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1.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(44): 49442-49451, 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33090782

RESUMO

Cotton fabrics with durable and reusable daylight-induced antibacterial/antiviral functions were developed by using a novel fabrication process, which employs strong electrostatic interaction between cationic cotton fibers and anionic photosensitizers. The cationic cotton contains polycationic short chains produced by a self-propagation of 2-diehtylaminoehtyl chloride (DEAE-Cl) on the surface of cotton fibers. Then, the fabric (i.e., polyDEAE@cotton) can be readily functionalized with anionic photosensitizers like rose Bengal and sodium 2-anthraquinone sulfate to produce biocidal reactive oxygen species (ROS) under light exposure and consequently provide the photo-induced biocidal functions. The biocidal properties of the photo-induced fabrics (PIFs) were demonstrated by ROS production measurements, bactericidal performance against bacteria (e.g., E coli and L. innocua), and antiviral results against T7 bacteriophage. The PIFs achieved 99.9999% (6 log) reductions against bacteria and the bacteriophage within 60 min of daylight exposure. Moreover, the PIFs showcase excellent washability and photostability, making them ideal materials for reusable face masks and protective suits with improved biological protections compared with traditional PPE. This work demonstrated that the cationized cotton could serve as a platform for different functionalization applications, and the resulting fiber materials could inspire the development of reusable and sustainable PPE with significant bioprotective properties to fight the COVID-19 pandemic as well as the spread of other contagious diseases.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Gossypium/virologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Têxteis/virologia , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Vestuário/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/patogenicidade , Gossypium/química , Gossypium/microbiologia , Humanos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Luz , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Têxteis/microbiologia
2.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 2084, 2020 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32034269

RESUMO

We previously reported on the strong symbiosis of AMF species (Rhizophagus irregularis CD1) with the cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) which is grown worldwide. In current study, it was thus investigated in farmland to determine the biological control effect of AMF on phosphorus acquisition and related gene expression regulation, plant growth and development, and a series of agronomic traits associated with yield and fiber quality in cotton. When AMF and cotton were symbiotic, the expression of the specific phosphate transporter family genes and P concentration in the cotton biomass were significantly enhanced. The photosynthesis, growth, boll number per plant and the maturity of the fiber were increased through the symbiosis between cotton and AMF. Statistical analysis showed a highly significant increase in yield for inoculated plots compared with that from the non inoculated controls, with an increase percentage of 28.54%. These findings clearly demonstrate here the benefits of AMF-based inoculation on phosphorus acquisition, growth, seed cotton yield and fiber quality in cotton. Further improvement of these beneficial inoculants on crops will help increase farmers' income all over the world both now and in the future.


Assuntos
Fibra de Algodão/normas , Gossypium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Micorrizas/fisiologia , Fósforo/metabolismo , Produção Agrícola , Gossypium/metabolismo , Gossypium/microbiologia , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Simbiose
3.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228675, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049975

RESUMO

Aspergillus tubingensis is an important pathogen of economically important crops. Different biotic stresses strongly influence the balance of metabolites in plants. The aim of this study was to understand the function and response of resistance associated metabolites which, in turn are involved in many secondary metabolomics pathways to influence defense mechanism of cotton plant. Analysis of non-targeted metabolomics using ultra high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) revealed abundant accumulation of key metabolites including flavonoids, phenylpropanoids, terpenoids, fatty acids and carbohydrates, in response to leaf spot of cotton. The principal component analysis (PCA), orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) score plots illustrated the evidences of variation between two varieties of cotton under mock and pathogen inoculated treatments. Primary metabolism was affected by the up regulation of pyruvate and malate and by the accumulation of carbohydrates like cellobiose and inulobiose. Among 241 resistance related (RR) metabolites, 18 were identified as resistance related constitutive (RRC) and 223 as resistance related induced (RRI) metabolites. Several RRI metabolites, identified in the present study were the precursors for many secondary metabolic pathways. These included phenylpropanoids (stilbenes and furanocoumarin), flavonoids (phlorizin and kaempferol), alkaloids (indolizine and acetylcorynoline) and terpenoids (azelaic acid and oleanolic acid). Our results demonstrated that secondary metabolism, primary metabolism and energy metabolism were more active in resistant cultivar, as compared to sensitive cultivar. Differential protein and fatty acid metabolism was also depicted in both cultivars. Accumulation of these defense related metabolites in resistant cotton cultivar and their suppression in susceptible cotton cultivar revealed the reason of their respective tolerance and susceptibility against A. tubingensis.


