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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(6)2021 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33810044

RESUMO

Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein (Cas9)-mediated genome editing has become an important way for molecular breeding in crop plants. To promote rice breeding, we edited the Grain Size 3 (GS3) gene for obtaining valuable and stable long-grain rice mutants. Furthermore, isobaric tags for the relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based proteomic method were applied to determine the proteome-wide changes in the GS3 mutants compared with wild type (WT). Two target sites were designed to construct the vector, and the Agrobacterium-mediated method was used for rice transformation. Specific mutations were successfully introduced, and the grain length (GL) and 1000-grain weight (GWT) of the mutants were increased by 31.39% and 27.15%, respectively, compared with WT. The iTRAQ-based proteomic analysis revealed that a total of 31 proteins were differentially expressed in the GS3 mutants, including 20 up-regulated and 11 down-regulated proteins. Results showed that differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were mainly related to cysteine synthase, cysteine proteinase inhibitor, vacuolar protein sorting-associated, ubiquitin, and DNA ligase. Furthermore, functional analysis revealed that DEPs were mostly enriched in cellular process, metabolic process, binding, transmembrane, structural, and catalytic activities. Pathway enrichment analysis revealed that DEPs were mainly involved in lipid metabolism and oxylipin biosynthesis. The protein-to-protein interaction (PPI) network found that proteins related to DNA damage-binding, ubiquitin-40S ribosomal, and cysteine proteinase inhibitor showed a higher degree of interaction. The homozygous mutant lines featured by stable inheritance and long-grain phenotype were obtained using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. This study provides a convenient and effective way of improving grain yield, which could significantly accelerate the breeding process of long-grain japonica parents and promote the development of high-yielding rice.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Edição de Genes , Genes de Plantas , Mutagênese , Oryza/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Sequência de Bases , Inibidores de Cisteína Proteinase , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Grão Comestível/genética , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Ordem dos Genes , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Estudos de Associação Genética , Vetores Genéticos/genética , Genoma de Planta , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Mutação , Oryza/classificação , Oryza/metabolismo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteômica , Transdução de Sinais
2.
Plant Sci ; 306: 110851, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33775358

RESUMO

The grain-filling process is crucial for cereal crop yields, but how the caryopsis of such plants is supplied with sugars, which are produced by photosynthesis in leaves and then transported long distance, is largely unknown. In rice (Oryza sativa), various SWEET family sucrose transporters are thought to have important roles in grain filling. Here, we report that OsSWEET14 plays a crucial part in this process in rice. ossweet14 knockout mutants did not show any detectable phenotypic differences from the wild type, whereas ossweet14;ossweet11 double-knockout mutants had much more severe phenotypes than ossweet11 single-knockout mutants, including strongly reduced grain weight and yield, reduced grain-filling rate, and increased starch accumulation in the pericarp. Both OsSWEET14 and OsSWEET11 exhibited distinct spatiotemporal expression patterns between the early stage of caryopsis development and the rapid grain-filling stage. During the rapid grain-filling stage, OsSWEET14 and OsSWEET11 localized to four key sites: vascular parenchyma cells, the nucellar projection, the nucellar epidermis, and cross cells. These results demonstrate that OsSWEET14 plays an important role in grain filling, and they suggest that four major apoplasmic pathways supply sucrose to the endosperm during the rapid grain-filling stage via the sucrose effluxers SWEET14 and SWEET11.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível/genética , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Endosperma/genética , Endosperma/metabolismo , Oryza/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , China , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Variação Genética , Mutação , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
3.
Planta ; 253(4): 82, 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33765199

