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1.
Planta ; 254(4): 75, 2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34533620

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Brassinosteroid (BR) synthesis genes in different cotton species was comprehensively identified, and the participation of GhCPD-3 in the BR synthesis signaling pathway for regulating plant development was verified. Brassinosteroid is a natural steroidal phytohormone that plays fundamental roles in plant growth and development. In cotton, detailed characterization and functional validation of BR biosynthesis genes remain rare. Here, 16, 8 and 9 BR biosynthesis genes were identified in Gossypium hirsutum, Gossypium raimondii and Gossypium arboreum, respectively, and their phylogenetic relationships, gene structures, conserved motifs of the encoded proteins, chromosomal locations were determined and a synteny analysis was performed. Gossypium hirsutum and Arabidopsis BR biosynthesis genes closely clustered in the phylogenetic tree and fragment duplication was likely the primary cause promoting gene family expansion in G. hirsutum. Gene Ontology (GO) and KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) enrichment analysis showed their relevance as BR biosynthesis genes. GhCPD-3 was highly expressed in roots and stems and the loci of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were significantly associated with these traits.Ectopic overexpression of GhCPD-3 in the cpd91 Arabidopsis mutant rescued the mutant phenotype by increasing plant height and leaf size in comparison to those of cpd91 and WT plants. Moreover, overexpressed GhCPD-3 in cpd91 mutants showed greater hypocotyl and root lengths than those of cpd91 and WT plants under light and dark conditions, respectively, indicating that BR actively promotes hypocotyl and root growth. Similar to CPD (CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC DWARF), GhCPD-3 restores BR biosynthesis thereby mediating plant growth and development.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Gossypium , Gossypium/genética , Gossypium/metabolismo , Filogenia , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
2.
Plant Biol (Stuttg) ; 23(5): 831-842, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34263979

RESUMO

Light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b binding (Lhc) family proteins play a significant role in photosynthetic processes. Our objective was systematic identification and analysis of the Lhc family in cotton, as well as the relationship between Lhc family genes and chlorophyll synthesis during photosynthetic processes. We used genome-wide identification, phylogenetic analysis, chromosomal distribution and collinearity to examine potential functions of Lhc superfamily genes in upland cotton. Subcellular localization, qRT-PCR, a yeast two hybrid (Y2H) , and Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) experiment were used to explore function of GhLhcb2.3. Focusing on GhLhc family, gene structural analysis of G. hirsutum Lhc family genes (GhLhc) indicated the conservation of selected Lhc family members. The expression pattern of GhLhc proteins shows that Lhc family proteins are important for photosynthetic processes in leaves. Results of subcellular localization and qRT-PCR in different cotton varieties showed that GhLhcb2.3 is closely related to chloroplast chlorophyll. Y2H found extensive heteromeric interactions between the GhLhcb2.3 and GhLhcb1.4. Subcellular localization revealed that GhLhcb1.4 is located in chloroplasts. VIGS showed that GhLhcb2.3 influenced chlorophyll a synthesis. We comprehensively identified Lhc family genes in cotton, characterized these genes and reveal the influence of GhLhcb2.3 on chlorophyll a synthesis.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Gossypium , Clorofila A , Gossypium/genética , Gossypium/metabolismo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
3.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 331, 2021 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34246235

