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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 752: 141862, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889281

RESUMO

Alternate wetting and drying (AWD) irrigation was reported to increase rice root activity and element bioavailability, which results in enhanced heavy metal (HM) absorption and this HM ends up in rice grains. HM uptake was also affected by the levels of phosphorus (P) fertilizer application. HMs enter food chain via consumption of rice grains and cause health problems. In this study, we compared the differences in grain yield, grain quality, water use efficiency (WUE), partial factor productivity of applied P (PFPp), HM contents in different tissues and transfer coefficient (TC) of HMs under a combination of treatments involving two irrigation regimes (continuous flooding (CF) and AWD irrigation) and three P fertilizer application levels (0.4 g P2O5/kg soil, HP; 0.2 g P2O5/kg soil, MP; 0 g P2O5/kg soil, LP). Compared to CF, AWD irrigation increased grain yield (without reducing grain quality), decreased irrigation water use and the number of irrigation events needed and improved WUE and PFPp at all three P fertilizer application levels, while the accumulation of HMs in grains increased when more P was applied. This accumulation of HMs in grains thus requires immediate attention to the level of P fertilizer application and its optimization in water-saving AWD irrigation to minimize grain HM content.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Oryza , Irrigação Agrícola , Grão Comestível , Fertilizantes , Fósforo , Solo , Água
2.
Food Chem ; 334: 127523, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721833

RESUMO

Non-wheat cereals have become popular in the diet due to their nutritional benefits, but their application is limited by properties of their proteins. Some of these flours can be conventionally processed, but the final products are not of acceptable quality. Modification of physico-chemical properties of non-wheat flours by dry heat and extrusion represent the alternative process which can transform the flours into an adequate raw material for the bakery and confectionery industry. The aim of this study was to determine the type and extent of physico-chemical changes in modified flours whose mixtures were used successfully for bread production. Extrusion had stronger influence on chemical composition of flours than dry heating, especially on the content of fats and phenolic compounds. Extrusion also increased starch digestibility due to complete gelatinization process, making it almost equal for all flours. On the other hand, protein digestibility depends mostly on botanical origin of flour.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Farinha/análise , Antioxidantes/química , Pão/análise , Digestão , Grão Comestível/química , Manipulação de Alimentos , Hordeum/química , Hordeum/metabolismo , Temperatura Alta , Fenóis/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Secale/química , Secale/metabolismo , Sorghum/química , Sorghum/metabolismo , Amido/metabolismo
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5539, 2020 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33139747

RESUMO

DNA methylation is a ubiquitous chromatin feature, present in 25% of cytosines in the maize genome, but variation and evolution of the methylation landscape during maize domestication remain largely unknown. Here, we leverage whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) data on populations of modern maize, landrace, and teosinte (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis) to estimate epimutation rates and selection coefficients. We find weak evidence for direct selection on DNA methylation in any context, but thousands of differentially methylated regions (DMRs) are identified population-wide that are correlated with recent selection. For two trait-associated DMRs, vgt1-DMR and tb1-DMR, HiChIP data indicate that the interactive loops between DMRs and respective downstream genes are present in B73, a modern maize line, but absent in teosinte. Our results enable a better understanding of the evolutionary forces acting on patterns of DNA methylation and suggest a role of methylation variation in adaptive evolution.


Assuntos
Domesticação , Grão Comestível/genética , Evolução Molecular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Zea mays/genética , Sequenciamento de Cromatina por Imunoprecipitação , Metilação de DNA , DNA de Plantas/genética , DNA de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Epigênese Genética , Genoma de Planta , México , Melhoramento Vegetal , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Seleção Genética
4.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 335: 108889, 2020 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007604

