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1.
Se Pu ; 37(11): 1241-1248, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31642279

RESUMO

A rapid method based on ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole/electrostatic field orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry (UPLC-HRMS) was developed for the screening and confirmation of 20 mycotoxins in grain products. The samples were extracted with acetonitrile containing 2% (v/v) formic acid, and the extracts were cleaned up on Captive EMR-Lipid columns. The analytes were separated on a Thermo Hypersil Gold C18 column (100 mm×2.1 mm, 1.9 µm), and analyzed by UPLC-HRMS. The retention time and accurate mass of the parent ion were used for fast screening in full scan mode, while the accurate masses of the fragment ions were used for confirmation in the two-stage threshold-triggered full mass scan mode. The results revealed that the 20 mycotoxins showed good linear relationships in their respective mass concentration ranges. The correlation coefficients were not less than 0.99, and the limits of quantitation (LOQs) ranged from 0.25 to 20 µg/kg. The recoveries of the 20 mycotoxins in the sample ranged from 72.9% to 117.8% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) from 2.9% to 15.2% at three spiked levels (n=6). This method has the advantages of high sensitivity and reliability, and is thus suitable for the rapid screening and confirmation of 20 mycotoxins in grain products.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível/química , Micotoxinas/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Grão Comestível/microbiologia , Espectrometria de Massas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
2.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(33): 9362-9370, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368700

RESUMO

This manuscript presents an effective and robust method for simultaneous stereoselective determination of two pyrethroid insecticides, tetramethrin and α-cypermethrin in different food products by high-performance liquid chromatography. Enantioseparation was carried out using reversed-phase chromatography, and the influences of four polysaccharide-based chiral columns, mobile phase composition, and column temperature on retention were fully investigated. Satisfactory separation was obtained on Chiralpak IG column using acetonitrile-water (75:25, v/v) under isocratic conditions. To extract and purify the target analytes from food matrices, matrix solid-phase dispersion was employed with C18 as dispersant and primary secondary amine as well as graphitized carbon black as cleanup sorbents. Response surface method based on Box-Behnken design was implemented to assist optimization of the extraction variables. Then, method validation was done in real samples including specificity, linearity, sensitivity, trueness, precision, as well as stability, and its analytical performance fulfills the criteria recommended by the European Union SANTE/11945/2015, demonstrating its applicability in studying the stereochemistry of chiral tetramethrin and α-cypermethrin in food products.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Grão Comestível/química , Frutas/química , Inseticidas/química , Piretrinas/química , Verduras/química , Cromatografia de Fase Reversa/métodos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Inseticidas/isolamento & purificação , Piretrinas/isolamento & purificação , Extração em Fase Sólida , Estereoisomerismo
3.
Bioresour Technol ; 291: 121863, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376664

RESUMO

This study examined the influence of the application of brewery spent grain (BSG) on biogas production efficiency as well as its kinetics in the co-digestion of acid cheese whey (ACW) and sewage sludge (SS). The experiment was conducted in semi-flow anaerobic reactors under mesophilic conditions (35 °C) with different hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 16.7 d, 18 d and 20 d. The results indicate that the addition of BSG significantly enhanced the biogas yields, ensuring good process stability. The highest value of 0.54 m3 kg-1 VSadded was obtained at HRT of 16.7 d, while for ACW and SS it was only 0.50 m3 kg-1 VSadded at HRT 18 d. However, the decrease in the rate constant k occurred (0.07 h-1) as compared to the two-component system (0.096 h-1). The highest energy profit of 160% was enhanced for the three-substrate co-digestion, indicating it as a cost-effective solution.


Assuntos
Queijo , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Esgotos , Soro do Leite/metabolismo , Anaerobiose , Biocombustíveis/análise , Grão Comestível/química , Especificidade por Substrato
4.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 411(23): 6129-6139, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278554