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As damage to the ecological environment continues to increase amid unreasonable amounts of irrigation, soil salinization has become a major challenge to agricultural development. Melatonin (MT) is a pleiotropic signal molecule and indole hormone, which alleviates the damage of abiotic stress to plants. MT has been confirmed to eliminate reactive oxygen species (ROS) by improving the antioxidant system and reducing oxidative damage under adversity. However, the mechanism by which exogenous MT mediates salt tolerance by regulating the photosynthetic capacity and ion balance of cotton seedlings still remains unknown. In this study, the regulatory effects of MT on the photosynthetic system, osmotic modulators, chloroplast, and anatomical structure of cotton seedlings were determined under 0-500 µM MT treatments with salt stress induced by treatment with 150 mM NaCl. RESULTS: Salt stress reduces the chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, intercellular CO2 concentration, transpiration rate, PSII photochemical efficiency, PSII actual photochemical quantum yield, the apparent electron transfer efficiency, stomata opening, and biomass. In addition, it increases non-photochemical quenching. All of these responses were effectively alleviated by exogenous treatment with MT. Exogenous MT reduces oxidative damage and lipid peroxidation by reducing salt-induced ROS and protects the plasma membrane from oxidative toxicity. MT also reduces the osmotic pressure by reducing the salt-induced accumulation of Na+ and increasing the contents of K+ and proline. Exogenous MT can facilitate stomatal opening and protect the integrity of cotton chloroplast grana lamella structure and mitochondria under salt stress, protect the photosynthetic system of plants, and improve their biomass. An anatomical analysis of leaves and stems showed that MT can improve xylem and phloem and other properties and aides in the transportation of water, inorganic salts, and organic substances. Therefore, the application of MT attenuates salt-induced stress damage to plants. Treatment with exogenous MT positively increased the salt tolerance of cotton seedlings by improving their photosynthetic capacity, stomatal characteristics, ion balance, osmotic substance biosynthetic pathways, and chloroplast and anatomical structures (xylem vessels and phloem vessels). CONCLUSIONS: Our study attributes help to protect the structural stability of photosynthetic organs and increase the amount of material accumulation, thereby reducing salt-induced secondary stress. The mechanisms of MT-induced plant tolerance to salt stress provide a theoretical basis for the use of MT to alleviate salt stress caused by unreasonable irrigation, fertilization, and climate change.


Assuntos
Gossypium/metabolismo , Melatonina/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Estresse Salino/efeitos dos fármacos , Tolerância ao Sal/efeitos dos fármacos , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34298948

RESUMO

Verticillium wilt, caused by Verticillium dahliae, is a devastating disease for many important crops, including cotton. Kiwellins (KWLs), a group of cysteine-rich proteins synthesized in many plants, have been shown to be involved in response to various phytopathogens. To evaluate genes for their function in resistance to Verticillium wilt, we investigated KWL homologs in cotton. Thirty-five KWL genes (GhKWLs) were identified from the genome of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). Among them, GhKWL1 was shown to be localized in nucleus and cytosol, and its gene expression is induced by the infection of V. dahliae. We revealed that GhKWL1 was a positive regulator of GhERF105. Silencing of GhKWL1 resulted in a decrease, whereas overexpression led to an increase in resistance of transgenic plants to Verticillium wilt. Interestingly, through binding to GhKWL1, the pathogenic effector protein VdISC1 produced by V. dahliae could impair the defense response mediated by GhKWL1. Therefore, our study suggests there is a GhKWL1-mediated defense response in cotton, which can be hijacked by V. dahliae through the interaction of VdISC1 with GhKWL1.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Proteínas Fúngicas , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Gossypium , Doenças das Plantas , Fatores de Transcrição , Regulação para Cima , Fatores de Virulência , Ascomicetos/genética , Ascomicetos/metabolismo , Ascomicetos/patogenicidade , Proteínas Fúngicas/biossíntese , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Gossypium/genética , Gossypium/metabolismo , Gossypium/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/biossíntese , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Virulência/biossíntese , Fatores de Virulência/genética
5.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 166: 328-340, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34147725

RESUMO

Cytokinin (CK) is an important plant hormone that promotes plant cell division and differentiation, and participates in salt response under osmotic stress. LOGs (LONELY GUY) are CK-activating enzymes involved in CK synthesis. The LOG gene family has not been comprehensively characterized in cotton. In this study we identified 151 LOG genes from nine plant species, including 28 LOG genes in Gossypium hirsutum. Phylogenetic analysis divided LOG genes into three groups. Exon/intron structures and protein motifs of GhLOG genes were highly conserved. Synteny analysis revealed that several gene loci were highly conserved between the A and D sub-genomes of G. hirsutum with purifying selection pressure during evolution. Expression profiles showed that most LOG genes were constitutively expressed in eight different tissues. Furthermore, LOG genes can be regulated by abiotic stresses and phytohormone treatments. Moreover, subcellular localization revealed that GhLOG3_At resides inside the cell membrane. Overexpression of GhLOG3 enhanced salt tolerance in Arabidopsis. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of GhLOG3_At in cotton enhanced sensitivity of plants to salt stress with increased H2O2 contents and decreased chlorophyll and proline (PRO) activity. Our results suggested that GhLOG3_At induces salt stress tolerance in cotton, and provides a basis for the use of CK synthesis genes to regulate cotton growth and stress resistance.