Assuntos
Aspergillus/patogenicidade , Resistência à Doença , Gossypium/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Cumarínicos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Gossypium/microbiologia , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Estilbenos/metabolismo , Terpenos/metabolismo
4.
BMC Plant Biol ; 20(1): 89, 2020 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32106811

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Verticillium wilt of cotton is a serious soil-borne disease that causes a substantial reduction in cotton yields. A previous study showed that the endophytic fungus Chaetomium globosum CEF-082 could control Verticillium wilt of cotton, and induce a defense response in cotton plants. However, the comprehensive molecular mechanism governing this response is not yet clear. RESULTS: To study the signalling mechanism induced by CEF-082, the transcriptome of cotton seedlings pretreated with CEF-082 was sequenced. The results revealed 5638 DEGs at 24 h post inoculation with CEF-082, and 2921 and 2153 DEGs at 12 and 48 h post inoculation with Verticillium dahliae, respectively. At 24 h post inoculation with CEF-082, KEGG enrichment analysis indicated that the DEGs were enriched mainly in the plant-pathogen interaction, MAPK signalling pathway-plant, flavonoid biosynthesis, and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathways. There were 1209 DEGs specifically induced only in cotton plants inoculated with V. dahliae in the presence of the biocontrol fungus CEF-082, and not when cotton plants were only inoculated with V. dahliae. GO analysis revealed that these DEGs were enriched mainly in the following terms: ROS metabolic process, H2O2 metabolic process, defense response, superoxide dismutase activity, and antioxidant activity. Moreover, many genes, such as ERF, CNGC, FLS2, MYB, GST and CML, that regulate crucial points in defense-related pathways were identified and may contribute to V. dahliae resistance in cotton. These results provide a basis for understanding the molecular mechanism by which the biocontrol fungus CEF-082 increases the resistance of cotton to Verticillium wilt. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study showed that CEF-082 could regulate multiple metabolic pathways in cotton. After treatment with V. dahliae, the defense response of cotton plants preinoculated with CEF-082 was strengthened.


Assuntos
Antibiose , Chaetomium/fisiologia , Gossypium/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Verticillium/fisiologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Gossypium/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , RNA-Seq
5.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 524(2): 392-397, 2020 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005518

RESUMO

Cotton Verticillium wilt caused by Verticillium dahliae (V. dahliae) is one of the most destructive fungal diseases and is difficult to control. However, resistant germplasm resources are scarce in cotton. Many studies have shown that host-induced gene silencing (HIGS) is a practical and effective technology in crop disease prevention by silencing virulence genes of pathogens. Acetolactate synthase (ALS) contains a catalytic subunit ILV2 and a regulatory subunit ILV6, which catalyzes the first common step reaction in branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) biosynthesis. We identified two acetolactate synthases, VdILV2 and VdILV6, which are homologs of ILV2 and ILV6, respectively, in Magnaporthe oryzae. To characterize the function of VdILV2 and VdILV6 in V. dahliae, we suppressed their expression in the strong pathogenic isolate Vd991 by using HIGS technology. VdILV2- or VdILV6-silenced V. dahliae had a dramatic reduction in pathogenicity. The results indicated that VdILV2 and VdILV6 are involved in the pathogenicity of V. dahliae. HIGS of VdILV2 or VdILV6 provides a novel fungicide target and an effective control to resist Verticillium wilt caused by V. dahliae.


Assuntos
Acetolactato Sintase/genética , Gossypium/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Verticillium/enzimologia , Verticillium/genética , Resistência à Doença , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Inativação Gênica , Gossypium/fisiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Verticillium/fisiologia
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005380

