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1.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 15047, 2024 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38951576

RESUMO

Pink bollworm (PBW) Pectinophora gossypiella is an important pest cotton worldwide. There are multiple factors which determines the occurrence and distribution of P. gossypiella across different cotton growing regions of the world, and one such key factor is 'temperature'. The aim was to analyze the life history traits of PBW across varying temperature conditions. We systematically explored the biological and demographic parameters of P. gossypiella at five distinct temperatures; 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 ± 1 °C maintaining a photoperiod of LD 16:8 h. The results revealed that the total developmental period of PBW shortens with rising temperatures, and the highest larval survival rates were observed between 30 °C and 35 °C, reaching 86.66% and 80.67%, respectively. Moreover, significant impacts were observed as the pupal weight, percent mating success, and fecundity exhibited higher values at 30 °C and 35 °C. Conversely, percent egg hatching, larval survival, and adult emergence were notably lower at 20 °C and 40 °C, respectively. Adult longevity decreased with rising temperatures, with females outliving males across all treatments. Notably, thermal stress had a persistent effect on the F1 generation, significantly affecting immature stages (egg and larvae), while its impact on reproductive potential was minimal. These findings offer valuable insights for predicting the population dynamics of P. gossypiella at the field level and developing climate-resilient management strategies in cotton.


Assuntos
Larva , Temperatura , Animais , Larva/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Gossypium/parasitologia , Lepidópteros/fisiologia , Lepidópteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Mariposas/fisiologia , Mariposas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Longevidade/fisiologia , Pupa/fisiologia , Pupa/crescimento & desenvolvimento
2.
Physiol Plant ; 176(4): e14415, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38962818

RESUMO

The monotonicity of color type in naturally colored cottons (NCCs) has become the main limiting factor to their widespread use, simultaneously coexisting with poor fiber quality. The synchronous improvement of fiber quality and color become more urgent and crucial as the demand for sustainable development increases. The homologous gene of wild cotton Gossypium stocksii LAC15 in G. hirsutum, GhLAC15, was also dominantly expressed in the developing fibers of brown cotton XC20 from 5 DPA (day post anthesis) to 25 DPA, especially at the secondary cell wall thickening stage (20 DPA and 25 DPA). In XC20 plants with downregulated GhLAC15 (GhLAC15i), a remarkable reduction in proanthocyanidins (PAs) and lignin contents was observed. Some of the key genes in the phenylpropane and flavonoid biosynthesis pathway were down-regulated in GhLAC15i plants. Notably, the fiber length of GhLAC15i plants showed an obvious increase and the fiber color was lightened. Moreover, we found that the thickness of cotton fiber cell wall was decreased in GhLAC15i plants and the fiber surface became smoother compared to that of WT. Taken together, this study revealed that GhLAC15 played an important role in PAs and lignin biosynthesis in naturally colored cotton fibers. It might mediate fiber color and fiber quality by catalyzing PAs oxidation and lignin polymerization, ultimately regulating fiber colouration and development.


Assuntos
Fibra de Algodão , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Gossypium , Lacase , Lignina , Proteínas de Plantas , Gossypium/genética , Gossypium/metabolismo , Gossypium/enzimologia , Lacase/metabolismo , Lacase/genética , Lignina/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Proantocianidinas/metabolismo , Cor , Pigmentação/genética
3.
PeerJ ; 12: e17682, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38993976

RESUMO

To determine the genes associated with the fiber strength trait in cotton, three different cotton cultivars were selected: Sea Island cotton (Xinhai 32, with hyper-long fibers labeled as HL), and upland cotton (17-24, with long fibers labeled as L, and 62-33, with short fibers labeled as S). These cultivars were chosen to assess fiber samples with varying qualities. RNA-seq technology was used to analyze the expression profiles of cotton fibers at the secondary cell wall (SCW) thickening stage (20, 25, and 30 days post-anthesis (DPA)). The results showed that a large number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were obtained from the three assessed cotton cultivars at different stages of SCW development. For instance, at 20 DPA, Sea Island cotton (HL) had 6,215 and 5,364 DEGs compared to upland cotton 17-24 (L) and 62-33 (S), respectively. Meanwhile, there were 1,236 DEGs between two upland cotton cultivars, 17-24 (L) and 62-33 (S). Gene Ontology (GO) term enrichment identified 42 functions, including 20 biological processes, 11 cellular components, and 11 molecular functions. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis identified several pathways involved in SCW synthesis and thickening, such as glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, galactose metabolism, propanoate metabolism, biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids pathway, valine, leucine and isoleucine degradation, fatty acid elongation pathways, and plant hormone signal transduction. Through the identification of shared DEGs, 46 DEGs were found to exhibit considerable expressional differences at different fiber stages from the three cotton cultivars. These shared DEGs have functions including REDOX enzymes, binding proteins, hydrolases (such as GDSL thioesterase), transferases, metalloproteins (cytochromatin-like genes), kinases, carbohydrates, and transcription factors (MYB and WRKY). Therefore, RT-qPCR was performed to verify the expression levels of nine of the 46 identified DEGs, an approach which demonstrated the reliability of RNA-seq data. Our results provided valuable molecular resources for clarifying the cell biology of SCW biosynthesis during fiber development in cotton.