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Plant traits of interest for sorghum breeders to develop dual-purpose varieties are stem diameter, flag leaf size, crop cycle, and number of grains per panicle. To develop dual-purpose varieties, breeders need to improve traits linked both to grain and biomass production. To identify these traits, we studied the phenotypic plasticity of eighteen traits and the performance of ten contrasting sorghum genotypes, used in West Africa. Trials were carried out in a randomized complete blocks design with four replicates from 2013 to 2016 in Bambey, Sinthiou Malem and Nioro du Rip in Senegal. The results revealed three plant types. The first type, "biomass production", contained genotypes IS15401 and SK5912, and was linked to cycle duration, leaf area, and plant height. The second type, "grain production", grouped the caudatum race sorghum 621B, F2-20 and Soumba, and was associated with the number of grains per panicle and the width of the flag leaf. The third group, "dual-purpose", corresponding to the genotypes Fadda, Nieleni and Pablo, combined some favourable traits for grain and biomass: stem diameter, internode length, number of green leaves and number of grains per panicle. The study showed that high and stable grain yields were associated with stability in flag leaf size, phenology and number of grains per panicle, and a high and stable biomass yield was associated with stability in stem diameter. Those stable plant traits might be of interest for sorghum breeders selecting to develop dual-purpose varieties.


Assuntos
Fenótipo , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sorghum , Adaptação Fisiológica , Biomassa , Grão Comestível/genética , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sorghum/genética , Sorghum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(5)2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669006

RESUMO

The world population is growing rapidly, and food shortage remains a critical issue. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping is a statistical analytical method that uses both phenotypic and genotypic data. The purpose of QTL mapping is to determine the exact gene location for various complex traits. Increasing grain weight is a way to increase yield in rice. Genes related to grain size were mapped using the Samgang/Nagdong double haploid (SNDH) populations. Grain sizes were diversely distributed in SNDH 113 populations, and OsBRKq1 was detected on chromosome 1 in an analysis of QTL mapping that used 1000 grain weight, grain length, and grain width. OsBRKq1 exhibited high sequence similarity with the brassinosteroid leucine-rich repeat-receptor kinases of Arabidopsis thaliana and Zea mays. It was also predicted to have a similar function because of its high homology. OsBRKq1 interacts with various grain-size control genes. Among the SNDH populations, the analysis of the relative expression level during the panicle formation stage of OsBRKq1 in panicles of SNDH117, which has the largest grain size, and SNDH6, which has the smallest grain size, the relative expression level was significantly increased in SNDH117 panicles. SNDH populations have been advancing generations for 10 years; various genetic traits have been fixed and are currently being used as bridging parents. Therefore, the stable expression level of OsBRKq1 was confirmed via QTL mapping. In the future, OsBRKq1 can be effectively used to increase the yield of rice and solve food problems by increasing the size of seeds.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Grão Comestível/genética , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Oryza/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Genótipo , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Zea mays/genética
5.
Nat Plants ; 7(3): 287-294, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33619356

RESUMO

Several yield-related traits selected during crop domestication and improvement1,2 are associated with increases in meristem size3, which is controlled by CLE peptide signals in the CLAVATA-WUSCHEL pathway4-13. Here, we engineered quantitative variation for yield-related traits in maize by making weak promoter alleles of CLE genes, and a null allele of a newly identified partially redundant compensating CLE gene, using CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing. These strategies increased multiple maize grain-yield-related traits, supporting the enormous potential for genomic editing in crop enhancement.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível/genética , Genes de Plantas , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Zea mays/genética , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Edição de Genes , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento
6.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 82, 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33557748

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fusarium crown rot is major disease in wheat. However, the wheat defense mechanisms against this disease remain poorly understood. RESULTS: Using tandem mass tag (TMT) quantitative proteomics, we evaluated a disease-susceptible (UC1110) and a disease-tolerant (PI610750) wheat cultivar inoculated with Fusarium pseudograminearum WZ-8A. The morphological and physiological results showed that the average root diameter and malondialdehyde content in the roots of PI610750 decreased 3 days post-inoculation (dpi), while the average number of root tips increased. Root vigor was significantly increased in both cultivars, indicating that the morphological, physiological, and biochemical responses of the roots to disease differed between the two cultivars. TMT analysis showed that 366 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were identified by Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes enrichment in the two comparison groups, UC1110_3dpi/UC1110_0dpi (163) and PI610750_3dpi/PI610750_0dpi (203). It may be concluded that phenylpropanoid biosynthesis (8), secondary metabolite biosynthesis (12), linolenic acid metabolites (5), glutathione metabolism (8), plant hormone signal transduction (3), MAPK signaling pathway-plant (4), and photosynthesis (12) contributed to the defense mechanisms in wheat. Protein-protein interaction network analysis showed that the DEPs interacted in both sugar metabolism and photosynthesis pathways. Sixteen genes were validated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and were found to be consistent with the proteomics data. CONCLUSION: The results provided insight into the molecular mechanisms of the interaction between wheat and F. pseudograminearum.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença/genética , Fusarium/patogenicidade , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/genética , Grão Comestível/genética , Grão Comestível/microbiologia , Proteômica , Triticum/microbiologia
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(2)2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33450933

