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1.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 205: 111167, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32827967

RESUMO

Contamination of agricultural fields with Cadmium (Cd) due to several agricultural practices is increasing worldwide. The rice plants can easily take up Cd and accumulate it into different parts, including the grains, posing a threat to human health even at low concentration exposure. Several phytohormones, including Salicylic acid (SA) have been investigated since long for its alleviating properties under various biotic and abiotic stress conditions. In the present study, 100 µM SA application to ameliorate 25 µM Cd stress was studied for 72 h in hydroponics in Oryza sativa cv. Bandana seedlings. Pot experiments were done with same treatment condition and plants were grown till maturity. SA application to Cd exposed rice seedlings alleviated the stress condition, which was established by several physiological, biochemical, histochemical and gene expression analysis. SA treatment to Cd stressed seedlings showed elevated photosynthetic pigment content, on-protein thiol content and relieved the Cd induced growth inhibition considerably. It lowered the accumulation of ROS like, O2- and H2O2 with a regulated antioxidative enzymatic activity. SA application in Cd exposed rice seedlings had upregulated expression of OsHMA3 and OsPCS1 whereasOsNRAMP2 gene was downregulated. Co-application of SA and Cd led to higher yield and improved agronomic traits in comparison to only Cd exposed plants under pot experimentation. Daily intake of Cd and Carcinogenic risk were also reduced by 99.75% and 99.99% respectively in the SA treated Cd stressed plants. SA positively affected the growth and tolerance of rice seedlings to Cd stress. Hence, SA addition to Cd contaminated soil can ensure rice cultivation without posing health risk to consumers.


Assuntos
Bioacumulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Cádmio/toxicidade , Grão Comestível/efeitos dos fármacos , Oryza/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Salicílico/farmacologia , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Cádmio/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Hidroponia , Oryza/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 110964, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32678754

RESUMO

Soil salinization is the most common abiotic stress limiting agricultural productivity worldwide. Recent research has suggested that the application of silicon (Si) has beneficial effects against salt stress in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) by regulating the antioxidant system, mineral nutrients, and other important mechanisms. However, whether these effects can be achieved through foliar application of Si, or whether Si application affects Si-accumulating (e.g., sorghum), and intermediate-Si-accumulating (e.g., sunflower) plant species differently, remains unclear. This study investigated different methods of Si application in attenuating the detrimental effects of salt stress, based on the biological responses of two distinct species of Si accumulators, under greenhouse conditions. Two pot experiments were designed as a factorial (2 × 4), randomized complete blocks design (RCBD) with control and salt-stress groups (0 and 100 mmol.L-1 NaCl), and four Si-treatment groups: control (no Si), foliar application (28.6 mmol.L-1), root application (2 mmol.L-1), and combined foliar and root applications. Our results showed that the harmful effects of salt stress were attenuated by Si treatments in both plant species, which decreased Na+ uptake and lipid peroxidation, and increased Si and K+ uptake, relative leaf water content, antioxidant enzyme activities, leaf area, and shoot dry matter. These results were more prominent when Si was applied via nutrient solution in the sorghum plants, and the combined foliar and root applications of Si in sunflower plants. In addition, foliar application of Si alone is an efficient alternative in attenuating the effects of salinity in both plant species when Si is not available in the growth medium. These results suggest that the Si application method plays an important role in Na+ detoxification by modifying the antioxidative defense mechanism, which could actively mediate some important physiological and biochemical processes and helps to increase the shoot dry matter production in sorghum and sunflower plants under salt stress.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Helianthus/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Salino , Silício/farmacologia , Sorghum/efeitos dos fármacos , Grão Comestível/efeitos dos fármacos , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Helianthus/metabolismo , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Salinidade , Solo/química , Sorghum/metabolismo
3.
Food Chem ; 330: 127166, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32535312