RESUMO

The safety and quality of cereal grain supplies are adversely impacted by microbiological contamination, with novel interventions required to maximise whole grains safety and stability. The microbiological contaminants of wheat grains and the efficacy of Atmospheric Cold Plasma (ACP) for potential to control these risks were investigated. The evaluations were performed using a contained reactor dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) system; samples were treated for 0-20 min using direct and indirect plasma exposure. Amplicon-based metagenomic analysis using bacterial 16S rRNA gene and fungal 18S rRNA gene with internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region was performed to characterize the change in microbial community composition in response to ACP treatment. The antimicrobial efficacy of ACP against a range of bacterial and fungal contaminants of wheat, was assessed to include individual isolates from grains as challenge pathogens. ACP influenced wheat microbiome composition, with a higher microbial diversity as well as abundance found on the untreated control grain samples. Culture and genomic approaches revealed different trends for mycoflora detection and control. A challenge study demonstrated that using direct mode of plasma exposure with 20 min of treatment significantly reduced the concentration of all pathogens. Overall, reduction levels for B. atrophaeus vegetative cells were higher than for all fungal species tested, whereas B. atrophaeus spores were the most resistant to ACP among all microorganisms tested. Of note, repeating sub-lethal plasma treatment did not induce resistance to ACP in either B. atrophaeus or A. flavus spores. ACP process control could be tailored to address diverse microbiological risks for grain stability and safety.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Gases em Plasma/farmacologia , Triticum/microbiologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Grão Comestível/microbiologia , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos/genética , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , RNA Ribossômico/genética , Especificidade da Espécie
5.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239701, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33125378

RESUMO

There is a growing need to enhance the productivity of soybean (Glycine max L.) under severe drought conditions in order to improve global food security status. Melatonin, a ubiquitous hormone, could alleviate drought stress in various plants. Earlier, we demonstrated that exogenous melatonin treatment could enhance the tolerance of drought-treated soybean. However, the underlying mechanisms by which this hormone exerts drought resistance is still unclear. The present study used transcriptomic and metabolomic techniques to determine some critical genes and pathways regulating melatonin response to drought conditions. Results showed that exogenous melatonin treatment could increase relative water content and decrease electrolyte leakage in the leaves and increase seed yield under drought stress. Transcriptomic analysis showed that there were 852 core differentially expressed genes (DEGs) that were regulated by drought stress and melatonin in soybean leaves. The most enriched drought-responsive genes are mainly involved in the 'biosynthesis of secondary metabolites'. Metabolomic profiling under drought stress showed higher accumulation levels of secondary metabolites related to drought tolerance after exogenous melatonin treatment. Also, we highlighted the vital role of the pathways including phenylpropanoid, flavonoid, isoflavonoid, and steroid biosynthesis pathways for improvement of drought tolerance in soybean by exogenous melatonin treatment. In all, findings from this study give detailed molecular basis for the application of melatonin as a drought-resistant agent in soybean cultivation.


Assuntos
Melatonina/metabolismo , Soja/genética , Soja/metabolismo , Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Grão Comestível/genética , Fabaceae/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Metabolômica/métodos , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Transcriptoma/genética
6.
Zootaxa ; 4820(2): zootaxa.4820.2.13, 2020 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056077

RESUMO

A new species of Blattisocius Keegan 1944 is described from specimens collected from a grain store in Giza, Egypt. Blattisocius flagellatus n. sp. has 33 pairs of long and flagellate setae on the dorsal shield, the ventrianal shield possesses three pairs of pre-anal setae, and the fixed digit of the chelicera is shorter than movable digit. A key is provided for the eight species of Blattisocius known from Egypt.


Assuntos
Ácaros , Animais , Grão Comestível , Egito
7.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 49(5): 755-758, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33070819

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the level of lead in cereals and related products from Zhejiang market, and to provide the preliminary assessment. METHODS: Lead was detected in 4855 samples of cereals and related products during 2014-2019, food consumption data was taken from Zhejiang residents' consumption survey in 2015-2016. RESULTS: The total detection rate of lead in cereals and related products was 59. 03%, and the acceptance rate was 99. 3% when compared to the national food safety standards(GB 2762-2017). The average lead level in cereals and related products was 0. 031 mg/kg, high mean level was found in millet with 0. 049 mg/kg, low mean level was in grain cans with 0. 020 mg/kg. The average dietary exposure to lead via cereals and related products was 0. 16 µg/(kg·d), and 0. 45 µg/(kg·d) for high consumer(P97. 5). CONCLUSION: Lead in cereals and related products are at very low contamination levels, residents' average daily intake of lead from grains and products was low in Zhejiang Province, but measures are still needed to reduce lead in cereal products considering the adverse health effects of lead.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível , Chumbo , Exposição Dietética , Grão Comestível/química , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Chumbo/análise
8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5219, 2020 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33060584

