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1.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(5)2021 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34069231

RESUMO

Shoot branching is considered as an important trait for the architecture of plants and contributes to their growth and productivity. In cereal crops, such as rice, shoot branching is controlled by many factors, including phytohormones signaling networks, operating either in synergy or antagonizing each other. In rice, shoot branching indicates the ability to produce more tillers that are essential for achieving high productivity and yield potential. In the present study, we evaluated the growth and development, and yield components of a doubled haploid population derived from a cross between 93-11 (P1, indica) and Milyang352 (P2, japonica), grown under normal nitrogen and low nitrogen cultivation open field conditions. The results of the phenotypic evaluation indicated that parental lines 93-11 (P1, a high tillering indica cultivar) and Milyang352 (P2, a low tillering japonica cultivar) showed distinctive phenotypic responses, also reflected in their derived population. In addition, the linkage mapping and quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis detected three QTLs associated with tiller number on chromosome 2 (qTNN2-1, 130 cM, logarithm of the odds (LOD) 4.14, PVE 14.5%; and qTNL2-1, 134 cM, LOD: 6.05, PVE: 20.5%) and chromosome 4 (qTN4-1, 134 cM, LOD 3.92, PVE 14.5%), with qTNL2-1 having the highest phenotypic variation explained, and the only QTL associated with tiller number under low nitrogen cultivation conditions, using Kompetitive Allele-Specific PCR (KASP) and Fluidigm markers. The additive effect (1.81) of qTNL2-1 indicates that the allele from 93-11 (P1) contributed to the observed phenotypic variation for tiller number under low nitrogen cultivation. The breakthrough is that the majority of the candidate genes harbored by the QTLs qTNL2-1 and qTNN4-1 (here associated with the control of shoot branching under low and normal nitrogen cultivation, respectively), were also proposed to be involved in plant stress signaling or response mechanisms, with regard to their annotations and previous reports. Therefore, put together, these results would suggest that a possible crosstalk exists between the control of plant growth and development and the stress response in rice.


Assuntos
Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Oryza/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Alelos , Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/genética , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Genes de Plantas/genética , Genótipo , Haploidia , Oryza/metabolismo , Fenótipo
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34069397

RESUMO

Drought stress is a major constraint in global maize production, causing almost 30-90% of the yield loss depending upon growth stage and the degree and duration of the stress. Here, we report that ectopic expression of Arabidopsis glutaredoxin S17 (AtGRXS17) in field grown maize conferred tolerance to drought stress during the reproductive stage, which is the most drought sensitive stage for seed set and, consequently, grain yield. AtGRXS17-expressing maize lines displayed higher seed set in the field, resulting in 2-fold and 1.5-fold increase in yield in comparison to the non-transgenic plants when challenged with drought stress at the tasseling and silking/pollination stages, respectively. AtGRXS17-expressing lines showed higher relative water content, higher chlorophyll content, and less hydrogen peroxide accumulation than wild-type (WT) control plants under drought conditions. AtGRXS17-expressing lines also exhibited at least 2-fold more pollen germination than WT plants under drought stress. Compared to the transgenic maize, WT controls accumulated higher amount of proline, indicating that WT plants were more stressed over the same period. The results present a robust and simple strategy for meeting rising yield demands in maize under water limiting conditions.


Assuntos
Glutarredoxinas/genética , Glutarredoxinas/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Secas , Expressão Ectópica do Gene/genética , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Termotolerância/genética , Zea mays/genética
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34064912

RESUMO

Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a class of RNA molecules with gene regulatory functions in plant development and the stress response. Although the number of lncRNAs identified in plants is rapidly increasing, very little is known about their role in barley development. In this study, we performed global identification of barley lncRNAs based on 53 RNAseq libraries derived from nine different barley tissues and organs. In total, 17,250 lncRNAs derived from 10,883 loci were identified, including 8954 novel lncRNAs. Differential expression of lncRNAs was observed in the developing shoot apices and grains, the two organs that have a direct influence on the final yield. The regulatory interaction of differentially expressed lncRNAs with the potential target genes was evaluated. We identified 176 cis-acting lncRNAs in shoot apices and 424 in grains, while the number of trans-acting lncRNAs in these organs was 1736 and 540, respectively. The potential target protein-coding genes were identified, and their biological function was annotated using MapMan ontology. This is the first insight into the roles of lncRNAs in barley development on the genome-wide scale, and our results provide a solid background for future functional studies.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Genoma de Planta , Hordeum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , RNA de Plantas/genética , Grão Comestível/genética , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Hordeum/genética , Hordeum/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/genética , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo
4.
Food Chem ; 355: 129585, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799237