Assuntos
Gossypium , Tolerância ao Sal , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Gossypium/genética , Gossypium/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
6.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 166: 361-375, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34153881

RESUMO

Cotton encounters long-term drought stress problems resulting in major yield losses. Transcription factors (TFs) plays an important role in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. The coexpression patterns of gene networks associated with drought stress tolerance were investigated using transcriptome profiles. Applying a weighted gene coexpression network analysis, we discovered a salmon module with 144 genes strongly linked to drought stress tolerance. Based on coexpression and RT-qPCR analysis GH_D01G0514 was selected as the candidate gene, as it was also identified as a hub gene in both roots and leaves with a consistent expression in response to drought stress in both tissues. For validation of GH_D01G0514, Virus Induced Gene Silencing was performed and VIGS plants showed significantly higher excised leaf water loss and ion leakage, while lower relative water and chlorophyll contents as compared to WT (Wild type) and positive control plants. Furthermore, the WT and positive control seedlings showed higher CAT and SOD activities, and lower activities of hydrogen peroxide and MDA enzymes as compared to the VIGS plants. Gh_D01G0514 (GhNAC072) was localized in the nucleus and cytoplasm. Y2H assay demonstrates that Gh_D01G0514 has a potential of auto activation. It was observed that the Gh_D01G0514 was highly upregulated in both tissues based on RNA Seq and RT-qPCR analysis. Thus, we inferred that, this candidate gene might be responsible for drought stress tolerance in cotton. This finding adds significantly to the existing knowledge of drought stress tolerance in cotton and deep molecular analysis are required to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying drought stress tolerance in cotton.


Assuntos
Secas , Fatores de Transcrição , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Gossypium/genética , Gossypium/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
7.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 269, 2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34116636

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Raising nitrogen use efficiency of crops by improving root system architecture is highly essential not only to reduce costs of agricultural production but also to mitigate climate change. The physiological mechanisms of how biochar affects nitrogen assimilation by crop seedlings have not been well elucidated. RESULTS: Here, we report changes in root system architecture, activities of the key enzymes involved in nitrogen assimilation, and cytokinin (CTK) at the seedling stage of cotton with reduced urea usage and biochar application at different soil layers (0-10 cm and 10-20 cm). Active root absorption area, fresh weight, and nitrogen agronomic efficiency increased significantly when urea usage was reduced by 25% and biochar was applied in the surface soil layer. Glutamine oxoglutarate amino transferase (GOGAT) activity was closely related to the application depth of urea/biochar, and it increased when urea/biochar was applied in the 0-10 cm layer. Glutamic-pyruvic transaminase activity (GPT) increased significantly as well. Nitrate reductase (NR) activity was stimulated by CTK in the very fine roots but inhibited in the fine roots. In addition, AMT1;1, gdh3, and gdh2 were significantly up-regulated in the very fine roots when urea usage was reduced by 25% and biochar was applied. CONCLUSION: Nitrogen assimilation efficiency was significantly affected when urea usage was reduced by 25% and biochar was applied in the surface soil layer at the seedling stage of cotton. The co-expression of gdh3 and gdh2 in the fine roots increased nitrogen agronomic efficiency. The synergistic expression of the ammonium transporter gene and gdh3 suggests that biochar may be beneficial to amino acid metabolism.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal/metabolismo , Gossypium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Gossypium/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/metabolismo , Produtos Agrícolas/anatomia & histologia , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Gossypium/anatomia & histologia , Raízes de Plantas/anatomia & histologia , Plântula/anatomia & histologia
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34073210

RESUMO

The Negative on TATA-less (NOT) 2_3_5 domain proteins play key roles in mRNA metabolism and transcription regulation, but few comprehensive studies have focused on this protein family in plants. In our study, a total of 30 NOT2_3_5 genes were identified in four cotton genomes: Gossypium. arboretum, G. raimondii, G. hirsutum and G. barbadense. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all the NOT2_3_5 domain proteins were divided into two classes. The NOT2_3_5 genes were expanded frequently, and segmental duplication had significant effects in their expansion process. The cis-regulatory elements analysis of NOT2_3_5 promoter regions indicated that NOT2_3_5 domain proteins might participate in plant growth and development processes and responds to exogenous stimuli. Expression patterns demonstrated that all of the GhNOT2_3_5 genes were expressed in the majority of tissues and fiber development stages, and that these genes were induced by multiple stresses. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that GbNOT2_3_5 genes were up-regulated in response to verticillium wilt and the silencing of GbNOT2_3_5-3/8 and GbNOT2_3_5-4/9 led to more susceptibility to verticillium wilt than controls. Identification and analysis of the NOT2_3_5 protein family will be beneficial for further research on their biological functions.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença/genética , Gossypium , Proteínas de Plantas , Fatores Genéricos de Transcrição , Verticillium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Gossypium/genética , Gossypium/metabolismo , Gossypium/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores Genéricos de Transcrição/genética , Fatores Genéricos de Transcrição/metabolismo
9.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 439, 2021 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34118883