RESUMO

The soil-born vascular disease Verticillium wilt, which is caused by fungal pathogen Verticillium dahliae, is a devastating disease of cotton worldwide. In the last decade, a large number of genes have been found to participate in cotton-V. dahliae interactions, but the detailed mechanisms of cotton resistance to V. dahliae remain unclear. Here, we functionally characterized MPK3, a MAPK gene from cotton. MPK3 was induced in the roots of both resistant and susceptible cotton cultivars by V. dahliae inoculation. Transgenic cotton and tobacco with constitutively higher GbMPK3 expression conferred higher V. dahliae susceptibility, while MPK3 knockdown in cotton has limited effect on cotton resistance to V. dahliae. Expression profiling revealed that SA-mediated defense pathway genes (WRKY70, PR1, and PR5) accumulated after V. dahliae inoculation in roots of both wild-type and transgenic cotton, and the expression levels of these genes were higher in GbMPK3-overexpressing plants than in wild-type plants, indicating that GbMPK3 upregulation may reduce plant resistance to V. dahliae through regulating salicylic acid signaling transduction.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Gossypium/genética , Ácido Salicílico/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Verticillium/fisiologia , Gossypium/metabolismo , Gossypium/microbiologia , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/microbiologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/microbiologia
7.
Can J Microbiol ; 66(3): 228-242, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31944857

RESUMO

Rhizosphere bacteria are key determinants of plant health and productivity. In this study, we used PCR-based next-generation sequencing to reveal the diversity and community composition of bacteria in the cotton rhizosphere from samples collected in Xinjiang Province, China. We identified 125 bacterial classes within 49 phyla from these samples. Proteobacteria (33.07% of total sequences), Acidobacteria (19.88%), and Gemmatimonadetes (11.19%) dominated the bacterial community. Marked differences were evident in the α-diversity of rhizosphere bacteria during different cotton plant growth and development stages. The operational taxonomic unit (OTU) numbers were highest in seedling and bud stages and decreased at the flowering and fruit-boll-opening stages. Forty-three OTUs from the Proteobacteria were common to all four periods of cotton development. Proteobacteria were more abundant in the rhizospheres of cotton from southern Xinjiang than from northern Xinjiang, while the opposite trend was observed for Acidobacteria. Gemmatimonadetes frequency was broadly the same in both northern and southern Xinjiang. These results suggest that there is abundant diversity in the microbiota of cotton rhizosphere soil. Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria dominated this microbial niche and bacterial communities in the seedling, bud, flowering, and boll-opening stages appear to be more similar to one another than to communities at the other growth stages.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Biodiversidade , Gossypium/microbiologia , Microbiologia do Solo , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , China , Gossypium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Microbiota , Rizosfera , Solo/química
8.
Mol Plant Microbe Interact ; 33(2): 138-140, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593526

RESUMO

Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum is an important plant pathogen responsible for vascular wilt disease on cotton. Members of this group are known to carry supernumerary chromosomes that encode virulence factors. We sequenced the genomes of five F. oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum isolates, including the genome of a representative of the highly virulent genotype race 4, at a high coverage to assemble reference-quality genomes. These genomes provide a necessary resource for comparative genomic analyses to identify genes or genome features that are involved in pathogenicity on cotton and may ultimately be used to identify improved management strategies.


Assuntos
Fusarium , Genoma Fúngico , Gossypium , Fusarium/genética , Genoma Fúngico/genética , Genótipo , Gossypium/microbiologia , Virulência/genética
9.
Plant Biol (Stuttg) ; 22(1): 90-105, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419841

RESUMO

Verticillium wilt, an infection caused by the soilborne fungus Verticillium dahliae, is one of the most serious diseases in cotton. No effective control method against V. dahliae has been established, and the infection mechanism of V. dahliae in upland cotton remains unknown. GFP-tagged V. dahliae isolates with different pathogenic abilities were used to analyse the colonisation and infection of V. dahliae in the roots and leaves of different upland cotton cultivars, the relationships among infection processes, the immune responses and the resistance ability of different cultivars against V. dahliae. Here, we report a new infection model for V. dahliae in upland cotton plants. V. dahliae can colonise and infect any organ of upland cotton plants and then spread to the entire plant from the infected organ through the surface and interior of the organ. Vascular tissue was found to not be the sole transmission route of V. dahliae in cotton plants. In addition, the rate of infection of a V. dahliae isolate with strong pathogenicity was notably faster than that of an isolate with weak pathogenicity. The resistance of upland cotton to Verticillium wilt was related to the degree of the immune response induced in plants infected with V. dahliae. These results provide a theoretical basis for studying the mechanism underlying the interaction between V. dahliae and upland cotton. These results provide a theoretical basis for studying the mechanism underlying the interaction between V. dahliae and upland cotton.


