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1.
Bioresour Technol ; 291: 121863, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376664

RESUMO

This study examined the influence of the application of brewery spent grain (BSG) on biogas production efficiency as well as its kinetics in the co-digestion of acid cheese whey (ACW) and sewage sludge (SS). The experiment was conducted in semi-flow anaerobic reactors under mesophilic conditions (35 °C) with different hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 16.7 d, 18 d and 20 d. The results indicate that the addition of BSG significantly enhanced the biogas yields, ensuring good process stability. The highest value of 0.54 m3 kg-1 VSadded was obtained at HRT of 16.7 d, while for ACW and SS it was only 0.50 m3 kg-1 VSadded at HRT 18 d. However, the decrease in the rate constant k occurred (0.07 h-1) as compared to the two-component system (0.096 h-1). The highest energy profit of 160% was enhanced for the three-substrate co-digestion, indicating it as a cost-effective solution.


Assuntos
Queijo , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Esgotos , Soro do Leite/metabolismo , Anaerobiose , Biocombustíveis/análise , Grão Comestível/química , Especificidade por Substrato
2.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 182: 109422, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31301594

RESUMO

Breeding the rice cultivar with high cadmium (Cd) accumulation in straw but with low Cd in brown rice using marker-assisted selection (MAS) based on quantitative trait loci (QTL) is meaningful for phytoremediation as well as safety in production. A restorer rice line, YaHui2816, steadily showed low Cd translocation from straw to brown rice and carried alleles for reducing Cd concentration in brown rice (BRCdC). In this study, one F2 population (C268A/YaHui2816) was used to identify the QTLs for BRCdC in 2016, and other two different F2 populations (Lu98A/YaHui2816 and 5406A/YaHui2816) were used to furtherly validate the QTLs in 2017. Furthermore, a pot experiment was conducted to investigate the relative expression of predicted genes in the regions of these QTLs for BRCdC. Here 4 QTLs for BRCdC were identified, among which, 2 novel QTLs (qBRCdC-9 and qBRCdC-12) were identified on chromosomes 9 and 12 in rice. The YaHui2816 alleles in the QTLs qBRCdC-9 and qBRCdC-12 could effectively reduce BRCdC under different genetic backgrounds. Importantly, the QTL qBRCdC-12 was simultaneously associated with the Cd translocation from shoot to brown rice (T-s-b), genetically explaining that the low T-s-b of the YaHui2816 resulted in its low BRCdC. The interval length of the QTL qBRCdC-12 was only narrowed to 0.28 cM, making it possible to develop molecular markers and excavate genes for reducing BRCdC. It is worth noting that genes existed in these QTL regions have not been reported for regulating the Cd translocation in rice. 6 candidate genes (OS05G0198400, OS05G0178300, OS09G0544400, OS12G0161100, OS12G0162100 and OS12G0165200) up-regulated expressed in nodeⅡof the YaHui2816 in response to Cd treatment, and encoded ZRT/IRT-like protein (ZIP) 4, the protein similar to glutathione transferase (GSTs) 16, heat shock protein Hsp20 domain containing protein, MAP kinase-like protein and Cd tolerant protein 5, respectively.


Assuntos
Cádmio/metabolismo , Oryza/genética , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Oryza/metabolismo , Locos de Características Quantitativas
3.
Chemosphere ; 233: 905-912, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340418

RESUMO

We investigated the interconnected roles of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated upon seed exposure to glyphosate and/or gibberellic acid (GA3), and the possible interaction between the herbicide and the plant hormone during germination of sorghum seeds. GA3 decreased antioxidant enzyme activity in embryos, and the over accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in 1000 mM GA3-treated seeds resulted in the lowest germinability among treatments. The deleterious effects of glyphosate on germination rate, in contrast, were not related to H2O2 accumulation, but to its interference with the mitochondrial electron transport chain. However, interactions among glyphosate, GA3 and H2O2 during seed germination were observed. Similar to paclobutrazol, glyphosate appears to interfere with the de novo synthesis of gibberellin, which modulates seed germination through oxidative metabolism. Seeds experiencing increased oxidative status due to GA3 (100 mM) or H2O2 (50 mM) applications had the effects of glyphosate on germination rate reversed. Since decreased ATP synthesis is a secondary effect of glyphosate, increased H2O2 concentrations in embryos must facilitate germination by decreasing the energy required by ATP-demanding metabolism. Our results showed that glyphosate affect seed germination of sorghum, and that the herbicide interacts with oxidative and gibberellin metabolisms.