RESUMO

Nitrogen (N) is a macronutrient that boosts carbon (C) metabolism and plant growth leading to biomass accumulation. The molecular connection between nitrogen utilization efficiency (NUE) and biomass production remains unclear. Here, via quantitative trait loci analysis and map-based cloning, we reveal that natural variation at the MYB61 locus leads to differences in N use and cellulose biogenesis between indica and japonica subspecies of rice. MYB61, a transcriptional factor that regulates cellulose synthesis, is directly regulated by a known NUE regulator GROWTH-REGULATING FACTOR4 (GRF4), which coordinates cellulosic biomass production and N utilization. The variation at MYB61 has been selected during indica and japonica domestication. The indica allele of MYB61 displays robust transcription resulting in higher NUE and increased grain yield at reduced N supply than that of japonica. Our study hence unravels how C metabolism is linked to N uptake and may provide an opportunity to reduce N use for sustainable agriculture.


Assuntos
Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Alelos , Biomassa , Celulose/biossíntese , Grão Comestível/genética , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Variação Genética , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Transdução de Sinais , Transcrição Genética
9.
Plant Genome ; 13(1): e20013, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016639

RESUMO

Vitamin A deficiency is one of the most prevalent nutritional deficiencies worldwide. Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor L. (Moench)] is a major cereal crop consumed by millions of people in regions with high vitamin A deficiency. We quantified carotenoid concentrations in a diverse sorghum panel using high-performance liquid chromatography and conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of grain carotenoids to identify genes underlying carotenoid variation. There was moderate variation for ß-carotene (00.8 µg g-1 ), lutein (0.3-9.4 µg g-1 ), and zeaxanthin (0.2-9.1 µg g-1 ), but ß-cryptoxanthin and α-carotene were nearly undetectable. Genotype had the largest effect size, at 81% for zeaxanthin, 62% for ß-carotene, and 53% for lutein. Using multiple models, GWAS identified several significant associations between carotenoids and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), some of which colocalized with known carotenoid genes that have not been previously implicated in carotenoid variation. Several of the candidate genes identified have also been identified in maize (Zea mays L.) and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) carotenoid GWAS studies. Notably, an SNP inside the putative ortholog of maize zeaxanthin epoxidase (ZEP) had the most significant association with zeaxanthin and with the ratio between lutein and zeaxanthin, suggesting that ZEP is a major gene controlling sorghum carotenoid variation. Overall findings suggest there is oligogenic inheritance for sorghum carotenoids and suitable variation for marker-assisted selection. The high carotenoid germplasm and significant associations identified in this study can be used in biofortification efforts to improve the nutritional quality of sorghum.


Assuntos
Sorghum , Biofortificação , Carotenoides , Grão Comestível , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Provitaminas , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Sorghum/genética
10.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0225293, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991576