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: B-BOX (BBX) proteins are zinc-finger transcription factors with one or two BBX domains and sometimes a CCT domain. These proteins play an essential role in regulating plant growth and development, as well as in resisting abiotic stress. So far, the BBX gene family has been widely studied in other crops. However, no one has systematically studied the BBX gene in cotton. RESULTS: In the present study, 17, 18, 37 and 33 BBX genes were detected in Gossypium arboreum, G. raimondii, G. hirsutum and G. barbadense, respectively, via genome-wide identification. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all BBX genes were divided into 5 main categories. The protein motifs and exon/intron structures showed that each group of BBX genes was highly conserved. Collinearity analysis revealed that the amplification of BBX gene family in Gossypium spp. was mainly through segmental replication. Nonsynonymous (Ka)/ synonymous (Ks) substitution ratios indicated that the BBX gene family had undergone purification selection throughout the long-term natural selection process. Moreover, transcriptomic data showed that some GhBBX genes were highly expressed in floral organs. The qRT-PCR results showed that there were significant differences in GhBBX genes in leaves and shoot apexes between early-maturing materials and late-maturing materials at most periods. Yeast two-hybrid results showed that GhBBX5/GhBBX23 and GhBBX8/GhBBX26 might interact with GhFT. Transcriptome data analysis and qRT-PCR verification showed that different GhBBX genes had different biological functions in abiotic stress and phytohormone response. CONCLUSIONS: Our comprehensive analysis of BBX in G. hirsutum provided a basis for further study on the molecular role of GhBBXs in regulating flowering and cotton resistance to abiotic stress.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Gossypium , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genoma de Planta , Gossypium/genética , Gossypium/metabolismo , Família Multigênica , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
10.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 182: 1507-1527, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33965497

RESUMO

Heat shock transcription factors (HSF) have been demonstrated to play a significant transcriptional regulatory role in plants and considered as an integral part of signal transduction pathways against environmental stresses especially heat stress. Despite of their importance, HSFs have not yet been identified and characterized in all cotton species. In this study, we report the identification of 42, 39, 67, and 79 non-redundant HSF genes from diploid cottons G. arboreum (A2) and G. raimondii (D5), and tetraploid cottons G. barbadense (AD2) and G. hirsutum (AD1) respectively. The chromosome localization of identified HSFs revealed their random distribution on all the 13 chromosomes of A and D genomes of cotton with few regions containing HSFs in clusters. The genes structure and conserved domain analysis revealed the family-specific conservation of intron/exon organization and conserved domains in HSFs. Various abiotic stress-related cis-regulatory elements were identified from the putative promoter regions of cotton HSFs suggesting their possible role in mediating abiotic stress tolerance. The combined phylogenetic analysis of all the cotton HSFs grouped them into three subfamilies; with 145 HSFs belong to class A, 85 to class B, and 17 to class C subfamily. Moreover, a detailed analysis of HSF gene family in four species of cotton elucidated the role of allopolyploid and hybridization during evolutionary cascade of allotetraploid cotton. Comparatively, existence of more orthologous genes in cotton species than Arabidopsis, advocated that polyploidization produced new cotton specific orthologous gene clusters. Phylogenetic, collinearity and multiple synteny analyses exhibited dispersed, segmental, proximal, and tandem gene duplication events in HSF gene family. Duplication of gene events suggests that HSF gene family of cotton evolution was under strong purifying selection. Expression analysis revealed that GarHSF04 were found to be actively involved in PEG and salinity tolerance in G. arboreum. GhiHSF14 upregulated in heat and downregulated in salinity whilst almost illustrated similar behavior under cold and PEG treatments and GhiHSF21 exhibited down regulation almost across all the stresses in G. hirsutum. Overwhelmingly, present study paves the way to better understand the evolution of cotton HSF TFs and lays a foundation for future investigation of HSFs in improving abiotic stress tolerance in cotton.