Assuntos
Gossypium , Verticillium , Gossypium/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Verticillium/patogenicidade , Verticillium/fisiologia
10.
Mol Plant Microbe Interact ; 33(4): 624-636, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31868566

RESUMO

Previous reports have shown that, when Verticillium dahliae localizes at the root surface, many microRNAs (miRNAs) were identified at the early induction stage. Here, we constructed two groups from two timepoints of small RNA (sRNA) in cotton root responses to V. dahliae at the later induction stage, pathogen localizing in the interior of root tissue. We identified 71 known and 378 novel miRNAs from six libraries of the pathogen-induced and the control sRNAs. Combined with degradome and sRNA sequencing, 178 corresponding miRNA target genes were identified, in which 40 target genes from differentially expressed miRNAs were primarily associated with oxidation-reduction and stress responses. More importantly, we characterized the cotton miR477-CBP60A module in the later response of the plant to V. dahliae infection. A ß-glucuronidase fusion reporter and cleavage site analysis showed that ghr-miR477 directly cleaved the messenger RNA of GhCBP60A in the posttranscriptional process. The ghr-miR477-silencing decreased plant resistance to this fungus, while the knockdown of GhCBP60A increased plant resistance, which regulated GhICS1 expression to determine salicylic acid level. Our data documented that numerous later-inducible miRNAs in the plant response to V. dahliae, suggesting that these miRNAs play important roles in plant resistance to vascular disease.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença , Gossypium , Proteínas de Plantas , Verticillium , Resistência à Doença/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Gossypium/genética , Gossypium/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Verticillium/fisiologia
11.
Genes (Basel) ; 10(12)2019 12 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31817162

RESUMO

Chalcone isomerase (CHI) is a key component of phenylalanine metabolism that can produce a variety of flavonoids. However, little information and no systematic analysis of CHI genes is available for cotton. Here, we identified 33 CHI genes in the complete genome sequences of four cotton species (Gossypium arboretum L., Gossypium raimondii L., Gossypium hirsutum L., and Gossypium barbadense L.). Cotton CHI proteins were classified into two main groups, and whole-genome/segmental and dispersed duplication events were important in CHI gene family expansion. qRT-PCR and semiquantitative RT-PCR results suggest that CHI genes exhibit temporal and spatial variation and respond to infection with Fusarium wilt race 7. A preliminary model of CHI gene involvement in cotton evolution was established. Pairwise comparison revealed that seven CHI genes showed higher expression in cultivar 06-146 than in cultivar Xinhai 14. Overall, this whole-genome identification unlocks a new approach to the comprehensive functional analysis of the CHI gene family, which may be involved in adaptation to plant pathogen stress.


Assuntos
Fusarium/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Gossypium , Liases Intramoleculares , Família Multigênica , Doenças das Plantas , Biologia Computacional , Fusarium/genética , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Gossypium/genética , Gossypium/metabolismo , Gossypium/microbiologia , Liases Intramoleculares/biossíntese , Liases Intramoleculares/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia
12.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(4): e20180695, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31721917

RESUMO

Conventional cotton production in western Bahia, Brazil, involves intensive use of agricultural inputs and mechanization, which may affect arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). This work aimed at studying the impact of conventional and organic cotton production in the AMF of western Bahia. Soil samples were obtained from conventional white cotton and colored cotton organic production systems as well as from native Cerrado areas, close to the white cotton fields, and from the subcaducifolia vegetation, close to the organic colored cotton farms. The most frequent species in the conventional farming areas belonged to the genera Acaulospora (10 spp.); Glomus (8 spp.); Dentiscutata (3 spp.); Ambispora, Pacispora and Scutellospora (2 spp. each), as well as Claroideoglomus etunicatum, Diversispora sp., Entrophospora infrequens, Gigaspora sp., Orbispora pernambucana, Paradentiscutata maritima, and Paraglomus occultum. Eighteen species were found in the organic farming areas, with the predominance of Glomus (5 spp.) and Acaulospora (5 spp.), and with Claroideoglomus, Dentiscutata, Gigaspora, Corymbiglomus, Orbispora, Paraglomus, Scutellospora, and Simiglomus (1 spp. each). Paraglomus bolivianum was first reported in Cerrado. In the native vegetation, nine species were found, with the predominance of Glomus and Acaulospora. The highest number of AMF species was found in the organic farming areas, which deserves further investigation.