RESUMO

Antibiotics may be present in agricultural soils through the application of organic amendments as fertilizers or by irrigation of fields with recycled water. As a result of these agricultural practices, antibiotics in soil can lead to their uptake by plants, entering in this way the food chain. Studies on the levels of antibiotics in cereal samples are scarce in the available literature. In this work, an analytical method was developed for the determination of 19 antibiotics (fluoroquinolones, sulfonamides, tetracyclines, and lincosamides) in four types of cereal grains (wheat, barley, rice, and oat). Ultrasound-assisted matrix solid-phase dispersion was selected as extraction technique with recoveries of target analytes ranging from 73 to 127% for the four cereals analyzed. Limits of quantification obtained ranged from 0.8 to 5.8 ng g-1. Compared with methods described for the analysis of antibiotics in cereals, the developed method uses a lower volume of extraction solvent and very good recoveries were obtained for all compounds. The validated method was applied to the analysis of different types of cereals samples, harvested from agricultural fields or purchased from local supermarkets. The analysis of the five cereal samples grown in fields with 3 years of consecutive organic amendments revealed that none of the nineteen antibiotics selected were found in any sample. Eleven commercial samples of cereals of different types and presentations were analyzed and enrofloxacin was detected in one rice sample; the presence of enrofloxacin in cereals or its incorporation into crops from soil or water not previously reported. Graphical abstract.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/análise , Resíduos de Drogas/análise , Grão Comestível/química , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Fluoroquinolonas/análise , Limite de Detecção , Lincosamidas/análise , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Sulfonamidas/análise , Tetraciclinas/análise
5.
J Food Sci ; 84(8): 2269-2277, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339566

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to explore the drivers of choice and perceptions of healthiness that specific ingredient or energy content information displayed on the front-of-pack label of cereal bars triggers among different groups of consumers. The participants (18 to 50 years old), classified as exercisers (n = 103, 52 women) or nonexercisers (n = 101, 51 women), completed a questionnaire and then rated their interest using images of cereal bars that varied in four characteristics ("With fruit," "With chocolate," "High protein," and calorie content). Conjoint analysis showed that the most important motives were associated with the convenience, pleasure/indulgence and liking dimensions, which did not differ between groups. These were followed by two other motives introduced in this study: energy/physical activity and satiety, in which the exercisers showed a distinctively higher level of interest than the nonexercisers. Chocolate and a low calorie content were the outstanding drivers of interest, at similar levels for both groups. A high protein content claim increased the interest of all participants, but more so for exercisers and for men. Fruit had a low impact on interest, which was only significant for women. These results indicate that front-of-pack label information influences choice in a distinctive way for some targeted population groups. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This study contributes knowledge about the impact that front-of-pack label information about certain ingredients and the energy content has on the motives and drivers for snack choices and perceptions of healthiness. The results contribute interesting results on the behavior of some consumer segments, in particular, exercisers and people involved in fitness activities, who are supposed to have special dietary needs.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Percepção , Lanches/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Comportamento do Consumidor , Grão Comestível/química , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Ingredientes de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
6.
Food Chem ; 298: 125084, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260980

RESUMO

A method for simultaneous determination of cadmium and iron in cereal flakes using high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry is presented. Sample digest is introduced into the graphite furnace together with Pd/Mg(NO3)2 modifier. The primary absorption line of cadmium and adjacent secondary line of iron are used for the determination. Atomization is performed as a two-step process in order to meet ideal conditions for both elements. Interference produced by molecular absorption of PO molecular bands is suppressed by correction model using least squares background correction. Using the proposed method, levels of cadmium and iron were determined in different kinds of cereal flakes, where both elements are of great interest. Working range (0.01-2 µg L-1 for Cd and 10-500 µg L-1 for Fe) was suitable for the determination of analytes in samples. The method is fast, robust, and may be routinely used routinely in the analysis of foodstuffs.


Assuntos
Cádmio/análise , Grão Comestível/química , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Ferro/análise , Espectrofotometria Atômica/métodos , Grafite/química
7.
Food Chem ; 298: 125042, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31261006

RESUMO

The bioavailability of the pyridoxal (PL), pyridoxine (PN), and pyridoxamine (PM) forms of vitamin B6 is different, considering that their bioaccessibility in baby foods is important for infant and young children's nutrition. The aim of this study was to determine and evaluate the bioaccessibility of the PL, PN, and PM forms of vitamin B6 in cereal-based baby foods an in vitro digestive system. In this study, the PL, PN, and PM forms of vitamin B6 were determined using HPLC in 13 cereal-based baby foods. The average bioaccessibility of the PL, PN, and PM forms in gastric pH 1.5 were 53%, 76%, and 50%, respectively. When the gastric pH was 4, the average bioaccessibility of PL, PN, and PM were 38%, 67%, and 36%, respectively. As observed in this study, the bioaccessibility of the PL, PN, and PM forms of vitamin B6 in baby foods is lower in both gastric pHs.