Assuntos
Parede Celular , Fibra de Algodão , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Gossypium , Gossypium/genética , Gossypium/metabolismo , Gossypium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fibra de Algodão/análise , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Parede Celular/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Transcriptoma
4.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 5733, 2024 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38977687

RESUMO

The occurrence of whole-genome duplication or polyploidy may promote plant adaptability to harsh environments. Here, we clarify the evolutionary relationship of eight GhCIPK6 homologous genes in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). Gene expression and interaction analyses indicate that GhCIPK6 homologous genes show significant functional changes after polyploidy. Among these, GhCIPK6D1 and GhCIPK6D3 are significantly up-regulated by drought stress. Functional studies reveal that high GhCIPK6D1 expression promotes cotton drought sensitivity, while GhCIPK6D3 expression promotes drought tolerance, indicating clear functional differentiation. Genetic and biochemical analyses confirm the synergistic negative and positive regulation of cotton drought resistance through GhCBL1A1-GhCIPK6D1 and GhCBL2A1-GhCIPK6D3, respectively, to regulate stomatal movement by controlling the directional flow of K+ in guard cells. These results reveal differentiated roles of GhCIPK6 homologous genes in response to drought stress in upland cotton following polyploidy. The work provides a different perspective for exploring the functionalization and subfunctionalization of duplicated genes in response to polyploidization.


Assuntos
Secas , Evolução Molecular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Gossypium , Proteínas de Plantas , Poliploidia , Gossypium/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Genes de Plantas , Filogenia , Duplicação Gênica , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Estômatos de Plantas/genética , Estômatos de Plantas/fisiologia , Resistência à Seca
5.
Water Environ Res ; 96(7): e11077, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39012080

RESUMO

In recent years, the research potential in utilizing biochars as adsorbents in adsorption processes has grown due to their eco-friendly and economical nature. However, biochar often possesses a negative surface charge that limits its affinity for binding anions. Nitric acid washing and pretreatment with Coriolus versicolor can break down the lignocellulosic structure in cotton stalk waste, facilitating the subsequent impregnation of Mg and Fe metal oxides. These pretreatment steps can lead to the production of diverse and functionalized biochars with higher adsorption capacities. In this study, cotton stalk waste was first washed with diluted nitric acid and then subjected to biological pretreatment by incubation with C. versicolor, followed by impregnation with Mg and Fe to obtain CV-CS/Fe and CV-CS/Mg biochars. The results showed that the applied pretreatments altered the physicochemical properties and significantly increased the phosphorus adsorption capacity. The adsorption capacities of CV-CS/Fe and CV-CS/Mg biochars were found to be 277.88 and 507.01 mg g-1, respectively. The results indicate that the incorporation of multiple metal oxide impregnates enhances P adsorption. Furthermore, in the kinetic study, pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models provided a well fit, determining chemical adsorption as the main adsorption mechanism for phosphorus adsorption. The biochars demonstrated compatibility with Langmuir-Freundlich models. Overall, the findings suggest the possibility of synthesizing biochars with improved adsorptive properties through pretreatment, and these engineered biochars hold promising potential as effective adsorbents in the field. PRACTITIONER POINTS: Eco-friendly, natural, and economical biochar was synthesized. Biochar was produced via Coriolus versicolor pretreatment. High adsorption capacities of CV-PS/Mg biochars were found to be 507.01 mg g-1. Adsorption capacities of biochars can be improved by pretreatment.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal , Gossypium , Fósforo , Carvão Vegetal/química , Adsorção , Fósforo/química , Gossypium/química , Magnésio/química , Ferro/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Cinética , Trametes , Polyporaceae
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(13)2024 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39000183