Assuntos
Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Giberelinas/metabolismo , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Herbicidas/farmacologia , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Sorghum/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Transporte de Elétrons/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicina/farmacologia , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
J Food Sci ; 84(8): 2269-2277, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339566

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to explore the drivers of choice and perceptions of healthiness that specific ingredient or energy content information displayed on the front-of-pack label of cereal bars triggers among different groups of consumers. The participants (18 to 50 years old), classified as exercisers (n = 103, 52 women) or nonexercisers (n = 101, 51 women), completed a questionnaire and then rated their interest using images of cereal bars that varied in four characteristics ("With fruit," "With chocolate," "High protein," and calorie content). Conjoint analysis showed that the most important motives were associated with the convenience, pleasure/indulgence and liking dimensions, which did not differ between groups. These were followed by two other motives introduced in this study: energy/physical activity and satiety, in which the exercisers showed a distinctively higher level of interest than the nonexercisers. Chocolate and a low calorie content were the outstanding drivers of interest, at similar levels for both groups. A high protein content claim increased the interest of all participants, but more so for exercisers and for men. Fruit had a low impact on interest, which was only significant for women. These results indicate that front-of-pack label information influences choice in a distinctive way for some targeted population groups. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This study contributes knowledge about the impact that front-of-pack label information about certain ingredients and the energy content has on the motives and drivers for snack choices and perceptions of healthiness. The results contribute interesting results on the behavior of some consumer segments, in particular, exercisers and people involved in fitness activities, who are supposed to have special dietary needs.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Percepção , Lanches/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Comportamento do Consumidor , Grão Comestível/química , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Ingredientes de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
5.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 182: 109378, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31254855

RESUMO

Recently, the strategy of seed soaking has been successfully applied using extracts from different plant parts for healthy growth of plant under different environmental stresses. Compared to antioxidants like ascorbic acid (AsA) and glutathione (GSH) or polyamines (PAs) like spermine (SPM), spermidine (SPD), and putrescine (PUT), the effects of seed soaking using maize grain extract (MGE) on the biomass, productivity, phytohormones, and antioxidant defense system and its different components were examined with Cd2+-stressed wheat plants. In a preliminary study, seed soaking using AsA + GSH or PUT + SPD + SPM was more effective in increasing shoot fresh and dry weights, SPAD chlorophyll, and grain yield, and reducing malondialdehyde (MDA) content than individuals. In addition, MGE at 2% was more efficient than other concentrations. Therefore, they were selected for the main study. In the main study, compared to the control, seed soaking in AsA + GSH, PUT + SPD + SPM or MGE had positive effects on plant growth, yield, photosynthetic efficiency, contents and redox states of AsA and GSH, contents of PAs and plant hormones to varying degrees. Proline content and its metabolism enzymes activity, contents of soluble protein, N-compounds, soluble sugars, and α-tocopherol (α-TOC), and activities of antioxidant enzymes were not affected. However, contents of MDA and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were significantly reduced under normal conditions. Under Cd2+ stress (1.2 mM), along with the detrimental increases in the contents of MDA, H2O2 and Cd2+, contents of N-compounds, soluble sugars, proline content and its metabolism enzymes activities, AsA and GSH and their redox states, and polyamines, and activities of antioxidant enzymes were increased. In contrast, plant growth and yield, photosynthetic efficiency, soluble protein, and plant hormones were significantly reduced compared to the control. However, all of these attributes were significantly improved to varying degrees along with reduced contents of Cd2+, MDA, and H2O2 by seed soaking in AsA + GSH, PUT + SPD + SPM or MGE compared to the Cd2+-stressed control. Compared to AsA + GSH or PUT + SPD + SPM, seed soaking in MGE at 2% conferred the best results. Therefore, it is recommended to soak wheat seeds using MGE to improve plant growth and productivity by restricting the inhibitory influences of oxidative stress induced by Cd2+ stress.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cádmio/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Poliaminas/farmacologia , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Zea mays/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/efeitos dos fármacos , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Poliaminas/metabolismo , Triticum/metabolismo
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 684: 360-370, 2019 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31153082

