasp Leptopilina heterotoma switches lipogenesis on in a fat-poor environment, and completely off in a fat-rich environment. Plasticity suggests that this species did not regain fat synthesis, but that it can be switched off in some environmental settings. We then compared DNA sequence variation and protein domains of several more distantly related parasitoid species thought to have lost lipogenesis, and found no evidence for non-functionality of key lipogenesis genes. This suggests that other parasitoids may also show plasticity of fat synthesis. Last, we used individual-based simulations to show that a switch for plastic expression can remain functional in the genome for thousands of generations, even if it is only used sporadically. The evolution of plasticity could thus also explain other examples of apparent reverse evolution.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Evolução Biológica , Gorduras/metabolismo , Lipogênese , Vespas/fisiologia , Animais , Vespas/metabolismo
13.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802651

RESUMO

Ketogenic diets (KDs) often contain high levels of saturated fat, which may increase liver fat, but the lower carbohydrate intake may have the opposite effect. Using a controlled feeding design, we compared liver fat responses to a hypocaloric KD with a placebo (PL) versus an energy-matched low-fat diet (LFD) in overweight adults. We also examined the added effect of a ketone supplement (KS). Overweight adults were randomized to a 6-week KD (KD + PL) or a KD with KS (KD + KS); an LFD group was recruited separately. All diets were estimated to provide 75% of energy expenditure. Weight loss was similar between groups (p > 0.05). Liver fat assessed by magnetic resonance imaging decreased after 6 week (p = 0.004) with no group differences (p > 0.05). A subset with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) (liver fat > 5%, n = 12) showed a greater reduction in liver fat, but no group differences. In KD participants with NAFLD, 92% of the variability in change in liver fat was explained by baseline liver fat (p < 0.001). A short-term hypocaloric KD high in saturated fat does not adversely impact liver health and is not impacted by exogenous ketones. Hypocaloric low-fat and KDs can both be used in the short-term to significantly reduce liver fat in individuals with NAFLD.


Assuntos
Dieta com Restrição de Gorduras , Dieta Cetogênica , Suplementos Nutricionais , Gorduras/análise , Cetonas/uso terapêutico , Fígado/química , Sobrepeso/dietoterapia , Adulto , Dieta com Restrição de Gorduras/métodos , Dieta Cetogênica/métodos , Gorduras/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Fígado/metabolismo , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Sobrepeso/metabolismo
14.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672773

RESUMO

A caloric surplus and a sedentary lifestyle are undoubtedly known to be the leading causes of obesity. Natural products represent valuable allies to face this problematic issue. This study was planned to assess the effect of a white grape (Vitis vinifera) juice extract (WGJe) in diet-induced obese zebrafish (Danio rerio). Fish were divided into four different diet groups: (i) normally fed (NF); (ii) overfed (OF); (iii) WGJe-supplemented NF (5 mL/L in fish water); (iv) WGJe-supplemented OF. Body mass index (BMI) was extrapolated each week. After the fourth week, euthanized zebrafish were processed for both microscopic evaluations and gene expression analyses. OF zebrafish showed higher BMI values with respect to NF counterparts, an effect that was hindered by WGJe treatment. Moreover, histological analyses showed that the area of the adipose tissue, as well as the number, size, and density of adipocytes was significantly higher in OF fish. On the other hand, WGJe was able to avoid these outcomes both at the subcutaneous and visceral levels, albeit to different extents. At the gene level, WGJe restored the altered levels of ghrelin and leptin of OF fish both in gut and brain. Overall, our results support the anti-obesity property of WGJe, suggesting its potential role in weight management.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Gorduras/antagonistas & inibidores , Grelina/antagonistas & inibidores , Leptina/antagonistas & inibidores , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Vitis/química , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Gorduras/metabolismo , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Grelina/genética , Grelina/metabolismo , Leptina/genética , Leptina/metabolismo , Estrutura Molecular , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/química , RNA Mensageiro/antagonistas & inibidores , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra
15.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 113(4): 1009-1022, 2021 04 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33675341