RESUMO

Grain hardness is an important quality trait of cereal crops. In wheat, it is mainly determined by the Hardness locus that harbors genes encoding puroindoline A (PINA) and puroindoline B (PINB). Any deletion or mutation of these genes leading to the absence of PINA or to single amino acid changes in PINB leads to hard endosperms. Although it is generally acknowledged that hardness is controlled by adhesion strength between the protein matrix and starch granules, the physicochemical mechanisms connecting puroindolines and the starch-protein interactions are unknown as of this time. To explore these mechanisms, we focused on PINA. The overexpression in a hard wheat cultivar (cv. Courtot with the Pina-D1a and Pinb-D1d alleles) decreased grain hardness in a dose-related effect, suggesting an interactive process. When PINA was added to gliadins in solution, large aggregates of up to 13 µm in diameter were formed. Turbidimetry measurements showed that the PINA-gliadin interaction displayed a high cooperativity that increased with a decrease in pH from neutral to acid (pH 4) media, mimicking the pH change during endosperm development. No turbidity was observed in the presence of isolated α- and γ-gliadins, but non-cooperative interactions of PINA with these proteins could be confirmed by surface plasmon resonance. A significant higher interaction of PINA with γ-gliadins than with α-gliadins was observed. Similar binding behavior was observed with a recombinant repeated polypeptide that mimics the repeat domain of gliadins, i.e., (Pro-Gln-Gln-Pro-Tyr)8. Taken together, these results suggest that the interaction of PINA with a monomeric gliadin creates a nucleation point leading to the aggregation of other gliadins, a phenomenon that could prevent further interaction of the storage prolamins with starch granules. Consequently, the role of puroindoline-prolamin interactions on grain hardness should be addressed on the basis of previous observations that highlight the similar subcellular routing of storage prolamins and puroindolines.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Gliadina/metabolismo , Dureza/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Triticum/metabolismo , Produção Agrícola , Difusão Dinâmica da Luz , Grão Comestível/química , Gliadina/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Nefelometria e Turbidimetria , Tamanho da Partícula , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Agregados Proteicos/fisiologia , Ligação Proteica/fisiologia , Domínios Proteicos/fisiologia , Sequências Repetitivas de Aminoácidos/fisiologia , Amido/química , Amido/metabolismo , Ressonância de Plasmônio de Superfície , Triticum/química
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867372

RESUMO

A simplified questionnaire was developed to assess inorganic arsenic (iAs) intake level in a Japanese population. The two page questionnaire included photographs of single serving sizes of rice and cooked hijiki (Hizikia fusiforme: brown algae), and asked subjects about the number of servings of rice and cooked hijiki, two predominant dietary sources of iAs in Japan, they consume in a day. Daily intake of iAs was estimated for 72 Japanese subjects using the questionnaire together with data of iAs content in rice and hijiki seaweed, and the estimated intakes were compared with actual iAs intakes of the subjects as measured for a duplicate diet using liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. A highly significant correlation was found between the estimated and measured intakes (r = 0.65, p < 0.001); however, the slope of regression indicated a systematic error in the intake estimation. Possible sources of error are discussed herein. It was concluded that this approach is promising if minor improvements are made to the questionnaire.


Assuntos
Arsênico/administração & dosagem , Arsenicais , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Oryza , Arsênico/efeitos adversos , Arsênico/análise , Grão Comestível/química , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluição Ambiental , Humanos , Japão , Vigilância da População , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
J Environ Manage ; 276: 111314, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32891034

RESUMO

With Kriging interpolation, analytic hierarchy process and grey relational analysis, this paper evaluates the regionalized benefit of China's sloping cropland erosion control (SCEC) during 2011-2015, including the ecological, economic, social benefit and the comprehensive benefit. The results show that, in the ecological benefits, the distribution of soil erosion control degree presents patchy characteristics. The reduction of runoff modulus gradually decreases from southeast to northwest. The reduction of soil erosion modulus is the largest in the Northwest Loess Plateau and the smallest in the Northeast Black Soil Zone. In the economic benefits, the increase in the annual output value per unit land area is characterized by "high in the south and low in the north", but there are patchy high-value areas in central Loess Plateau and the Northern Earthy-Rocky Mountain Zone. The increase in the agricultural population's per capita income is higher in the western area than that in the eastern area. In the social benefits, the per capita grain increase in most of the northern China is larger than that in the south, while the characteristic agricultural development in the south is more advantageous than that in the north. The comprehensive benefit is "high in the south and low in the north; highest in the southwest and lowest in the northeast". The spatial heterogeneity implies the necessity to specify the influencing factors for the SCEC benefit in different areas and take pointed measures to improve the benefit.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Solo , Agricultura , China , Grão Comestível
13.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239739, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32986755