RESUMO

Exposure to arsenic (As) through rice consumption potentially threatens millions of people worldwide. Understanding is still lacking the recycling impacts of rice residues on As phytoavailability in paddy soils and is of indisputable importance in providing a sustainable and effective measure to decrease As accumulation in rice grain. Herein, we examined the effects of rice husk biochar (RHB) and rice husk ash (RHA) on As grain speciation, and As dynamics in the soil porewater and solid-phase fractions. The results corroborated that both the RHB and RHA (0.64% w/w) treatments significantly (p < 0.05) decreased inorganic As accumulation in rice grain to 0.27-0.29 mg kg-1, which was below the maximum inorganic As level in husked rice (0.35 mg kg-1) established by the Codex. The residual phase (F6 = 90% of total soil As) as quantified by the sequential extraction was the dominant As pool; the fractions were subsequently transformed into several As pools associated with soluble and exchangeable (F1), organically bound (F2), Mn oxides (F3), poorly crystalline (F4) and crystalline (F5) Fe oxides during the rice growing periods. The Si-rich amendments enhanced the residual phase formation upon soil flooding, which decreased the As availability to rice plant. The inorganic grain-As concentrations were well explained by the soil-extractable As concentrations in the F2, F3, F5, and F6 fractions. The pore-water analysis indicated that Mn oxides were important sources and sinks for As released to the soil solution. Our findings shed light on the beneficial role of RHB and RHA in alleviating inorganic As uptake in paddy rice.


Assuntos
Arsenicais/análise , Carvão Vegetal/química , Cinza de Carvão/química , Oryza/efeitos dos fármacos , Silício/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Arsênico/análise , Arsênico/química , Arsenicais/química , Grão Comestível/química , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Água Subterrânea/química , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/metabolismo , Solo/química
7.
Plant Mol Biol ; 101(1-2): 41-61, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31183604

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Several classes of transcription factors are involved in the activation of defensins. A new type of the transcription factor responsible for the regulation of wheat grain specific defensins was characterised in this work. HD-Zip class IV transcription factors constitute a family of multidomain proteins. A full-length cDNA of HD-Zip IV, designated TaGL7 was isolated from the developing grain of bread wheat, using a specific DNA sequence as bait in the Y1H screen. 3D models of TaGL7 HD complexed with DNA cis-elements rationalised differences that underlined accommodations of binding and non-binding DNA, while the START-like domain model predicted binding of lipidic molecules inside a concave hydrophobic cavity. The 3'-untranslated region of TaGL7 was used as a probe to isolate the genomic clone of TdGL7 from a BAC library prepared from durum wheat. The spatial and temporal activity of the TdGL7 promoter was tested in transgenic wheat, barley and rice. TdGL7 was expressed mostly in ovary at fertilisation and its promoter was active in a liquid endosperm during cellularisation and later in the endosperm transfer cells, aleurone, and starchy endosperm. The pattern of TdGL7 expression resembled that of genes that encode grain-specific lipid transfer proteins, particularly defensins. In addition, GL7 expression was upregulated by mechanical wounding, similarly to defensin genes. Co-bombardment of cultured wheat cells with TdGL7 driven by constitutive promoter and seven grain or root specific defensin promoters fused to GUS gene, revealed activation of four promoters. The data confirmed the previously proposed role of HD-Zip IV transcription factors in the regulation of genes that encode lipid transfer proteins involved in lipid transport and defence. The TdGL7 promoter could be used to engineer cereal grains with enhanced resistance to insects and fungal infections.


Assuntos
Defensinas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Triticum/genética , DNA Complementar/genética , Grão Comestível/genética , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Genes Reporter , Hordeum/genética , Hordeum/metabolismo , Especificidade de Órgãos , Oryza/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Triticum/metabolismo , Técnicas do Sistema de Duplo-Híbrido
8.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(12): 5606-5609, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206173