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lack of robust estimates of human-milk nutrient composition and influential maternal factors, such as body composition, are barriers to informing nutrition policies and programs. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to understand the relation between maternal BMI and human-milk energy, fat, and/or total protein. METHODS: Four electronic databases (MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and Web of Science) were searched. Outcomes assessed were human-milk energy (kcal/L), fat (g/L), and total protein (g/L) from mothers 1 to 6 mo postpartum. Studies with data on maternal BMI or weight and height that quantified human-milk energy, fat, or protein between 1 and 6 mo postpartum were eligible. Random-effects meta-regression weighted by the inverse of the study-level SE was completed for each of the 3 outcomes. The certainty of evidence for each outcome was assessed using the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) approach. RESULTS: A total of 11,373 titles and abstracts were identified, and after full-text screening, 69 articles of 66 studies were included. Meta-regression results showed a positive association between maternal BMI and human-milk fat (ß: 0.56 g/L; 95% CI: 0.034, 1.1; P = 0.04; I2 = 93.7%, n = 63 datapoints). There was no significant association between maternal BMI and human-milk energy (ß: 3.9 kcal/L; 95% CI: -1.6, 9.5; P = 0.16, I2 = 93.3%, n = 40 datapoints) or total protein (ß: 0.13 g/L; 95% CI: -0.16, 0.41; P = 0.37, I2 = 99.1%, n = 40 datapoints). The certainty of evidence for human-milk energy was low and the certainty of evidence for fat and total protein was very low. CONCLUSIONS: Meta-regression analysis of available literature suggested an association between maternal BMI and human-milk fat between 1 and 6 mo postpartum. Future studies are needed to confirm the relation between maternal BMI; variation in human-milk energy, fat, and protein content; and the implications for child growth and development. This review is registered with International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO 2018 CRD42018098808) at https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Gorduras/química , Leite Humano/química , Gorduras/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Lactose/química , Lactose/metabolismo , Proteínas do Leite/química , Proteínas do Leite/metabolismo , Leite Humano/metabolismo
16.
J Sci Food Agric ; 101(13): 5627-5635, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33713049

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nanoparticles can improve the bioavailability of bioactive compounds. Concomitant intake of food can affect pharmacokinetic profiles by altering dissolution, absorption, metabolism, and elimination behavior. Studies on the effects of food and its supplements on the bioavailability of bioactives in nanoformulations are few. In this study, the effects of typical food (milk, sugar, high-fat diet, and regular kibble) and a widely consumed probiotic [Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12® (Bb-12)] on the bioavailability of curcumin in four formulations [simply suspended curcumin (Cur-SS) and curcumin in nanoemulsions (Cur-NEs), in single-walled carbon nanotubes (Cur-SWNTs), and in nanostructured lipid carriers (Cur-NLCs)] were investigated. RESULTS: Fasting treatment and sugar co-ingestion can significantly enhance the bioavailability of curcumin in Cur-NEs and Cur-SWNTs, respectively. Compared with the fasting treatment, co-ingestion with regular kibble reduced the absorption of curcumin in Cur-NEs and Cur-SWNTs. Ingesting milk along with Cur-NE is also not recommended. The mechanisms behind these phenomena were briefly discussed. This study revealed for the first time that the intestinal colonization of Bb-12 reduces the bioavailability of curcumin and this reduction can be attenuated by nanoformulations SWNTs and NLCs, but not NEs. The reason for this difference was the protective effects of the former two nanoformulations against curcumin degradation by Bb-12 according to in vitro experiments. CONCLUSION: Dietary status (including supplementary probiotics) can dramatically influence the bioavailability of curcumin in nanoformulations. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Curcumina/química , Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Gorduras/metabolismo , Leite/metabolismo , Probióticos/química , Animais , Bifidobacterium animalis/química , Disponibilidade Biológica , Bovinos , Curcumina/metabolismo , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Portadores de Fármacos/metabolismo , Gorduras/química , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Leite/química , Nanopartículas/química , Nanotubos de Carbono/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Probióticos/metabolismo , Solubilidade
17.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 25(1): 25-30, jan-abr. 2021.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151401

RESUMO

O objetivo do estudo foi analisar a composição corporal com utilização do DXA e correlacioná-la com a idade cronológica em adolescentes pós-púberes, de ambos os sexos. Participaram da pesquisa 46 adolescentes em fase pós-puberal, sendo 27 meninas (17,23±0,98) e 19 meninos (17,65±0,74) de ensino médio de uma escola estadual da Zona Sul da cidade do Rio de Janeiro. Foram realizadas uma anamnese, avaliação antropométrica e o DXA para avaliações. O teste U de Mann Whitney e o coeficiente de correlação de Spearman foram utilizados, adotando P<0,05 para significância. Verificou-se que as meninas apresentam composição corporal diferentedos meninos (P<0,05) e que com o aumento da idade elas tendem a diminuir o percentual de gordura, embora tenha sido observado um quantitativo alto de meninas com percentual de gordura elevado. Os meninos apresentaram uma tendência de aumento do percentual de gordura e da massa magra com o aumento da idade. As medidas de conteúdo e densidade mineral ósseo dentro da normalidade, com tendência de aumento com o avanço da idade cronológica. Conclui-se que os grupos masculino e feminino apresentaram comportamentos diferenciados quanto à composição corporal e os valores apresentados trazem mais um complemento à literatura a respeito de referências para a composição corporal, obtida com o DXA, em adolescentes pós-púberes.


