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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445215

RESUMO

Zea mays L. is one of the most produced crops, and there are still parts of the world where maize is the basic staple food. To improve agriculture, mankind always looks for new, better methods of growing crops, especially in the current changing climatic conditions. Cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAPP) has already showed its potential to enhance the culturing of crops, but it still needs more research for safe implementation into agriculture. In this work, it was shown that short CAPP treatment of maize grains had a positive effect on the vitality of grains and young seedlings, which may be connected to stimulation of antioxidant and lytic enzyme activities by short CAPP treatment. However, the prolonged treatment had a negative impact on the germination, growth, and production indexes. CAPP treatment caused the increased expression of genes for heat shock proteins HSP101 and HSP70 in the first two days after sowing. Using comet assay it was observed that shorter treatment times (30-120 s) did not cause DNA damage. Surface diagnostics of plasma-treated grains showed that plasma increases the hydrophilicity of the surface but does not damage the chemical bonds on the surface.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/metabolismo , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Gases em Plasma/farmacologia , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pressão Atmosférica
2.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 390, 2021 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34418975

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Panicle is a harvesting organ of rice, and its morphology and development are closely associated with grain yield. The current study was carried on a mutant screened through an EMS (ethyl-methane sulphonate) mutagenized population of a Japonica cultivar Kitaake (WT). RESULTS: A mutant, named as asp-lsl (aberrant spikelet-long sterile lemma), showed a significant decrease in plant height, number of tillers, thousand-grains weight, seed setting rate, spikelet length, kernel length and effective number of grains per panicle as compared to WT. Asp-lsl showed a pleiotropic phenotype coupled with the obvious presence of a long sterile lemma. Cross-sections of lemma showed an increase in the cell volume rather than the number of cells. Genetic segregation analysis revealed its phenotypic trait is controlled by a single recessive nuclear gene. Primary and fine mapping indicated that candidate gene controlling the phenotype of asp-lsl was located in an interval of 212 kb on the short arm of chromosome 8 between RM22445 and RM22453. Further sequencing and indels markers analysis revealed LOC_Os08g06480 harbors a single base substitution (G→A), resulting in a change of 521st amino acid(Gly→Glu. The homology comparison and phylogenetic tree analysis revealed mutation was occurred in a highly conserved domain and had a high degree of similarity in Arabidopsis, corn, and sorghum. The CRISPR/Cas9 mutant line of ASP-LSL produced a similar phenotype as that of asp-lsl. Subcellular localization of ASP-LSL revealed that its protein is localized in the nucleus. Relative expression analysis revealed ASP-LSL was preferentially expressed in panicle, stem, and leaves. The endogenous contents of GA, CTK, and IAA were found significantly decreased in asp-lsl as compared to WT. CONCLUSIONS: Current study presents the novel phenotype of asp-lsl and also validate the previously reported function of OsREL2 (ROMOSA ENHANCER LOCI2), / ASP1(ABERRANT SPIKELET AND PANICLE 1).


Assuntos
Flores/anatomia & histologia , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/anatomia & histologia , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/genética , Caules de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Caules de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , China , Grão Comestível/anatomia & histologia , Grão Comestível/genética , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Mutação , Fenótipo
3.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2288: 3-23, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34270002

RESUMO

High frequency of albino plant formation in isolated microspore or anther cultures is a great problem limiting the possibility of their exploitation on a wider scale. It is highly inconvenient as androgenesis-based doubled haploid (DH) technology provides the simplest and shortest way to total homozygosity, highly valued by plant geneticists, biotechnologists and especially, plant breeders, and this phenomenon constitutes a serious limitation of these otherwise powerful tools. The genotype-dependent tendency toward albino plant formation is typical for many monocotyledonous plants, including cereals like wheat, barley, rice, triticale, oat and rye - the most important from the economical point of view. Despite many efforts, the precise mechanism underlying chlorophyll deficiency has not yet been elucidated. In this chapter, we review the data concerning molecular and physiological control over proper/disturbed chloroplast biogenesis, old hypotheses explaining the mechanism of chlorophyll deficiency, and recent studies which shed new light on this phenomenon.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Grão Comestível/fisiologia , Pigmentação , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Clorofila/deficiência , Clorofila/genética , Diploide , Grão Comestível/genética , Haploidia , Homozigoto , Modelos Biológicos , Biologia Molecular/métodos , Pigmentação/genética , Pigmentos Biológicos/deficiência , Pigmentos Biológicos/genética , Pólen/genética , Pólen/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pólen/fisiologia , Regeneração/genética , Regeneração/fisiologia
4.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(5)2021 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068886