RESUMO

Oats (Avena sativa L.) are a healthy food, being high in dietary fibre (e.g. ß-glucans), antioxidants, minerals, and vitamins. Understanding the effect of variety and crop management on nutritional quality is important. The response of four oat varieties to increased nitrogen levels was investigated across multiple locations and years with respect to yield, grain quality and metabolites (assessed via GC- and LC- MS). A novel high-resolution UHPLC-PDA-MS/MS method was developed, providing improved metabolite enrichment, resolution, and identification. The combined phenotyping approach revealed that, amino acid levels were increased by nitrogen supplementation, as were total protein and nitrogen containing lipid levels, whereas health-beneficial avenanthramides were decreased. Although nitrogen addition significantly increased grain yield and ß-glucan content, supporting increasing the total nitrogen levels recommended within agricultural guidelines, oat varietal choice as well as negative impacts upon health beneficial secondary metabolites and the environmental burdens associated with nitrogen fertilisation, require further consideration.


Assuntos
Avena/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Nitrogênio/administração & dosagem , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Antioxidantes/química , Avena/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Análise Discriminante , Grão Comestível/química , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Valor Nutritivo , Fenótipo , beta-Glucanas/análise
5.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(4)2021 03 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806192

RESUMO

Cereal productivity is reduced by environmental stresses such as drought, heat, elevated CO2, salinity, metal toxicity and cold. Sometimes, plants are exposed to multiple stresses simultaneously. Plants must be able to make a rapid and adequate response to these environmental stimuli in order to restore their growing ability. The latest research has shown that aquaporins are important players in maintaining cell homeostasis under abiotic stress. Aquaporins are membrane intrinsic proteins (MIP) that form pores in the cellular membranes, which facilitate the movement of water and many other molecules such as ammonia, urea, CO2, micronutrients (silicon and boron), glycerol and reactive oxygen species (hydrogen peroxide) across the cell and intercellular compartments. The present review primarily focuses on the diversity of aquaporins in cereal species, their cellular and subcellular localisation, their expression and their functioning under abiotic stresses. Lastly, this review discusses the potential use of mutants and plants that overexpress the aquaporin-encoding genes to improve their tolerance to abiotic stress.


Assuntos
Aquaporinas/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Homeostase , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Aquaporinas/genética , Grão Comestível/genética , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
6.
Nat Genet ; 53(6): 906-915, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33927398

RESUMO

Phosphate (Pi) is essential to plant growth and crop yield. However, it remains unknown how Pi homeostasis is maintained during cereal grain filling. Here, we identified a rice grain-filling-controlling PHO1-type Pi transporter, OsPHO1;2, through map-based cloning. Pi efflux activity and its localization to the plasma membrane of seed tissues implicated a specific role for OsPHO1;2 in Pi reallocation during grain filling. Indeed, Pi over-accumulated in developing seeds of the Ospho1;2 mutant, which inhibited the activity of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase), important for starch synthesis, and the grain-filling defect was alleviated by overexpression of AGPase in Ospho1;2-mutant plants. A conserved function was recognized for the maize transporter ZmPHO1;2. Importantly, ectopic overexpression of OsPHO1;2 enhanced grain yield, especially under low-Pi conditions. Collectively, we discovered a mechanism underlying Pi transport, grain filling and P-use efficiency, providing an efficient strategy for improving grain yield with minimal P-fertilizer input in cereals.


