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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 11741, 2021 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34083549

RESUMO

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic originating in China in December 2019, apart from the grave concerns on the exponentially increasing casualties, the affected countries are called to deal with severe repercussions in all aspects of everyday life, from economic recession to national and international movement restrictions. Several regions managed to handle the pandemic more successfully than others in terms of life loss, while ongoing heated debates as to the right course of action for battling COVID-19 have divided the academic community as well as public opinion. To this direction, in this paper, an autoregressive COVID-19 prediction model with heterogeneous explanatory variables for Greece is proposed, taking past COVID-19 data, non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs), and Google query data as independent variables, from the day of the first confirmed case-February 26th-to the day before the announcement for the quarantine measures' softening-April 24th. The analysis indicates that the early measures taken by the Greek officials positively affected the flattening of the epidemic curve, with Greece having recorded significantly decreased COVID-19 casualties per million population and managing to stay on the low side of the deaths over cases spectrum. In specific, the prediction model identifies the 7-day lag that is needed in order for the measures' results to actually show, i.e., the optimal time-intervention framework for managing the disease's spread, while our analysis also indicates an appropriate point during the disease spread where restrictive measures should be applied. Present results have significant implications for effective policy making and in the designing of the NPIs, as the second wave of COVID-19 is expected in fall 2020, and such multidisciplinary analyses are crucial in order to understand the evolution of the Daily Deaths to Daily Cases ratio along with its determinants as soon as possible, for the assessment of the respective domestic health authorities' policy interventions as well as for the timely health resources allocation.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Modelos Teóricos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/transmissão , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Grécia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Quarentena , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos
2.
Infez Med ; 29(2): 224-228, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34061787

RESUMO

Vitamin D deficiency has been associated to respiratory tract infections. We aimed to investigate vitamin D plasma levels in patients with chest infection with and without COVID-19 in a hospitalized population during the second pandemic wave. A prospective study was conducted in a Mediterranean tertiary center referring to 80 patients suffering from chest infection, who were divided into two groups according to a positive test for SARS-CoV-2 infection. The hospitalized COVID-19 patients had a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency, and these patients also exhibited higher levels of plasma inflammatory markers. Intensive research is required to identify the role and mechanisms of vitamin D in patients with SARSCoV-2 infection and its possible role as a prognostic factor of the disease.


Assuntos
COVID-19/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia , Vitamina D/sangue , Idoso , Feminino , Grécia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Pacientes Internados , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue
3.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1125, 2021 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34118917

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To assess the level of knowledge and trust in the policy decisions taken regarding the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic among Epirus Health Study (EHS) participants. METHODS: The EHS is an ongoing and deeply-phenotyped prospective cohort study that has recruited 667 participants in northwest Greece until August 31st, 2020. Level of knowledge on coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) transmission and COVID-19 severity was labeled as poor, moderate or good. Variables assessing knowledge and beliefs towards the pandemic were summarized overall and by sex, age group (25-39, 40-49, 50-59, ≥60 years) and period of report (before the lifting of lockdown measures in Greece: March 30th to May 3rd, and two post-lockdown time periods: May 4th to June 31st, July 1st to August 31st). A hypothesis generating exposure-wide association analysis was conducted to evaluate the associations between 153 agnostically-selected explanatory variables and participants' knowledge. Correction for multiple comparisons was applied using a false discovery rate (FDR) threshold of 5%. RESULTS: A total of 563 participants (49 years mean age; 60% women) had available information on the standard EHS questionnaire, the clinical and biochemical measurements, and the COVID-19-related questionnaire. Percentages of poor, moderate and good knowledge status regarding COVID-19 were 4.5, 10.0 and 85.6%, respectively. The majority of participants showed absolute or moderate trust in the Greek health authorities for the management of the epidemic (90.1%), as well as in the Greek Government (84.7%) and the official national sources of information (87.4%). Trust in the authorities was weaker in younger participants and those who joined the study after the lifting of lockdown measures (p-value≤0.001). None of the factors examined was associated with participants' level of knowledge after correction for multiple testing. CONCLUSIONS: High level of knowledge about the COVID-19 pandemic and trust in the Greek authorities was observed, possibly due to the plethora of good quality publicly available information and the timely management of the pandemic at its early stages in Greece. Information campaigns for the COVID-19 pandemic should be encouraged even after the lifting of lockdown measures to increase public awareness.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Estudos de Coortes , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Feminino , Grécia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários , Confiança
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34065841