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a lack of information on the presence of volatile organic compounds including p-cymene in foods for dietary exposure assessment. p-Cymene is a monoterpene found in many plant species, which has been used as a flavouring agent in foods and also exhibits antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. While the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) has no safety concerns at current levels of intake when used as a flavouring, the current study examines p-cymene levels in foods in general, not just from possible uses as a flavouring, as there could still be a potential health concern if there were high levels of exposure. RESULTS: 159 food composite samples from the 2014 Canadian Total Diet Study were analysed for p-cymene using a gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric method after headspace solid-phase microextraction. Concentrations of p-cymene in the composite samples of most food types were generally low, with a maximum level of 73.5 µg g-1 , detected in the composite sample of herbs and spices. Dietary exposures to p-cymene were estimated for different age groups of Canadian populations. CONCLUSIONS: Although p-cymene was detected in various foods, estimated dietary exposures to p-cymene for different age groups are well below the human intake threshold of toxicological concern established by JECFA of 1800 µg per person per day for structural class I flavours, which includes p-cymene. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Exposição Dietética/análise , Monoterpenos/análise , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Canadá , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Grão Comestível/química , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Fast Foods/análise , Feminino , Aromatizantes/análise , Aromatizantes/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Carne/análise , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monoterpenos/metabolismo , Verduras/química , Verduras/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
9.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2562, 2019 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31189898

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) accumulation in rice grain poses a serious threat to human health. While several transport systems have been reported, the complicity of rice Cd transport and accumulation indicates the necessity of identifying additional genes, especially those that are responsible for Cd accumulation divergence between indica and japonica rice subspecies. Here, we show that a gene, OsCd1, belonging to the major facilitator superfamily is involved in root Cd uptake and contributes to grain accumulation in rice. Natural variation in OsCd1 with a missense mutation Val449Asp is responsible for the divergence of rice grain Cd accumulation between indica and japonica. Near-isogenic line tests confirm that the indica variety carrying the japonica allele OsCd1V449 can reduce the grain Cd accumulation. Thus, the japonica allele OsCd1V449 may be useful for reducing grain Cd accumulation of indica rice cultivars through breeding.


Assuntos
Cádmio/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Oryza/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Alelos , Asparagina/genética , Cádmio/análise , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/química , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Oryza/química , Oryza/genética , Filogenia , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Raízes de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Valina/genética
10.
Plant Sci ; 285: 230-238, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203888

RESUMO

In higher plants, Fibrillins (FBNs) constitute a conserved plastid-lipid-associated (PAPs) protein family and modulate the metabolite transport and lipid metabolism in plastids of dicot species. However, FBNs have not functionally characterized in monocot species. In this study, the function of rice fibrillin 1 (OsFBN1) was investigated. The subcellular localization assay showed that the N-terminal chloroplast transport peptide (CTP) could facilitate the import of OsFBN1 into chloroplast. OsFBN1 specifically bound C18- and C20- fatty acids in vitro. Overexpressing OsFBN1 increased the tiller number but decreased the panicle length, grain-filling percent and JA levels compared to the wild type and RNAi silencing lines under heat stress. In addition, the overexpressing lines had more plastoglobules (PGs) than the wild type and RNAi silencing lines under both normal and heat stress conditions. Moreover, overexpressing OsFBN1 affected the transcription levels of OsAOS2 in JA synthesis, OsTHF1, OsABC1K7 and OsPsaE in thylakoid stability and photosynthesis, OsABC1-4 and OsSPS2 in ubiquinone-metabolism, OsHDR, OsDXR, and OsFPPS in isoprenoid metabolism. Collectively, these findings suggest the essential role of rice OsFBN1 in PG formation and lipid metabolism in chloroplasts, which coordinately regulate the growth and grain filling of the overexpressing lines under heat stress.


Assuntos
Cloroplastos/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Oryza/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Cloroplastos/ultraestrutura , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Lipoproteínas/metabolismo , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Oryza/genética , Oryza/fisiologia , Oryza/ultraestrutura , Fotossíntese , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Tilacoides/metabolismo
11.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(11): 5239-5248, 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31062366