RESUMO

Rice is critical for sustainable food and nutritional security; however, nominal micronutrient quantities in grains aggravate malnutrition in rice-eating poor populations. In this study, we evaluated genetic diversity in grain iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) contents using trait-linked simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers in the representative subset of a large collection of local and exotic rice germplasm. Results demonstrated that aromatic fine grain accessions contained relatively higher Fe and Zn contents in brown rice (BR) than coarse grain accessions and a strong positive correlation between both mineral elements. Genotyping with 24 trait-linked SSR markers identified 21 polymorphic markers, among which 17 demonstrated higher gene diversity and polymorphism information content (PIC) values, strongly indicating that markers used in current research were moderate to highly informative for evaluating the genetic diversity. Population structure, principal coordinate and phylogenetic analyses classified studied rice accessions into two fine grain specific and one fine and coarse grain admixture subpopulations. Single marker analysis recognized four ZnBR and single FeBR significant marker-trait associations (MTAs) contributing 15.41-39.72% in total observed phenotypic variance. Furthermore, high grain Fe and Zn contents linked marker alleles from significant MTAs were also identified. Collectively, these results indicate a wide genetic diversity exist in grain Fe and Zn contents of studied rice accessions and reveal perspective for marker-assisted biofortification breeding.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível/química , Grão Comestível/genética , Ferro/análise , Micronutrientes/análise , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Oryza/química , Oryza/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Zinco/análise , Alelos , Biofortificação , Biomarcadores , Grão Comestível/classificação , Genes de Plantas , Genótipo , Oryza/classificação , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Melhoramento Vegetal , Locos de Características Quantitativas
14.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 49(4): 613-616, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32928357

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the dietary exposure level of advanced glycation end products(AGEs) in the diet of Shenzhen residents. METHODS: 3 markets, 6 supermarkets and 10 chain catering units in Shenzhen were selected as sampling points. 196 food samples were collected in 11 categories in batches from December 2016 to October 2017. The AGEs content database was obtained by detecting carboxy methyl lysine by ELISA competition method. Combined with the food consumption data of Shenzhen residents in the 2011 survey of dietary and nutritional status of Shenzhen residents, through Monte Carlo simulation, the probability distribution of AGEs dietary exposure was calculated by using the Latin hypercube method from the AGEs content data and consumption data, and the result were expressed by the exposure corresponding to different percentiles(P50 and P95). RESULTS: In Shenzhen, 50% of the population had a dietary exposure of more than 37. 2 mg/d per person, while 5% of the population had a dietary exposure of more than 65. 9 mg/d per person. The first three factors that had a great impact on the dietary exposure of AGEs were the AGEs content of cereal and its products, the AGEs content of meat and its products, and the consumption of cereal and its products. The top three sources of AGEs exposure for both P50 and P95 were cereal and its products and its products taste, meat and its products. CONCLUSION: 5% of Shenzhen residents had a high intake of AGEs, which mainly came from cereals and their products, condiments, meat and their products.


Assuntos
Dieta , Carne , Exposição Dietética , Grão Comestível , Estado Nutricional
15.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 205: 111323, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956864

RESUMO

Using an ideal parental line to breed hybrid rice with low cadmium (Cd) accumulation in grain is an environmental-friendly approach to reduce the risk of Cd contamination in field. A grain low-Cd rice line YaHui2816 has stably low Cd in grain but strong Cd accumulation in straw, revealing specific pattern of its straw-grain Cd remobilization is beneficial to effectively breed hybrid rice for safe production as well as phytoremediation. In this study, a pot experiment was conducted to investigate Cd partitioning of YaHui2816 at different stages by comparison with a common rice C268A. The Cd from lower nodes and leaves was restricted in nodeⅡ, this Cd retention led to weak Cd transport from straw to ear in YaHui2816. Cd concentration in nodeⅡ of YaHui2816 was 1.56-fold and 7.36-fold higher than C268A at filling and mature stages. Thus, glutathione (GSH) and phytochelatin (PC) concentration, PC synthase (OsPCS1), GSH S-Transferase (OsGST) and Cd-remobilization associated genes were measured at filling stage. OsHMA2 and OsCCX2 were up-regulated in nodeⅡ of YaHui2816, relative expression of them were significantly higher than C268A. PCs participated in Cd remobilization process, remarkable PC increase in nodeⅡ of YaHui2816 was found in response to Cd treatment under regulation of OsPCS1 and OsGST of which PC2 was dominant form. Taken as a whole, the Cd retention in nodeⅡ of YaHui2816 acts as a 'firewall' to restrain Cd transport to grain. This work provides more insight to understand possible function of alleles for reducing Cd concentration in grain as well as strengthening Cd accumulation in straw of YaHui2816.