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in significant uncertainty for the global population. However, since not all population groups experience the impacts of the pandemic in the same way, the objective of this study was to identify the individual characteristics associated with the feeling of uncertainty during the lockdown that commenced in March 2020 in Greece. The study used data from the "Public Opinion in the European Union (EU) in Time of Coronavirus Crisis" survey. The sample consisted of 1050 individuals aged between 16 and 54 years. According to the analysis, which was based on a logistic regression model, the emotional status of older individuals, those who experienced income and job losses since the beginning of the pandemic, and middle-class and high-class individuals, is more likely to be described as a feeling of uncertainty. In addition, the emotional status of individuals with less concern for their own health and that of family and friends is less likely to be described as a feeling of uncertainty. Although the results related to age, income, and job losses, as regards concern for health, agree with the international literature, the limited health literacy of lower-class individuals may explain the reduced likelihood of their experiencing feelings of uncertainty. The results confirm the international literature describing several aspects of uncertainty due to the COVID-19 crisis.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Adolescente , Adulto , Emoções , Grécia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2 , Incerteza , Adulto Jovem
5.
Euro Surveill ; 26(18)2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33960290

RESUMO

BackgroundThe World Health Organization (WHO) lists human leishmaniasis as a neglected tropical disease; it is not under surveillance at European level.AimWe present surveillance data for visceral (VL) and cutaneous (CL) leishmaniasis for the period 2004 to 2018 in Greece to assess their public health importance.MethodsWe extracted data from the mandatory notification system to analyse separately imported and domestic cases of VL and CL. A case was defined by clinical manifestations compatible with VL or CL and laboratory confirmation.ResultsBetween 2004 and 2018, 881 VL (862 domestic, 19 imported) and 58 CL cases (24 domestic, 34 imported) were recorded. The mean annual notification rate of domestic VL was 0.5 per 100,000 (range: 0.12-1.43/100,000) with a statistically significant increasing trend (p = 0.013). Cases were reported by all regions. The highest notification rate occurred in the age group 0-4 years (1.3/100,000). Overall 24% (164/680) of the cases were immunocompromised and their proportion increased after 2010 (p < 0.001). The mean annual notification rate of domestic CL was 0.05 per 100,000 (range: 0.01-0.19/100,000) with the highest rate in the age group 5-14 years (0.03/100,000). Cases were recorded in six of the 13 regions. Among 34 imported CL cases, 29 were foreign nationals.ConclusionVL is endemic in Greece, with an increasing trend and a considerable burden of severe disease and young children being most affected. CL is rarely reported. A sustainable action plan is needed to reduce the burden of VL and prevent local transmission of CL.


Assuntos
Leishmaniose Visceral , Leishmaniose , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Grécia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Doenças Negligenciadas
6.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 281: 540-544, 2021 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34042634

RESUMO

During the COVID-19 pandemic, the number of visits in emergency departments (ED) worldwide decreased significantly based on several studies. This study aims to compare the patient flow in the emergency surgery department during the COVID-19 pandemic and a control period in the emergency department of a public tertiary care hospital in Greece. The overall patient flow reduction regarding the ED visits between the two examined periods was 49.07%. The emergency surgery department's corresponding visits were 235 and 552, respectively, which indicated an overall patient flow decrease of 57.43%. Chi-square analysis showed that age groups and ambulance use had statistically significant associations with the periods examined. An independent samples t-test was applied and deduced that the average patient's age was statistically significantly higher in the COVID-19 pandemic than in the non-pandemic period. By analyzing hospital information system data, useful conclusions can be drawn to prepare a surgical emergency unit better and optimize resource allocation in a healthcare facility in similar critical situations.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Grécia/epidemiologia , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
7.
World J Emerg Surg ; 16(1): 22, 2021 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33962622