Assuntos
Alimentos Infantis/análise , Piridoxal/química , Piridoxamina/química , Piridoxina/química , Vitamina B 6/química , Grão Comestível/química , Ácido Gástrico/química , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Lactente , Vitamina B 6/análise
8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(28): 8035-8044, 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282154

RESUMO

The simultaneous detection of multiple mycotoxins is important due to the increased toxic effects of combined mycotoxins in grains. In this research, a combination of modified QuEChERS with ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was used for simultaneous detection of 20 mycotoxins in grains. A series of different types of magnetic (Fe3O4) nanoparticles modified with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (Fe3O4-MWCNTs) were designed as modified QuEChERS adsorbents for facile and efficient purification and for target interferences removal in the matrices. When there is an external magnetic field, the proposed modified QuEChERS method uses a shorter pretreatment time compared with the traditional QuEChERS method, which makes it possible to conduct high-throughput analyses. To optimize the QuEChERS process, the extraction solvent and the type and amount of the Fe3O4-MWCNTs were investigated. Under optimal conditions, the method was validated and showed satisfactory linearity (r2 ≥ 0.9965), good recovery (73.5-112.9%), good precision (1.3-12.7%), and excellent sensitivity (ranging from 0.0021 to 5.4457 ng g-1), which indicates that this method can be used for detecting multiple mycotoxins in real samples.


Assuntos
Carbono/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Grão Comestível/química , Micotoxinas/química , Micotoxinas/isolamento & purificação , Nanotubos/química , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Adsorção , Magnetismo , Extração em Fase Sólida/instrumentação
9.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(32): 9022-9031, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339724

RESUMO

The quantitative multiplex immunochromatographic assay (mICA) has received an increasing amount of attention in multitarget detection. However, the quantitative results in the reported mICAs were obtained by recording the signals on the test lines that with which various analyte-independent factors readily interfere, resulting in inaccurate quantitation. The ratiometric strategy using the T/C value (ratios of signals on the test line to those of the control line) for signal correction can effectively circumvent these issues to enable more accurate detection. Herein, we present for the first time a novel ratiometric mICA strip with multiple T lines for the simultaneous quantitative detection of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), fumonisin B1 (FB1), and ochratoxin A (OTA) using highly luminescent quantum dot nanobeads (QBs) as enhanced signal reporters. To achieve reliable ratiometric signal output, a biotin-streptavidin system was introduced to replace the conventional anti-mouse IgG antibody for reliable reference signals on the control line that are completely independent of the signal probe and analyte. By using stable T/C values as quantitative signals, our proposed QB-mICA method can successfully detect three mycotoxins with concentrations as low as 1.65 pg/mL for AFB1, 1.58 ng/mL for FB1, and 0.059 ng/mL for OTA. The detection performance of the developed QB-mICA strip, including precision, specificity, and reliability, was further evaluated using artificially contaminated cereal samples. The results demonstrate the improved accuracy and reliability of quantitative determination by comparison with the anti-mouse IgG antibody. Thus, this work provides a promising strategy for developing a ratiometric mICA method for accurately quantifying multiple analytes using the biotin-SA system, opening up a new direction in quantitative mICAs.


Assuntos
Aflatoxina B1/análise , Fumonisinas/análise , Imunoensaio/métodos , Ocratoxinas/análise , Animais , Biotina/química , Grão Comestível/química , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Imunoensaio/instrumentação , Luminescência , Camundongos , Micotoxinas , Pontos Quânticos , Estreptavidina/química
10.
J Chromatogr A ; 1602: 11-18, 2019 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31160093

