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1.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 182, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34466203

RESUMO

Introduction: approximately 6000 Cameroonian women died of cancer in 2018, and the breast is the most affected with 2625 new cases. The aim of this study was to establish a pattern of malignant breast tumours in Yaoundé (Cameroon). Methods: this study was a descriptive and analytical retrospective study of breast cancer between January 2010 and December 2015 in Yaoundé General Hospital (YGH) after the Institutional ethics committee approval. The variables studied were the socio-demographic characteristics, risk factors for breast cancer, types of tumours and type of treatments. The 5-year survival was analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method. The adjusted hazard ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated to assess the association between studied variables and patient survival through the cox regression using SPSS 23 software. The difference was considered significant at p < 0.05. Results: among the 344 files collected in this study, breast cancer patients were predominantly female (96.64%, n = 288) aged 45.39 ± 13.35 years, with invasive ductal carcinoma (68.03%, n = 270), located in the left breast (52%, n= 147). The average tumour size was ~6.5 ± 0.3 cm and diagnosed in grade II of Scarf Bloom Richardson (SBR) in 60% (n= 150) of cases. The 5-year survival was 43.3%. Factors associated with this poor survival were the religion (aHR 5.05, 95% CI: 1.57 - 16.25; p = 0.007 for animist and aHR 4.2, 95% CI: 1.53 - 11.46; p = 0.005 for protestant), location of the tumour (aHR 6.24, 95% CI: 1.58 - 24.60; p = 0.012), tumor height (aHR 0.21, 95% CI: 0.04 - 1.11; p = 0.011) and the time spent before medical treatment (aHR 5.12, 95% CI: 0.39 - 8.38; p = 0.011). Conclusion: the young age, large tumour size and high histological grade in our studied population suggest a weak awareness of women about breast cancer. Action should be taken in early screening to improve the management of breast cancer in Cameroon.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/patologia , Camarões/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/patologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Feminino , Hospitais Gerais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
2.
Bone Joint J ; 103-B(9): 1541-1549, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465152

RESUMO

AIMS: While a centralized system for the care of patients with a sarcoma has been advocated for decades, regional variations in survival remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate regional variations in survival and the impact of national policies in patients with a soft-tissue sarcoma (STS) in the UK. METHODS: The study included 1,775 patients with a STS who were referred to a tertiary sarcoma centre. The geographical variations in survival were evaluated according to the periods before and after the issue of guidance by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) in 2006 and the relevant evolution of regional management. RESULTS: There had been a significant difference in survival between patients referred from the North East, North West, East Midlands, West Midlands, South West, and Wales in the pre-NICE era (five-year disease-specific survival (DSS); South West, 74% vs North East, 47% (p = 0.045) or West Midlands, 54% (p = 0.049)), which was most evident for patients with a high-grade STS. However, this variation disappeared in the post-NICE era, in which the overall DSS for high-grade STS improved from 47% to 68% at five years (p < 0.001). Variation in the size of the tumour closely correlated with the variation in DSS, and the overall size of the tumour and incidence of metastasis at the time of diagnosis also decreased after the national policies were issued. CONCLUSION: The survival of patients with a STS improved and regional variation corrected after the introduction of national policies, as a result of a decreasing size of tumour and incidence of metastasis at the time of diagnosis, particularly in patients with a high-grade STS. This highlights the positive impact of national guidelines on regional variation in the presentation, management, and outcome in patients with a STS. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2021;103-B(9):1541-1549.


Assuntos
Extremidades , Política de Saúde , Sarcoma/mortalidade , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/mortalidade , Neoplasias Torácicas/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Metástase Neoplásica , Características de Residência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medicina Estatal , Taxa de Sobrevida , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
3.
Anticancer Res ; 41(9): 4333-4341, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475053

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Prostaglandin (PG) E2 mediates malignant aggressiveness by binding to four specific E-type prostanoid receptors (EP1R - 4R). This study aimed to clarify the pathological significance of EPRs in hormone-sensitive prostate cancer (HSPC) and castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: EP1R - 4R expression was examined in 102 HSPC and 27 CRPC specimens. The relationships between their expression and proliferation index (PI), apoptotic index (AI), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A expression were analyzed. RESULTS: EP4R expression in CRPC was significantly higher compared to that in HSPC, even in advanced disease (T3/4, N1, and/or M1). EP4R expression was significantly correlated with PI, AI, and VEGF-A expression in CRPC. Such significant relationships were not detected between EP1R - 3R and CRPC. CONCLUSION: EP4R expression in CRPC was significantly higher than that in HSPC and was associated with cancer cell proliferation, apoptosis, and pro-angiogenetic potential.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Receptores de Prostaglandina E Subtipo EP4/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Apoptose , Proliferação de Células , Sobrevivência Celular , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Gradação de Tumores , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/metabolismo
4.
Arch Esp Urol ; 74(7): 656-663, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472434