RESUMO

Knowing the bioaccessibility of vitamin C in foodstuffs produced for infants and young children is necessary to determine their daily vitamin C intake. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the bioaccessibility of vitamin C in fruit-, vegetable-, and cereal-based baby foodstuffs by an in vitro digestion model at varying gastric pHs. The concentrations of measured vitamin C were higher than the declared amounts on their label. The bioaccessibility of vitamin C ranged from 10.4 to 43.4%, and from 0.4 to 19.2% in fruit- and vegetable-based baby foodstuffs (declared vitamin C fortified) at gastric pH 1.5 and 4, respectively. For cereal-based baby foodstuffs, the bioaccessibility ranged from 1.3 to 53.8%, and from 0.3 to 26.3% at gastric pH 1.5 and 4, respectively. As revealed in this research, the bioaccessibility of vitamin C in baby foodstuffs is very low in both gastric pH conditions.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico/química , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo , Alimentos Infantis/análise , Verduras/metabolismo , Vitaminas/química , Animais , Grão Comestível/química , Frutas/química , Verduras/química
4.
Chemosphere ; 258: 127135, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32535432

RESUMO

Excessive cadmium (Cd) in rice grain has become a major global public health problem. Here, the effect of foliar glycerol application on Cd accumulation in brown rice was examined. Various spraying concentrations of glycerol between 0.4mM and 50mM were investigated and the results showed that 0.8 mM was the best application concentration for decreasing Cd content in brown rice. After different application period experiment, filling stage was considered as the optimal spraying time. 0.4mM-5mM glycerol application one time at the filling stage could significantly reduce Cd concentration in brown rice by 28.5%-60.4%. Cd transport factors (the ratio of brown rice and flag leaf/node) were decreased by 48.5% and 27.3%, respectively, with glycerol application. Glycerol application also significantly increased Cd concentration in soluble fraction in flag leaf while reduced inorganic Cd and water-soluble Cd in both flag leaf and stem. Our results showed foliar spraying glycerol inhibited Cd transport to brown rice through Cd compartmentalisation in the vacuole and transformation of cadmium chemical form. This study may provide a new method to effectively alleviate the problem of excessive Cd in rice.


Assuntos
Cádmio/farmacocinética , Grão Comestível/química , Glicerol/farmacologia , Oryza/química , Poluentes do Solo/farmacocinética , Agricultura/métodos , China , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Oryza/efeitos dos fármacos , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Solo/química
5.
Food Chem ; 326: 126845, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32438226

RESUMO

Dry cultivation of high-yielding or drought-resistant rice cultivars relieves the current pressure on rice cultivation systems. However, the metabolites and metabolic pathways that affect rice quality in high-yield or drought-resistant rice cultivars under dry cultivation have not yet been explored. A field experiment was conducted in 2017 to explore the effects of flooding irrigation (F) and dry cultivation (D) of high-yield and -quality cultivars (Huanghuazhan, HH; Yueyou9113, YY) and a drought-resistant cultivar (Hanyou73, HY) on rice quality traits using metabolomic analysis. Treatment DHH maintained higher head rice yield, amylose content, protein content, and breakdown values and a lower whiteness index and setback value than other cultivars under dry cultivation. These rice quality traits were related to 16 metabolites and 8 metabolic pathways. DHH showed decreases in stress response metabolites (m72, m98, m127, m165, m167, m213, m297, and m298) but maintained stress resistance (m29, m30, m39, m48, and m58) and sucrose (m150) accumulation in grains to support head rice yields and a low whiteness index. Raising the lactose, choline, and nicotinoylcholine levels in rice grains improved their protein content and cooking quality. DHH also adjusted the glycine, serine and threonine metabolism, galactose metabolism, and starch and sucrose metabolism of rice. This affected the biosynthesis of anthocyanin, phenylpropanoid, and flavonoid, supporting protein biosynthesis and starch accumulation in the endosperm. These findings provide further possibilities for improving rice quality traits of high-yield and -quality rice cultivars under dry cultivation.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Oryza/metabolismo , Amilose/metabolismo , Culinária , Secas , Endosperma/metabolismo , Metabolômica , Amido/metabolismo
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(20): 11147-11157, 2020 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376629

RESUMO

The rhizosphere interaction between plant roots or pathogenic microbes is initiated by mutual exchange of signals. However, how soil pathogens sense host signals is largely unknown. Here, we studied early molecular events associated with host recognition in Fusarium graminearum, an economically important fungal pathogen that can infect both roots and heads of cereal crops. We found that host sensing prior to physical contact with plant roots radically alters the transcriptome and triggers nitric oxide (NO) production in F. graminearum We identified an ankyrin-repeat domain containing protein (FgANK1) required for host-mediated NO production and virulence in F. graminearum In the absence of host plant, FgANK1 resides in the cytoplasm. In response to host signals, FgANK1 translocates to the nucleus and interacts with a zinc finger transcription factor (FgZC1), also required for specific binding to the nitrate reductase (NR) promoter, NO production, and virulence in F. graminearum Our results reveal mechanistic insights into host-recognition strategies employed by soil pathogens.