RESUMO

Landraces are an important reservoir of genetic variation that can expand the narrow genetic base of cultivated cotton. In this study, quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was conducted using an F2 population developed from crosses between the landrace Hopi and inbred TM-1. A high-density genetic map spanning 2253.11 and 1932.21 cM for the A and D sub-genomes, respectively, with an average marker interval of 1.14 cM, was generated using the CottonSNP63K array. The linkage map showed a strong co-linearity with the physical map of cotton. A total of 21 QTLs were identified, controlling plant height (1), bract type (1), boll number (1), stem color (2), boll pitting (2), fuzz fiber development (2), boll shape (3), boll point (4), and boll glanding (5). In silico analysis of the novel QTLs for boll glanding identified a total of 13 candidate genes. Analysis of tissue-specific expression of the candidate genes suggests roles for the transcription factors bHLH1, MYB2, and ZF1 in gland formation. Comparative sequencing of open reading frames identified early stop codons in all three transcription factors in Hopi. Functional validation of these genes offers avenues to reduce glanding and, consequently, lower gossypol levels in cottonseeds without compromising the defense mechanisms of the plant against biotic stresses.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Cromossômico , Gossypium , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Gossypium/genética , Gossypium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Ligação Genética , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Fenótipo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas
7.
PeerJ ; 12: e17476, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38974414

RESUMO

The whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), is a polyphagous and major pest of cotton worldwide. Both adults and nymphs of B. tabaci affect the crop by causing direct and indirect damage. A severe whitefly outbreak was experienced during 2015 on cotton in North India and this was followed by a profound infestation during 2022. The present research rigorously examined whether the proliferation in the whitefly population was an outbreak or the result of a multi factor resurgence. During 2015, whitefly counts remained above the economic threshold level (ETL) between 28th and 35th Standard Meteorological Week (SMW). However, during 2022 above ETL population was observed in 27th SMW and it persisted until 36th SMW. The peak incidence of the whitefly was noticed during 31st and 29th SMW in 2015 and 2022, respectively. The early pest build up in 2022 and longer persistence (≥10 weeks) over the cotton season resulted in more damage to cotton crop. Additionally, pest survillence across the zone on the farmers' fields during 2022 revealed 44.4 per cent spots (585 out of 1,317 locations) above ETL while the corresponding locations in 2015 was 57% (620 out of 1,089). Thus, in 2022 infestation was not uniform in the entire zone wherein only few blocks of Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan states of India experienced severe infestations of the whitefly. This study reports the complex of factors including weather, delayed sowing, use of tank mixtures/ subleathal doses of insecticides, pest resurgence etc. that might have possibly contributed to these upsurges in whitefly on cotton in north India.


Assuntos
Gossypium , Hemípteros , Animais , Índia/epidemiologia , Gossypium/parasitologia , Estações do Ano , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Doenças das Plantas/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
PeerJ ; 12: e17625, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38948221

RESUMO

Plasmodesmata are transmembrane channels embedded within the cell wall that can facilitate the intercellular communication in plants. Plasmodesmata callose-binding (PDCB) protein that associates with the plasmodesmata contributes to cell wall extension. Given that the elongation of cotton fiber cells correlates with the dynamics of the cell wall, this protein can be related to the cotton fiber elongation. This study sought to identify PDCB family members within the Gossypium. hirsutum genome and to elucidate their expression profiles. A total of 45 distinct family members were observed through the identification and screening processes. The analysis of their physicochemical properties revealed the similarity in the amino acid composition and molecular weight across most members. The phylogenetic analysis facilitated the construction of an evolutionary tree, categorizing these members into five groups mainly distributed on 20 chromosomes. The fine mapping results facilitated a tissue-specific examination of group V, revealing that the expression level of GhPDCB9 peaked five days after flowering. The VIGS experiments resulted in a marked decrease in the gene expression level and a significant reduction in the mature fiber length, averaging a shortening of 1.43-4.77 mm. The results indicated that GhPDCB9 played a pivotal role in the cotton fiber development and served as a candidate for enhancing cotton yield.