RESUMO

Millets are important cereal crops cultivated in arid and semiarid regions of the world, particularly Africa and southeast Asia. Climate change has triggered multiple abiotic stresses in plants that are the main causes of crop loss worldwide, reducing average yield for most crops by more than 50%. Although millets are tolerant to most abiotic stresses including drought and high temperatures, further improvement is needed to make them more resilient to unprecedented effects of climate change and associated environmental stresses. Incorporation of stress tolerance traits in millets will improve their productivity in marginal environments and will help in overcoming future food shortage due to climate change. Recently, approaches such as application of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs) have been used to improve growth and development, as well as stress tolerance of crops. Moreover, with the advance of next-generation sequencing technology, genome editing, using the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR/Cas9) system are increasingly used to develop stress tolerant varieties in different crops. In this paper, the innate ability of millets to tolerate abiotic stresses and alternative approaches to boost stress resistance were thoroughly reviewed. Moreover, several stress-resistant genes were identified in related monocots such as rice (Oryza sativa), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and maize (Zea mays), and other related species for which orthologs in millets could be manipulated by CRISPR/Cas9 and related genome-editing techniques to improve stress resilience and productivity. These cutting-edge alternative strategies are expected to bring this group of orphan crops at the forefront of scientific research for their potential contribution to global food security.


Assuntos
Milhetes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Milhetes/genética , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Grão Comestível/genética , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Edição de Genes/métodos , Genoma de Planta/genética , Oryza/genética , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/genética , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento
5.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 263, 2021 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098898

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent temperature increases due to rapid climate change have negatively affected rice yield and grain quality. Particularly, high temperatures during right after the flowering stage reduce spikelet fertility, while interfering with sugar energy transport, and cause severe damage to grain quality by forming chalkiness grains. The effect of high-temperature on spikelet fertility and grain quality during grain filling stage was evaluated using a double haploid line derived from another culture of F1 by crossing Cheongcheong and Nagdong cultivars. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping identifies candidate genes significantly associated with spikelet fertility and grain quality at high temperatures. RESULTS: Our analysis screened OsSFq3 that contributes to spikelet fertility and grain quality at high-temperature. OsSFq3 was fine-mapped in the region RM15749-RM15689 on chromosome 3, wherein four candidate genes related to the synthesis and decomposition of amylose, a starch component, were predicted. Four major candidate genes, including OsSFq3, and 10 different genes involved in the synthesis and decomposition of amylose and amylopectin, which are starch constituents, together with relative expression levels were analyzed. OsSFq3 was highly expressed during the initial stage of high-temperature treatment. It exhibited high homology with FLOURY ENDOSPERM 6 in Gramineae plants and is therefore expected to function similarly. CONCLUSION: The QTL, major candidate genes, and OsSFq3 identified herein could be effectively used in breeding rice varieties to improve grain quality, while tolerating high temperatures, to cope with climate changes. Furthermore, linked markers can aid in marker-assisted selection of high-quality and -yield rice varieties tolerant to high temperatures.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Cromossômico , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Genes de Plantas , Temperatura Alta , Oryza/fisiologia , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Amilose/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/genética , Endosperma/metabolismo , Fertilidade , Oryza/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063651