Assuntos
Cádmio/metabolismo , Oryza/fisiologia , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Aminoaciltransferases , Grão Comestível/química , Oryza/metabolismo , Fitoquelatinas/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
16.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 205: 111347, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32961489

RESUMO

The soil cadmium (Cd) contamination is a ubiquitous environmental problem that has resulted from intense irrigation with wastewater. This pot trial was conducted with aim to produce safe food with Cd tolerant wheat cultivar in wastewater irrigated soils. For this purpose, two wheat cultivars NARC-2011 (Cd tolerant) and Shafaq-2006 (Cd sensitive) were screened out and selected, after conducting a pilot trial of twelve local wheat cultivars against Cd stress. Both cultivars were grown in naturally contaminated soils with Cd concentrations (4.18, 3.23, 2.29 and 1.25 mg kg-1). After harvesting, NARC-2011 showed significant photosynthetic attributes, grain biochemical parameters and yield. Additionally, Cd concentrations in edible grains of NARC-2011 cultivars were found within standard limits (200 mg kg-1), in all contaminated soils. Furthermore, a marked decrease in Cd bioavailability was noted with cultivar NARC-2011, where contribution of mobile Cd fractions (exchangeable and reducible) percentage was decreased, while immobile Cd fractions percentage increased (oxidizable and residual). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy reflects the maturity and stability of humic and fulvic like acid fractions and revealed that humification of these compounds after prolonged sludge enriched wastewater irrigation lowered the Cd availability. The wheat cultivar NARC-2011 (Cd tolerant) could be opted to grow on soils irrigated with wastewater for a long time, as Cd bioavailability decreased with ageing due to stabilized humic substances and varietal tolerance.


Assuntos
Irrigação Agrícola , Cádmio/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Triticum/química , Benzopiranos , Disponibilidade Biológica , Grão Comestível/química , Substâncias Húmicas/análise , Esgotos/análise , Solo/química , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias/química
17.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 205: 111372, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32977281

RESUMO

The production of natural selenium (Se)-rich food by using a high-Se crop cultivar is beneficial to human health and environmental safety; however, the underlying mechanism of different Se-accumulation ability between high- and low-Se rice cultivars remains unclear. A low-grain-Se cultivar and high-grain-Se cultivar of rice were used as test materials, and two levels of Se (0 and 0.5 mg kg-1) were arranged in a randomized design containing twelve replicates. The dynamic changes of shoot Se concentration and accumulation, xylem sap Se concentration, shoot and grain Se distribution, Se transporters genes (OsPT2, Sultr1;2, NRT1.1B) expression of the high- and low-Se rice cultivars were determined. The shoot Se concentration and accumulation of the high-Se rice showed a greater degree of reduction than those of the low-Se rice during grain filling stage, indicating that leaves of high-Se rice served as a Se source and supplied more Se for the growth centre grain. The expression levels of OsPT2, NRT1.1B and Sultr1;2 in the high-Se rice cultivar were significantly higher than those in the low-Se rice cultivar, which indicated that the high-Se rice cultivar possessed better transport carriers. The distribution of Se in grain of the high-Se rice cultivar was more uniform, whereas the low-Se cultivar tended to accumulate Se in embryo end. The stronger reutilization of Se from shoots to grains promoted by increased transporters genes expression and optimized grain storage space may explain how the high-Se rice cultivar is able to accumulate more Se in grain.