RESUMO

Rice grain yield is a complex trait determined by three components: panicle number, grain number per panicle (GNPP) and grain weight. GNPP is the major contributor to grain yield and is crucial for its improvement. GNPP is determined by a series of physiological and biochemical steps, including inflorescence development, formation of rachis branches such as primary rachis branches and secondary rachis branches, and spikelet specialisation (lateral and terminal spikelets). The molecular genetic basis of GNPP determination is complex, and it is regulated by numerous interlinked genes. In this review, panicle development and the determination of GNPP is described briefly, and GNPP-related genes that influence its determination are categorised according to their regulatory mechanisms. We introduce genes related to rachis branch development and their regulation of GNPP, genes related to phase transition (from rachis branch meristem to spikelet meristem) and their regulation of GNPP, and genes related to spikelet specialisation and their regulation of GNPP. In addition, we describe other GNPP-related genes and their regulation of GNPP. Research on GNPP determination suggests that it is possible to cultivate rice varieties with higher grain yield by modifying GNPP-related genes.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Oryza/genética , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Desenvolvimento Vegetal
8.
Plant Mol Biol ; 105(4-5): 405-417, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33387175

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: We reported that DGS1 plays a positive role in regulating grain size in rice and was regulated by OsBZR1. Grain size is an important agronomic trait that contributes to grain yield. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms that determine final grain size are still largely unknown. We isolated a rice mutant showing reduced grain size in a 60Co-irradiated variety Nanjing 35 population. We named the mutant decreased grain size1 (dgs1). Map-based cloning and subsequent transgenic CRISPR and complementation assays indicated that a mutation had occurred in LOC_Os03g49900 and that the DGS1 allele regulated grain size. DGS1 encodes a protein with a 7-transmembrane domain and C3HC4 type RING domain. It was widely expressed, especially in young tissues. DGS1 is a membrane-located protein. OsBZR1 (BRASSINAZOLE-RESISTANT1), a core transcription activator of BR signaling, also plays a positive role in grain size. We provided preliminary evidence that OsBZR1 can bind to the DGS1 promoter to activate expression of DGS1.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Oryza/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sequência de Bases , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/ultraestrutura , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Mutação , Oryza/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Interferência de RNA , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Homologia de Sequência do Ácido Nucleico , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
9.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 159: 244-256, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33388659

RESUMO

Development of rice cultivars bearing numerous spikelets by breeding approach to increase the yearly production of rice to approximately 800 million metric tons to feed the ever increasing population of the world accompanies poor grain filling in the inferior spikelets preventing achievement of the yield potential. As the initial stages of caryopses development are of much importance for grain filling, spatio-temporal expressions of the miRNAs were studied during these periods in the spikelets of a compact-panicle rice cultivar, Oryza sativa cv. Mahalaxmi, bearing numerous spikelets per panicle to understand the reason of poor grain filling at the level of the initial biochemical events. Differential expression of several known miRNAs between the superior and inferior spikelets suggested great difference in metabolism related to grain filling in the spikelets based on their spatial location on compact panicle. Expressions of five known and four novel miRNAs were validated by Northern. Their targets included the enzymes directly involved in starch biosynthesis like sucrose synthase, starch synthase and pullulanase, besides others. Spatio-temporal expression studies of these miRNAs in the spikelets of Mahalaxmi revealed a pattern of mostly a greater expression in the inferior spikelets compared with the superior ones concomitant with an inverse expression of the target genes, which was not observed in the lax-panicle cultivar Upahar. The study thus revealed that the grain filling in rice is greatly regulated by miRNAs, and these miRNAs or their target genes could be considered for biotechnological interventions for improving grain filling in the rice cultivars of interest.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , MicroRNAs , Oryza , Proteínas de Plantas , Grão Comestível/genética , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , MicroRNAs/genética , Oryza/genética , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Melhoramento Vegetal , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(2)2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33430526