RESUMO

Salt stress is the second most important abiotic stress factor in the world, which seriously affects crop growth, development and grain production. In this study, we performed the first integrated physiological and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) proteome analysis of wheat seedling leaves under salt stress using a label-free-based quantitative proteomic approach. Salt stress caused significant decrease in seedling height, root length, relative water content and chlorophyll content of wheat seedling leaves, indicating that wheat seedling growth was significantly inhibited under salt stress. The ER proteome analysis identified 233 ER-localized differentially accumulated proteins (DAPs) in response to salt stress, including 202 upregulated and 31 downregulated proteins. The upregulated proteins were mainly involved in the oxidation-reduction process, transmembrane transport, the carboxylic acid metabolic process, stress response, the arbohydrate metabolic process and proteolysis, while the downregulated proteins mainly participated in the metabolic process, biological regulation and the cellular process. In particular, salt stress induced significant upregulation of protein disulfide isomerase-like proteins and heat shock proteins and significant downregulation of ribosomal protein abundance. Further transcript expression analysis revealed that half of the detected DAP genes showed a consistent pattern with their protein levels under salt stress. A putative metabolic pathway of ER subproteome of wheat seedling leaves in response to salt stress was proposed, which reveals the potential roles of wheat ER proteome in salt stress response and defense.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteoma/genética , Estresse Salino/genética , Triticum/genética , Mecanismos de Defesa , Grão Comestível/genética , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Retículo Endoplasmático/genética , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063649

RESUMO

The waxy (Wx) gene, encoding the granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS), is responsible for amylose biosynthesis and plays a crucial role in defining eating and cooking quality. The waxy locus controls both the non-waxy and waxy rice phenotypes. Rice starch can be altered into various forms by either reducing or increasing the amylose content, depending on consumer preference and region. Low-amylose rice is preferred by consumers because of its softness and sticky appearance. A better way of improving crops other than downregulation and overexpression of a gene or genes may be achieved through the posttranslational modification of sites or regulatory enzymes that regulate them because of their significance. The impact of posttranslational GBSSI modifications on extra-long unit chains (ELCs) remains largely unknown. Numerous studies have been reported on different crops, such as wheat, maize, and barley, but the rice starch granule proteome remains largely unknown. There is a need to improve the yield of low-amylose rice by employing posttranslational modification of Wx, since the market demand is increasing every day in order to meet the market demand for low-amylose rice in the regional area that prefers low-amylose rice, particularly in China. In this review, we have conducted an in-depth review of waxy rice, starch properties, starch biosynthesis, and posttranslational modification of waxy protein to genetically improve starch quality in rice grains.


Assuntos
Amilose/genética , Oryza/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Sintase do Amido/genética , Grão Comestível/genética , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional/genética , Amido/genética
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068350

RESUMO

Artificial domestication and improvement of the majority of crops began approximately 10,000 years ago, in different parts of the world, to achieve high productivity, good quality, and widespread adaptability. It was initiated from a phenotype-based selection by local farmers and developed to current biotechnology-based breeding to feed over 7 billion people. For most cereal crops, yield relates to grain production, which could be enhanced by increasing grain number and weight. Grain number is typically determined during inflorescence development. Many mutants and genes for inflorescence development have already been characterized in cereal crops. Therefore, optimization of such genes could fine-tune yield-related traits, such as grain number. With the rapidly advancing genome-editing technologies and understanding of yield-related traits, knowledge-driven breeding by design is becoming a reality. This review introduces knowledge about inflorescence yield-related traits in cereal crops, focusing on rice, maize, and wheat. Next, emerging genome-editing technologies and recent studies that apply this technology to engineer crop yield improvement by targeting inflorescence development are reviewed. These approaches promise to usher in a new era of breeding practice.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Edição de Genes , Genoma de Planta , Inflorescência/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Melhoramento Vegetal , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Grão Comestível/genética , Inflorescência/genética
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34064912