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine predictors of BCR in patients with localized PCa undergoing RP at an oncology reference center in Colombia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective analytical study was conducted on patients with localized PCa undergoing RP and who at least had one adverse pathological factor for BCR. We consider BCR as two consecutive elevations of PSA after RP, greater than 0.2 ng/ml. For the bivariate analysis we used Kaplan-Meier, and Cox proportional risk analysis to estimate the hazard ratio as well as to determine variables independently associated with the outcome. RESULTS: 280 patients were included. The medianage was 65.3 years, with a median follow up of 52.2 months. BCR occurred in 39% of patients, with a median BCR time of 24.8 months. In the multivariate analysis, high risk [HR 2.07 (95% CI 1.11 - 3.86)], positive surgical margins [HR 2.79 (95% CI 1.66 - 4.69)] and tertiary Gleason pattern [HR 2.16 (95% CI 1.16 - 4.01)] were identified as independent variables associated significantly with BCR. Limitations include retrospective design and sample size. CONCLUSIONS: High risk, positive surgical margins and the presence of tertiary Gleason pattern are the predictive factors of BCR after RP in the Colombian population.


Assuntos
Antígeno Prostático Específico , Neoplasias da Próstata , Colômbia , Humanos , Masculino , Gradação de Tumores , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/epidemiologia , Prostatectomia , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos
5.
Anticancer Res ; 41(9): 4443-4446, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475067

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is one of the most effective treatments for advanced prostate cancer (PCa). However, it has been reported that the use of ADT is significantly associated with an increased risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) among patients with newly diagnosed non-metastatic PCa. We investigated changes in renal function that occurred in Japanese patients with PCa after ADT was discontinued. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Among 121 patients who underwent prostate biopsies, were pathologically diagnosed with PCa, and received ADT for ≥6 months at our Institution between 2009 and 2014, 60 patients who underwent radiotherapy for stage B or C PCa were eligible for inclusion in this retrospective study. Renal function was assessed using the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) before treatment and at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after the initiation of ADT and the rate of change in the eGFR (ΔeGFR) during ADT and after the discontinuation of ADT was investigated. We divided patients into two groups: Group 1 received ADT for 6 months, and group 2 received ADT for 12 months. Age; ΔeGFR; prostate-specific antigen, testosterone and hemoglobin levels; clinical stage; Gleason score; comorbidities; body mass index; heart rate; and the cardiothoracic ratio were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 60 patients (group 1: n=23, group 2: n=37) were analyzed. The Gleason score of group 2 was higher than that of group 1 (p=0.0011). Regarding clinical stage, group 1 had more patients with stage B disease, and group 2 had more with stage C (p<0.0001). The eGFR decreased with the duration of ADT treatment. At 12 months, renal function had started to recover in group 1, while it had continued to decrease in group 2. CONCLUSION: Discontinuation of ADT tended to result in improvements in renal function. Furthermore, this study indicated that renal dysfunction caused by 6 months of ADT is transient. Normalization of the serum testosterone level seen after the discontinuation of ADT may be associated with improvements in renal function. Thus, intermittent ADT may be a useful treatment for PCa, as it would help to preserve renal function.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Androgênios/efeitos adversos , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/fisiopatologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antagonistas de Androgênios/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Japão , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Testosterona/sangue , Fatores de Tempo , Suspensão de Tratamento
6.
Anticancer Res ; 41(9): 4587-4601, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475087

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Ovarian endometrioid carcinoma (EC) and high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) may exhibit various growth patterns and mimic mesonephric-like adenocarcinoma (MLA). We investigated the clinicopathological and molecular features of ovarian carcinomas with mesonephric-like differentiation (MLD). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analyzed the electronic medical records and pathology slides of two EC-MLD and three HGSC-MLD patients, and conducted immunostaining and targeted sequencing of their samples. RESULTS: All cases showed architectural diversity, compactly aggregated small tubules and ducts, and eosinophilic intraluminal secretions, indicating the possibility of an ovarian MLA. However, the following histological and immunophenotypical features confirmed the diagnoses of EC-MLD and HGSC-MLD: squamous, tubal, and sertoliform differentiation; serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma; solid, endometrioid, transitional (SET) feature; solid, transitional, endometrioid, mucinous-like (STEM) feature; diffuse expression of hormone receptors and Wilms tumor 1; mutant p53 immunostaining pattern; and wild-type v-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog gene. CONCLUSION: A subset of ovarian ECs and HGSCs can display MLD and mimic an MLA. A thorough histological examination combined with ancillary tests is crucial to differentiate between these ovarian neoplastic entities.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma Endometrioide/patologia , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Ductos Mesonéfricos/patologia , Adulto , Carcinoma Endometrioide/metabolismo , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/metabolismo , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/metabolismo , Estudos Retrospectivos , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Proteínas WT1/metabolismo , Ductos Mesonéfricos/metabolismo
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445387