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pseudocereals are nutrient-rich grains with high mineral content but also phytate content. Phytate is a mineral absorption inhibitor. The study's aim was to evaluate phytate degradation during spontaneous fermentation and during Lactobacillus plantarum 299v® fermentation of quinoa, canihua, and amaranth grains and flours. It also aimed to evaluate the accessibility of iron, zinc, and calcium and to estimate their bioavailability before and after the fermentation of flours with starter culture. Lactic acid, pH, phytate, and mineral content were analyzed during fermentation. RESULTS: Higher phytate degradation was found during the fermentation of flours (64-93%) than during that of grains (12-51%). Results suggest that phytate degradation was mainly due to endogenous phytase activity in different pseudocereals rather than the phytase produced by added microorganisms. The addition of Lactobacillus plantarum 299v® resulted in a higher level of lactic acid (76.8-82.4 g kg-1 DM) during fermentation, and a relatively quicker reduction in pH to 4 than in spontaneous fermentation. Mineral accessibility was increased (1.7-4.6-fold) and phytate : mineral molar ratios were reduced (1.5-4.2-fold) in agreement with phytate degradation (1.8-4.2-fold) in fermented flours. The reduced molar ratios were still above the threshold value for the improved estimated mineral bioavailability of mainly iron. CONCLUSION: Fermentation proved to be effective for degrading phytate in pseudocereal flours, but less so in grains. Fermentation with Lactobacillus plantarum 299v® improved mineral accessibility and estimated bioavailability in flours. © 2019 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Amaranthus/microbiologia , Chenopodium quinoa/microbiologia , Chenopodium/microbiologia , Lactobacillus plantarum/metabolismo , Minerais/análise , Ácido Fítico/metabolismo , Amaranthus/química , Amaranthus/metabolismo , Chenopodium/química , Chenopodium/metabolismo , Chenopodium quinoa/química , Chenopodium quinoa/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/química , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/microbiologia , Fermentação , Farinha/análise , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Humanos , Minerais/metabolismo , Ácido Fítico/análise
12.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 197, 2019 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31088353

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During maize early kernel development, the dramatic transcriptional reprogramming determines the rate of developmental progression, and phytohormone plays critical role in these important processes. To investigate the phytohormone levels and transcriptome reprogramming profiles during maize early kernel development, two maize inbreds with similar genetic background but different mature kernel sizes (ILa and ILb) were used. RESULTS: The levels of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) were increased continuously in maize kernels from 5 days after pollination (DAP) to 10 DAP. ILa had smaller mature kernels than ILb, and ILa kernels had significantly lower IAA levels and significantly higher SA levels than ILb at 10 DAP. The different phytohormone profiles correlated with different transcriptional reprogramming in the two kernels. The global transcriptomes in ILa and ILb kernels were strikingly different at 5 DAP, and their differences peaked at 8 DAP. Functional analysis showed that the biggest transcriptome difference between the two kernels is those response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Further analyses indicated that the start of dramatic transcriptional reprogramming and the onset of significantly enriched functional categories, especially the "plant hormone signal transduction" and "starch and sucrose metabolism", was earlier in ILa than in ILb, whereas more significant enrichment of those functional categories occurred at later stage of kernel development in ILb. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that later onset of the significantly enriched functional categories, coincide with their stronger activities at a later developmental stage and higher IAA level, are necessary for young kernels to undergo longer mitotic activity and finally develop a larger kernel size. The different onset times and complex interactions of the important functional categories, especially phytohormone signal, and carbohydrate metabolism, form the most important molecular regulators mediating maize early kernel development.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Zea mays/genética , Reprogramação Celular , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Zea mays/metabolismo
13.
Plant Sci ; 283: 60-69, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31128716

RESUMO

The miR156/miR529-SPL module acts a vital role in regulating plant growth and development. Though miR535 shows very high sequence identity to miR156 and miR529, it is still unknown whether miR535 could control plant growth and development. In this study, we performed the evolutionary analyses of miR535s in land plants and found that miR535s were less conserved than miR156s during evolution. In rice, miR535 expressed at a very low level during the vegetative growth but highly accumulated in young panicles, which is similar with OsmiR529, but opposite to OsmiR156. Expectedly, OsmiR535 overexpression in rice reduced plant height by decreasing the 1st and 2nd internode length. Furthermore, OsmiR535 overexpression imposed great influence in panicle architecture, such as more but shorter panicles, and fewer primary/secondary panicle branches. Moreover, OsmiR535 overexpression increased the grain length, but did not affect grain width. Through quantitative real-time PCR analyses, we further revealed that OsmiR535 overexpression repressed the expression of OsSPL7/12/16, as well as the OsSPLs downstream panicle related genes, including OsPIN1B, OsDEP1, OsLOG and OsSLR1. Taken together, our findings suggest that OsmiR535 multiply modulates plant height, panicle architecture and grain shape possibly by regulating OsSPLs genes in rice.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , MicroRNAs/fisiologia , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Oryza/anatomia & histologia , Oryza/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Alinhamento de Sequência , Análise de Sequência de RNA
14.
Plant Sci ; 283: 83-94, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31128718