RESUMO

The content and composition of starch in cereal grains are closely related to yield. Few studies have been done on the identification of the genes or loci associated with these traits in barley. This study was conducted to identify the genes or loci controlling starch traits in barley grains, including total starch (TS), amylose (AC) and amylopectin (AP) contents. A large genotypic variation was found in all examined starch traits. GWAS analysis detected 13, 2, 10 QTLs for TS, AC and AP, respectively, and 5 of them were commonly shared by AP and TS content. qTS-3.1, qAC-6.2 and qAP-5.1 may explain the largest variation of TS, AC and AP, respectively. Four putative candidate genes, i.e., HORVU6Hr1G087920, HORVU5Hr1G011230, HORVU5Hr1G011270 and HORVU5Hr1G011280, showed the high expression in the developing barley grains when starch accumulates rapidly. The examined 100 barley accessions could be divided into two groups based on the polymorphism of the marker S5H_29297679, with 93 accessions having allele GG and seven accessions having AA. Moreover, significantly positive correlation was found between the number of favorable alleles of the identified QTLs and TS, AC, AP content. In conclusion, the identified loci or genes in this study could be useful for genetic improvement of grains starch in barley.


Assuntos
Amilopectina/genética , Amilose/genética , Hordeum/genética , Amido/genética , Alelos , Grão Comestível/genética , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Hordeum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética
11.
Plant Sci ; 302: 110728, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33288029

RESUMO

Rice is one of the most important food crops in the world. Breeding high-yield, multi-resistant and high-quality varieties has always been the goal of rice breeding. Rice tiller, panicle architecture and grain size are the constituent factors of yield, which are regulated by both genetic and environmental factors, including miRNAs, transcription factors, and downstream target genes. Previous studies have shown that SPL (SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING-LIKE) transcription factors can control rice tiller, panicle architecture and grain size, which were regulated by miR156, miR529 and miR535. In this study, we obtained miR529a target mimicry (miR529a-MIMIC) transgenic plants to investigate plant phenotypes, physiological and molecular characteristics together with miR529a overexpression (miR529a-OE) and wild type (WT) to explore the function of miR529a and its SPL target genes in rice. We found that OsSPL2, OsSPL17 and OsSPL18 at seedling stage were regulated by miR529a, but there had complicated mechanism to control plant height. OsSPL2, OsSPL16, OsSPL17 and SPL18 at tillering stage were regulated by miR529a to control plant height and tiller number. And panicle architecture and grain size were controlled by miR529a through altering the expression of all five target genes OsSPL2, OsSPL7, OsSPL14, OsSPL16, OsSPL17 and OsSPL18. Our study suggested that miR529a might control rice growth and development by regulating different SPL target genes at different stages, which could provide a new method to improve rice yield by regulating miR529a and its SPL target genes.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Genes de Plantas/fisiologia , MicroRNAs/fisiologia , Oryza/genética , RNA de Plantas/fisiologia , Grão Comestível/genética , Genes de Plantas/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , RNA de Plantas/genética , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento
12.
Food Chem ; 338: 127812, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32861133

RESUMO

Here, we describe DNA enrichment of the zein gene from maize using pyrrolidinyl peptide nucleic acid (PNA) immobilized on a magnetic solid support as a capture element. Magnetite nanoparticles (MNP) with a capacity of 373 pmolPNA/mg and coated with poly(N-acryloylglycine) (PNAG) showed a good response to magnetic field. The PNA probe immobilized on the MNP discriminated between non-complementary and complementary DNA using fluorophore-tagged DNA as a model. We applied this system for the enrichment of the zein gene from maize in eight cereal product samples. After DNA desorption from the MNP, and its amplification via polymerase chain reaction (PCR), gel electrophoresis indicated that only cereal samples containing the zein gene from maize yielded positive results, indicating a high binding specificity between the PNA used and the complementary DNA. This PNA-functionalized MNP is potentially useful as an effective nano-solid support for DNA enrichment from other samples.