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic caused a rise in healthcare demands leading to significant restructuring of hospital emergency departments worldwide. The aim of the present study is twofold: firstly, to discern any differences in regard to reason for surgical emergency department (SED) attendance and hospital admission during the pandemic and pre-pandemic eras in Greece, and secondly, to assess the impact of the lockdown measures implemented during the pandemic on SED patient attendance. METHODS: Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic in Greece (1 March 2020) and up to 15 December 2020, the charts of all adult patients arriving at the SED of the third surgical department of the "Attikon" University Hospital (a tertiary referral center for surgical and COVID-19 cases) were retrospectively reviewed and broken down in four periods reflecting two nationwide lockdown (period A 1/3/2020 to 30/4/2020 and period D 16/10/2020 to 15/12/2020) and two interim (period B 1/5/2020 to 15/6/2020 and period C 15/9/2020 to 30/10/2020) periods. Demographic and clinical data were compared to those obtained from the same time periods of the year 2019. RESULTS: The total number of patients attending the SED decreased by 35.9% during the pandemic (from 2839 total patients in 2019 to 1819 in 2020). During the first lockdown, there was statistically significant reduction of motor vehicle accidents (p=0.04) and torso injuries (p=0.01). Contrarily, the rate of head injuries (p<0.001) and abdominal pain (p=0.04) were significantly increased. The same effect was observed regarding the rate of hospital admissions (p=0.002), although in terms of absolute numbers, admissions remained unchanged. During the second lockdown, there was a reduction in the number of perianal abscess cases (p=0.04) and hernia-related problems (p=0.001). An increase in the rate of fall injuries was also demonstrable (p=0.02). Overall, application of the lockdown led to a significant decrease in minor (p<0.001) and torso (p=0.001) injuries. CONCLUSION: The burden of the new COVID-19 disease has left a noticeable imprint in the function of emergency departments worldwide. In Greece, SED attendance was significantly reduced during the pandemic, an effect that was even more pronounced during the lockdown implementation; nevertheless, the overall rate of hospital admissions remained the same, denoting that patient care was not altered.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Emergências , Feminino , Grécia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Centros de Atenção Terciária
8.
Psychiatry Res ; 301: 113990, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34020218

RESUMO

This longitudinal study aimed to investigate the predictive factors of suicidal ideation during the second lockdown in Greece. The respondents presented a 4.32% suicidal ideation in the second lockdown, which did not differ significantly to the initial 4.81%. Anxiety, depression, suicidal ideation during the first lockdown and living with a person with frail health and vulnerable for COVID-19 severe infection emerged as significant risk factors for suicidal ideation during the second lockdown, after controlling for gender, age, and mental health history. Depression was found as the only significant prognostic factor for suicidal ideation incidence of the second lockdown.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico , Ideação Suicida , Tentativa de Suicídio/psicologia , Suicídio/psicologia , Adulto , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Depressão/epidemiologia , Grécia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Tentativa de Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos
9.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33924630

RESUMO

Nutritional risk screening (NRS) is not yet established in many clinical settings. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of two NRS tools; the Paediatric Yorkhill Malnutrition Score (PYMS) and the Screening Tool for the Assessment of Malnutrition in Paediatrics (STAMP), compared to the global dietitians' clinical judgment. The goal of this study was also to estimate the prevalence of nutritional risk in Greek paediatric patients. Overall, 1506 children, 1-16 years, from paediatric and surgical wards of two Greek hospitals were included. NRS was performed using PYMS and STAMP based either on World Health Organization (WHOGC) or Hellenic growth charts (HGC). The first 907 children were also referred to dietitians who categorized children in low, medium and high nutritional risk according to their global clinical judgment. PYMS, either based on WHOGC or HGC, showed better agreement with dietitians' feedback (kPYMS_WHO = 0.47; 95%CI: 0.41-0.52, kPYMS_HGC = 0.48; 95%CI: 0.43-0.53) compared to STAMP (kSTAMP_WHO = 0.28; 95%CI: 0.23-0.33, kSTAMP_HGC = 0.26; 95%CI: 0.21-0.32). PYMS also showed the best diagnostic accuracy compared to STAMP in paediatrics and surgical wards separately. Moreover, the PYMS showed similar sensitivity to the STAMP (WHOGC: 82% vs. 84.4%), but a higher positive predictive value (WHOGC: 58.2 vs. 38.7). Using PYMS, high and medium malnutrition risk was observed at 14.9%, and 13.1% of children, respectively. Almost 28% of hospitalised children were at nutritional risk. Children in hospitals should be screened with effective and feasible NRS tools such as PYMS.