Assuntos
Fibra de Algodão , Gossypium , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas , Plasmodesmos , Gossypium/genética , Gossypium/metabolismo , Plasmodesmos/metabolismo , Fibra de Algodão/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Glucanos/metabolismo , Família Multigênica , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Parede Celular/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo
9.
Physiol Plant ; 176(4): e14442, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39030776

RESUMO

Cotton plays a crucial role in the progress of the textile industry and the betterment of human life by providing natural fibers. In our study, we explored the genetic determinants of cotton architecture and fiber yield and quality by crossbreeding Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium barbadense, creating a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population. Utilizing SNP markers, we constructed an extensive genetic map encompassing 7,730 markers over 2,784.2 cM. We appraised two architectural and seven fiber traits within six environments, identifying 58 QTLs, of which 49 demonstrated stability across these environments. These encompassed QTLs for traits such as lint percentage (LP), boll weight (BW), fiber strength (STRENGTH), seed index (SI), and micronaire (MIC), primarily located on chromosomes chr-A07, chr-D06, and chr-D07. Notably, chr-D07 houses a QTL region affecting SI, corroborated by multiple studies. Within this region, the genes BZIP043 and SEP2 were identified as pivotal, with SEP2 particularly showing augmented expression in developing ovules. These discoveries contribute significantly to marker-assisted selection, potentially elevating both the yield and quality of cotton fiber production. These findings provide valuable insights into marker-assisted breeding strategies, offering crucial information to enhance fiber yield and quality in cotton production.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Cromossômico , Fibra de Algodão , Gossypium , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Gossypium/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Marcadores Genéticos
10.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 528, 2024 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38862893

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: BRVIS RADIX (BRX) family is a small gene family with the highly conserved plant-specific BRX domains, which plays important roles in plant development and response to abiotic stress. Although BRX protein has been studied in other plants, the biological function of cotton BRX-like (BRXL) gene family is still elusive. RESULT: In this study, a total of 36 BRXL genes were identified in four cotton species. Whole genome or segmental duplications played the main role in the expansion of GhBRXL gene family during evolutionary process in cotton. These BRXL genes were clustered into 2 groups, α and ß, in which structural and functional conservation within same groups but divergence among different groups were found. Promoter analysis indicated that cis-elements were associated with the phytohormone regulatory networks and the response to abiotic stress. Transcriptomic analysis indicated that GhBRXL2A/2D and GhBRXL5A/5D were up/down-regulated in response to the different stress. Silencing of GhBRXL5A gene via virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) improved salt tolerance in cotton plants. Furthermore, yeast two hybrid analysis suggested homotypic and heterotypic interactions between GhBRXL1A and GhBRXL5D. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, these results provide useful and valuable information for understanding the evolution of cotton GhBRXL genes and their functions in salt stress.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Gossypium , Família Multigênica , Proteínas de Plantas , Estresse Salino , Gossypium/genética , Gossypium/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Estresse Salino/genética , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Filogenia , Genes de Plantas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica
11.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 14550, 2024 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38914604

RESUMO

Floating seedling cultivation technique is a novel seedling method in cotton and it provides an ideal model to study cotton growing under waterlogging stress. Morphological character and proteomic profile of the primary root from the seedling cultured by the new technology were evaluated in this study. Compared to seedlings cultured by the traditional method, the diameter of the taproot from floating technology is small at all five seedling stages from one-leaf stage to five-leaf stage. There are similar changes between the thickness of cortex and diameter of stele, which increased from the one- to the two-leaf stage but decreased from the two- to the five-leaf stage. At the one-leaf stage, the number and volume of mitochondria in the primary root-tip cells were less than those in the control. At the two-leaf stage, there was significantly less electron-dense material in the primary root-tip cells than those in the control group. From the one- to the two-leaf stage, the vacuole volume was significantly smaller than that in the control. Total 28 differentially expressed proteins were revealed from aquatic and control group roots of cotton seedlings at the three-leaf stage by two-dimensional electrophoresis, which included 24 up-regulated and four down-regulated proteins. The relative expression of the phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) gene in aquatic roots increased from the one- to the four-leaf stage but declined rapidly from the four- to the five-leaf stage. The relative expression of the 14-3-3b gene tended to decrease from the one- to the five-leaf stage. The PGK and 14-3-3b genes were specifically expressed in the aquatic roots at the three-leaf stage. In brief, these changes induced waterlogging resistance in the aquatic roots of cotton seedlings in the floating nursery, thereby causing the roots to adapt to the aquatic environment, promoting the growth and development of cotton seedlings.