Assuntos
Gossypium/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Gossypium/genética , Fatores de Transcrição de Choque Térmico/genética , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/genética , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/fisiologia , Família Multigênica/genética , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
11.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 183: 1257-1269, 2021 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33965485

RESUMO

Members of DOMAIN OF UNKNOWN FUNCTION 679 membrane protein (DMP) gene family, a type of plant-specific membrane proteins, have been proposed to function in various physiological processes such as reproductive development and senescence in plants. Here, a total of 174 DMP genes were identified and analyzed in 16 plant species (including 58 DMPs in four cotton species). Phylogenetic analysis showed that these DMPs could be clustered into five subfamilies (I-V). 137 duplicated cotton gene pairs were identified and most duplicate events were formed by whole-genome duplication (WGD)/segmental duplications. Expression analysis revealed that most of cotton DMPs were mainly expressed in the reproductive organs (the sepal, petal, pistil and anther) and the fiber of secondary cell wall stage. GhDMPs promoter regions containing the different cis-elements also showed different responses to abiotic stress. In addition, gene interaction networks showed that DMPs, as an endomembrane system, were involved in plant senescence process and flower reproductive development. We speculated GhDMP8-A/-D, GbDMP8-A/-D could be used as some candidate gene for inducing cotton haploid. This genome-wide study provides a systematic analysis of the cotton DMP gene family, and further insights towards understanding the potential functions of candidate genes.


Assuntos
Gossypium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Evolução Molecular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Gossypium/genética , Gossypium/metabolismo , Família Multigênica , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Estresse Fisiológico , Distribuição Tecidual , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
12.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0246649, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33961624

RESUMO

ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporters are a class of superfamily transmembrane proteins that are commonly observed in natural organisms. The ABCC (ATP-binding cassette C subfamily) protein belongs to a subfamily of the ABC protein family and is a multidrug resistance-associated transporter that localizes to the tonoplast and plays a significant role in pathogenic microbial responses, heavy metal regulation, secondary metabolite transport, and plant growth. Recent studies have shown that the ABCC protein is also involved in the transport of anthocyanins/proanthocyanidins (PAs). To clarify the types and numbers of ABCC genes involved in PA transport in Gossypium hirsutum, the phylogenetic evolution, physical location, and structure of ABCC genes were classified by bioinformatic methods in the upland cotton genome, and the expression levels of these genes were analyzed at different developmental stages of the cotton fiber. The results showed that 42 ABCC genes were initially identified in the whole genome of upland cotton; they were designated GhABCC1-42. The gene structure and phylogenetic analysis showed that the closely related ABCC genes were structurally identical. The analysis of chromosomal localization demonstrated that there were no ABCC genes on the chromosomes of AD/At2, AD/At5, AD/At6, AD/At10, AD/At12, AD/At13, AD/Dt2, AD/Dt6, AD/Dt10, and AD/Dt13. Outside the genes, there were ABCC genes on other chromosomes, and gene clusters appeared on the two chromosomes AD/At11 and AD/Dt8. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that some ABCC proteins in G. hirsutum were clustered with those of Arabidopsis thaliana, Vitis vinifera and Zea mays, which are known to function in anthocyanin/PA transport. The protein structure prediction indicated that the GhABCC protein structure is similar to the AtABCC protein in A. thaliana, and most of these proteins have a transmembrane domain. At the same time, a quantitative RT-PCR analysis of 42 ABCC genes at different developmental stages of brown cotton fiber showed that the relative expression levels of GhABCC24, GhABCC27, GhABCC28, GhABCC29 and GhABCC33 were consistent with the trend of PA accumulation, which may play a role in PA transport. These results provide a theoretical basis for further analysis of the function of the cotton ABCC genes and their role in the transport of PA.