Assuntos
Fusarium/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/fisiologia , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais , Anquirinas/metabolismo , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas , Fusarium/patogenicidade , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
7.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232892, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32384107

RESUMO

Plant breeders have long sought to develop lines that combine outstanding performance with high and stable quality in different environments. The high-arabinoxylan (AX) Chinese variety Yumai-34 was crossed with three Central European wheat varieties (Lupus, Mv-Mambo, Ukrainka) and 31 selected high-AX lines were compared for physical (hectolitre weight, thousand grain weight, flour yield), compositional (protein content, gluten content, pentosan) and processing quality traits (gluten index, Zeleny sedimentation, Farinograph parameters) in a three-year experiment (2013-2015) in the F7-F9 generations. The stability and heritability of different traits, including the relative effects of the genotype (G) and environment (E), were determined focusing on grain composition. The contents of total and water-soluble pentosans were significantly affected by G, E and G × E interactions, but the heritability of total (TOT)-pentosan was significantly lower (0.341) than that of water-extractable (WE)-pentosan (0.825). The main component of the pentosans, the amount and composition (arabinose:xylose ratio) of the arabinoxylan (AX), was primarily determined by the environment and, accordingly, the broader heritability of these parameters were 0.516 and 0.772. However, genotype significantly affected the amount of water-soluble arabinoxylan and its composition and thus the heritability of these traits was also significant (0.840 and 0.721). The genotypes exhibiting higher stability of content of TOT-pentosan also showed more stable contents of WE-pentosan. There was a positive correlation between the stability of contents of WE-pentosan and WE-AX, while the stability of the WE-AX content and AX composition were also strongly correlated. Water absorption was strongly genetically determined with a heritability of 0.829 with the genotype determining 38.67% of the total variance. Many lines were grouped in the GGE biplot, indicating that they did not significantly differ stability.


Assuntos
Melhoramento Vegetal , Triticum/genética , Xilanos , Grão Comestível/genética , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Farinha/análise , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Glutens/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Triticum/metabolismo , Água/metabolismo , Xilanos/metabolismo
8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2629, 2020 05 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32457405

RESUMO

Grain size is an important component trait of grain yield, which is frequently threatened by abiotic stress. However, little is known about how grain yield and abiotic stress tolerance are regulated. Here, we characterize GSA1, a quantitative trait locus (QTL) regulating grain size and abiotic stress tolerance associated with metabolic flux redirection. GSA1 encodes a UDP-glucosyltransferase, which exhibits glucosyltransferase activity toward flavonoids and monolignols. GSA1 regulates grain size by modulating cell proliferation and expansion, which are regulated by flavonoid-mediated auxin levels and related gene expression. GSA1 is required for the redirection of metabolic flux from lignin biosynthesis to flavonoid biosynthesis under abiotic stress and the accumulation of flavonoid glycosides, which protect rice against abiotic stress. GSA1 overexpression results in larger grains and enhanced abiotic stress tolerance. Our findings provide insights into the regulation of grain size and abiotic stress tolerance associated with metabolic flux redirection and a potential means to improve crops.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Glucosiltransferases/metabolismo , Oryza/metabolismo , Crescimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Grão Comestível/citologia , Grão Comestível/genética , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Glucosiltransferases/genética , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Oryza/citologia , Oryza/genética , Fenilpropionatos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Locos de Características Quantitativas
9.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232824, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32384114