Assuntos
Gossypium , Proteínas de Plantas , Raízes de Plantas , Proteômica , Plântula , Gossypium/metabolismo , Gossypium/genética , Proteômica/métodos , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/metabolismo , Plântula/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Estresse Fisiológico , Proteoma/metabolismo
12.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 554, 2024 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38877405

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidermal patterning factor / -like (EPF/EPFL) gene family encodes a class of cysteine-rich secretory peptides, which are widelyfound in terrestrial plants.Multiple studies has indicated that EPF/EPFLs might play significant roles in coordinating plant development and growth, especially as the morphogenesis processes of stoma, awn, stamen, and fruit skin. However, few research on EPF/EPFL gene family was reported in Gossypium. RESULTS: We separately identified 20 G. raimondii, 24 G. arboreum, 44 G. hirsutum, and 44 G. barbadense EPF/EPFL genes in the 4 representative cotton species, which were divided into four clades together with 11 Arabidopsis thaliana, 13 Oryza sativa, and 17 Selaginella moellendorffii ones based on their evolutionary relationships. The similar gene structure and common motifs indicated the high conservation among the EPF/EPFL members, while the uneven distribution in chromosomes implied the variability during the long-term evolutionary process. Hundreds of collinearity relationships were identified from the pairwise comparisons of intraspecifc and interspecific genomes, which illustrated gene duplication might contribute to the expansion of cotton EPF/EPFL gene family. A total of 15 kinds of cis-regulatory elements were predicted in the promoter regions, and divided into three major categories relevant to the biological processes of development and growth, plant hormone response, and abiotic stress response. Having performing the expression pattern analyses with the basic of the published RNA-seq data, we found most of GhEPF/EPFL and GbEPF/EPFL genes presented the relatively low expression levels among the 9 tissues or organs, while showed more dramatically different responses to high/low temperature and salt or drought stresses. Combined with transcriptome data of developing ovules and fibers and quantitative Real-time PCR results (qRT-PCR) of 15 highly expressed GhEPF/EPFL genes, it could be deduced that the cotton EPF/EPFL genes were closely related with fiber development. Additionally, the networks of protein-protein interacting among EPF/EPFLs concentrated on the cores of GhEPF1 and GhEPF7, and thosefunctional enrichment analyses indicated that most of EPF/EPFLs participate in the GO (Gene Ontology) terms of stomatal development and plant epidermis development, and the KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathways of DNA or base excision repair. CONCLUSION: Totally, 132 EPF/EPFL genes were identified for the first time in cotton, whose bioinformatic analyses of cis-regulatory elements and expression patterns combined with qRT-PCR experiments to prove the potential functions in the biological processes of plant growth and responding to abiotic stresses, specifically in the fiber development. These results not only provide comprehensive and valuable information for cotton EPF/EPFL gene family, but also lay solid foundation for screening candidate EPF/EPFL genes in further cotton breeding.


Assuntos
Gossypium , Família Multigênica , Proteínas de Plantas , Gossypium/genética , Gossypium/metabolismo , Gossypium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Filogenia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Genes de Plantas , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 941: 173781, 2024 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38844242

RESUMO

Addressing critical challenges in sustainable agriculture, notably water scarcity and soil degradation, necessitates innovative irrigation and fertilization methods. This investigation thoroughly assessed the effects of combining inorganic and organic fertilizers under brackish water irrigation, particularly focusing on magnetized-ionized brackish water-a promising solution for these challenges. The study shows that the integration of inorganic and organic fertilizers notably enhances soil water retention and salt leaching when applied with magnetized-ionized brackish water irrigation (MIBIO treatment), with water storage rate and salt accumulation rate observed at -0.454 and -0.075, respectively. Additionally, soil microbial diversity and uniformity witnessed significant improvement, positively influencing cotton growth rates, particularly noting a dry matter accumulation rate of 9.3262 kg·(ha·°C)-1. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that the MIBIO treatment elevated gene expression during the boll period, with notable enrichment in pathways such as the MAPK signaling pathway-plant and amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism. Furthermore, the partial least squares path modeling indicated that soil alkali-hydrolyzed nitrogen (AN) and available potassium (AK) positively impact cotton leaf transcription and yield, with path coefficients of 0.613 and 0.428, respectively. Specifically, AN and AK contribute to enhancing cotton growth and affect the expression of metabolism genes in cotton leaves, thereby increasing cotton yield. Our study highlights the crucial role of irrigation and fertilization in influencing the soil environment and cotton growth. We recommend the use of magnetized-ionized water irrigation in combination with organic fertilizers as a strategy to boost agricultural productivity. Through the development of these strategies, our goal is to offer farmers practical guidance that can be readily implemented to enhance crop production efficiency, reduce environmental impact, and adhere to the principles of sustainable agriculture.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes , Gossypium , Solo , Gossypium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solo/química , Irrigação Agrícola/métodos , Água , Agricultura/métodos , Nitrogênio , Microbiologia do Solo
14.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 45(6): 3571-3583, 2024 Jun 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38897777