Assuntos
DNA de Plantas/análise , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/química , Ácidos Nucleicos Peptídicos/química , Zea mays/genética , Zeína/genética , DNA Complementar/análise , Grão Comestível/genética , Eletroforese , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Fenômenos Magnéticos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Espectrometria de Fluorescência
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(24)2020 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33352763

RESUMO

Generating genomics-driven knowledge opens a way to accelerate the resistance breeding process by family or population mapping and genomic selection. Important prerequisites are large populations that are genomically analyzed by medium- to high-density marker arrays and extensive phenotyping across locations and years of the same populations. The latter is important to train a genomic model that is used to predict genomic estimated breeding values of phenotypically untested genotypes. After reviewing the specific features of quantitative resistances and the basic genomic techniques, the possibilities for genomics-assisted breeding are evaluated for six pathosystems with hemi-biotrophic fungi: Small-grain cereals/Fusarium head blight (FHB), wheat/Septoria tritici blotch (STB) and Septoria nodorum blotch (SNB), maize/Gibberella ear rot (GER) and Fusarium ear rot (FER), maize/Northern corn leaf blight (NCLB). Typically, all quantitative disease resistances are caused by hundreds of QTL scattered across the whole genome, but often available in hotspots as exemplified for NCLB resistance in maize. Because all crops are suffering from many diseases, multi-disease resistance (MDR) is an attractive aim that can be selected by specific MDR QTL. Finally, the integration of genomic data in the breeding process for introgression of genetic resources and for the improvement within elite materials is discussed.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença/genética , Grão Comestível/genética , Genômica/métodos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Zea mays/genética , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Grão Comestível/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zea mays/microbiologia
14.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 22103, 2020 12 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33328509

RESUMO

To improve grain yield under direct seeded and aerobic conditions, weed competitive ability of a rice genotype is a key desirable trait. Hence, understanding and dissecting weed competitive associated traits at both morphological and molecular level is important in developing weed competitive varieties. In the present investigation, the QTLs associated with weed competitive traits were identified in BC1F2:3 population derived from weed competitive accession of O. glaberrima (IRGC105187) and O. sativa cultivar IR64. The mapping population consisting of 144 segregating lines were phenotyped for 33 weed competitive associated traits under direct seeded condition. Genetic analysis of weed competitive traits carried out in BC1F2:3 population showed significant variation for the weed competitive traits and predominance of additive gene action. The population was genotyped with 81 genome wide SSR markers and a linkage map covering 1423 cM was constructed. Composite interval mapping analysis identified 72 QTLs linked to 33 weed competitive traits which were spread on the 11 chromosomes. Among 72 QTLs, 59 were found to be major QTLs (> 10% PVE). Of the 59 major QTLs, 38 had favourable allele contributed from the O. glaberrima parent. We also observed nine QTL hotspots for weed competitive traits (qWCA2a, qWCA2b, qWCA2c, qWCA3, qWCA5, qWCA7, qWCA8, qWCA9, and qWCA10) wherein several QTLs co-localised. Our study demonstrates O. glaberrima species as potential source for improvement for weed competitive traits in rice and identified QTLs hotspots associated with weed competitive traits.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível/genética , Oryza/genética , Plantas Daninhas/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Alelos , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Grão Comestível/parasitologia , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/parasitologia , Fenótipo , Plantas Daninhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Daninhas/parasitologia , Sementes/genética , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/parasitologia , Controle de Plantas Daninhas/métodos
15.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243238, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338076