RESUMO

The continuing growth of the human population creates an inevitable necessity for higher crop yields, which are mandatory for the supply with adequate amounts of food. However, increasing grain yield may lead to a reduction of grain quality, such as a decline in protein and mineral nutrient concentrations causing the so-called hidden hunger. To assess the interdependence between quantity and quality and to evaluate the biofortification potential of wild barley, we conducted field studies, examining the interplay between plant development, yield, and nutrient concentrations, using HEB-YIELD, a subset of the wild barley nested association mapping population HEB-25. A huge variation of nutrient concentration in grains was obtained, since we identified lines with a more than 50% higher grain protein, iron, and zinc concentration in comparison to the recurrent parent 'Barke'. We observed a negative relationship between grain yield and nutritional value in barley, indicated by predominantly negative correlations between yield and nutrient concentrations. Analyzing the genetic control of nutrient concentration in mature grains indicated that numerous genomic regions determine the final nutritional value of grains and wild alleles were frequently associated with higher nutrient concentrations. The targeted introgression of wild barley alleles may enable biofortification in future barley breeding.


Assuntos
Biofortificação , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Hordeum/metabolismo , Biofortificação/métodos , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Hordeum/genética , Valor Nutritivo , Locos de Características Quantitativas
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(9)2019 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31071964

RESUMO

The feasibility of thermography as a technique for plant screening aiming at drought-tolerance has been proven by its relationship with gas exchange, biomass, and yield. In this study, unlike most of the previous, thermography was applied for phenotyping contrasting maize genotypes whose classification for drought tolerance had already been established in the field. Our objective was to determine whether thermography-based classification would discriminate the maize genotypes in a similar way as the field selection in which just grain yield was taken into account as a criterion. We evaluated gas exchange, daily water consumption, leaf relative water content, aboveground biomass, and grain yield. Indeed, the screening of maize genotypes based on canopy temperature showed similar results to traditional methods. Nevertheless, canopy temperature only partially reflected gas exchange rates and daily water consumption in plants under drought. Part of the explanation may lie in the changes that drought had caused in plant leaves and canopy structure, altering absorption and dissipation of energy, photosynthesis, transpiration, and partitioning rates. Accordingly, although there was a negative relationship between grain yield and plant canopy temperature, it does not necessarily mean that plants whose canopies were maintained cooler under drought achieved the highest yield.


Assuntos
Secas , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Termografia/métodos , Zea mays/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/genética , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Genótipo , Fotossíntese/genética , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Temperatura Ambiente , Água/metabolismo , Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento
16.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(6): 5726-5755, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30928262

RESUMO

The forage lignocellulosic complex is one of the greatest limitations to utilization of the nutrients and energy in fiber. Consequently, several technologies have been developed to increase forage fiber utilization by dairy cows. Physical or mechanical processing techniques reduce forage particle size and gut fill and thereby increase intake. Such techniques increase the surface area for microbial colonization and may increase fiber utilization. Genetic technologies such as brown midrib mutants (BMR) with less lignin have been among the most repeatable and practical strategies to increase fiber utilization. Newer BMR corn hybrids are better yielding than the early hybrids and recent brachytic dwarf BMR sorghum hybrids avoid lodging problems of early hybrids. Several alkalis have been effective at increasing fiber digestibility. Among these, ammoniation has the added benefit of increasing the nitrogen concentration of the forage. However, few of these have been widely adopted due to the cost and the caustic nature of the chemicals. Urea treatment is more benign but requires sufficient urease and moisture for efficacy. Ammonia-fiber expansion technology uses high temperature, moisture, and pressure to degrade lignocellulose to a greater extent than ammoniation alone, but it occurs in reactors and is therefore not currently usable on farms. Biological technologies for increasing fiber utilization such as application of exogenous fibrolytic enzymes, live yeasts, and yeast culture have had equivocal effects on forage fiber digestion in individual studies, but recent meta-analyses indicate that their overall effects are positive. Nonhydrolytic expansin-like proteins act in synergy with fibrolytic enzymes to increase fiber digestion beyond that achieved by the enzyme alone due to their ability to expand cellulose microfibrils allowing greater enzyme penetration of the cell wall matrix. White-rot fungi are perhaps the biological agents with the greatest potential for lignocellulose deconstruction, but they require aerobic conditions and several strains degrade easily digestible carbohydrates. Less ruminant nutrition research has been conducted on brown rot fungi that deconstruct lignocellulose by generating highly destructive hydroxyl radicals via the Fenton reaction. More research is needed to increase the repeatability, efficacy, cost effectiveness, and on-farm applicability of technologies for increasing fiber utilization.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Bovinos/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Animais , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Digestão , Grão Comestível/química , Rúmen/metabolismo
17.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1949, 2019 04 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31028264