Assuntos
Oryza/fisiologia , Selênio/metabolismo , Cádmio/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/química , Humanos , Oryza/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Xilema/metabolismo
18.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 205: 111321, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32979800

RESUMO

Soil pollution with cadmium (Cd) has posed a threat to our food safety. And rice consumption is the main source of Cd intake in China. Rice intercropping with water spinach is an efficient way for crop production and phytoremediation in Cd-contaminated soil. However, few people work on the Cd remediation by a combination of the passivation and intercropping. In this study, two passivators (the Si-Ca-Mg ameliorant and the Fe-modified biochar with microbial inoculants) were used in the monoculture and intercropping systems to evaluate the potential of co-effect of passivators and cropping systems on the plant growth and Cd phytoremediation. Results showed that the highest rice biomass and rice yield were presented in the intercropping system with the passivator additions, however, relatively lower biomass was showed in water spinach due to the competition with rice. And more Cd accumulated in water spinach while lower Cd in that of different rice parts. The intercropping system with the addition of the Si-Ca-Mg ameliorant and the microbial Fe-modified biochar significantly reduced the Cd contents in brown rice by 58.86% and 63.83%, while notably enhanced the Cd accumulation of water spinach by 32.0% and 22.0%, compared with the monoculture without passivation, respectively. This probably due to the increased pH, the lowered Cd availability in soil, and the reduced TF and BCF values in rice plants with passivator applications. Collectively, this study indicated that rice-water spinach intercropping, especially with the passivator additions, may function as an effective way for Cd remediation and guarantee rice grain safety.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Cádmio/análise , Oryza/fisiologia , Spinacia oleracea/fisiologia , Biomassa , Carvão Vegetal , China , Grão Comestível/química , Ipomoea , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Água
19.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 9: CD007239, 2020 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32987448