Assuntos
Gossypium/microbiologia , Micorrizas/classificação , Microbiologia do Solo , Agricultura , Brasil , Gossypium/crescimento & desenvolvimento
13.
Environ Microbiol ; 21(12): 4852-4874, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31667948

RESUMO

Verticillium dahliae is a soil-borne fungus that causes vascular wilt on numerous plants worldwide. The fungus survives in the soil for up to 14 years by producing melanized microsclerotia. The protective function of melanin in abiotic stresses is well documented. Here, we found that the V. dahliae tetraspan transmembrane protein VdSho1, a homolog of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sho1, acts as an osmosensor, and is required for plant penetration and melanin biosynthesis. The deletion mutant ΔSho1 was incubated on a cellophane membrane substrate that mimics the plant epidermis, revealing that the penetration of ΔSho1 strain was reduced compared to the wild-type strain. Furthermore, VdSho1 regulates melanin biosynthesis by a signalling mechanism requiring a kinase-kinase signalling module of Vst50-Vst11-Vst7. Strains, ΔVst50, ΔVst7 and ΔVst11 also displayed defective penetration and melanin production like the ΔSho1 strain. Defects in penetration and melanin production in ΔSho1 were restored by overexpression of Vst50, suggesting that Vst50 lies downstream of VdSho1 in the regulatory pathway governing penetration and melanin biosynthesis. Data analyses revealed that the transmembrane portion of VdSho1 was essential for both membrane penetration and melanin production. This study demonstrates that Vst50-Vst11-Vst7 module regulates VdSho1-mediated plant penetration and melanin production in V. dahliae, contributing to virulence.


Assuntos
Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Gossypium/microbiologia , Melaninas/biossíntese , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Verticillium/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Metabolismo Secundário , Deleção de Sequência , Transdução de Sinais , Verticillium/genética , Verticillium/patogenicidade , Virulência
14.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0207903, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626665

RESUMO

Rhizosphere fungal communities exert important influencing forces on plant growth and health. However, information on the dynamics of the rhizosphere fungal community structure of the worldwide economic crop cotton (Gossypium spp.) is limited. In the present study, next-generation sequencing of nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer-1 (ITS1) was performed to characterize the rhizosphere fungal communities of G. hirsutum cv. TM-1 (upland cotton) and G. barbadense cv. Hai 7124 (island cotton). The plants were grown in field soil (FS) that had been continuously cropped with cotton and nutrient-rich soil (NS) that had not been cropped. The fungal species richness, diversity, and community composition were analyzed and compared among the soil resources, cotton genotypes, and developmental stages. We found that the fungal community structures were different between the rhizosphere and bulk soil and the difference were significantly varied between FS and NS. Our results suggested that cotton rhizosphere fungal community structure variation may have been primarily influenced by the interaction of cotton roots with different soil resources. We also found that the community composition of the cotton rhizosphere fungi varied significantly during different developmental stages. In addition, we observed fungi that was enriched or depleted at certain developmental stages and genotypes in FS and NS, and these insights can lay a foundation for deep research into the dynamics of pathogenic fungi and nutrient absorption of cotton roots. This research illustrates the characteristics of the cotton rhizosphere fungal communities and provides important information for understanding the potential influences of rhizosphere fungal communities on cotton growth and health.


Assuntos
Fungos , Gossypium , Consórcios Microbianos/fisiologia , Rizosfera , Microbiologia do Solo , Tetraploidia , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/genética , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Gossypium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Gossypium/microbiologia
15.
Nat Plants ; 5(11): 1167-1176, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31636399

RESUMO

Soil-borne fungal pathogens that cause crop disease are major threats to agriculture worldwide. Here, we identified a secretory polysaccharide deacetylase (PDA1) from the soil-borne fungus Verticillium dahliae, the most notorious plant pathogen of the Verticillium genus, that facilitates virulence through direct deacetylation of chitin oligomers whose N-acetyl group contributes to host lysine motif (LysM)-containing receptor perception for ligand-triggered immunity. Polysaccharide deacetylases are widely present in fungi, bacteria, insects and marine invertebrates and have been reported to possess diverse functions in developmental processes rather than virulence. A phylogenetics analysis of more than 5,000 fungal proteins with conserved polysaccharide deacetylase domains showed that the V. dahliae PDA1-containing subtree includes a large number of proteins from the Verticillium genus as well as the Fusarium genus, another group of characterized soil-borne fungal pathogens, suggesting that soil-borne fungal pathogens have adopted chitin deacetylation as a major virulence strategy. We showed that a Fusarium PDA1 is required for virulence in cotton plants. This study reveals a substantial virulence function role of polysaccharide deacetylases in pathogenic fungi and demonstrates a subtle mechanism whereby deacetylation of chitin oligomers converts them to ligand-inactive chitosan, representing a common strategy of preventing chitin-triggered host immunity by soil-borne fungal pathogens.