Assuntos
Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Animais , Membrana Celular/ultraestrutura , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Grão Comestível/ultraestrutura , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Mutação/genética , Oryza/enzimologia , Oryza/genética , Fenótipo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Sementes/genética , Sementes/ultraestrutura , Amido/biossíntese , Xenopus , Zea mays/genética
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(5)2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800127

RESUMO

Heat stress causes huge losses in the yield of cereal crops. Temperature influences the rate of plant metabolic and developmental processes that ultimately determine the production of grains, with high temperatures causing a reduction in grain yield and quality. To ensure continued food security, the tolerance of high temperature is rapidly becoming necessary. Brassinosteroids (BR) are a class of plant hormones that impact tolerance to various biotic and abiotic stresses and regulate cereal growth and fertility. Fine-tuning the action of BR has the potential to increase cereals' tolerance and acclimation to heat stress and maintain yields. Mechanistically, exogenous applications of BR protect yields through amplifying responses to heat stress and rescuing the expression of growth promoters. Varied BR compounds and differential signaling mechanisms across cereals point to a diversity of mechanisms that can be leveraged to mitigate heat stress. Further, hormone transport and BR interaction with other molecules in plants may be critical to utilizing BR as protective agrochemicals against heat stress. Understanding the interplay between heat stress responses, growth processes and hormone signaling may lead us to a comprehensive dogma of how to tune BR application for optimizing cereal growth under challenging environments in the field.


Assuntos
Brassinosteroides/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Temperatura Alta
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(8)2021 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33923687

RESUMO

TaCKX gene family members (GFMs) play essential roles in the regulation of cytokinin during wheat development and significantly influence yield-related traits. However, detailed function of most of them is not known. To characterize the role of TaCKX2.2 genes we silenced all homoeologous copies of both TaCKX2.2.1 and TaCKX2.2.2 by RNAi technology and observed the effect of silencing in 7 DAP spikes of T1 and T2 generations. The levels of gene silencing of these developmentally regulated genes were different in both generations, which variously determined particular phenotypes. High silencing of TaCKX2.2.2 in T2 was accompanied by slight down-regulation of TaCKX2.2.1 and strong up-regulation of TaCKX5 and TaCKX11, and expression of TaCKX1, TaCKX2.1, and TaCKX9 was comparable to the non-silenced control. Co-ordinated expression of TaCKX2.2.2 with other TaCKX GFMs influenced phytohormonal homeostasis. Contents of isoprenoid, active cytokinins, their conjugates, and auxin in seven DAP spikes of silenced T2 plants increased from 1.27 to 2.51 times. However, benzyladenine (BA) and abscisic acid (ABA) contents were significantly reduced and GA3 was not detected. We documented a significant role of TaCKX2.2.2 in the regulation of thousand grain weight (TGW), grain number, and chlorophyll content, and demonstrated the formation of a homeostatic feedback loop between the transcription of tested genes and phytohormones. We also discuss the mechanism of regulation of yield-related traits.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível/genética , Genes de Plantas , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Triticum/genética , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Citocininas/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Homeostase , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/metabolismo
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(6)2021 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33810044

RESUMO

Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein (Cas9)-mediated genome editing has become an important way for molecular breeding in crop plants. To promote rice breeding, we edited the Grain Size 3 (GS3) gene for obtaining valuable and stable long-grain rice mutants. Furthermore, isobaric tags for the relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based proteomic method were applied to determine the proteome-wide changes in the GS3 mutants compared with wild type (WT). Two target sites were designed to construct the vector, and the Agrobacterium-mediated method was used for rice transformation. Specific mutations were successfully introduced, and the grain length (GL) and 1000-grain weight (GWT) of the mutants were increased by 31.39% and 27.15%, respectively, compared with WT. The iTRAQ-based proteomic analysis revealed that a total of 31 proteins were differentially expressed in the GS3 mutants, including 20 up-regulated and 11 down-regulated proteins. Results showed that differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were mainly related to cysteine synthase, cysteine proteinase inhibitor, vacuolar protein sorting-associated, ubiquitin, and DNA ligase. Furthermore, functional analysis revealed that DEPs were mostly enriched in cellular process, metabolic process, binding, transmembrane, structural, and catalytic activities. Pathway enrichment analysis revealed that DEPs were mainly involved in lipid metabolism and oxylipin biosynthesis. The protein-to-protein interaction (PPI) network found that proteins related to DNA damage-binding, ubiquitin-40S ribosomal, and cysteine proteinase inhibitor showed a higher degree of interaction. The homozygous mutant lines featured by stable inheritance and long-grain phenotype were obtained using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. This study provides a convenient and effective way of improving grain yield, which could significantly accelerate the breeding process of long-grain japonica parents and promote the development of high-yielding rice.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Edição de Genes , Genes de Plantas , Mutagênese , Oryza/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Sequência de Bases , Inibidores de Cisteína Proteinase , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Grão Comestível/genética , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Ordem dos Genes , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Estudos de Associação Genética , Vetores Genéticos/genética , Genoma de Planta , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Mutação , Oryza/classificação , Oryza/metabolismo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteômica , Transdução de Sinais
10.
J Food Sci ; 86(5): 1861-1877, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33822387