RESUMO

Prostate cancer (PCa) is the leading cause of cancer-associated mortality in men, and new biomarkers are still needed. The expression pattern and protein tissue localization of proteoglycans of the syndecan family (SDC 1-4) and syntenin-1 (SDCBP) were determined in normal and prostatic tumor tissue from two genetically engineered mouse models and human prostate tumors. Studies were validated using SDC 1-4 and SDCBP mRNA levels and patient survival data from The Cancer Genome Atlas and CamCAP databases. RNAseq showed increased expression of Sdc1 in Pb-Cre4/Ptenf/f mouse Pca and upregulation of Sdc3 expression and downregulation of Sdc2 and Sdc4 when compared to the normal prostatic tissue in Pb-Cre4/Trp53f/f-;Rb1f/f mouse tumors. These changes were confirmed by immunohistochemistry. In human PCa, SDC 1-4 and SDCBP immunostaining showed variable localization. Furthermore, Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that patients expressing SDC3 had shorter prostate-specific survival than those without SDC3 expression (log-rank test, p = 0.0047). Analysis of the MSKCC-derived expression showed that SDC1 and SDC3 overexpression is predictive of decreased biochemical recurrence-free survival (p = 0.0099 and p = 0.045, respectively), and SDC4 overexpression is predictive of increased biochemical recurrence-free survival (p = 0.035). SDC4 overexpression was associated with a better prognosis, while SDC1 and SDC3 were associated with more aggressive tumors and a worse prognosis.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Sindecana-1/genética , Sindecana-3/genética , Sindecana-4/genética , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Transplante de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Análise Serial de Proteínas , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Análise de Sobrevida , Sindecana-1/metabolismo , Sindecana-3/metabolismo , Sindecana-4/metabolismo , Sinteninas/genética , Sinteninas/metabolismo
8.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 20, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34394811

RESUMO

Introduction: incidental prostate cancer findings reflect the great burden of prostatic cancer across the globe. Our 10 year retrospective analysis aimed to identify the incidence and clinic-pathologic features of prostate cancer incidentally detected in patients undergoing transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and to estimate the clinical value of pathologic review of all TURP specimens. Methods: after excluding patients with a known diagnosis of prostate cancer prior to TURP a total of 2,386 men (ages 25-98) were identified by pathology (TURP) specimens. Yearly incidences, Gleason score, grade, pathologic stage were recorded for all incidental prostate cancer patients. Results: a total of 256 (10.7%) patients were found to have prostate cancer. Mean Age was 68.51±9.22 years. T1a and T1b stage prostatic carcinoma was found in 9.9% and 90.1% of these patients respectively. Forty-nine percent (49%) patients had higher Gleason scores (>7). After subtracting average incidences between 5-year intervals, a statistical rise of almost 4% was found. Conclusion: our analysis concludes that a large proportion (10.7%) of patients had incidental prostate cancer and the incidence was increasing in recent years in Pakistan and in comparison, to Asian countries. In Pakistan there is a scarcity of updated national cancer registries. The growing incidence of high Gleason scores requires keen and prompt attention. The diverse ethnic and socioeconomic background of patients propels their propensity towards loss of follow up with already limited tertiary healthcare institutes in Pakistan. This pathologic review of TURP specimens is valuable for Asiatic and non-Asiatic populations.


Assuntos
Hiperplasia Prostática/cirurgia , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Ressecção Transuretral da Próstata , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Humanos , Incidência , Achados Incidentais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Paquistão , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Atenção Terciária
9.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1330: 95-112, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339032