Assuntos
Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Avaliação Nutricional , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Grécia/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Desnutrição/diagnóstico , Desnutrição/fisiopatologia , Estado Nutricional/fisiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco
10.
In Vivo ; 35(3): 1811-1820, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33910867

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Tic habit cough (THC) is not easily recognized and requires a high index of suspicion. Since there is evidence for stress-related etiology, the study presents our experience during the eight-year period of the recent Greek financial crisis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a descriptive prospective cross-sectional clinical study using a consistent approach to diagnosis, possible triggers and treatment options. RESULTS: Fifty-one children (26 girls, age 9.5±3.1y) from a total of 3,793 new referrals for chronic cough fulfilled the criteria of THC (1.34%). Incidence rates per 1,000 person-years were 1.34 (95%CI=0.34-5.40), 3.91 (95%CI=1.86-8.19), 4.03 (95%CI=2.01-8.06) and 14.60 (95%CI=10.43-20.44) for every two years. Poisson analysis showed an increased trend during the four time periods with an incidence rate ratio equal to 2.21 (95%CI=1.58-3.09, p<0.001). THC was mainly attributed to learning difficulties, as well as stress-related impact of peer or family bullying, family financial problems and child anxiety disorders. CONCLUSION: The incidence of THC is associated with the negative aspects of stressors during a period of financial crisis. The potential underlining psycho-physiological mechanisms are discussed as well as the fact that prompt diagnosis may result in successful interventions.


Assuntos
Tiques , Criança , Tosse/epidemiologia , Tosse/etiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Grécia/epidemiologia , Hábitos , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Prospectivos
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799791

RESUMO

A COVID-19 outbreak occurred among residents of a Roma settlement in Greece (8 April-4 June 2020). The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with an increased risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and to evaluate the effectiveness of control measures implemented. Data were analyzed from individuals that were tested for SARS-CoV-2 during contact tracing, population screening or hospital visits. RT-PCR was used for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 in oropharyngeal samples. Risk factors for household secondary attack rates (SAR) and hospitalization with COVID-19 were examined using chi-square tests, Fisher's exact tests and logistic regression analyses. During the outbreak, 142 cases, 20 hospitalizations and 1 death were recorded, with a total of 2273 individuals tested. The risk of hospitalization was associated with age (OR: 1.04, 95% CI: 1.02-1.07) and Cycle threshold (Ct) values (OR for a decrease in Ct values by 1: 1.18, 95% CI: 1.07-1.31). Household SAR was estimated at 38.62% (95% CI: 32.50-45.01%). After the designation of an isolation facility for cases, household SAR declined from 74.42% to 31.03%. Household size was associated with the risk of infection (OR: 2.65, 95% CI: 1.00-7.07). The presence of COVID-19 symptoms among index cases was correlated with higher transmission (OR: 23.68, 95% CI 2.21-253.74) in multivariate analysis, while age was found to be associated with SAR only in univariate analysis. Roma communities can be particularly vulnerable to the spread of SARS-CoV-2. In similar settings, symptomatic cases are more important transmitters of SARS-CoV-2. Within these communities, immediate measures should be implemented to mitigate disease spread.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Roma (Grupo Étnico) , Surtos de Doenças , Grécia/epidemiologia , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804505

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has the potential to adversely affect the mental health of healthcare workers (HCWs). The public healthcare system in Greece was already facing serious challenges at the outset of the outbreak following years of austerity and an escalating refugee crisis. This multi-center, cross-sectional study aims to assess the levels and associated risk factors of anxiety, depression, traumatic stress and burnout of frontline staff in Greece. A total of 464 self-selected HCWs in six reference hospitals completed a questionnaire comprising sociodemographic and work-related information and validated psychometric scales. The proportion of HCWs with symptoms of moderate/severe depression, anxiety and traumatic stress were 30%, 25% and 33%, respectively. Burnout levels were particularly high with 65% of respondents scoring moderate/severe in emotional exhaustion, 92% severe in depersonalization and 51% low/moderate in personal accomplishment. Predictive factors of adverse psychological outcomes included fear, perceived stress, risk of infection, lack of protective equipment and low social support. The psychological burden associated with COVID-19 in healthcare professionals in Greece is considerable, with more than half experiencing at least mild mental health difficulties. Findings signal the need for immediate organizational and individually tailored interventions to enhance resilience and support wellbeing under pandemic conditions.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Grécia/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Prevalência , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805678