Assuntos
Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genômica , Gossypium/genética , Gossypium/metabolismo , Pigmentos Biológicos/metabolismo , Família Multigênica/genética , Filogenia
13.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251134, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33945577

RESUMO

The efficacy and non-target arthropod effects of transgenic DAS-21023-5 × DAS-24236-5 × SYN-IR102-7 Bt cotton, expressing proteins Cry1Ac, Cry1F and Vip3Aa19, was examined through field trials in Brazil. Fifteen field efficacy experiments were conducted from 2014 through the 2020 growing season across six different states in Brazil to evaluate performance against key lepidopteran pests through artificial infestations of Chrysodeixis includens (Walker), Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith,1797), Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker, 1858) and Chloridea virescens (F., 1781), and natural infestations of Alabama argillacea (Hübner) and S. frugiperda. The impact of this Bt cotton technology on the non-target arthropod community in Brazilian cotton production systems was also assessed in a multi-site experiment. DAS-21023-5 × DAS-24236-5 × SYN-IR102-7 cotton significantly reduced the feeding damage caused by S. frugiperda, S. cosmioides, C. includens, C. virescens and A. argillacea, causing high levels of mortality (greater than 99%) to all target lepidopteran pests evaluated during vegetative and/or reproductive stages of crop development. Non-target arthropod community-level analyses confirmed no unintended effects on the arthropod groups monitored. These results demonstrate the value of transgenic Bt cotton containing event DAS-21023-5 × DAS-24236-5 × SYN-IR102-7 for consideration as part of an integrated approach for managing key lepidopteran pests in Brazilian cotton production systems.


Assuntos
Ácido 4-Acetamido-4'-isotiocianatostilbeno-2,2'-dissulfônico/análogos & derivados , Artrópodes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Gossypium/metabolismo , Gossypium/parasitologia , Ácido 4-Acetamido-4'-isotiocianatostilbeno-2,2'-dissulfônico/metabolismo , Animais , Brasil , Controle de Insetos , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mariposas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Folhas de Planta/parasitologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/parasitologia , Spodoptera/crescimento & desenvolvimento
14.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 165: 80-93, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34034163

RESUMO

The Coffea arabica HB12 gene (CaHB12), which encodes a transcription factor belonging to the HD-Zip I subfamily, is upregulated under drought, and its constitutive overexpression (35S:CaHB12OX) improves the Arabidopsis thaliana tolerance to drought and salinity stresses. Herein, we generated transgenic cotton events constitutively overexpressing the CaHB12 gene, characterized these events based on their increased tolerance to water deficit, and exploited the gene expression level from the CaHB12 network. The segregating events Ev8.29.1, Ev8.90.1, and Ev23.36.1 showed higher photosynthetic yield and higher water use efficiency under severe water deficit and permanent wilting point conditions compared to wild-type plants. Under well-irrigated conditions, these three promising transformed events showed an equivalent level of Abscisic acid (ABA) and decreased Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) accumulation, and a higher putrescine/(spermidine + spermine) ratio in leaf tissues was found in the progenies of at least two transgenic cotton events compared to non-transgenic plants. In addition, genes that are considered as modulated in the A. thaliana 35S:CaHB12OX line were also shown to be modulated in several transgenic cotton events maintained under field capacity conditions. The upregulation of GhPP2C and GhSnRK2 in transgenic cotton events maintained under permanent wilting point conditions suggested that CaHB12 might act enhancing the ABA-dependent pathway. All these data confirmed that CaHB12 overexpression improved the tolerance to water deficit, and the transcriptional modulation of genes related to the ABA signaling pathway or downstream genes might enhance the defense responses to drought. The observed decrease in IAA levels indicates that CaHB12 overexpression can prevent leaf abscission in plants under or after stress. Thus, our findings provide new insights on CaHB12 gene and identify several promising cotton events for conducting field trials on water deficit tolerance and agronomic performance.


Assuntos
Secas , Gossypium , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Gossypium/genética , Gossypium/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
15.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 229, 2021 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34022812

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Casein kinase I (CKI) is a kind of serine/threonine protein kinase highly conserved in plants and animals. Although molecular function of individual member of CKI family has been investigated in Arabidopsis, little is known about their evolution and functions in Gossypium. RESULTS: In this study, five cotton species were applied to study CKI gene family in cotton, twenty-two species were applied to trace the origin and divergence of CKI genes. Four important insights were gained: (i) the cotton CKI genes were classified into two types based on their structural characteristics; (ii) two types of CKI genes expanded with tetraploid event in cotton; (iii) two types of CKI genes likely diverged about 1.5 billion years ago when red and green algae diverged; (iv) two types of cotton CKI genes which highly expressed in leaves showed stronger response to photoperiod (circadian clock) and light signal, and most two types of CKI genes highly expressed in anther showed identical heat inducible expression during anther development in tetraploid cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). CONCLUSION: This study provides genome-wide insights into the evolutionary history of cotton CKI genes and lays a foundation for further investigation of the functional differentiation of two types of CKI genes in specific developmental processes and environmental stress conditions.