RESUMO

In order to differentiate and characterize Chinese Luzhou-flavor liquor according to geographical origins, the volatile flavor compounds were analyzed for forty commercial Luzhou-flavor liquor samples from Sichuan, Jiangsu, and Hubei provinces. A total of 113 volatile flavor compounds were quantified; among them, 29 flavor compounds were quantified according to the internal standard method. The differences in flavor composition among different brands of Luzhou-flavor liquor were compared. A data matrix of 64 (flavor components) × 40 (samples) was studied and interpreted using chemometric analysis. The research object could be naturally clustered according to geographical origin (brand) based on the hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), principal component analysis (PCA) and multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) methods. A 100% of predication ability was obtained by the application of K-nearest neighbor model (KNN) for study sample classification. The results demonstrate that the abundance of volatile flavor components in liquors combined with appropriate multivariate statistical methods could be used for the division and traceability of liquors from different geographic origins. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This study can provide the basis for the identification of liquor authenticity and the traceability of liquor.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Bebidas Alcoólicas/classificação , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , China , Análise por Conglomerados , Fermentação , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Análise Multivariada , Análise de Componente Principal , Paladar
11.
Plant Sci ; 307: 110894, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33902855

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) is a highly toxic element to living organisms, and its accumulation in the edible portions of crops poses a potential threat for human health. The molecular mechanisms underlying Cd detoxification and accumulation are not fully understood in plants. In this study, the involvement of a C-type ABC transporter, OsABCC9, in Cd tolerance and accumulation in rice was investigated. The expression of OsABCC9 was rapidly induced by Cd treatment in a concentration-dependent manner in the root. The transporter, localized on the tonoplast, was mainly expressed in the root stele under Cd stress. OsABCC9 knockout mutants were more sensitive to Cd and accumulated more Cd in both the root and shoot compared to the wild-type. Moreover, the Cd concentrations in the xylem sap and grain were also significantly increased in the knockout lines, suggesting that more Cd was distributed from root to shoot and grain in the mutants. Heterologous expression of OsABCC9 in yeast enhanced Cd tolerance along with an increase of intracellular Cd content. Taken together, these results indicated that OsABCC9 mediates Cd tolerance and accumulation through sequestration of Cd into the root vacuoles in rice.


Assuntos
Transporte Biológico/genética , Transporte Biológico/fisiologia , Cádmio/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Oryza/genética , Oryza/fisiologia , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Brotos de Planta/genética
12.
Plant Biol (Stuttg) ; 23(5): 806-818, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33721388

RESUMO

Global warming results in high temperature stress (HTS), which presents severe challenges worldwide for modern agricultural production and will have significant impacts on the yield and quality of crops. Accumulation of photosynthetic products, activity of enzymes involved in sucrose-starch metabolism, phytohormone levels and metabolic profiling using LC-MS were analysed in the flag leaves and/or developing grains subjected to HTS during the grain-filling stage of an indica rice. HTS induced significant yield loss and reduced the grain quality, with lower amylose content. HTS reduced photosynthetic product accumulation in flag leaves and reduced starch accumulation in developing grains, compared to growth under normal temperatures. The activity of enzymes related to sucrose-starch metabolism were dis-regulated in developing grains grown under high temperature (HT). Moreover, phytohormone homeostasis in flag leaves and developing grains was also dramatically disturbed by HT. Metabolic profiling detected many metabolites with remarkably different relative fold abundances at different time points in the developing grain at HT versus normal temperatures, these metabolites were enriched in several HTS response pathways. The change in phytohormone ratio and auxin level might be associated with the reduction in photosynthetic products and their translocation, and ultimately with reduced starch accumulation in the developing grain. The detected metabolites might have different roles in response to the HTS in developing grain at different development stages. These results provide a theoretical reference and basis for future rice production towards higher quality and yield when grown under HTS.