RESUMO

Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a class of RNA molecules with gene regulatory functions in plant development and the stress response. Although the number of lncRNAs identified in plants is rapidly increasing, very little is known about their role in barley development. In this study, we performed global identification of barley lncRNAs based on 53 RNAseq libraries derived from nine different barley tissues and organs. In total, 17,250 lncRNAs derived from 10,883 loci were identified, including 8954 novel lncRNAs. Differential expression of lncRNAs was observed in the developing shoot apices and grains, the two organs that have a direct influence on the final yield. The regulatory interaction of differentially expressed lncRNAs with the potential target genes was evaluated. We identified 176 cis-acting lncRNAs in shoot apices and 424 in grains, while the number of trans-acting lncRNAs in these organs was 1736 and 540, respectively. The potential target protein-coding genes were identified, and their biological function was annotated using MapMan ontology. This is the first insight into the roles of lncRNAs in barley development on the genome-wide scale, and our results provide a solid background for future functional studies.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Genoma de Planta , Hordeum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , RNA de Plantas/genética , Grão Comestível/genética , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Hordeum/genética , Hordeum/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/genética , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo
10.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(4)2021 03 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806192

RESUMO

Cereal productivity is reduced by environmental stresses such as drought, heat, elevated CO2, salinity, metal toxicity and cold. Sometimes, plants are exposed to multiple stresses simultaneously. Plants must be able to make a rapid and adequate response to these environmental stimuli in order to restore their growing ability. The latest research has shown that aquaporins are important players in maintaining cell homeostasis under abiotic stress. Aquaporins are membrane intrinsic proteins (MIP) that form pores in the cellular membranes, which facilitate the movement of water and many other molecules such as ammonia, urea, CO2, micronutrients (silicon and boron), glycerol and reactive oxygen species (hydrogen peroxide) across the cell and intercellular compartments. The present review primarily focuses on the diversity of aquaporins in cereal species, their cellular and subcellular localisation, their expression and their functioning under abiotic stresses. Lastly, this review discusses the potential use of mutants and plants that overexpress the aquaporin-encoding genes to improve their tolerance to abiotic stress.


Assuntos
Aquaporinas/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Homeostase , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Aquaporinas/genética , Grão Comestível/genética , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
11.
Toxins (Basel) ; 13(4)2021 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33921529

RESUMO

Our climate is projected to change gradually over time. Mycotoxin occurrence in cereal grains is both directly and indirectly related to local weather and to climate changes. Direct routes are via the effects of precipitation, relative humidity, and temperatures on both fungal infection of the grain and mycotoxin formation. Indirect routes are via the effects of the wind dispersal of spores, insect attacks, and shifts in cereal grain phenology. This review aimed to investigate available modeling studies for climate change impacts on mycotoxins in cereal grains, and to identify how they can be used to safeguard food safety with future climate change. Using a systematic review approach, in total, 53 relevant papers from the period of 2005-2020 were retrieved. Only six of them focused on quantitative modeling of climate change impacts on mycotoxins, all in pre-harvest cereal grains. Although regional differences exist, the model results generally show an increase in mycotoxins in a changing climate. The models do not give an indication on how to adapt to climate change impacts. If available models were linked with land use and crop models, scenario analyses could be used for analyzing adaptation strategies to avoid high mycotoxin presence in cereal grains and to safeguard the safety of our feed and food.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/microbiologia , Mudança Climática , Grão Comestível/microbiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Modelos Teóricos , Micotoxinas/análise , Animais , Ecossistema , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cadeia Alimentar , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Tempo (Meteorologia)
12.
Toxins (Basel) ; 13(3)2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804426