RESUMO

Zambia is still facing undernutrition and micronutrient deficiencies despite fortification and supplementation programmes stressing the need for additional solutions. Fermented foods have the potential to improve nutrient intake and, therefore, could have an important role in food based recommendations (FBRs) to ensure adequate intake of nutrients for optimal health of populations. Secondary dietary intake data was used in Optifood, a linear programming software to develop FBRs, for children aged 1-3 and 4-5 years in Mkushi district of Zambia. Three scenarios per age group were modeled to determine FBRs based on: (1) FBRs based on local available foods (2) FBR and Mabisi, a fermented milk beverage, and (3) FBR with Munkoyo, a cereal fermented beverage. The scenarios were compared to assess whether addition of Mabisi or Munkoyo achieved a better nutrient intake. FBRs based on only locally available non-fermented foods did not meet ≥70% of recommended nutrient intake (RNI) for calcium, fat, iron and zinc, so-called problem nutrients. The addition of Munkoyo to the FBRs did not reduce the number of problem nutrients, but after adding Mabisi to the FBR's only iron (67% of RNI) in the 1-3 year age group and only zinc (67% of RNI) in the 4-5 year age group remained problem nutrients. Mabisi, a fermented milk product in combination with the local food pattern is a good additional source of nutrients for these age groups. However, additional nutrition sensitive and cost-effective measures would still be needed to improve nutrient intake, especially that of iron and zinc.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados , Leite/metabolismo , Estado Nutricional , Animais , Cálcio na Dieta/metabolismo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dieta , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Ferro/metabolismo , Masculino , Micronutrientes , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Necessidades Nutricionais , Recomendações Nutricionais , Zâmbia/epidemiologia
10.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0232164, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330189

RESUMO

Maize (Zea mays L) is one of main nutrients sources for humans and animals worldwide. In Africa, storage of maize ensures food resources availability throughout the year. However, it often suffers losses exceeding 20% due to insects such as the larger grain borer, Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Coleoptera; Bostrichidae), major pest of stored maize in the tropical countries. This study aims to select resistant varieties to reduce maize storage losses and explain the physicochemical parameters role in grains susceptibility. In the first study, maize grains were artificially infested under no-choice method with insects. Susceptibility parameters such as weight loss, grain damage, number of emerged insects, median development time and susceptibility index varied significantly through maize varieties. Dobie susceptibility index (SI) was assessed as a major indicator of resistance. The most resistant varieties were Early-Thaï, DMR-ES and Tzee-Yellow. Conversely, Synth-9243, Obatampa and Synth-C varieties were susceptible. SWAN, Across-Pool and Tzee-White were classified as moderately resistant varieties. The insect reproductive potential was significantly different in the nine maize varieties and Early-Thaï, DMR-ES and Tzee-Yellow varieties were the least favourable host. To assess the relationship between grains physicochemical characteristics and varietal susceptibility, moisture, total phenolics, palmitic acid, proteins, amylose, density and grain hardness were evaluated according to standardized methods. Palmitic acid, SI, insects emerged and grain damage were significantly and positively correlated with each other, and negatively correlated with grains hardness, phenolics and amylose contents. Maize susceptibility index was significantly and negatively correlated to amylose, and phenolics contents and positively correlated to palmitic acid content. This study identified three resistant maize varieties to P. tuncatus and revealed that the major factors involved in this resistance were hardness, phenolic and amylose contents of grains.


Assuntos
Besouros/patogenicidade , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zea mays/parasitologia , África , Amilose/metabolismo , Animais , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Ácido Palmítico/metabolismo , Fenol/metabolismo , Estruturas Vegetais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estruturas Vegetais/metabolismo , Estruturas Vegetais/parasitologia , Zea mays/metabolismo
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32348929

RESUMO

Grain filling is the final determinant of yield, and this process is susceptible to abiotic stresses. Salicylic acid (SA) regulates grain filling in rice plants. A comparative proteomic study was conducted to understand how SA mediates grain filling under soil drying (SD) condition. Zhefu802 and its near-isogenic line (NIL) were planted in pots in an artificial chamber. SA (100 mg L-1) was applied, followed by SD treatment (with a water potential of -30 to -35 kPa) at anthesis. The results showed that the grain yield and grain weight significantly decreased under SD in Zhefu802, but not in its NIL variety. SD also decreased expression of photosynthesis-related proteins in grains of Zhefu802, which resulted in its poorer drought resistance. Furthermore, the decreased grain filling rate rather than the grain size explained the observed decreased grain weight and grain yield under SD. Interestingly, these reductions were reversed by SA. Expression of proteins involved in glycolysis/TCA circle, starch and sucrose metabolism, antioxidation and detoxication, oxidative phosphorylation, transcription, translation, and signal transduction, were significantly down-regulated under SD and were significantly up-regulated in response to SA. The expression of these proteins was examined at transcriptional level and similar results were obtained. Inhibited expression of these proteins and related pathways contributed to the observed decrease in the grain filling rate of Zhefu802, and application of SA up-regulated expression of these proteins to improve grain weight. The findings of this study provide new insights into grain filling regulation by SA, and offer the scientific foundation for cultivation practice.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível , Oryza , Proteoma , Ácido Salicílico , Grão Comestível/genética , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Oryza/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Proteômica , Ácido Salicílico/metabolismo , Solo/química
12.
Plant Biol (Stuttg) ; 22(4): 669-678, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32141171