Assuntos
Oryza , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Oryza/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas , Amido/metabolismo , Temperatura
13.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 37(4): 64, 2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33733383

RESUMO

The wheat germ protein (WG) and it's proteolytic peptide have a variety of biological activities. Our previous work showed that WG could improve immunity of the immunosuppressive mice established by cyclophosphamide. However, in the healthy condition and normal diet, as a supplementary food, the effects of immunity improvement and gut microbiota remodeling by the wheat germ globulin has not been studied yet. Here, we reported that WG could improve the immunity and remodel the gut microbiota of the mice, as a potentially safe functional supplementary food for the first time. The increase of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and the decrease of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) indicated that WG could enhance the levels of activated T cells and monocytes and anti-inflammatory ability, meanwhile, the significant increase of immunoglobin G (lgG) and the notable decrease of the immunoglobin M (lgM) and immunoglobin A (lgA) illustrated that WG could improve immunity by promoting the differentiation and maturation process of B cells, compared with the NC group (normal control group). 16S rRNA sequencing showed WG could remodel the gut microbiota. At the phylum level, the Bacteroidetes were reduced and Firmicutes were increased in WG group, compared with NC group. At the genus level, the SCFA producing genera of unclassified_f_Lachnospiraceae, Blautia and especially the Roseburia (increased more than threefold) increased notably. Further, the level changes of cytokines and immunoglobulins were associated with the gut microbiota. This work showed that WG could improve immunity and has potential application value as an immune-enhancing functional food.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Imunidade , Triticum , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios , Biodiversidade , Citocinas/sangue , Firmicutes , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Imunoglobulina G , Imunoglobulinas , Interleucina-10 , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa
14.
Plant Sci ; 306: 110845, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33775355

RESUMO

Cereal grains provide a substantial part of the calories for humans and animals. The main quality determinants of grains are polysaccharides (mainly starch but also dietary fibers such as arabinoxylans, mixed-linkage glucans) and proteins synthesized and accumulated during grain development in a specialized storage tissue: the endosperm. In this study, the composition of a structure localized at the interface of the vascular tissues of the maternal plant and the seed endosperm was investigated. This structure is contained in the endosperm cavity where water and nutrients are transferred to support grain filling. While studying the wheat grain development, the cavity content was found to autofluoresce under UV light excitation. Combining multispectral analysis, Fourier-Transform infrared spectroscopy, immunolabeling and laser-dissection coupled with wet chemistry, we identified in the cavity arabinoxylans and hydroxycinnamic acids. The cavity content forms a "gel" in the developing grain, which persists in dry mature grain and during subsequent imbibition. Microscopic magnetic resonance imaging revealed that the gel is highly hydrated. Our results suggest that arabinoxylans are synthesized by the nucellar epidermis, released in the cavity where they form a highly hydrated gel which might contribute to regulate grain hydration.


Assuntos
Endosperma/química , Endosperma/metabolismo , Triticum/química , Triticum/metabolismo , Xilanos/química , Xilanos/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/química , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
15.
Plant Sci ; 306: 110851, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33775358

RESUMO

The grain-filling process is crucial for cereal crop yields, but how the caryopsis of such plants is supplied with sugars, which are produced by photosynthesis in leaves and then transported long distance, is largely unknown. In rice (Oryza sativa), various SWEET family sucrose transporters are thought to have important roles in grain filling. Here, we report that OsSWEET14 plays a crucial part in this process in rice. ossweet14 knockout mutants did not show any detectable phenotypic differences from the wild type, whereas ossweet14;ossweet11 double-knockout mutants had much more severe phenotypes than ossweet11 single-knockout mutants, including strongly reduced grain weight and yield, reduced grain-filling rate, and increased starch accumulation in the pericarp. Both OsSWEET14 and OsSWEET11 exhibited distinct spatiotemporal expression patterns between the early stage of caryopsis development and the rapid grain-filling stage. During the rapid grain-filling stage, OsSWEET14 and OsSWEET11 localized to four key sites: vascular parenchyma cells, the nucellar projection, the nucellar epidermis, and cross cells. These results demonstrate that OsSWEET14 plays an important role in grain filling, and they suggest that four major apoplasmic pathways supply sucrose to the endosperm during the rapid grain-filling stage via the sucrose effluxers SWEET14 and SWEET11.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível/genética , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Endosperma/genética , Endosperma/metabolismo , Oryza/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , China , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Variação Genética , Mutação , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
16.
Plant Sci ; 306: 110859, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33775365