RESUMO

Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a major disease in wheat causing severe economic losses globally by reducing yield and contaminating grain with mycotoxins. In Canada, Fusarium graminearum is the principal etiological agent of FHB in wheat, producing mainly the trichothecene mycotoxin, deoxynivalenol (DON) and its acetyl derivatives (15-acetyl deoxynivalenol (15ADON) and 3-acetyl deoxynivalenol (3ADON)). Understanding the population biology of F. graminearum such as the genetic variability, as well as mycotoxin chemotype diversity among isolates is important in developing sustainable disease management tools. In this study, 570 F. graminearum isolates collected from commercial wheat crops in five geographic regions in three provinces in Canada in 2018 and 2019 were analyzed for population diversity and structure using 10 variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) markers. A subset of isolates collected from the north-eastern United States was also included for comparative analysis. About 75% of the isolates collected in the Canadian provinces of Saskatchewan and Manitoba were 3ADON indicating a 6-fold increase in Saskatchewan and a 2.5-fold increase in Manitoba within the past 15 years. All isolates from Ontario and those collected from the United States were 15ADON and isolates had a similar population structure. There was high gene diversity (H = 0.803-0.893) in the F. graminearum populations in all regions. Gene flow was high between Saskatchewan and Manitoba (Nm = 4.971-21.750), indicating no genetic differentiation between these regions. In contrast, less gene flow was observed among the western provinces and Ontario (Nm = 3.829-9.756) and USA isolates ((Nm = 2.803-6.150). However, Bayesian clustering model analyses of trichothecene chemotype subpopulations divided the populations into two clusters, which was correlated with trichothecene types. Additionally, population cluster analysis revealed there was more admixture of isolates among isolates of the 3ADON chemotypes than among the 15ADON chemotype, an observation that could play a role in the increased virulence of F. graminearum. Understanding the population genetic structure and mycotoxin chemotype variations of the pathogen will assist in developing FHB resistant wheat cultivars and in mycotoxin risk assessment in Canada.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível/microbiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Fusarium/genética , Fusarium/metabolismo , Variação Genética , Tricotecenos/metabolismo , Triticum/microbiologia , Canadá , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fusarium/patogenicidade , Genótipo , Repetições Minissatélites , Fenótipo , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estados Unidos
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(8)2021 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33923687

RESUMO

TaCKX gene family members (GFMs) play essential roles in the regulation of cytokinin during wheat development and significantly influence yield-related traits. However, detailed function of most of them is not known. To characterize the role of TaCKX2.2 genes we silenced all homoeologous copies of both TaCKX2.2.1 and TaCKX2.2.2 by RNAi technology and observed the effect of silencing in 7 DAP spikes of T1 and T2 generations. The levels of gene silencing of these developmentally regulated genes were different in both generations, which variously determined particular phenotypes. High silencing of TaCKX2.2.2 in T2 was accompanied by slight down-regulation of TaCKX2.2.1 and strong up-regulation of TaCKX5 and TaCKX11, and expression of TaCKX1, TaCKX2.1, and TaCKX9 was comparable to the non-silenced control. Co-ordinated expression of TaCKX2.2.2 with other TaCKX GFMs influenced phytohormonal homeostasis. Contents of isoprenoid, active cytokinins, their conjugates, and auxin in seven DAP spikes of silenced T2 plants increased from 1.27 to 2.51 times. However, benzyladenine (BA) and abscisic acid (ABA) contents were significantly reduced and GA3 was not detected. We documented a significant role of TaCKX2.2.2 in the regulation of thousand grain weight (TGW), grain number, and chlorophyll content, and demonstrated the formation of a homeostatic feedback loop between the transcription of tested genes and phytohormones. We also discuss the mechanism of regulation of yield-related traits.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível/genética , Genes de Plantas , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Triticum/genética , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Citocininas/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Homeostase , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/metabolismo
14.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247610, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33720939

RESUMO

Grain production is vital to the national economy and people's livelihood, and improving grain production efficiency is of great significance to the sustainable development of China's economy and society. From the perspective of financial support, using the DEA global Malmquist productivity index model and based on the data of 13 main grain producing areas in China from 2001 to 2017, this paper discusses the evolution characteristics and regional distribution differences of the total factor productivity index of grain production in China's main grain producing areas. The results show that from 2001 to 2017, the total factor productivity index of grain production in China's main grain producing areas showed an overall fluctuation trend of gradual decline, with an average annual decline of 7.3%. From the perspective of spatial analysis, the grain production efficiency in China's main grain producing areas is characterized by uneven spatial development, which is generally manifested as the decreasing trend from the central region to the eastern and western regions. Meanwhile, it can be seen from the decomposition index that the change of total factor productivity of grain production in China's main grain producing areas mainly depends on the change of technical efficiency.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Apoio Financeiro , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/economia , Agricultura/economia , China , Eficiência , Segurança Alimentar , Humanos , Análise Espacial
15.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 179: 542-549, 2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33716128