RESUMO

In arid areas, fresh water resources are insufficient, and agricultural water mainly depends on shallow saline groundwater. However, long-term saline irrigation will cause soil salt accumulation and soil environment deterioration, which is not conducive to crop growth. In this study, based on the long-term irrigation of fresh water (0.35 dS·m-1, FW) and saline water (8.04 dS·m-1, SW), biochar (3.7 t·hm-2, BC) and straw (6 t·hm-2, ST) were added to the soil by an equal-carbon design. The aim was to clarify the effects of biochar and straw returning on the physical and chemical properties and microbial community structure of salinized soil. The results showed that saline irrigation significantly increased soil water content, electrical conductivity, available phosphorus, and total carbon content but significantly decreased pH value and available potassium content. The contents of available phosphorus, available potassium, and total carbon in soil were significantly increased by biochar and straw returning, but the conductivity value of soil irrigated with saline water was significantly decreased. The dominant bacteria in each treatment were Proteobacteria, Actinomycetes, Acidobacteria, Chloromycetes, and Blastomonas. Saline water irrigation significantly increased the relative abundance of Blastomonas and Proteobacteria but significantly decreased the relative abundance of Acidobacteria and Actinobacteria. Under the condition of fresh water irrigation, the relative abundance of Chlorocurvula was significantly reduced by the return of biochar. Straw returning significantly increased the relative abundance of Proteobacteria but significantly decreased the relative abundance of Acidobacteria, Actinomyces, Chloromyces, and Blastomonas. Under saline irrigation, the relative abundance of Chlorocurvula and Blastomonas were significantly reduced by biochar return to field. Straw returning significantly increased the relative abundance of Proteobacteria but significantly decreased the relative abundance of Acidobacteria, Actinomyces, Chloromyces, and Blastomonas. LEfSe analysis showed that saline irrigation decreased the potential markers and functional numbers of soil microorganisms.Under saline irrigation, biochar returning increased the number of potential markers and functions of soil microorganisms. Straw returning to field increases the number of potential markers of soil microorganisms. RDA results showed that soil microbial community and functional structure were significantly correlated with EC1:5, SWC, and pH. Saline water irrigation will deteriorate the soil environment, which is not conducive to agricultural production, among which EC1:5, SWC, and pH are important factors driving changes in soil microbial community and functional structure. Using biochar and straw to return to the field can reduce the harm of salt to soil and crops, laying a foundation for improving agricultural productivity.


Assuntos
Irrigação Agrícola , Carvão Vegetal , Gossypium , Caules de Planta , Microbiologia do Solo , Solo , Irrigação Agrícola/métodos , Solo/química , Gossypium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Caules de Planta/química , Águas Salinas , Microbiota , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento
15.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 587, 2024 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38902638

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) genes belong to the alpha/beta hydrolase superfamily, catalyze the terminal step of triglyceride (TAG) hydrolysis, converting monoacylglycerol (MAG) into free fatty acids and glycerol. RESULTS: In this study, 30 MAGL genes in upland cotton have been identified, which have been classified into eight subgroups. The duplication of GhMAGL genes in upland cotton was predominantly influenced by segmental duplication events, as revealed through synteny analysis. Furthermore, all GhMAGL genes were found to contain light-responsive elements. Through comprehensive association and haplotype analyses using resequencing data from 355 cotton accessions, GhMAGL3 and GhMAGL6 were detected as key genes related to lipid hydrolysis processes, suggesting a negative regulatory effect. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, MAGL has never been studied in upland cotton previously. This study provides the genetic mechanism foundation for the discover of new genes involved in lipid metabolism to improve cottonseed oil content, which will provide a strategic avenue for marker-assisted breeding aimed at incorporating desirable traits into cultivated cotton varieties.


Assuntos
Gossypium , Monoacilglicerol Lipases , Gossypium/genética , Gossypium/enzimologia , Monoacilglicerol Lipases/genética , Monoacilglicerol Lipases/metabolismo , Alelos , Família Multigênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genoma de Planta , Variação Genética , Filogenia , Genes de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Haplótipos
16.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 14046, 2024 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38890398