The purpose of this study was to analyze body composition using DXA and correlate it with chronological age in post-pubertal adolescents of both genders. A total of 46 adolescents participated in the study, of which 27 were girls (17.23±0.98) and 19 boys (17.65±0.74) from a state school in the South District in the city of Rio de Janeiro. An anamnesis, anthropometric evaluation and DXA were performed for evaluations. The Mann-Whitney U test and the Spearman correlation coefficient were used, adopting P <0.05 for significance. Girls were found to have a different body composition than boys (P <0.05) and that, with increasing age, they tended to present a decrease in fat percentage, although in general a high number of girls presented a high fat level. The boys presented a tendency to increase the percentage of fat and lean mass with the increase of the age. Measurements of bone mineral content and density were considered as being within normality, with a tendency to increase with the advancing of the chronological age. Girls and boys present a different behavior regarding body composition and the values presented in this study bring an addition to the literature regarding body composition references through DXA in post-pubertal adolescents.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Pesos e Medidas Corporais , Puberdade/fisiologia , Peso-Estatura/fisiologia , Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Estado Nutricional , Adolescente/fisiologia , Gorduras/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo
18.
Poult Sci ; 100(2): 1262-1272, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518083

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of collagen gel extracted from chicken feet on chicken sausages during 42 d of refrigerated storage. Three chicken sausages were processed: standard (SS); replacing 50% fat with commercial collagen powder (SC); replacing 50% fat with chicken foot collagen gel (SG). Sausages were stored at 4°C and analyzed every 14 d, for proximate composition, fatty acid profile, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) number, antioxidant activity, electrophoresis, instrumental color, water holding capacity (WHC), texture profile analysis, and quantitative descriptive analysis. Sausages SC and SG had similar behavior to the standard in the sensorial parameters of appearance and color over 28 d of refrigerated storage. SG had the highest WHC (81.05%), the lowest TBARS value (0.38 mg MDA/kg), and the highest antioxidant activity in addition to having the best atherogenicity and thrombogenicity index compared with SC treatment, making collagen gel viable to replace fat and control the effects of lipid oxidation.


Assuntos
Colágeno/química , Gorduras/metabolismo , Produtos Avícolas/normas , Animais , Galinhas , Produtos Avícolas/análise , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab ; 31(3): 227-235, 2021 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33588373

RESUMO

This study explored lifestyle and biological determinants of peak fat oxidation (PFO) during cycle ergometry, using duplicate measures to account for day-to-day variation. Seventy-three healthy adults (age range: 19-63 years; peak oxygen consumption [V˙O2peak]: 42.4 [10.1] ml·kg BM-1·min-1; n = 32 women]) completed trials 7-28 days apart that assessed resting metabolic rate, a resting venous blood sample, and PFO by indirect calorimetry during an incremental cycling test. Habitual physical activity (combined heart rate accelerometer) and dietary intake (weighed record) were assessed before the first trial. Body composition was assessed 2-7 days after the second identical trial by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan. Multiple linear regressions were performed to identify determinants of PFO (mean of two cycle tests). A total variance of 79% in absolute PFO (g·min-1) was explained with positive coefficients for V˙O2peak (strongest predictor), FATmax (i.e the % of V˙O2peak that PFO occurred at), and resting fat oxidation rate (g·min-1), and negative coefficients for body fat mass (kg) and habitual physical activity level. When expressed relative to fat-free mass, 64% of variance in PFO was explained: positive coefficients for FATmax (strongest predictor), V˙O2peak, and resting fat oxidation rate, and negative coefficients for male sex and fat mass. This duplicate design revealed that biological and lifestyle factors explain a large proportion of variance in PFO during incremental cycling. After accounting for day-to-day variation in PFO, V˙O2peak and FATmax were strong and consistent predictors of PFO.


Assuntos
Ciclismo/psicologia , Gorduras/metabolismo , Adulto , Testes Respiratórios , Calorimetria Indireta , Estudos Transversais , Registros de Dieta , Exercício Físico , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Lipídeos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxirredução , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
20.
Food Chem ; 346: 128918, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33385913

RESUMO

This study investigates whether lecithin could fasten lipolysis through the alleviation of protein aggregation in an infant formula emulsion model. Our previous study reported low intestinal digestion of infant formula could be due to the aggregation of proteins that slow lipid digestion. The emulsion contained lipids droplets simulating the fatty acid composition in breast milk, different levels of lecithin and milk protein. The interphase proteins were replaced with lecithin in a dose-dependent manner. The results showed the addition of 5% and 7% lecithin improves the physical stability, narrows the range of particle size, reduces the mean particle size and increases the zeta potential. The 5% lecithin emulsion showed the highest rate and extent of lipid and protein digestion. These positive effects were caused by lecithin through stabilizing the emulsion and suppressing droplet flocculation after digestion. Lecithin promotes lipid digestion and may improve the "insufficient fat supply" in infant formula.


Assuntos
Digestão , Emulsões , Gorduras/metabolismo , Fórmulas Infantis , Lecitinas/metabolismo , Floculação , Humanos , Lactente , Proteínas do Leite/metabolismo , Tamanho da Partícula
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