RESUMO

A significant asynchronous phenomenon exists in super hybrid rice because of the differences in spike and spikelet positions, which affect the accumulation and properties of starch. However, little is known about the endosperm enrichment and physicochemical properties of starch in superior and inferior grains in super hybrid rice. Rice YY2640 was selected as study material to investigate the enrichment and physicochemical properties of starch in superior and inferior grains in super rice using semi-thin sections, X-ray diffraction and related technologies. Superior grain filling was a continuous process, whereas inferior grain only started 8-10 days after anthesis. The order of starch accumulation starts in the central endosperm, then in the endosperm of the proximal vascular bundle and finally in the aleurone layer. Compared with the inferior grains, the superior grains have a higher 1000-grain weight, apparent amylose content, total starch content, average starch granule size, relative crystallinity, solubility and a resonance peak ratio at 1022/995 cm-1 , whereas the swelling power and ratio of the resonance peak at 1045/1022 cm-1 were lower. The final degree of hydrolysis of HCl, AAG and PPA of the superior grains were significantly lower than those of the inferior grains. The findings indicate that the different physicochemical properties of starch were mainly related to the development order of superior and inferior grains and the spatial enrichment of starch.


Assuntos
Endosperma , Oryza , Amido , Amilose/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/química , Grão Comestível/genética , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Endosperma/metabolismo , Oryza/química , Oryza/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Amido/metabolismo
13.
J Appl Microbiol ; 129(3): 575-589, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32147927

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The present study was performed to examine the role of pqqE inhabiting rhizobacteria in organic acid production and relationship of the organic acids with phosphate solubilization by the bacteria in vitro as well as in vivo. METHODS AND RESULTS: The pqqE gene was PCR amplified and sequenced in genomic DNA of Pantoea sp. WP-5 and Pseudomonas sp. NN-4. Nucleotide sequence obtained from WP-5 and NN-4 showed maximum sequence similarity (88 and 89%, respectively) with the pqqE gene of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CMR12a (KM251420). Deduced amino acid sequence from pqqE gene of Pseudomonas sp. NN-4 and Pantoea sp. WP-5 showed 75 and 93% similarity, respectively, with protein pyrroloquinoline quinone. Phosphate solubilization and acid production assay were quantified on spectrophotometer and high-profile liquid chromatograph, respectively, by each bacterial strain. Both strains produced organic acids such as acetic, citric, gluconic, succinic and malic acid and lowered the pH of Pikovskaya broth medium under laboratory conditions. Phosphate solubilization by Pantoea sp. WP-5 was 311 ± 4 and 204 ± 3 µg ml-1 in the culture medium supplemented with glucose and sucrose as carbon source, respectively. Pseudomonas sp. NN-4 solubilized 176 ± 3 and 298 ± 5 µg ml-1 phosphate in Pikovskaya broth medium under similar conditions. In field experiments conducted during two consecutive years, the concentration of acetic acid and gluconic acid was higher in root exudates of plants treated with Pantoea sp. WP-5 at 30% reduced doses of nitrogen (N)- and phosphorus (P)-based chemical fertilizers as compared to non-inoculated plants. Values of chlorophyll contents, crop growth rate, leaf area index, straw yield and P contents were recorded higher in plants inoculated with Pantoea sp. WP-5 and Pseudomonas sp. NN-4 as compared to non-inoculated control. Grain yield was increased by 10-12% due to inoculation with Pantoea sp. WP-5 and Pseudomonas sp. NN-4 over non-inoculated control in the field experiments. CONCLUSIONS: These results lead to the conclusions that the rhizobacteria inhabiting pqqE gene produced organic acids and solubilized the phosphate in vitro. On inoculation to wheat plants in field experiments, these strains produced the organic acids, solubilized the phosphate, and improved the P uptake and productivity of wheat. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: The Pantoea sp. WP-5 and Pseudomonas sp. NN-4 are the potential candidates for inoculation to wheat as phosphate solubilizer even with reduced chemical fertilizer dose. The inoculation of the strains may enhance grain yield and net income of the farmer even with less chemical fertilizer application. This practice will be helpfull inminimizing environmental pollution.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Pantoea/fisiologia , Pseudomonas/fisiologia , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/microbiologia , Ácidos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Fertilizantes/análise , Pantoea/genética , Pantoea/metabolismo , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Pseudomonas/genética , Pseudomonas/metabolismo , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo , Triticum/metabolismo
14.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 193: 110245, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32092577