RESUMO

Elucidating genetic diversity within wild forms of modern crops is essential for understanding domestication and the possibilities of wild germplasm utilization. Gossypium hirsutum is a predominant source of natural plant fibers and the most widely cultivated cotton species. Wild forms of G. hirsutum are challenging to distinguish from feral derivatives, and truly wild populations are uncommon. Here we characterize a population from Mound Key Archaeological State Park, Florida using genome-wide SNPs extracted from 25 individuals over three sites. Our results reveal that this population is genetically dissimilar from other known wild, landrace, and domesticated cottons, and likely represents a pocket of previously unrecognized wild genetic diversity. The unexpected level of divergence between the Mound Key population and other wild cotton populations suggests that the species may harbor other remnant and genetically distinct populations that are geographically scattered in suitable habitats throughout the Caribbean. Our work thus has broader conservation genetic implications and suggests that further exploration of natural diversity in this species is warranted.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Gossypium , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Florida , Gossypium/genética , Filogenia , Domesticação , Genética Populacional , Genoma de Planta
17.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0290858, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38833488

RESUMO

The tarnished plant bug, (TPB) Lygus lineolaris Palisot de Beauvois (Hemiptera: Miridae) is a key pest of cotton in the midsouth region and some areas of the eastern United States. Its control methods have been solely based on chemical insecticides which has contributed to insecticidal resistance and shortened residual periods for control of this insect pest. This study was conducted over a two-year period and examined the efficacy and residual effect of four commercial insecticides including lambda-cyhalothrin (pyrethroid), acephate (organophosphate), imidacloprid (neonicotinoid), and sulfoxaflor (sulfoxamine). The effectiveness and residual effects of these insecticides were determined by application on cotton field plots on four different dates during each season using three different concentrations (high: highest labeled commercial dose (CD), medium: 1/10 of the CD, low: 1/100 of the CD) on field cotton plots. Four groups of cotton leaves were randomly pulled from each treated plot and control 0-, 2-, 4-, 7-, and 9-days post treatment (DPT) and exposed to a lab colony of TPB adults. One extra leaf sample/ plot/ spray /DPT interval (0-2-4-7-9-11) during 2016 was randomly collected from the high concentration plots and sent to Mississippi State Chemical Laboratory for residual analysis. Mortality of TPB adults was greatest for those placed on leaves sprayed with the organophosphate insecticide with mortalities (%) of 81.7±23.4 and 63.3±28.8 (SE) 1-day after exposure (DAE) on leaves 0-DPT with the high concentration for 2016 and 2017, respectively, reaching 94.5±9.5 and 95.4±7.6 6-DAE each year. Mortality to all insecticides continued until 9 and 4-DPT for high and medium concentrations, respectively. However, organophosphate (39.4±28.6) and pyrethroid (24.4±9.9) exhibited higher mortality than sulfoxamine (10.6±6.6) and the neonicotinoid (4.0±1.5) 7-DAE on 9-DPT leaves with the high concentration. Based on our results using the current assay procedure, TPB adults were significantly more susceptible to contact than systemic insecticides and due to its residual effect, organophosphate could kill over 80% of the TPB population 7-DPT.


Assuntos
Gossypium , Inseticidas , Neonicotinoides , Nitrilas , Nitrocompostos , Fosforamidas , Piretrinas , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Gossypium/parasitologia , Animais , Piretrinas/farmacologia , Neonicotinoides/farmacologia , Mississippi , Nitrilas/farmacologia , Nitrocompostos/farmacologia , Controle de Insetos/métodos , Heterópteros/efeitos dos fármacos , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Hemípteros/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Organotiofosforados , Piridinas , Compostos de Enxofre
18.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 108(1): 371, 2024 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38861165

RESUMO

Understanding the extent of heritability of a plant-associated microbiome (phytobiome) is critically important for exploitation of phytobiomes in agriculture. Two crosses were made between pairs of cotton cultivars (Z2 and J11, L1 and Z49) with differential resistance to Verticillium wilt. F2 plants were grown in a field, together with the four parents to study the heritability of cotton rhizosphere microbiome. Amplicon sequencing was used to profile bacterial and fungal communities in the rhizosphere. F2 offspring plants of both crosses had higher average alpha diversity indices than the two parents; parents differed significantly from F2 offspring in Bray-Curtis beta diversity indices as well. Two types of data were used to study the heritability of rhizosphere microbiome: principal components (PCs) and individual top microbial operational taxonomic units (OTUs). For the L1 × Z49 cross, the variance among the F2 progeny genotypes (namely, genetic variance, VT) was significantly greater than the random variability (VE) for 12 and 34 out of top 100 fungal and bacterial PCs, respectively. For the Z2 × J11 cross, the corresponding values were 10 and 20 PCs. For 29 fungal OTUs and 10 bacterial OTUs out of the most abundant 100 OTUs, genetic variance (VT) was significantly greater than VE for the L1 × Z49 cross; the corresponding values for the Z2 × J11 cross were 24 and one. The estimated heritability was mostly in the range of 40% to 60%. These results suggested the existence of genetic control of polygenic nature for specific components of rhizosphere microbiome in cotton. KEY POINTS: • F2 offspring cotton plants differed significantly from parents in rhizosphere microbial diversity. • Specific rhizosphere components are likely to be genetically controlled by plants. • Common PCs and specific microbial groups are significant genetic components between the two crosses.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Fungos , Gossypium , Microbiota , Rizosfera , Microbiologia do Solo , Gossypium/microbiologia , Gossypium/genética , Microbiota/genética , Fungos/genética , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Variação Genética , Verticillium/genética , Genótipo
19.
Mol Plant Pathol ; 25(6): e13483, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38829344