RESUMO

At present, the yield of common buckwheat, which is mainly grown in northern Shaanxi of China, is low and the grain quality is poor. Nitrogen is an important nutrient for the growth of common buckwheat, and appropriate nitrogen application can improve the grain quality. Nitrogen fertilizer could alter the starch granule morphology shapes and the granule size distribution. With increasing nitrogen levels, branch number, flower clusters number, grain number per plant, contents of protein and fat, size distribution of "C" granules, and percentages of light transmittance significantly increased, whereas amylose content and retrogradation decreased. All the samples displayed typical A-type X-ray diffraction patterns. Starch showed higher pasting temperature and gelatinization enthalpy but lower trough and final viscosities under high nitrogen levels. These results suggested N2 treatment was more suitable for common buckwheat growth, principal components and correlation analysis revealed that nitrogen fertilizer significantly affected the physicochemical properties of common buckwheat starches.


Assuntos
Fagopyrum , Fertilizantes/análise , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Amido/química , China , Grão Comestível/química , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fagopyrum/química , Fagopyrum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
16.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 428, 2021 03 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33785858

RESUMO

Cereal grains contribute substantially to the human diet. The maternal plant provides the carbohydrate and nitrogen sources deposited in the endosperm, but the basis for their spatial allocation during the grain filling process is obscure. Here, vacuolar processing enzymes have been shown to both mediate programmed cell death (PCD) in the maternal tissues of a barley grain and influence the delivery of assimilate to the endosperm. The proposed centrality of PCD has implications for cereal crop improvement.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Cisteína Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Endosperma/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Hordeum/fisiologia , Grão Comestível/enzimologia , Grão Comestível/fisiologia , Hordeum/enzimologia , Hordeum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
17.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 28(1): 44-48, 2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33775066

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin) and Zearalenone (ZEA) are mycotoxin contaminants of cereals and cereal products that pose a significant threat to food safety. The aim of the study was to investigate the occurrence of DON and ZEA in different organic and conventional unprocessed cereals and cereal products that are available on the Polish agricultural fields and market. A total of 78 unprocessed cereal and cereal product samples of organic and conventional production were sampled from agricultural fields situated in western Poland and from available on the Polish market packaged comercial products produced by different domestic manufacturers. All samples were analyzed for DON and ZEA by HPLC with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD). RESULTS: Results. Co-occurrence of DON was detected in cereals from the organic production system, the average content was 285.25 ± 134,04 µg kg -1 and from the conventional system - 373.71 ± 171,20 µg kg -1 , In flour from organic farming, the average DON content was 213.80 ± 151,28 µg kg -1, in conventional flour the average was 336.29 ± 188,90 µg kg -1. The range of DON concentrations in samples of cereal products from organic and conventional farms was detected in 26.3% and 31.6%, whereas the average concentrations of DON in cereal products was 199.60 ± 149.82 µg kg -1 and 387.67 ± 250.24 µg kg -1, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Mycotoxins contamination seen in organic cereals and cereal products does not statistical differ from that witnessed in their conventional counterparts.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Grão Comestível/química , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Alimentos Orgânicos/análise , Tricotecenos/análise , Zearalenona/análise , Farinha/análise , Agricultura Orgânica/métodos , Polônia , Triticum/química , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(5)2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669006