RESUMO

Surface molecularly imprinted polymers (MIL-101@MIPs) were prepared using MIL-101 as supporting core, imprinted polymers as selective shell synthesized with coumarin-3-carboxylic acid as dummy template of Zearalenone (ZEN), methacrylic acid as functional monomer, and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate hydroxyethyl methacrylate as cross-linker. The polymers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and particle-size distribution analyses. MIL-101@MIPs were used as the sorbent to compose the self-made cartridge. The cartridge was used to purify and enrich ZEN from real samples. Under optimized SPE conditions, a self-made cartridge can be reused for at least seven cycles. Elution was monitored with a high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection system. The linearity of the method ranged within 6.25-250 ng kg-1. The limits of detection ranged within 2.09 - 4.16 ng kg-1, and the limits of quantification ranged within 6.25 -12.50 ng kg-1, respectively. The matrix effects of four real samples were discussed. The spiking recoveries of ZEN ranged within 81.70%-90.10% with relative standard deviations lower than 5.56%. The performance of the self-made cartridge and immunoaffinity column was compared by chromatography.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível/química , Polímeros/síntese química , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Zearalenona/isolamento & purificação , Adsorção , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cumarínicos/química , Limite de Detecção , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química , Metacrilatos/química , Impressão Molecular , Oryza/química , Polímeros/química , Triticum/química , Zea mays/química , Zearalenona/análise
11.
Environ Pollut ; 252(Pt A): 879-887, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203115

RESUMO

Deoxynivalenol (DON), a fungus-derived mycotoxin, also known as vomitoxin, is found in a wide range of cereal grains and grain-based food products. The biological toxicity of DON has been described in various species, but its toxicity and functional effects in mammary epithelial cells are unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of DON on bovine mammary epithelial (MAC-T) cells using mechanistic approaches. We detected DON-induced cell cycle abrogation and calcium deficiency, leading to apoptotic cell death via MAPK signaling pathways. Moreover, we studied the transcriptional activation of blood and milk junctional regulators as well as inflammatory cytokines in response to DON. The results of this study contribute to a comprehensive understanding of DON-associated toxicity mechanisms in bovine mammary epithelial cells, which may facilitate the enhancement of milk stabilization in parallel with the establishment of safety profiles to protect against DON contamination in livestock farms and in the food industry.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Grão Comestível/química , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/efeitos dos fármacos , Micotoxinas/toxicidade , Tricotecenos/toxicidade , Animais , Bovinos , Contagem de Células , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Homeostase , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/citologia , Leite
12.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(8): 7118-7133, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155249

RESUMO

Grass-based production systems use concentrate supplementation primarily when pasture quality and availability have declined. Barley is a common concentrate ingredient; however, oat grain grows well in Ireland, is a source of lipids and fiber, and may provide an alternative to barley. The antioxidant α-tocopherol (α-TOC) plays a role in cell membrane structure, and it has the potential to improve tight junction structures of the mammary gland that deteriorate in late lactation. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of cereal type and α-TOC level on milk yield, milk composition, rumen fermentation, and N excretion in late-lactation dairy cows at pasture and when housed indoors on grass silage. Forty-eight Holstein Friesian dairy cows were blocked on days in milk (+185 d in milk) and balanced for parity, pre-experimental milk yield, milk composition, and body condition score and assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design (n = 12). The dietary treatments were control (C) base diet; base diet + barley-based concentrate + low α-TOC (350 IU/kg) (B); base diet + oat-based concentrate + low α-TOC (350 IU/kg) (O); and base diet + oat-based concentrate + high α-TOC (1,050 IU/kg) (O+T). Following a 14-d acclimation period, diets were offered for a 49-d experimental period at pasture (P1) and a 21-d experimental period indoors (P2). The base diet was grazed grass in P1 and grass silage in P2. In P2, cows on C also received 2.65 kg (dry matter) of a standard concentrate. In P1, supplementation increased milk and milk solids yield (B: 20.7 kg/d, 1.74 kg/d; O: 20.6 kg/d, 1.81 kg/d; O+T: 20.5 kg/d, 1.77 kg/d, respectively) compared with C (17.8 kg/d, 1.60 kg/d). Cows offered B had a lower milk fat (4.60%) concentration than C (5.00%) and O (4.90%). In P2, cereal type and α-TOC level did not alter milk production. In conclusion, concentrate supplementation increased milk and milk solids yield and cows offered O had a higher milk fat concentration than cows offered B. Increasing the level of α-TOC had no major effect on production parameters measured in P1 or in P2.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Bovinos/fisiologia , Leite/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , alfa-Tocoferol/administração & dosagem , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Grão Comestível/química , Feminino , Fermentação/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicolipídeos/análise , Glicoproteínas/análise , Irlanda , Lactação , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Leite/química , Poaceae , Gravidez , Rúmen/metabolismo , Silagem/análise
13.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(12): 5606-5609, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206173