Assuntos
Caseína Quinase I/genética , Evolução Molecular , Gossypium/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Caseína Quinase I/metabolismo , Genoma de Planta , Gossypium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Gossypium/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
16.
J Exp Bot ; 72(13): 4721-4743, 2021 06 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33928361

RESUMO

Salicylic acid (SA) and brassinosteroids (BRs) are well known to regulate diverse processes of plant development and stress responses, but the mechanisms by which these phytohormones mediate the growth and defense trade-off are largely unclear. In addition, little is known about the roles of DEHYDRATION RESPONSIVE ELEMENT BINDING transcription factors, especially in biotic stress and plant growth. Here, we identified a cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) APETALA2/ETHYLENE RESPONSIVE FACTOR gene GhTINY2 that is strongly induced by Verticillium dahliae. Overexpression of GhTINY2 in cotton and Arabidopsis enhanced tolerance to V. dahliae, while knockdown of expression increased the susceptibility of cotton to the pathogen. GhTINY2 was found to promote SA accumulation and SA signaling transduction by directly activating expression of WRKY51. Moreover, GhTINY2-overexpressing cotton and Arabidopsis showed retardation of growth, increased sensitivity to inhibitors of BR biosynthesis, down-regulation of several BR-induced genes, and up-regulation of BR-repressed genes, while GhTINY2-RNAi cotton showed the opposite effects. We further determined that GhTINY2 negatively regulates BR signaling by interacting with BRASSINAZOLE-RESISTANT 1 (BZR1) and restraining its transcriptional activation of the expression of INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID INDUCIBLE 19 (IAA19). These findings indicate that GhTINY2 fine-tunes the trade-off between immunity and growth via indirect crosstalk between WRKY51-mediated SA biosynthesis and BZR1-IAA19-regulated BR signaling.


Assuntos
Ácido Salicílico , Verticillium , Ascomicetos , Resistência à Doença , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Gossypium/genética , Gossypium/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Doenças das Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
17.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250713, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33914802

RESUMO

Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is considered as the most valuable cash crop of Pakistan. During last decade, its yield has been declined due to various biotic and abiotic factors. Among abiotic factors, improper use of fertilizers is considered very important specially regarding plant defense and yield. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of different levels (0, 40, 80 and 120 kg ha-1) of K fertilizer (K2O) on different growth parameters of two commercial Bt cotton cultivars (CYTO-301 and IUB-2013) and one non-Bt cultivar (CYTO-142) during 2016 and 2017. Maximum plant height (124-134 cm), dry matter contents (915-1005%), fruiting point (441-462), bolls per plant (96-139), average boll weight (4.2-5.2 g) and seed cotton yield (2524-3175 kg ha-1) and minimum shedding (43-73%) were observed in plots receiving highest dose of K (120 kg ha-1). The CYTO-103 cultivar was found more responsive to K fertilizer as compared to rest of cultivars (CYTO-142 and IUB-2013). Concluding, ideal dose of fertilizer is very important (120 kg ha-1 in our case) for optimum growth and production of good quality fiber with enhanced seed cotton yield.


Assuntos
Fibra de Algodão/análise , Gossypium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Gossypium/metabolismo , Potássio/análise , Solo/química , Fertilizantes/análise , Gossypium/efeitos dos fármacos , Potássio/farmacologia
18.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 309, 2021 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33926376