RESUMO

Previous studies showed that the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) lockdown imposed changes in adults' lifestyle behaviors; however, there is limited information regarding the effects on youth. The COV-EAT study aimed to report changes in children's and adolescents' lifestyle habits during the first COVID-19 lockdown and explore potential associations between changes of participants' lifestyle behaviors and body weight. An online survey among 397 children/adolescents and their parents across 63 municipalities in Greece was conducted in April-May 2020. Parents self-reported changes of their children's lifestyle habits and body weight, as well as sociodemographic data of their family. The present study shows that during the lockdown, children's/adolescents' sleep duration and screen time increased, while their physical activity decreased. Their consumption of fruits and fresh fruit juices, vegetables, dairy products, pasta, sweets, total snacks, and breakfast increased, while fast-food consumption decreased. Body weight increased in 35% of children/adolescents. A multiple regression analysis showed that the body weight increase was associated with increased consumption of breakfast, salty snacks, and total snacks and with decreased physical activity. The COV-EAT study revealed changes in children's and adolescents' lifestyle behaviors during the first COVID-19 lockdown in Greece. Effective strategies are needed to prevent excessive body weight gain in future COVID-19 lockdowns.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estilo de Vida , Ganho de Peso , Adolescente , Adulto , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Grécia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pais , Comportamento Sedentário
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804500

RESUMO

The Transmission Reduction Intervention Project (TRIP) was a network-based, enhanced contact tracing approach, targeting recently HIV-infected people who inject drugs (PWID) in Athens, Greece (2013-2015). This analysis examines behavioral changes of participants in TRIP and their determinants between baseline and follow-up visits to the program. All participants of TRIP were tested for HIV and interviewed using a questionnaire with items on drug injection-related and sexual behaviors. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine potential relationships between participants' behaviors and sociodemographic or other characteristics. The analysis included 292 participants. At follow-up, the percentage of participants who injected drugs decreased [92.5%, n = 270 versus 72.3%, n = 211 (p < 0.001)], and more participants adopted safer behaviors. Employment, age, and gender were significantly associated with some behavioral changes. For instance, unemployed participants were half as likely as the employed to stop drug injection [adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 0.475, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.228, 0.988]. Increasing age was associated with lower probability of sharing syringes at follow-up (aOR: 0.936, 95%CI: 0.887, 0.988). Finally, females were less likely than males to improve their behavior related to sharing cookers, filters, or rinse water (aOR: 0.273, 95% CI: 0.100, 0.745). In conclusion, adoption of safer behaviors was observed following TRIP implementation. Future prevention programs should focus on younger PWID and especially females. Social efforts to support employment of PWID are also important.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa , Feminino , Grécia/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Assunção de Riscos , Comportamento Sexual , Rede Social , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/epidemiologia
15.
Int J Med Inform ; 150: 104465, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33887589

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The plethora of information in the contemporary digital age is enormous and beyond the capability of the average person to process all the information received. During the COVID-19 pandemic outbreak, huge amount of information is increasingly available in digital information sources and overwhelms the average person. The purpose of this research was to investigate public's information seeking behavior on COVID-19 in Greece. METHOD: The study was conducted through a web-based survey, facilitated by the use of questionnaire posted on the Google Forms platform. The questionnaire consisted of closed-ended, 7-point Likert scale questions and multiple choice questions and was distributed to all over Greek Regions to almost 3.000 recipients, during the implementation of restrictive measures against the COVID-19 outbreak in Spring 2020. The data collected were subjected to a descriptive statistical analysis. The median was used to present the results. In order to perform analysis between genders, as well as age groups, the non-parametric criteria Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis were applied to determine the existence of differences in participants' beliefs. RESULTS: Responses by 776 individuals were obtained. Individuals dedicated up to 2 h per day to be informed on COVID-19. Television, electronic press and news websites were reported by the participants as more reliable than social media, in obtaining information on COVID-19. Respondents paid attention to official sources of information (Ministry of Health, Civil Protection etc.). Family and friends played an additional role in the participants' information on COVID-19, while the personal doctor, other health workers and pharmacists did not appear to be most preferred sources of information on COVID-19. Participants' most common information seeking strategy in digital environment was keyword searching. Unreliable information, fake news and information overload were the most common difficulties that the participants encountered seeking information on COVID-19. The respondents' views seemed to differ significantly among age groups. The older the participants, the more often they were informed by television (p < 0.001) and the less often by the internet (p < 0.001). Females appear to use more frequently internet (p < 0.001) and social media (p = 0.001) out of habit and visit more often the Ministry of Health (p < 0.001) and the Civil Protection (p=0.005) websites, compared to males. Most of the participants seemed to worry about the fake news phenomenon and agreed that fake news on COVID-19 is being spread in the media and especially social networks. CONCLUSION: The study revealed that, during the COVID-19 pandemic in Greece, participants obtained information about the disease mainly by television, electronic press and news websites. On the contrary, the limited use of social media demonstrates the participants awareness of the spread of fake news on social media. This observed information seeking behavior might has contributed to individuals' acceptance of the necessary behavioral changes that had led to the Greek success story in preventing spread of the disease.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Mídias Sociais , Feminino , Grécia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Comportamento de Busca de Informação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33925406