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a lack of information on the presence of volatile organic compounds including p-cymene in foods for dietary exposure assessment. p-Cymene is a monoterpene found in many plant species, which has been used as a flavouring agent in foods and also exhibits antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. While the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) has no safety concerns at current levels of intake when used as a flavouring, the current study examines p-cymene levels in foods in general, not just from possible uses as a flavouring, as there could still be a potential health concern if there were high levels of exposure. RESULTS: 159 food composite samples from the 2014 Canadian Total Diet Study were analysed for p-cymene using a gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric method after headspace solid-phase microextraction. Concentrations of p-cymene in the composite samples of most food types were generally low, with a maximum level of 73.5 µg g-1 , detected in the composite sample of herbs and spices. Dietary exposures to p-cymene were estimated for different age groups of Canadian populations. CONCLUSIONS: Although p-cymene was detected in various foods, estimated dietary exposures to p-cymene for different age groups are well below the human intake threshold of toxicological concern established by JECFA of 1800 µg per person per day for structural class I flavours, which includes p-cymene. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Exposição Dietética/análise , Monoterpenos/análise , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Canadá , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Grão Comestível/química , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Fast Foods/análise , Feminino , Aromatizantes/análise , Aromatizantes/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Carne/análise , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monoterpenos/metabolismo , Verduras/química , Verduras/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 684: 360-370, 2019 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31153082

RESUMO

Exposure to arsenic (As) through rice consumption potentially threatens millions of people worldwide. Understanding is still lacking the recycling impacts of rice residues on As phytoavailability in paddy soils and is of indisputable importance in providing a sustainable and effective measure to decrease As accumulation in rice grain. Herein, we examined the effects of rice husk biochar (RHB) and rice husk ash (RHA) on As grain speciation, and As dynamics in the soil porewater and solid-phase fractions. The results corroborated that both the RHB and RHA (0.64% w/w) treatments significantly (p < 0.05) decreased inorganic As accumulation in rice grain to 0.27-0.29 mg kg-1, which was below the maximum inorganic As level in husked rice (0.35 mg kg-1) established by the Codex. The residual phase (F6 = 90% of total soil As) as quantified by the sequential extraction was the dominant As pool; the fractions were subsequently transformed into several As pools associated with soluble and exchangeable (F1), organically bound (F2), Mn oxides (F3), poorly crystalline (F4) and crystalline (F5) Fe oxides during the rice growing periods. The Si-rich amendments enhanced the residual phase formation upon soil flooding, which decreased the As availability to rice plant. The inorganic grain-As concentrations were well explained by the soil-extractable As concentrations in the F2, F3, F5, and F6 fractions. The pore-water analysis indicated that Mn oxides were important sources and sinks for As released to the soil solution. Our findings shed light on the beneficial role of RHB and RHA in alleviating inorganic As uptake in paddy rice.


Assuntos
Arsenicais/análise , Carvão Vegetal/química , Cinza de Carvão/química , Oryza/efeitos dos fármacos , Silício/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Arsênico/análise , Arsênico/química , Arsenicais/química , Grão Comestível/química , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Água Subterrânea/química , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/metabolismo , Solo/química
15.
Food Chem ; 297: 124956, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253306

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the extrusion moisture and temperature on the physical characteristics of breakfast cereals. The chemical composition, microbiological risk and acceptance of the selected breakfast cereal with the best physical quality were assessed to determine the technological viability of the use of these by-products by the food industry. The response surface method and a rotatable central composite design were used, and a desirability test was performed based on adjusted regression models. The breakfast cereal produced under these conditions had protein, lipid and dietary fiber contents of 7.55, 0.97 and 6.12 g 100 g-1, respectively. In regards to the sensory analysis, the evaluated breakfast cereal received average acceptance scores ranging from "neither like or dislike" to "like moderately". The use of rice, passion fruit and milk by-products was shown to be an alternative for the production of extruded breakfast cereal.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível/química , Alimentos Especializados , Desjejum , Dieta Livre de Glúten , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos/métodos , Lipídeos , Oryza/química , Passiflora/química , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/análise , Pós , Soro do Leite/química
16.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(24): 24979-24987, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31243656