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the health benefits of breastfeeding, initiation and duration rates continue to fall short of international guidelines. Many factors influence a woman's decision to wean; the main reason cited for weaning is associated with lactation complications, such as mastitis. Mastitis is an inflammation of the breast, with or without infection. It can be viewed as a continuum of disease, from non-infective inflammation of the breast to infection that may lead to abscess formation. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of preventive strategies (for example, breastfeeding education, pharmacological treatments and alternative therapies) on the occurrence or recurrence of non-infective or infective mastitis in breastfeeding women post-childbirth. SEARCH METHODS: We searched Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth's Trials Register, ClinicalTrials.gov, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (3 October 2019), and reference lists of retrieved studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials of interventions for preventing mastitis in postpartum breastfeeding women. Quasi-randomised controlled trials and trials reported only in abstract form were eligible. We attempted to contact the authors to obtain any unpublished results, wherever possible.  Interventions for preventing mastitis may include: probiotics, specialist breastfeeding advice and holistic approaches.   DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and assessed the certainty of the evidence using GRADE. MAIN RESULTS: We included 10 trials (3034 women). Nine trials (2395 women) contributed data. Generally, the trials were at low risk of bias in most domains but some were high risk for blinding, attrition bias, and selective reporting. Selection bias (allocation concealment) was generally unclear. The certainty of evidence was downgraded due to risk of bias and to imprecision (low numbers of women participating in the trials). Conflicts of interest on the part of trial authors, and the involvement of industry funders may also have had an impact on the certainty of the evidence. Most trials reported our primary outcome of incidence of mastitis but there were almost no data relating to adverse effects, breast pain, duration of breastfeeding, nipple damage, breast abscess or recurrence of mastitis. Probiotics versus placebo Probiotics may reduce the risk of mastitis more than placebo (risk ratio (RR) 0.51, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.35 to 0.75; 2 trials; 399 women; low-certainty evidence). It is uncertain if probiotics reduce the risk of breast pain or nipple damage because the certainty of evidence is very low. Results for the biggest of these trials (639 women) are currently unavailable due to a contractual agreement between the probiotics supplier and the trialists. Adverse effects were reported in one trial, where no woman in either group experienced any adverse effects. Antibiotics versus placebo or usual care The risk of mastitis may be similar between antibiotics and usual care or placebo (RR 0.37, 95% CI 0.10 to 1.34; 3 trials; 429 women; low-certainty evidence). The risk of mastitis may be similar between antibiotics and fusidic acid ointment (RR 0.22, 95% CI 0.03 to 1.81; 1 trial; 36 women; low-certainty evidence) or mupirocin ointment (RR 0.44, 95% CI 0.05 to 3.89; 1 trial; 44 women; low-certainty evidence) but we are uncertain due to the wide CIs. None of the trials reported adverse effects. Topical treatments versus breastfeeding advice The risk of mastitis may be similar between fusidic acid ointment and breastfeeding advice (RR 0.77, 95% CI 0.27 to 2.22; 1 trial; 40 women; low-certainty evidence) and mupirocin ointment and breastfeeding advice (RR 0.39, 95% CI 0.12 to 1.35; 1 trial; 48 women; low-certainty evidence) but we are uncertain due to the wide CIs. One trial (42 women) compared topical treatments to each other. The risk of mastitis may be similar between fusidic acid and mupirocin (RR 0.51, 95% CI 0.13 to 2.00; low-certainty evidence) but we are uncertain due to the wide CIs. Adverse events were not reported. Specialist breastfeeding education versus usual care The risk of mastitis (RR 0.93, 95% CI 0.17 to 4.95; 1 trial; 203 women; low-certainty evidence) and breast pain (RR 0.93, 95% CI 0.36 to 2.37; 1 trial; 203 women; low-certainty evidence) may be similar but we are uncertain due to the wide CIs. Adverse events were not reported. Anti-secretory factor-inducing cereal versus standard cereal The risk of mastitis (RR 0.24, 95% CI 0.03 to 1.72; 1 trial; 29 women; low-certainty evidence) and recurrence of mastitis (RR 0.39, 95% CI 0.03 to 4.57; 1 trial; 7 women; low-certainty evidence) may be similar but we are uncertain due to the wide CIs. Adverse events were not reported. Acupoint massage versus routine care Acupoint massage probably reduces the risk of mastitis compared to routine care (RR 0.38, 95% CI 0.19 to 0.78;1 trial; 400 women; moderate-certainty evidence) and breast pain (RR 0.13, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.23; 1 trial; 400 women; moderate-certainty evidence). Adverse events were not reported. Breast massage and low frequency pulse treatment versus routine care Breast massage and low frequency pulse treatment may reduce risk of mastitis (RR 0.03, 95% CI 0.00 to 0.21; 1 trial; 300 women; low-certainty evidence). Adverse events were not reported. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is some evidence that acupoint massage is probably better than routine care, probiotics may be better than placebo, and breast massage and low frequency pulse treatment may be better than routine care for preventing mastitis. However, it is important to note that we are aware of at least one large trial investigating probiotics whose results have not been made public, therefore, the evidence presented here is incomplete. The available evidence regarding other interventions, including breastfeeding education, pharmacological treatments and alternative therapies, suggests these may be little better than routine care for preventing mastitis but our conclusions are uncertain due to the low certainty of the evidence. Future trials should recruit sufficiently large numbers of women in order to detect clinically important differences between interventions and results of future trials should be made publicly available.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Aleitamento Materno/efeitos adversos , Mastite/prevenção & controle , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Viés , Grão Comestível/química , Feminino , Ácido Fusídico/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Massagem/métodos , Mupirocina/administração & dosagem , Neuropeptídeos/administração & dosagem , Pomadas/administração & dosagem , Placebos/uso terapêutico , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
20.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4488, 2020 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901040

RESUMO

Sustainable food production in the context of climate change necessitates diversification of agriculture and a more efficient utilization of plant genetic resources. Fonio millet (Digitaria exilis) is an orphan African cereal crop with a great potential for dryland agriculture. Here, we establish high-quality genomic resources to facilitate fonio improvement through molecular breeding. These include a chromosome-scale reference assembly and deep re-sequencing of 183 cultivated and wild Digitaria accessions, enabling insights into genetic diversity, population structure, and domestication. Fonio diversity is shaped by climatic, geographic, and ethnolinguistic factors. Two genes associated with seed size and shattering showed signatures of selection. Most known domestication genes from other cereal models however have not experienced strong selection in fonio, providing direct targets to rapidly improve this crop for agriculture in hot and dry environments.


Assuntos
Digitaria/genética , Grão Comestível/genética , África , Agricultura/métodos , Mudança Climática , Digitaria/classificação , Domesticação , Grão Comestível/classificação , Evolução Molecular , Variação Genética , Genoma de Planta , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Seleção Genética , Especificidade da Espécie
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