RESUMO

Knowledge of genetic diversity in plant germplasm and the relationship between genetic factors and phenotypic expression is vital for crop improvement. This study's objectives were to understand the extent of genetic diversity and population structure in 60 common bean genotypes from East and Southern Africa. The common bean genotypes exhibited significant (p<0.05) levels of variability for traits such as days to flowering (DTF), days to maturity (DTM), number of pods per plant (NPP), number of seeds per pod (NSP), and grain yield per hectare in kilograms (GYD). About 47.82 per cent of the variation among the genotypes was explained by seven principal components (PC) associated with the following agronomic traits: NPP, NFF (nodes to first flower), DTF, GH (growth habit) and GYD. The SNP markers revealed mean gene diversity and polymorphic information content values of 0.38 and 0.25, respectively, which suggested the presence of considerable genetic variation among the assessed genotypes. Analysis of molecular variance showed that 51% of the genetic variation were between the gene pools, while 49% of the variation were within the gene pools. The genotypes were delineated into two distinct groups through the population structure, cluster and phylogenetic analyses. Genetically divergent genotypes such as DRK57, MW3915, NUA59, and VTTT924/4-4 with high yield and agronomic potential were identified, which may be useful for common bean improvement.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível/genética , Phaseolus/genética , Sementes/genética , África Oriental , África Austral , Grão Comestível/anatomia & histologia , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Phaseolus/anatomia & histologia , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sementes/anatomia & histologia
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(24)2020 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33348635

RESUMO

Vegetable legumes are an essential source of carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals, along with health-promoting bioactive chemicals. The demand for the use of either fresh or processed vegetable legumes is continually expanding on account of the growing consumer awareness about their well-balanced diet. Therefore, sustaining optimum yields of vegetable legumes is extremely important. Here we seek to present d etails of prospects of underexploited vegetable legumes for food availability, accessibility, and improved livelihood utilization. So far research attention was mainly focused on pulse legumes' performance as compared to vegetable legumes. Wild and cultivated vegetable legumes vary morphologically across diverse habitats. This could make them less known, underutilized, and underexploited, and make them a promising potential nutritional source in developing nations where malnutrition still exists. Research efforts are required to promote underexploited vegetable legumes, for improving their use to feed the ever-increasing population in the future. In view of all the above points, here we have discussed underexploited vegetable legumes with tremendous potential; namely, vegetable pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan), cluster bean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba), winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus), dolichos bean (Lablab purpureus), and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), thereby covering the progress related to various aspects such as pre-breeding, molecular markers, quantitative trait locus (QTLs), genomics, and genetic engineering. Overall, this review has summarized the information related to advancements in the breeding of vegetable legumes which will ultimately help in ensuring food and nutritional security in developing nations.


Assuntos
Cruzamento/métodos , Grão Comestível/genética , Fabaceae/genética , Edição de Genes/métodos , Genoma de Planta , Verduras/genética , Grão Comestível/classificação , Fabaceae/classificação , Genômica , Organismos Geneticamente Modificados , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Verduras/classificação
17.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5539, 2020 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33139747

RESUMO

DNA methylation is a ubiquitous chromatin feature, present in 25% of cytosines in the maize genome, but variation and evolution of the methylation landscape during maize domestication remain largely unknown. Here, we leverage whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) data on populations of modern maize, landrace, and teosinte (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis) to estimate epimutation rates and selection coefficients. We find weak evidence for direct selection on DNA methylation in any context, but thousands of differentially methylated regions (DMRs) are identified population-wide that are correlated with recent selection. For two trait-associated DMRs, vgt1-DMR and tb1-DMR, HiChIP data indicate that the interactive loops between DMRs and respective downstream genes are present in B73, a modern maize line, but absent in teosinte. Our results enable a better understanding of the evolutionary forces acting on patterns of DNA methylation and suggest a role of methylation variation in adaptive evolution.