RESUMO

Understanding Cd uptake and distribution in rice roots is important for breeding varieties that do not accumulate Cd in the grain to any large extent. Here, we examined the physiological and molecular factors responsible for Cd uptake and transport differences between two japonica rice cultivars prescreened as high (zhefu7) or low (Xiangzaoxian45) accumulators of Cd in the grain. No significant differences in Cd uptake between the two cultivars were observed; however, Xiangzaoxian45 retained most of the absorbed Cd in the roots, whereas zhefu7 showed higher transport of Cd from the root to the shoot, regardless of the duration of exposure to Cd. The inability to sequester Cd into root vacuoles caused high accumulation of Cd in the grain in zhefu7, whereas inefficient transport of Cd from roots to shoots in Xiangzaoxian45 caused low accumulation of Cd in the grain. Cd sequestration in the roots and transport from the root to the shoot were greatly influenced by the expression patterns of transport-related genes OsHMA3 and OsHMA2, respectively. Further, micro-X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy mapping confirmed that more Cd was sequestered in the roots of Xiangzaoxian45 than in those of zhefu7, with a significant amount of Cd localized in the root hairs, as well as in the meristematic and elongation zones, and dermal and stele tissues. Therefore, we propose that effective Cd sequestration in root vacuoles was the major determinant of divergent Cd-accumulation patterns in the two rice cultivars under study.


Assuntos
Cádmio/análise , Oryza/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Transporte Biológico , Cádmio/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/química , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Modelos Teóricos , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/química , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Espectrometria por Raios X , Vacúolos/química , Vacúolos/metabolismo
15.
Food Chem ; 312: 126077, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31891885

RESUMO

Polyphenols from five pigmented sorghum (PS) flours were in vitro evaluated as possible modulators of starch digestibility. White sorghum (WS) flour was used as control. Untargeted metabolomics depicted the phenolic composition of raw and cooked flours (obtained through heating at 100 °C for 30 min in water) highlighting differences in flavonoids and phenolic acids. Raw PS flours were characterized by greater tannin and kafirin contents when compared to WS, and, after cooking, PS flours had greater resistant starch (from 4.2 to 21.4 g /100 g dry matter), and lower starch hydrolysis index (HI) with respect to cooked WS. Multivariate statistics showed that flavonoids characterizing PS were the most discriminant compounds during the in vitro digestion. In addition, kafirin and total tannins content (on raw ingredients) along with the anthocyanin profiles (on cooked samples) were negative correlated with HI. Therefore, PS flours might be good candidates for the formulation of functional foods.


Assuntos
Polifenóis/química , Sorghum/química , Amido/química , Culinária , Grão Comestível/química , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Farinha/análise , Hidrólise , Metabolômica , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Sorghum/metabolismo , Amido/metabolismo , Taninos
16.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 191: 110218, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31962215

RESUMO

Heavy metals contamination of soil especially with cadmium (Cd) is a serious environmental concern in the current industrial era. Biochar serves as an excellent ameliorating agent depending upon its properties and application rates. In the pot scale study, effect of acid treated (AWSB) and untreated wheat straw biochar (WSB) was studied on physiology, grain yield, Cd accumulation, and tolerance of quinoa with possible health risks. Different levels of Cd (0, 25, 50 and 75 mg kg-1), AWSB and WSB (1% and 2% (w/w)) were applied in soil. Accumulation of Cd in control plant tissues led to oxidative stress which was shown in terms of increased lipid peroxidation. While biochar application relieved the oxidative damage as confirmed by the low production of H2O2 and TBARS contents. Application of AWSB improved plant growth, pigment contents and gas exchange attributes by limiting the accumulation of Cd in root, shoot and grain of quinoa. Results revealed a significant improvement in the activity of superoxide (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and peroxidase (POD) with biochar at elevated levels of Cd in soil. Target Hazard Quotient (THQ) remained < 1 in the quinoa grains with WSB and AWSB under Cd stress. These results revealed that AWSB most effectively alleviated Cd toxicity in quinoa thereby decreasing Cd accumulation and regulation of Cd induced oxidative stress triggered by the antioxidant enzymatic system.