RESUMO

Autotetraploid rice, which is developed through chromosome set doubling using diploid rice, produces high-quality kernels that are rich in storage proteins. However, little information is available about the content of different proteins in autotetraploid rice and their proteomic analysis. The dynamic changes in four storage proteins, namely, albumin, globulin, prolamin, and glutelin, were analyzed in the endosperm of autotetraploid rice (AJNT-4x) and in that of its diploid counterpart (AJNT-2x) for comparison. The contents of the four proteins were all higher during endosperm development in AJNT-4x than in AJNT-2x, but their change and composition were almost the same in the two materials. Then, iTRAQ was employed to analyze the glutelin profiles of AJNT-4x and AJNT-2x at 10 DAF, 15 DAF, and 20 DAF. A total of 1326 proteins were identified in AJNT-4x and AJNT-2x using high-throughput LC-MS/MS. Among the 1326 identified proteins, there were 362 DEPs in AJNT-4x compared with AJNT-2x and 372 DEPs between different developmental stages in AJNT-4x. Eight important upregulated proteins were identified by qRT-PCR, including B8AM24, B8ARJ0, B8AQM6, A2ZCE6, and P37833. Among them, B8AM24 and B8ARJ0 were related to the lysine biosynthesis process. GO enrichment analysis revealed that the critical functions of DEPs exhibited little overlap between the 10, 15, and 20 DAF groups. Endosperm glutelin accumulation was regulated mainly by different DEPs during the early stage, and 15 DAF was a critical regulating point for glutelin accumulation. KEGG pathway analysis showed that ribosomal proteins were significantly higher in AJNT-4x than in AJNT-2x at 10 DAF, and protein processing, biosynthesis, and metabolism of amino acids were higher and more active in AJNT-4x at 15 DAF, while the peroxisome was richer in AJNT-4x at 20 DAF. The PPI network showed that ribosomal proteins gradually decreased with increasing endosperm development. These results provide new insights into dynamic glutelin expression differences during endosperm development in autotetraploid rice, which will aid in the development of rice cultivars with increased yield and improved grain nutritional quality.


Assuntos
Endosperma/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Endosperma/metabolismo , Glutens/metabolismo , Oryza/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteômica , Produção Agrícola/estatística & dados numéricos , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Glutens/genética , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional
17.
Plant Sci ; 305: 110831, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33691965

RESUMO

Cereal crops accumulate large amounts of starch which is synthesized and stored in amyloplasts in the form of starch grains (SGs). Despite significant progress in deciphering starch biosynthesis, our understanding of amyloplast development in rice (Oryza sativa) endosperm remains largely unknown. Here, we report a novel rice floury mutant named enlarged starch grain1 (esg1). The mutant has decreased starch content, altered starch physicochemical properties, slower grain-filling rate and reduced 1000-grain weight. A distinctive feature in esg1 endosperm is that SGs are much larger, mainly due to an increased number of starch granules per SG. Spherical and loosely assembled granules, together with those weakly stained SGs may account for decreased starch content in esg1. Map-based cloning revealed that ESG1 encodes a putative permease subunit of a bacterial-type ABC (ATP-binding cassette) lipid transporter. ESG1 is constitutively expressed in various tissues. It encodes a protein localized to the chloroplast and amyloplast membranes. Mutation of ESG1 causes defective galactolipid synthesis. The overall study indicates that ESG1 is a newly identified protein affecting SG development and subsequent starch biosynthesis, which provides novel insights into amyloplast development in rice.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Endosperma/metabolismo , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Plastídeos/metabolismo , Amido/biossíntese , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Mutação
18.
Toxins (Basel) ; 13(2)2021 02 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669853