RESUMO

Under flooded conditions in paddy soil, the mobility of As increases while the mobility of Cd decreases. The opposite geochemical behavior of As and Cd makes it difficult to reduce their mobilities simultaneously. Our recent study found that combined applications of biochar and zero-valent iron successfully reduced the mobilities of As and Cd simultaneously. On this basis, in the present study, an iron-modified biochar (Fe-BC) was developed, and its effect on decreasing the accumulations of As and Cd in rice was verified in a 2-year field trial. In addition, previous studies indicated that silicon fertilizer can also reduce As and Cd accumulation in rice grain. Hence, the effect of the combined or separate application of Fe-BC and silica sol on As and Cd accumulation in rice grain was investigated. Over the 2-year field trial, the grain yields decreased in the following order: iron-modified biochar plus silica sol (Fe-BC plus Si) > silica sol (Si) > Fe-BC > control (CK). Concentrations of As and Cd in brown rice were in the order: Fe-BC plus Si < Si ≈ Fe-BC < CK. The treatments of Fe-BC and Fe-BC plus Si significantly increased the soil pH and thus decreased available As and available Cd in the soil. In addition, significantly positive correlations between available As and As in brown rice and between available Cd and Cd in brown rice were found. In conclusion, co-application of iron-modified biochar and silica sol should be a recommended strategy to reduce the accumulation of As and Cd in rice grains.


Assuntos
Arsênico/análise , Cádmio/análise , Grão Comestível/química , Ferro/química , Oryza/efeitos dos fármacos , Dióxido de Silício/química , Silício/metabolismo , Arsênico/química , Cádmio/química , Carvão Vegetal , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Ferro/análise , Silício/farmacologia , Poluentes do Solo/análise
17.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2562, 2019 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31189898

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) accumulation in rice grain poses a serious threat to human health. While several transport systems have been reported, the complicity of rice Cd transport and accumulation indicates the necessity of identifying additional genes, especially those that are responsible for Cd accumulation divergence between indica and japonica rice subspecies. Here, we show that a gene, OsCd1, belonging to the major facilitator superfamily is involved in root Cd uptake and contributes to grain accumulation in rice. Natural variation in OsCd1 with a missense mutation Val449Asp is responsible for the divergence of rice grain Cd accumulation between indica and japonica. Near-isogenic line tests confirm that the indica variety carrying the japonica allele OsCd1V449 can reduce the grain Cd accumulation. Thus, the japonica allele OsCd1V449 may be useful for reducing grain Cd accumulation of indica rice cultivars through breeding.


Assuntos
Cádmio/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Oryza/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Alelos , Asparagina/genética , Cádmio/análise , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/química , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Oryza/química , Oryza/genética , Filogenia , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Raízes de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Valina/genética
18.
Environ Pollut ; 249: 1038-1048, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146310

RESUMO

Rapid industrialization in China during the last three decades has resulted in widespread contamination of Cd in agricultural soils. A considerable proportion of the rice grain grown in some areas of southern China has Cd concentrations exceeding the Chinese food limit, raising widespread concern regarding food safety. In this review, we summarize rice grain Cd concentrations in national Chinese markets and in field surveys from contaminated areas, and analyze the potential health risk associated with increased dietary Cd intake. For subsistence rice farmers living in some contaminated areas of southern China who mainly consume locally-produced Cd-contaminated rice, their estimated dietary Cd intake is now comparable to that for the population in the region of Japan where the Itai-Itai disease was first reported. Interventions must be taken urgently to reduce Cd intake for these farmers. We also analyze i) the main reasons causing elevated grain Cd concentrations in southern China, ii) the dominant biogeochemical processes controlling the solubility of Cd in paddy soils, and iii) molecular mechanisms for the uptake and translocation of Cd in rice plants. Based on these analyses, we propose a number of countermeasures to address soil Cd contamination, including i) mitigation of Cd transfer from paddy soils to rice grain, and ii) intervention in those farmers who consume home-grown Cd-contaminated rice. Liming to increase soil pH to 6.5 and gene editing biotechnology are effective strategies to decrease Cd accumulation in rice grain. For these local farmers with high-Cd exposure risk, local governments should monitor the Cd concentration in their home-grown rice and exchange those high-Cd rice with low-Cd rice in order to reduce their dietary Cd intake.