Assuntos
Domesticação , Grão Comestível/genética , Evolução Molecular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Zea mays/genética , Sequenciamento de Cromatina por Imunoprecipitação , Metilação de DNA , DNA de Plantas/genética , DNA de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Epigênese Genética , Genoma de Planta , México , Melhoramento Vegetal , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Seleção Genética
18.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5219, 2020 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33060584

RESUMO

Nitrogen (N) is a macronutrient that boosts carbon (C) metabolism and plant growth leading to biomass accumulation. The molecular connection between nitrogen utilization efficiency (NUE) and biomass production remains unclear. Here, via quantitative trait loci analysis and map-based cloning, we reveal that natural variation at the MYB61 locus leads to differences in N use and cellulose biogenesis between indica and japonica subspecies of rice. MYB61, a transcriptional factor that regulates cellulose synthesis, is directly regulated by a known NUE regulator GROWTH-REGULATING FACTOR4 (GRF4), which coordinates cellulosic biomass production and N utilization. The variation at MYB61 has been selected during indica and japonica domestication. The indica allele of MYB61 displays robust transcription resulting in higher NUE and increased grain yield at reduced N supply than that of japonica. Our study hence unravels how C metabolism is linked to N uptake and may provide an opportunity to reduce N use for sustainable agriculture.


Assuntos
Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Alelos , Biomassa , Celulose/biossíntese , Grão Comestível/genética , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Variação Genética , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Transdução de Sinais , Transcrição Genética
19.
Plant Genome ; 13(2): e20030, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016603

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) toxicity is a serious threat to future food security and health safety. To identify genetic factors contributing to Cd uptake in wheat, we conducted a genome-wide association study with genotyping from 90K SNP array. A spring wheat diversity panel was planted under normal conditions and Cd stress (50 mg Cd/kg soil). The impact of Cd stress on agronomic traits ranged from a reduction of 16% in plant height to 93% in grain iron content. Individual genotypes showed a considerable variation for Cd uptake and translocation subdividing the panel into three groups: (1) hyper-accumulators (i.e. high Leaf_Cd and low Seed_Cd ), (2) hyper-translocators (i.e. low Leaf_Cd and high Seed_Cd ), and (3) moderate lines (i.e. low Leaf_Cd and low Seed_Cd ). Two lines (SKD-1 and TD-1) maintained an optimum grain yield under Cd stress and were therefore considered as Cd resistant lines. Genome-wide association identified 179 SNP-trait associations for various traits including 16 for Cd uptake at a significance level of P < .001. However, only five SNPs were significant after applying multiple testing correction. These loci were associated with seed-cadmium, grain-iron, and grain-zinc: qSCd-1A, qSCd-1D, qZn-2B1, qZn-2B2, and qFe-6D. These five loci had not been identified in the previously reported studies for Cd uptake in wheat. These loci and the underlying genes should be further investigated using molecular biology techniques to identify Cd resistant genes in wheat.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Triticum , Cádmio , Grão Comestível/genética , Fenótipo , Triticum/genética
20.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239701, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33125378

RESUMO

There is a growing need to enhance the productivity of soybean (Glycine max L.) under severe drought conditions in order to improve global food security status. Melatonin, a ubiquitous hormone, could alleviate drought stress in various plants. Earlier, we demonstrated that exogenous melatonin treatment could enhance the tolerance of drought-treated soybean. However, the underlying mechanisms by which this hormone exerts drought resistance is still unclear. The present study used transcriptomic and metabolomic techniques to determine some critical genes and pathways regulating melatonin response to drought conditions. Results showed that exogenous melatonin treatment could increase relative water content and decrease electrolyte leakage in the leaves and increase seed yield under drought stress. Transcriptomic analysis showed that there were 852 core differentially expressed genes (DEGs) that were regulated by drought stress and melatonin in soybean leaves. The most enriched drought-responsive genes are mainly involved in the 'biosynthesis of secondary metabolites'. Metabolomic profiling under drought stress showed higher accumulation levels of secondary metabolites related to drought tolerance after exogenous melatonin treatment. Also, we highlighted the vital role of the pathways including phenylpropanoid, flavonoid, isoflavonoid, and steroid biosynthesis pathways for improvement of drought tolerance in soybean by exogenous melatonin treatment. In all, findings from this study give detailed molecular basis for the application of melatonin as a drought-resistant agent in soybean cultivation.


Assuntos
Melatonina/metabolismo , Soja/genética , Soja/metabolismo , Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Grão Comestível/genética , Fabaceae/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Metabolômica/métodos , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Transcriptoma/genética
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