RESUMO

We explored the differences in dietary habits and dietary patterns between individuals characterized by irrational beliefs with no or low anxiety and depressive symptoms and individuals characterized by irrational beliefs with high anxiety and depressive symptomatology. Within the context of the ATTICA cohort study (2002-2012), 853 participants without evidence of cardiovascular disease (453 men (45 ± 13 years) and 400 women (44 ± 18 years)) underwent mental health assessment through the irrational beliefs inventory (IBI), the Zung self-rating depression scale (ZDRS) and the state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI). Demographic characteristics, a thorough medical history, dietary behaviour and other lifestyle behaviours were also evaluated and analysed using factor analysis. Five main factors related to dietary patterns were extracted for the high-IBI/low-STAI group of participants (explaining the 63% of the total variation in consumption), whereas four factors were extracted for the high-IBI/high-STAI participants, the high-IBI/low-ZDRS participants and the high-IBI/high-ZDRS participants, explaining 53%, 54% and 54% of the total variation, respectively. A Western-type dietary pattern was the most dominant factor for individuals reporting irrational beliefs and anxiety or depressive symptomatology. The high refined carbohydrates and fats dietary pattern was the most dominant factor for individuals with irrational beliefs but without psychopathology. Linear regression analysis showed that irrational beliefs, in combination with anxiety or depression, age, sex and BMI, were important predictors of adherence to the Mediterranean diet. Dietary habits interact with irrational beliefs and, in association with the consequent psychological disorders, are associated with overall diet, and presumably may affect the health status of individuals.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Dieta/métodos , Nutrientes , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Grécia/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/métodos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
17.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33923341

RESUMO

Adolescents' daily life has dramatically changed during the COVID-19 era due to the social restrictions that have been imposed, including closures of schools, leisure centers and sport facilities. The purpose of this study was to examine levels of well-being and mood and their relations with physical (in)activity and eating behaviors in adolescents during a lockdown period in Greece. A total of 950 adolescents (Mean Age = 14.41 years ± 1.63) participated in a web-based survey while education was conducted online and organized sport activities were interrupted. Participants showed poor well-being, insufficient physical activity levels and moderate scores of healthy eating behavior. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that, after controlling for the effect of gender and body mass index, increased physical activity and healthier eating behavior predicted better well-being (b = 0.24, p < 0.01 and b = 0.19, p < 0.01, respectively), whereas sedentariness predicted worse well-being (b = -0.16, p < 0.01). Furthermore, it was revealed that days of physical activity per week was a stronger predictor of well-being than minutes of physical activity per week, and that both in-house and out-of-house physical activity were beneficial. Considering that well-being in our study was below the threshold recommended by the World Health Organization as indicative of possible depressive symptoms, measures to increase physical activity, decrease sedentariness and improve eating behavior should become a priority for communities and policy makers.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico , Comportamento Alimentar , Comportamento Sedentário , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Depressão/epidemiologia , Dieta Saudável , Feminino , Grécia/epidemiologia , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Qualidade de Vida , SARS-CoV-2 , Isolamento Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33924600

RESUMO

Human behavior is implicated in most road accidents. The current study examined drivers' behavior that interferes with decision making and reaction time to an incidence. Adults (≥17 years-old) participated in a questionnaire-based survey for driver's behavior. Dataset was weighed according to sex, age and education based on the 2011 census. Differences between groups were assessed with Chi-squared tests while logistic regression models were used to identify drivers' characteristics for specific behaviors. A total 1601 adults participated in the survey-48% males and 52% females. Texting, Global Positioning System (GPS) setting and smoking were observed more by professional drivers and drivers of an urban area, while smoking was also dependent on social class. Drink driving was observed more by males (20% vs. 5% females), while after adjusting for age, the odds of drink driving in males were 5 times higher than females (p < 0.001). A different effect of age depending on the driver's sex and vice versa was observed regarding phone calls. Drivers' behavior with distractive potential differed by age, sex, social class and area of residence. Male drivers were more likely to perform drink driving, while professional drivers were more likely to use cell phone for calls and texting, set the GPS and smoke while driving.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Telefone Celular , Acidentes de Trânsito , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Grécia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
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