Assuntos
Ácidos/química , Cádmio/metabolismo , Carvão Vegetal/farmacologia , Chenopodium quinoa/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Cádmio/análise , Carvão Vegetal/química , Chenopodium quinoa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Chenopodium quinoa/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/efeitos dos fármacos , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Triticum/química
17.
J Anim Sci ; 98(1)2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917428

RESUMO

Five ruminally cannulated heifers were used in an incomplete 6 × 6 Latin square design to determine the effects of cereal silage (barley vs. corn), cereal grain (barley vs. corn vs. a 50:50 blend of barley and corn), and their interaction (S × G) on dry matter intake, ruminal fermentation, total tract digestibility, nitrogen balance, and in situ degradation. Corn silage (CS) or barley silage (BS) was included at 8% of dietary dry matter (DM). Within each silage source, diets contained (DM basis) either dry-rolled barley (BG; 86%), dry-rolled corn (CG; 85%), or an equal blend of barley and corn (BLEND; 85%). Periods were 25 d, with 5 d of dietary transition, 13 d of dietary adaptation, and 7 d of data and sample collection. Samples collected included feed and refusals, total urine and feces, and ruminal fluid. All data were analyzed using the Mixed model of SAS with the fixed effects of silage, grain, and the S × G. Dry matter intake (P ≥ 0.19) and mean ruminal pH (P ≥ 0.096) were not affected by the silage, grain, or S × G. Total short-chain fatty acid concentrations were greater for BLEND than BG or CG (grain, P = 0.003) and for CS (silage, P = 0.009) relative to BS. The molar proportion of acetate was greater for BS-BG and BS-CG (S × G, P < 0.001), while molar proportion of propionate was greater for CS-BG (S × G, P < 0.001) relative to other silage and grain source combinations. Rumen ammonia-N concentration was greater for CG than BG, or BLEND (grain, P < 0.001), and greater for CS compared to BS (silage, P = 0.023). Apparent total tract digestibility of DM, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, starch, and gross energy were greatest for BG (grain, P ≤ 0.035). Digestible energy content (Mcal/kg) was greater for BG (grain, P = 0.029) than CG and BLEND. Total nitrogen retention (g/d and % of intake) was greatest for CS-BG (S × G, P ≤ 0.033) relative to all other treatments. In situ degradation rates of DM, crude protein, and starch were greater for BG than CG (P ≤ 0.004). The potentially degradable fraction of DM, crude protein, and starch was greater for CG (P ≤ 0.031), while the undegradable fraction was greater for BG (P ≤ 0.046). For silage sources, CS had greater 24 h in situ DM digestibility (P = 0.009) and starch digestibility (24, 48, and 72 h incubations, P ≤ 0.034) relative to BS. Results suggest that while feeding a combination of CS and BG promotes propionate production and greater N retention; few other additive effects were observed.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Digestão , Hordeum , Rúmen/metabolismo , Silagem , Zea mays , Amônia/metabolismo , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Feminino , Fermentação , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Hordeum/química , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Carne Vermelha , Silagem/análise , Amido/metabolismo , Zea mays/química
18.
BMC Plant Biol ; 20(1): 45, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31996140