RESUMO

The world population is growing rapidly, and food shortage remains a critical issue. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping is a statistical analytical method that uses both phenotypic and genotypic data. The purpose of QTL mapping is to determine the exact gene location for various complex traits. Increasing grain weight is a way to increase yield in rice. Genes related to grain size were mapped using the Samgang/Nagdong double haploid (SNDH) populations. Grain sizes were diversely distributed in SNDH 113 populations, and OsBRKq1 was detected on chromosome 1 in an analysis of QTL mapping that used 1000 grain weight, grain length, and grain width. OsBRKq1 exhibited high sequence similarity with the brassinosteroid leucine-rich repeat-receptor kinases of Arabidopsis thaliana and Zea mays. It was also predicted to have a similar function because of its high homology. OsBRKq1 interacts with various grain-size control genes. Among the SNDH populations, the analysis of the relative expression level during the panicle formation stage of OsBRKq1 in panicles of SNDH117, which has the largest grain size, and SNDH6, which has the smallest grain size, the relative expression level was significantly increased in SNDH117 panicles. SNDH populations have been advancing generations for 10 years; various genetic traits have been fixed and are currently being used as bridging parents. Therefore, the stable expression level of OsBRKq1 was confirmed via QTL mapping. In the future, OsBRKq1 can be effectively used to increase the yield of rice and solve food problems by increasing the size of seeds.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Grão Comestível/genética , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Oryza/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Genótipo , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Zea mays/genética
19.
Planta ; 253(4): 82, 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33765199

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Plant traits of interest for sorghum breeders to develop dual-purpose varieties are stem diameter, flag leaf size, crop cycle, and number of grains per panicle. To develop dual-purpose varieties, breeders need to improve traits linked both to grain and biomass production. To identify these traits, we studied the phenotypic plasticity of eighteen traits and the performance of ten contrasting sorghum genotypes, used in West Africa. Trials were carried out in a randomized complete blocks design with four replicates from 2013 to 2016 in Bambey, Sinthiou Malem and Nioro du Rip in Senegal. The results revealed three plant types. The first type, "biomass production", contained genotypes IS15401 and SK5912, and was linked to cycle duration, leaf area, and plant height. The second type, "grain production", grouped the caudatum race sorghum 621B, F2-20 and Soumba, and was associated with the number of grains per panicle and the width of the flag leaf. The third group, "dual-purpose", corresponding to the genotypes Fadda, Nieleni and Pablo, combined some favourable traits for grain and biomass: stem diameter, internode length, number of green leaves and number of grains per panicle. The study showed that high and stable grain yields were associated with stability in flag leaf size, phenology and number of grains per panicle, and a high and stable biomass yield was associated with stability in stem diameter. Those stable plant traits might be of interest for sorghum breeders selecting to develop dual-purpose varieties.


Assuntos
Fenótipo , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sorghum , Adaptação Fisiológica , Biomassa , Grão Comestível/genética , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sorghum/genética , Sorghum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
20.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 214: 112119, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33714137

RESUMO

Rice cultivation under cadmium (Cd) contaminated soil often results in reduced growth with excess grain Cd concentrations. A pot experiment was conducted to assess the potential of ultrasonic seed treatment to alleviate Cd stress in rice. Seeds of two aromatic rice cultivars i.e., Xiangyaxiangzhan and Meixiangzhan 2 and two non-aromatic rice cultivars i.e., Huahang 31 and Guangyan 1 were exposed to ultrasonic waves for 1.5 min in 20-40 KHz mixing frequency. The experimental treatments were comprised of untreated seeds (U0) and ultrasonic treated seeds (U1) transplanted in un-contaminated soil (H0) and Cd-contaminated soil (H1). Results revealed that Cd contents and Cd accumulation in grain in U1 were 33.33-42.31% and 12.86-57.58% lower than U0 for fragrant rice cultivars under H1. Meanwhile, biomass production was higher in U1 than U0 under H0 and better yield was assessed in U1 for all cultivars under H1. The activity of peroxidase (POD) in flag leaves was increased by 8.28-115.65% for all cultivars while malondialdehyde (MDA) contents were significantly decreased in U1 compared with U0 under H0. Conclusively, ultrasonic treatment modulated Cd distribution and accumulation in different parts while improved physiological performance as well as yield and grain quality of rice under Cd contaminated conditions.


Assuntos
Cádmio/metabolismo , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Ondas Ultrassônicas , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Peroxidases/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento
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