RESUMO

Ovarian Cancer is one of the most lethal and widespread gynecological malignancies. It is the seventh leading cause of all cancer deaths worldwide. High-Grade Serous Cancer (HGSC), the most commonly occurring subtype, alone contributes to 70% of all ovarian cancer deaths. This is mainly attributed to the complete lack of symptoms during the early stages of the disease and absence of an early diagnostic marker.PAX8 is emerging as an important histological marker for most of the epithelial ovarian cancers, as it is expressed in about 90% of malignant ovarian cancers, specifically in HGSC. PAX8 is a member of the Paired-Box gene family (PAX1-9) of transcription factors whose expression is tightly controlled temporally and spatially. The PAX genes are well known for their role in embryonic development and their expression continues to persist in some adult tissues. PAX8 is required for the normal development of Müllerian duct that includes Fallopian tube, uterus, cervix, and upper part of vagina. In adults, it is expressed in the Fallopian tube and uterine epithelium and not in the ovarian epithelium. Considering the recent studies that predict the events preceding the tumorigenesis of HGSC from the Fallopian tube, PAX8 appears to have an important role in the development of ovarian cancer.In this chapter, we review some of the published findings to highlight the significance of PAX8 as an important marker and an emerging player in the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer. We also discuss regarding the future perspectives of PAX8 wherein it could contribute to the betterment of ovarian cancer diagnosis and treatment.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ovarianas , Adulto , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário , Tubas Uterinas , Feminino , Humanos , Gradação de Tumores , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Fator de Transcrição PAX8/genética
10.
Nursing ; 51(8): 24-29, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34347749

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) accounts for most renal malignancies. This article, the second in a three-part series, addresses how renal masses are classified, signs and symptoms of RCC, medical treatments for RCC, and priority nursing interventions for patients with RCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/enfermagem , Neoplasias Renais/enfermagem , Carcinoma de Células Renais/classificação , Prioridades em Saúde , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/classificação , Gradação de Tumores , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Diagnóstico de Enfermagem , Avaliação de Sintomas
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(34): e27032, 2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449481

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 1 and 2 (MST1/2) and Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1) are the core molecules of the Hippo signaling pathway, which have been found to be unbalanced in the occurrence of tumors and promote the development of the lesions. The present study aimed to investigate the expression of MST1/2 and YAP1 proteins in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and their clinicopathological significance. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression level of protein in tissues. According to the percentage of positive cells and staining intensity, the expression intensity of MST1/2 and YAP1 proteins in the tissue samples was scored, and the correlation between MST1/2 and the clinicopathological features of TNBC were discussed. RESULTS: The expression of MST1/2 and YAP1 was associated with histological grade, metastasis, lymph node metastasis stage, and tumor node metastasis stage. The overexpression of YAP1 predicted a poor prognosis in terms of overall survival and disease-free survival time. The MST1/2 expression was associated with improved overall survival and disease free survival of the patients. CONCLUSION: MST1/2 and YAP1 may be used as prognostic indicators to evaluate the recurrence of TNBC and might become one of the new targets for breast cancer treatment.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/biossíntese , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/biossíntese , Fatores de Transcrição/biossíntese , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia , Adulto , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Metástase Linfática , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Prognóstico , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/mortalidade
12.
Urol Clin North Am ; 48(3): 401-409, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210494

RESUMO

Available evidence supports routine implementation of germline genetic testing for many aspects of prostate cancer (PCa) decision making. The purpose of obtaining genetic testing for newly diagnosed men would be focused on identifying mutations that predispose to aggressive PCa. Based on an evidence-based review, the authors review germline rare pathogenic mutations in several genes that are significantly associated with aggressiveness, metastases, and mortality. Then recent studies of these germline mutations in predicting tumor grade reclassification among patients undergoing active surveillance are discussed. Single nucleotide polymorphisms-based polygenic risk scores in differentiating PCa aggressiveness and prognosis are reviewed.


Assuntos
Testes Genéticos , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Gradação de Tumores , Prognóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Medição de Risco , Conduta Expectante
13.
J Comput Assist Tomogr ; 45(3): 463-471, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34297516

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To improve the understanding and the diagnosis of intracranial ependymal tumors. METHODS: The clinical, radiological and prognostic features of 48 supratentorial extraventricular ependymomas and 74 intraventricular ependymomas were summarized and compared. RESULTS: Supratentorial extraventricular ependymomas, most often located in the frontal lobe (33.3%) and classified as grade III (75.0%), had relatively large eccentric cysts (3.07 ± 2.03 cm), significant enhancement (84.8%), low apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values, and associated with higher mortality (41.3%). The majority of intraventricular lesions occurred in the fourth ventricle (86.5%) and classified as grade II (78.4%), had relatively small and multiple cystic changes (1.04 ± 0.87 cm), slight or moderate enhancement (76.9%), high ADC values and associated with lower mortality (20.7%). There were few significant differences between grade II and grade III tumors in these 2 groups, respectively. Young age, high grade and low ADC values are worse prognostic indicators for patients with supratentorial extraventricular ependymomas, but not for those with intraventricular ependymomas. CONCLUSIONS: Conventional radiological features, combined with clinical manifestations and quantitative information provided by diffusion-weighted imaging, may not only enhance the diagnosis and assist in determining prognosis but also provide a better pathophysiological understanding of intracranial ependymal tumors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Ependimoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Supratentoriais/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Neoplasias Encefálicas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Ependimoma/mortalidade , Ependimoma/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Gradação de Tumores , Prognóstico , Neoplasias Supratentoriais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Supratentoriais/patologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208964