Assuntos
Amidoidrolases/metabolismo , Quitina/metabolismo , Gossypium/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Microbiologia do Solo , Verticillium/patogenicidade , Acetilação , Amidoidrolases/genética , Fusarium/enzimologia , Fusarium/patogenicidade , Gossypium/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Verticillium/enzimologia , Virulência
16.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 379, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455203

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metabolic pathways are interconnected and yet relatively independent. Genes involved in metabolic modules are required for the modules to run. Study of the relationships between genes and metabolic modules improves the understanding of metabolic pathways in plants. The WIN transcription factor activates the cuticle biosynthesis pathway and promotes cuticle biosynthesis. The relationship between the WIN transcription factor and other metabolic pathways is unknown. Our aim was to determine the relationships between the main genes involved in cuticle biosynthesis and those involved in other metabolic pathways. We did this by cloning a cotton WIN gene, GhWIN2, and studying its influence on other pathways. RESULTS: As with other WIN genes, GhWIN2 regulated expression of cuticle biosynthesis-related genes, and promoted cuticle formation. Silencing of GhWIN2 resulted in enhanced resistance to Verticillium dahliae, caused by increased content of salicylic acid (SA). Moreover, silencing of GhWIN2 suppressed expression of jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis-related genes and content. GhWIN2 positively regulated the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway upstream of the JA biosynthesis pathway. Silencing of GhWIN2 reduced the content of stearic acid, a JA biosynthesis precursor. CONCLUSIONS: GhWIN2 not only regulated the cuticle biosynthesis pathway, but also positively influenced JA biosynthesis and negatively influenced SA biosynthesis.


Assuntos
Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Gossypium/genética , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Ácido Salicílico/metabolismo , Verticillium/fisiologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Resistência à Doença/genética , Gossypium/metabolismo , Gossypium/microbiologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência
17.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(15): 6911-6921, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393604

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the possibility of cotton waste enrichment with glycine betaine (GB) for production of two strains (P9, P10) of king oyster (Pleurotus eryngii). Cotton waste was used as (100%) control (T0 = cotton waste) and augmented with various combinations of GB, (T1 = 2 mmol L-1 , T2 = 4 mmol L-1 , T3 = 6 mmol L-1 , T4 = 8 mmol L-1 and T5 = 10 mmol L-1 ). The response of king oyster to GB was evaluated by earliness, yield, biological efficiency (BE), minerals (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), sodium (Na), calcium (Ca)), total sugars, total soluble solids, reducing sugars, non-reducing sugars, ascorbic acid, proximate (crude protein, carbohydrates, crude fibers, ash, fats) content of fruiting body and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analysis compared with the control substrate (cotton waste). RESULTS: The earliness, yield, and BE were higher as compared to control substrate and increased with an augmentation in the concentration of GB within the cotton waste. Two strains showed (on dry weight basis) 33.9-54.9 mg g-1 nitrogen, 6.8-12.5 mg g-1 phosphorus, 16.9-25.1 mg g-1 potassium, 40.5-64.2 mg kg-1 Zn, 17.1-37.3 mg kg-1 Cu, 1174-1325 mg kg-1 Mg, 20.1-29.1 mg kg-1 Mn, 129-265 mg kg-1 Fe, 779-835 mg kg-1 Ca), 6.3%-11.3% total sugars, 7.3-14.9 °Brix total soluble solids, 2.1-7.3% reducing sugars, 10.4-18.1% crude protein, 3.6-4.4% crude fiber and 5.6-16.7 mg (100 g)-1 on various concentration of GB enrich cotton waste. Cotton waste enriched with GB significantly affected nutritional profile of king oyster mushroom. CONCLUSION: The results revealed that GB enriched cotton waste can be used as an innovative substrate to enhance the yield and quality of king oyster mushroom. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Betaína/metabolismo , Meios de Cultura/metabolismo , Glicina/metabolismo , Gossypium/microbiologia , Pleurotus/química , Pleurotus/metabolismo , Resíduos/análise , Betaína/análise , Meios de Cultura/química , Glicina/análise , Gossypium/metabolismo , Minerais/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/análise , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Fósforo/análise , Fósforo/metabolismo , Pleurotus/genética , Pleurotus/crescimento & desenvolvimento
18.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 158: 149-155, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378351