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wheat grain avenin-like proteins (ALPs) belong to a recently discovered class of wheat grain storage protein. ALPs in wheat grains not only have beneficial effects on dough quality but also display antifungal activities, which is a novel observation for wheat storage proteins. Previous studies have shown that ALPs are likely present in the albumin/globulin fractions of total protein extract from wheat flour. However, the accumulation characteristics of these ALPs in the mature wheat grain remains unknown. RESULTS: In the present study, a total of 13 ALPs homologs were isolated and characterized in the albumin/globulin fractions of the wheat protein extract. A combination of multiple techniques including RP-HPLC, SDS-PAGE, MALDI-TOF and peptide sequencing were used for accurate separation and identification of individual ALP homolog. The C-terminal TaALP-by-4AL/7DS, TaALP-by-4AL/7AS/7DS, TaALP-bx/4AL/7AS/7DS, TaALP-ay-7DS, TaALP-ay-4AL, TaALP-ax-4AL, TaALP-ax-7AS, and TaALP-ax-7DS, were separated as individual protein bands from wheat flour for the first time. These unique ALPs peptides were mapped to the latest wheat genome assembly in the IWGSC database. The characteristic defence related proteins present in albumin and globulin fractions, such as protein disulfide-isomerase (PDI), grain softness protein (GSP), alpha-amylase inhibitors (AAIs) and endogenous alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor were also found to co-segregate with these identified ALPs, avenin-3 and α-gliadins. The molecular weight range and the electrophoresis segregation properties of ALPs were characterised in comparison with the proteins containing the tryp_alpha_amyl domain (PF00234) and the gliadin domain (PF13016), which play a role in plant immunity and grain quality. We examined the phylogenetic relationships of the AAIs, GSP, avenin-3, α-gliadins and ALPs, based on the alignment of their functional domains. MALDI-TOF profiling indicated the occurrence of certain post-translations modifications (PTMs) in some ALP subunits. CONCLUSIONS: We reported for the first time the complete profiling of ALPs present in the albumin/globulin fractions of wheat grain protein extracts. We concluded that majority of the ALPs homologs are expressed in wheat grains. We found clear evidence of PTMs in several ALPs peptides. The identification of both gliadin domain (PF13016) and Tryp_alpha_amyl domain (PF00234) in the mature forms of ALPs highlighted the multiple functional properties of ALPs in grain quality and disease resistance.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Prolaminas/metabolismo , Triticum/metabolismo , Albuminas/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Globulinas/metabolismo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
19.
Carbohydr Polym ; 230: 115656, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887861

RESUMO

How various isoforms of rice-starch biosynthesis enzymes interact during amylose and amylopectin synthesis is explored. The chain-length distributions of amylopectin and amylose from 95 varieties with different environmental and genetic backgrounds were obtained using size- exclusion chromatography, and fitted with biosynthesis-derived models based on isoforms of starch synthase (SSI-SSIV), starch branching enzyme (SBE, including SBEI and SBEII) and granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS) that are involved in amylose and amylopectin synthesis. It is usually thought that these are synthesized by separate enzymes. However, the amount of longer amylopectin chains correlated with that of shorter amylose chains, indicating that GBSS, SBE and SS affect both amylose and amylopectin synthesis. Further, the activity of GBSS in amylose correlated with that of SS in amylopectin. This new understanding of which enzymes are suggested by the statistics to be involved in both amylose and amylopectin synthesis could help rice breeders develop cereals with targeted properties.


Assuntos
Amilopectina/biossíntese , Amilose/biossíntese , Endosperma/metabolismo , Oryza/metabolismo , Enzima Ramificadora de 1,4-alfa-Glucana/química , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Sintase do Amido/química
20.
Chemosphere ; 247: 125850, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931314

RESUMO

Bioremediation of heavy metal-contaminated soil using metal-resistant microbes is a promising remediation technology. However, as exogenous bacteria sometimes struggle to survive and grow when introduced to new soils, it is important to develop appropriate carriers for microbial populations. In this study, we report a novel approach to remediating Cd-contaminated rice paddy soil using biochar-supported microbial cell composites (BMCs) produced from agricultural waste (cornstalks). Pot experiments showed that amendment with BMC was more efficient at reducing root and grain Cd content than pure bacteria, while improving soil Cd fractionation toward more stabilized and less labile forms. Bacteria in the BMC medium grew more readily with more abundant metabolites than those raised in free cells, probably because biochar provides shelter via porous structures (as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy) as well as additional nutrients. Overall, the improved long-term production of microbial biomass caused by BMC inoculation results in a higher remediation efficiency. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of using biochar as an appropriate carrier for metal-tolerant bacteria to remediate Cd-contaminated paddy fields.


Assuntos
Inoculantes Agrícolas/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cádmio/isolamento & purificação , Carvão Vegetal , Oryza/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Biomassa , Cádmio/análise , Grão Comestível/química , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Oryza/química , Estruturas Vegetais/química , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise
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