Assuntos
Cádmio/análise , Grão Comestível/química , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Oryza/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solo/química , Agricultura , Compostos de Cálcio , China , Grão Comestível/normas , Japão , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Óxidos
19.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(6): 586-589, 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177755

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the aluminium content in unprocessed grains from different areas of China. Methods: From June 2013 to December 2014, nine provinces (Jilin, Shandong, Hubei, Hunan, Guangdong, Guangxi, Henan, Anhui and Jiangsu) were selected as sampling areas using stratified random sampling method. Three cities, counties or townships were randomly selected from each sampling area. Grain stations, grain depots, planting areas or farmers' markets located in non-aluminium mining areas or non-aluminium-involved industrial pollution areas were selected from each sampling area using a purposive sampling method. A total of 470 unprocessed grain samples (500 g per sample) including wheat, rice, corn, millet and soybean were collected from local grain stations, grain depots, planting areas and farmers' markets. The dried grains samples were analysed for aluminium content by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Bootstrap resampling method was applied to calculate the upper bound values of 95%CI of P(99) of aluminium contents for each kind of grain, which could be regarded as levels of concern for corresponding categories. Results: A total of 454 grain samples, including 109 wheat samples, 111 rice samples, 78 corn samples, 69 millet samples and 87 soybean samples, were used for analysis after excluding outlier values. There were 420 positive samples with detected aluminium and the overall detection rate was 92.5%. Among them, the aluminium contents were high in wheat and soybean with median values about 9.59 and 7.12 mg/kg, and maximum values about 31.55 and 28.80 mg/kg, respectively. The median and maximum values of aluminium contents in corn were about 4.65 and 26.79 mg/kg. Aluminium contents were low in rice and millet, with median values about 1.49 and 2.21 mg/kg, and maximum values about 7.56 and 8.07 mg/kg, respectively. Based on Bootstrap resampling method, the upper bound values of 95%CI of P(99) of aluminium contents in wheat, soybean, corn, rice and millet were 29.86, 28.80, 26.79, 7.56 and 8.07 mg/kg, respectively, which could be regarded as levels of concern for corresponding grains. Conclusion: Aluminium has been detected in most unprocessed grains. The accumulation of aluminium varies in different grains species.


Assuntos
Alumínio , Grão Comestível , Alumínio/análise , China , Grão Comestível/química , Triticum , Zea mays
20.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(22): 22421-22430, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154647

RESUMO

The synergistic effects of trace elements selenium (Se) and cadmium (Cd) are well known. But the reasons for the trending accumulation behavior in both trace elements are under debate in the scientific community. The present investigation was conducted to evaluate the impact of heat units on the accumulation behavior in two environments. Se and Cd were applied in three groups (T0; 0:0, T1; 0.4:1, T2; 1:2) mg kg-1. As the time of planting and heat units consumed by the crop to attain its physiological maturity appears to be different. The sunlight may contribute as an important manipulating factor for the accumulation of heavy metals in the plant. The results of the present study indicated that the behavior in the accumulation pattern of both elements appears to be distinct in the same material. The increased fertilizer treatment in soil bulk linearly increased the metal contents in rice grain. The studies between different plant parts disclosed panicle as the primary reservoir for Se and Cd accumulation. The plant sown earlier accumulates more Se than Cd while the plants uptake more Cd when sown 1 month later. The plant completes the critical developmental phases (tillering, heading, and flowering) within 20-30 days interval depending on the variety. But the late-sown plants complete these transitional phases within 9-10 days interval ultimately result in less utilization of heat units. These quick transitional changes may lead to the uptake of an ample amount of Cd contents in rice grain even at a low level of Cd stress (1 and 2 mg kg-1), making rice unsafe for edible purposes. The proper time of planting could be effective in timely acclimatization of Se and Cd sequestration and translocation in rice various components. Graphical Abstract.


Assuntos
Cádmio/análise , Grão Comestível/química , Fertilizantes/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Oryza/efeitos dos fármacos , Selênio/análise , Transporte Biológico , Metais Pesados/química , Oryza/química , Selênio/química , Solo
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