RESUMO

Induced resistance is an effective measure for controlling plant diseases by utilizing the natural defense of the host and meets the strategic needs of pesticide application and safety for agricultural products worldwide. Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide (GLP), which is the main active molecule of G. lucidum, has been widely used in functional food and clinical medicine. However, there are few reports of the use of GLP for the prevention and control of plant diseases. The purpose of this study is to explore the effect of GLP and its mechanism of inducing plant resistance. In this study, we found that GLP spray and irrigation root treatments can promote growth in cotton. After soaking in GLP, theseedling height and cotton fusarium wilt resistance both increased to some extent, effects that were dose dependent. After treatment of cotton with GLP, the activities of peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in leaves increased significantly, whereas the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) decreased. In addition, QRT-PCR results showed significantly increased relative expression of genes related to the jasmonic acid pathway in cotton. Therefore, we speculate that GLP can induce plant resistance by stimulating the jasmonate pathway.


Assuntos
Fusarium/efeitos dos fármacos , Gossypium/microbiologia , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Reishi/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Gossypium/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Polissacarídeos/química , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
19.
Commun Biol ; 2: 238, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263782

RESUMO

In the plant response to pathogen infection, many genes' expression is temporally induced, while few spatially induced expression genes have been reported. Here, we show that GhBOP1 can autonomously expand expression from restrained tissue when Gossypium hirsutum plants are attacked by Verticillium dahliae, which is considered to be spatially induced expression. Loss- and gain-of-function analyses show that GhBOP1 is a positive regulator in the modulation of plant resistance to V. dahliae. Yeast two-hybrid assays, luciferase complementation imaging and GUS reporting show that GhBOP1 interaction with GhTGA3 promotes its activation activity, regulating the expression of down-stream defence-related genes. Moreover, the induced spatial expression of GhBOP1 is accompanied by GhBP1 repression. Both antagonistically regulate the lignin biosynthesis, conferring cotton plants enhanced resistance to V. dahliae. Taken together, these results demonstrate that GhBOP1 is an economic positive regulator participating in plant defence through both the GhBOP1-GhTGA3 module and lignin accumulation.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Gossypium/microbiologia , Verticillium/patogenicidade , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/fisiologia , Resistência à Doença/genética , Gossypium/genética , Lignina/biossíntese , Técnicas do Sistema de Duplo-Híbrido
20.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 69(8): 2506-2513, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31204971

RESUMO

A Gram-stain-positive and catalase negative coccus, designated strain Gos25-1T, isolated from a cotton flower (Gossypium hirsutum L.) collected from Khao Wong district, Kalasin province, Thailand. The taxonomic position of this strain was systematically studied based upon polyphasic taxonomic methods. The strain was facultatively anaerobic and produced l-lactic acid from glucose. The predominant cellular fatty acids were the straight-chain fatty acids C18 : 1ω9c and C16 : 0. According to 16S rRNA and phenylalanyl-tRNA synthase alpha subunit (pheS) gene sequence similarity, this strain was closely related to Enterococcus pallens NBRC 100697T, E. hermanniensis CIP 108559T, E. avium NBRC 100477T and E. raffinosus NBRC 100492T with 98.9-99.1 % and 77.0-82.0 % sequence similarities, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that strain Gos25-1T was clearly distinguished from closely related species of the genus Enterococcus. Draft genome of Gos25-1T had a size of 3.99 Mb which was contained 3788 coding sequences with in silico G+C content of 42.4 mol%. The ANIb and a digital DNA-DNA hybridisation (dDDH) values between strain Gos25-1T and the closest related species, E. pallens NBRC 100697T were 73.65 and 21.10 %, respectively. According to polyphasic characterisation, this strain represents a novel species of the genus Enterococcus, for which the name Enterococcus florum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Gos25-1T (=CIP 110956T=LMG 29007T=NBRC 111461T=TISTR 2382T).


Assuntos
Enterococcus/classificação , Flores/microbiologia , Gossypium/microbiologia , Filogenia , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Enterococcus/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Graxos/química , Genes Bacterianos , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Tailândia
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