RESUMO

Processed wheat bran (W) is of great importance for food and feed. Consequently, the biosafety of W should be evaluated and improved with valorisation strategies. This study tested a design combining extrusion (at temperature of 115 and 130 °C; screw speeds of 16, 20, and 25 rpm) and fermentation with Lactobacillus plantarum and L. uvarum strains for the valorisation of W to provide safer food and feed stock. The influence of different treatments on biogenic amine formation, mycotoxin content, and free amino acids, as well as acidity, microbiological parameters, and sugar concentration, were analysed. This research showed that a combination of extrusion and fermentation with selected strains can change several aspects of W characteristics. There was a significant effect of applied treatments on acidity and the microbiological parameters of W, as well as biogenic amines content. The lowest total mycotoxin concentration (29.8 µg/kg) was found in extruded (130 °C; 25 rpm) and fermented with L. uvarum sample. Finally, the combination of the abovementioned treatments can be confirmed as a prospective innovative pre-treatment for W, capable of potentially enhancing their safety characteristics and composition.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível/microbiologia , Fermentação , Manipulação de Alimentos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Lactobacillus plantarum/fisiologia , Lactobacillus/fisiologia , Triticum/microbiologia , Aminoácidos/análise , Aminas Biogênicas/análise , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Micotoxinas/análise , Valor Nutritivo , Medição de Risco , Açúcares/análise , Temperatura , Triticum/metabolismo
19.
Plant Cell Rep ; 40(5): 871-880, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33772600

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: The effects of selenium in rice grain composition depend on the soil nitrogen supply. Selenium and nitrogen have the potential to modify rice grain composition; however, it is unclear how the combined effect of Se and nitrogen affects the grain nutritional quality of rice. In our study, grain Se concentration was positively associated with the increased availability of nitrogen in soil. The accumulation of Se in grain of rice plants treated with Se combined with nitrogen was accompanied by an increase in expression of NRT1.1B, a rice nitrate transporter and sensor, in root. Moreover, Se potentiates the response of nitrogen supply in expression of sulfate transporter OsSULTR1.2, phosphate transporter OsPT2 and silicon transporter OsNIP2.1 in root, thereby increasing root Se uptake capacity. The combination of Se with high nitrogen increased the concentrations of protein, carbohydrates, Se, Mo and Mg, but decreased concentrations of Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn in grain. Overall, our results revealed that many of the effects of Se in rice grain composition are due to a shift in the nitrogen status of the plant.


Assuntos
Oryza/metabolismo , Selênio/metabolismo , Cobre/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Oryza/genética , Zinco/metabolismo
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(5)2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669006

RESUMO

The world population is growing rapidly, and food shortage remains a critical issue. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping is a statistical analytical method that uses both phenotypic and genotypic data. The purpose of QTL mapping is to determine the exact gene location for various complex traits. Increasing grain weight is a way to increase yield in rice. Genes related to grain size were mapped using the Samgang/Nagdong double haploid (SNDH) populations. Grain sizes were diversely distributed in SNDH 113 populations, and OsBRKq1 was detected on chromosome 1 in an analysis of QTL mapping that used 1000 grain weight, grain length, and grain width. OsBRKq1 exhibited high sequence similarity with the brassinosteroid leucine-rich repeat-receptor kinases of Arabidopsis thaliana and Zea mays. It was also predicted to have a similar function because of its high homology. OsBRKq1 interacts with various grain-size control genes. Among the SNDH populations, the analysis of the relative expression level during the panicle formation stage of OsBRKq1 in panicles of SNDH117, which has the largest grain size, and SNDH6, which has the smallest grain size, the relative expression level was significantly increased in SNDH117 panicles. SNDH populations have been advancing generations for 10 years; various genetic traits have been fixed and are currently being used as bridging parents. Therefore, the stable expression level of OsBRKq1 was confirmed via QTL mapping. In the future, OsBRKq1 can be effectively used to increase the yield of rice and solve food problems by increasing the size of seeds.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Grão Comestível/genética , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Oryza/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Genótipo , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Zea mays/genética
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