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cotton fibers provide a powerful model for studying cell differentiation and elongation. Each cotton fiber is a singular and elongated cell derived from epidermal-layer cells of a cotton seed. Efforts to understand this dramatic developmental shift have been impeded by the difficulty of separation between fiber and epidermal cells. RESULTS: Here we employed laser-capture microdissection (LCM) to separate these cell types. RNA-seq analysis revealed transitional differences between fiber and epidermal-layer cells at 0 or 2 days post anthesis. Specifically, down-regulation of putative cell cycle genes was coupled with upregulation of ribosome biosynthesis and translation-related genes, which may suggest their respective roles in fiber cell initiation. Indeed, the amount of fibers in cultured ovules was increased by cell cycle progression inhibitor, Roscovitine, and decreased by ribosome biosynthesis inhibitor, Rbin-1. Moreover, subfunctionalization of homoeologs was pervasive in fiber and epidermal cells, with expression bias towards 10% more D than A homoeologs of cell cycle related genes and 40-50% more D than A homoeologs of ribosomal protein subunit genes. Key cell cycle regulators were predicted to be epialleles in allotetraploid cotton. MYB-transcription factor genes displayed expression divergence between fibers and ovules. Notably, many phytohormone-related genes were upregulated in ovules and down-regulated in fibers, suggesting spatial-temporal effects on fiber cell development. CONCLUSIONS: Fiber cell initiation is accompanied by cell cycle arrest coupled with active ribosome biosynthesis, spatial-temporal regulation of phytohormones and MYB transcription factors, and homoeolog expression bias of cell cycle and ribosome biosynthesis genes. These valuable genomic resources and molecular insights will help develop breeding and biotechnological tools to improve cotton fiber production.


Assuntos
Fibra de Algodão , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Ciclo Celular/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Gossypium/genética , Gossypium/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , RNA-Seq
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(5)2021 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807984

RESUMO

Black root rot (BRR) is an economically important disease of cotton and other crops, especially in cooler regions with short growing seasons. Symptoms include black discoloration of the roots, reduced number of lateral roots and stunted or slow plant growth. The cultivated tetraploid Gossypium species are susceptible to BRR. Resistance to BRR was identified in G. arboreum accession BM13H and is associated with reduced and restricted hyphal growth and less sporulation. Transcriptome analysis indicates that BM13H responds to infection at early time points 2- and 3-days post-inoculation, but by day 5, few differentially expressed genes are observed between infected and uninfected roots. Inheritance of BM13H resistance to BRR was evaluated in an F6 recombinant inbred population and shows a single semi-dominant locus conferring resistance that was fine mapped to a region on chromosome 1, containing ten genes including five putative resistance-like genes.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/metabolismo , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Resistência à Doença/genética , Gossypium , Doenças das Plantas , Raízes de Plantas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Gossypium/genética , Gossypium/metabolismo , Gossypium/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Tetraploidia
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(6)2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808570

RESUMO

To properly understand cotton responses to potassium (K+) deficiency and how its shoot feedback regulates K+ uptake and root growth, we analyzed the changes in root transcriptome induced by low K+ (0.03 mM K+, lasting three days) in self-grafts of a K+ inefficient cotton variety (CCRI41/CCRI41, scion/rootstock) and its reciprocal grafts with a K+ efficient variety (SCRC22/CCRI41). Compared with CCRI41/CCRI41, the SCRC22 scion enhanced the K+ uptake and root growth of CCRI41 rootstock. A total of 1968 and 2539 differently expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in the roots of CCRI41/CCRI41 and SCRC22/CCRI41 in response to K+ deficiency, respectively. The overlapped and similarly (both up- or both down-) regulated DEGs in the two grafts were considered the basic response to K+ deficiency in cotton roots, whereas the DEGs only found in SCRC22/CCRI41 (1954) and those oppositely (one up- and the other down-) regulated in the two grafts might be the key factors involved in the feedback regulation of K+ uptake and root growth. The expression level of four putative K+ transporter genes (three GhHAK5s and one GhKUP3) increased in both grafts under low K+, which could enable plants to cope with K+ deficiency. In addition, two ethylene response factors (ERFs), GhERF15 and GhESE3, both down-regulated in the roots of CCRI41/CCRI41 and SCRC22/CCRI41, may negatively regulate K+ uptake in cotton roots due to higher net K+ uptake rate in their virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) plants. In terms of feedback regulation of K+ uptake and root growth, several up-regulated DEGs related to Ca2+ binding and CIPK (CBL-interacting protein kinases), one up-regulated GhKUP3 and several up-regulated GhNRT2.1s probably play important roles. In conclusion, these results provide a deeper insight into the molecular mechanisms involved in basic response to low K+ stress in cotton roots and feedback regulation of K+ uptake, and present several low K+ tolerance-associated genes that need to be further identified and characterized.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Gossypium/genética , Gossypium/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Deficiência de Potássio/genética , Deficiência de Potássio/metabolismo , Potássio/metabolismo , Biomarcadores , Biomassa , Clorofila/metabolismo , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Retroalimentação Fisiológica , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Fenótipo , Transdução de Sinais , Estresse Fisiológico , Transcriptoma
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