RESUMO

Grain protein content (GPC) affects rice nutrition quality. Here, we identify two stable quantitative trait loci (QTLs), qGPC-1 and qGPC-10, controlling GPC in a mapping population derived from indica and japonica cultivars crossing. Map-based cloning reveals that OsGluA2, encoding a glutelin type-A2 precursor, is the candidate gene underlying qGPC-10. It functions as a positive regulator of GPC and has a pleiotropic effect on rice grain quality. One SNP located in OsGluA2 promoter region is associated with its transcript expression level and GPC diversity. Polymorphisms of this nucleotide can divide all haplotypes into low (OsGluA2LET) and high (OsGluA2HET) expression types. Population genetic and evolutionary analyses reveal that OsGluA2LET, mainly present in japonica accessions, originates from wild rice. However, OsGluA2HET, the dominant type in indica, is acquired through mutation of OsGluA2LET. Our results shed light on the understanding of natural variations of GPC between indica and japonica subspecies.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Grãos/metabolismo , Oryza/metabolismo , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Haplótipos/genética , Oryza/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética
18.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 133, 2019 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30967108

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing zinc (Zn) concentrations in crops is important for alleviation of human Zn deficiency. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) contribute to plant Zn uptake, but their contribution to Zn in the edible portion of crops has not yet been investigated. This study aimed to quantify the mycorrhizal pathway of Zn uptake into grain of wheat and barley under varying soil Zn availabilities. Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare) were grown in pots with a hyphal compartment containing 65Zn. Plants were inoculated with Rhizophagus irregularis and grown at three soil Zn concentrations. Radioactive Zn in grain and straw was measured and the contribution of AMF to Zn uptake was calculated. RESULTS: The mycorrhizal pathway of Zn uptake contributed up to 24.3% of total above-ground Zn in wheat, and up to 12.7% of that Zn in barley. The greatest contribution by the mycorrhizal pathway was observed in barley at the lowest Zn addition, and in wheat at the highest one. In addition, grain yield of bread wheat was increased by AMF. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that AMF have a substantial role in uptake of Zn into cereals, and the proportional contribution by the MPU is dependent on plant species, as well as available soil Zn.


Assuntos
Hordeum/microbiologia , Micorrizas/fisiologia , Triticum/microbiologia , Zinco/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/microbiologia , Hordeum/metabolismo , Solo/química , Triticum/metabolismo
19.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 139: 587-590, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31030026

RESUMO

Good quality husk-caryopsis adhesion is essential for malting barley, but that quality is influenced by caryopsis surface lipid composition. Raman spectroscopy was applied to lipid extracts from barley caryopses of cultivars with differential adhesion qualities. Principal component regression indicated that Raman spectroscopy can distinguish among cultivars with good and poor quality adhesion due to differences in compounds associated with adhesion quality.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Hordeum/metabolismo , Análise Espectral Raman/métodos
20.
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem ; 83(8): 1484-1489, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30999822

RESUMO

Rice kefiran is superior in functionality, has high concentration of mucilaginous polysaccharide, and low lipid content, compared to conventional kefiran. However, reports on its physiological functionality, especially studies on life expectancy and aging, in model organisms are rare. In this study, nematodes were used as model organisms that were fed rice kefiran, along with Escherichia coli OP50, as a result of which, the lifespan of nematodes was extended and age-related retardation of mobility was suppressed. It also increased the heat stress resistance in nematodes. Experiments using daf-16 deletion mutant revealed that rice kefiran functions via DAF-16. Thus, this study revealed the longevity, anti-aging and heat stress tolerance effects of rice kefiran in nematodes.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Fermentação , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Oryza/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Adaptação Fisiológica , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans/fisiologia , Temperatura Alta
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