RESUMO

As a universal second messenger, cytosolic calcium (Ca2+) functions in multifaceted intracellular processes, including growth, development and responses to biotic/abiotic stresses in plant. The plant-specific Ca2+ sensors, calmodulin and calmodulin-like (CML) proteins, function as members of the second-messenger system to transfer Ca2+ signal into downstream responses. However, the functions of CMLs in the responses of cotton (Gossypium spp.) after Verticillium dahliae infection, which causes the serious vascular disease Verticillium wilt, remain elusive. Here, we discovered that the expression level of GbCML45 was promoted after V. dahliae infection in roots of cotton, suggesting its potential role in Verticillium wilt resistance. We found that knockdown of GbCML45 in cotton plants decreased resistance while overexpression of GbCML45 in Arabidopsis thaliana plants enhanced resistance to V. dahliae infection. Furthermore, there was physiological interaction between GbCML45 and its close homologue GbCML50 by using yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence assays, and both proteins enhanced cotton resistance to V. dahliae infection in a Ca2+-dependent way in a knockdown study. Detailed investigations indicated that several defence-related pathways, including salicylic acid, ethylene, reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide signalling pathways, as well as accumulations of lignin and callose, are responsible for GbCML45- and GbCML50-modulated V. dahliae resistance in cotton. These results collectively indicated that GbCML45 and GbCML50 act as positive regulators to improve cotton Verticillium wilt resistance, providing potential targets for exploitation of improved Verticillium wilt-tolerant cotton cultivars by genetic engineering and molecular breeding.


Assuntos
Cálcio , Resistência à Doença , Gossypium , Doenças das Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas , Gossypium/microbiologia , Gossypium/genética , Gossypium/metabolismo , Gossypium/imunologia , Resistência à Doença/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Cálcio/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Calmodulina/metabolismo , Calmodulina/genética , Arabidopsis/microbiologia , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/imunologia , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Ascomicetos/fisiologia , Ascomicetos/patogenicidade , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Verticillium/fisiologia , Verticillium/patogenicidade
20.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 213: 108798, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38852238

RESUMO

Terpene synthases (TPSs) are enzymes responsible for catalyzing the production of diverse terpenes, the largest class of secondary metabolites in plants. Here, we identified 107 TPS gene loci encompassing 92 full-length TPS genes in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Phylogenetic analysis showed they were divided into six subfamilies. Segmental duplication and tandem duplication events contributed greatly to the expansion of TPS gene family, particularly the TPS-a and TPS-b subfamilies. Expression profile analysis screened out that GhTPSs may mediate the interaction between cotton and Verticillium dahliae. Three-dimensional structures and subcellular localizations of the two selected GhTPSs, GhTPS6 and GhTPS47, which belong to the TPS-a subfamily, demonstrated similarity in protein structures and nucleus and cytoplasm localization. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of the two GhTPSs yielded plants characterized by increased wilting and chlorosis, more severe vascular browning, and higher disease index than control plants. Additionally, knockdown of GhTPS6 and GhTPS47 led to the down-regulation of cotton terpene synthesis following V. dahliae infection, indicating that these two genes may positively regulate resistance to V. dahliae through the modulation of disease-resistant terpene biosynthesis. Overall, our study represents a comprehensive analysis of the G. hirsutum TPS gene family, revealing their potential roles in defense responses against Verticillium wilt.


Assuntos
Alquil e Aril Transferases , Resistência à Doença , Gossypium , Filogenia , Doenças das Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas , Gossypium/genética , Gossypium/microbiologia , Gossypium/enzimologia , Gossypium/metabolismo , Alquil e Aril Transferases/genética , Alquil e Aril Transferases/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Resistência à Doença/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Ascomicetos , Verticillium
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