RESUMO

Gastro-entero-pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (GEP-NENs) are rare diseases occurring in the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas. They are characterized by the loss of epithelial tubular gland elements, and by the increased expression of neuroendocrine markers. GEP-NENs are subdivided into two histo-pathological types, gastro-entero-pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs) and gastro-entero-pancreatic neuroendocrine carcinomas (GEP-NECs). According to WHO 2017 and 2019 classification criteria are graded and staged in four categories, NET-G1, NET-G2, NET-G3, and NEC-G3. The molecular characterization of these tumors can be fundamental for the identification of new diagnostic, prognostic and predictive biomarkers. The main purpose of this study was to analyze the expression of the paralogous 13 HOX genes, normally involved in embryogenic development and frequently deregulated in human cancers, and of the HOX regulating lncRNA HOTAIR in GEP-NENs. The expression of HOX genes is gradually lost in the transition from GEP NET G1 to NET/NEC G3 tumors, while HOTAIR expression, inversely correlated with HOX genes expression and weakly expressed in low-grade GEP NENs, becomes aberrant in NET G3 and NEC G3 categories. Our data highlights their potential role in the molecular stratification of GEP-NENs by suggesting new prognostic markers and potential therapeutic targets.


Assuntos
Genes Homeobox , Neoplasias Intestinais/patologia , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Neoplasias Intestinais/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Regulação para Cima
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(27): e26489, 2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34232180

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: To analyze the correlation between quantitative contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) parameters and angiogenesis in primary small hepatocellular carcinoma (sHCC) with varying degrees of differentiation.According to varying degrees of differentiation, a total of 90 primary sHCC patients admitted to our hospital from July 2018 to January 2020 were selected and divided into poorly differentiated group (24 cases), moderately differentiated group (31 cases), and highly differentiated group (35 cases). All patients received real-time CEUS before surgery. The tumor diameter, microvascular morphology, grading of color blood flow, contrast-enhanced performance in different phases, quantitative CEUS parameters, expression of angiogenesis-related genes, and microvessel density (MVD) were compared among the 3 groups. The correlation between quantitative parameters of CEUS and angiogenesis indexes was analyzed by Spearman rank correlation analysis.Spearman rank correlation analysis showed that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) expression and MVD were negatively correlated with the time to peak (TTP), wash-out time, and peak accelerating time (PAT) (r < 0, P < .05), and were positively correlated with enhancing slope rate (ESR) and peak intensity increasing rate (PIIR) (r > 0, P < .05).CEUS is able to identify varying degrees of differentiation in primary sHCC, and the quantitative CEUS parameters are closely related to angiogenesis.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico , Meios de Contraste/farmacologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico , Microvasos/diagnóstico por imagem , Gradação de Tumores , Ultrassonografia Doppler em Cores/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/irrigação sanguínea , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/irrigação sanguínea , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(28): e26593, 2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34260540

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a common sexually transmitted disease worldwide and the leading cause of cervical cancer. Current vaccines do not cover all HPV genotypes whereas the distribution of HPV genotypes varies in different geographic regions. The study aimed to investigate the distribution of HPV genotypes in patients with cervical squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL) and cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in Taizhou City of Jiangsu Province, China. A total of 940 patients including 489 cases with cervical low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), 356 cases with cervical high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL), and 95 cases with cervical SCC, underwent a biopsy or surgery in Taizhou People's Hospital between January 2019 and December 2019. The HPV testing results were retrospectively analyzed. The overall prevalence of any, high-risk, and low-risk HPV was 83.83%, 81.91%, and 12.13%, respectively. The 5 most common HPV genotypes were HPV16 (35.64%), HPV52 (16.91%), HPV58 (13.94%), HPV33 (8.94%), and HPV18 (7.98%). The prevalence of any and HR-HPV in SCC was significantly higher than those in LSIL and HSIL, while the prevalence of LR-HPV in SCC was significantly lower than those in LSIL and HSIL (P < .01). Single and dual HPV infections were prevalent in SCC, LSIL, and HSIL. Furthermore, the prevalence of dual HPV infection in SCC was significantly higher than those in LSIL and HSIL (P = .002). The HPV prevalence varied by age, being highest among women with SCC, LSIL, and HSIL aged 40 to 49 years, 40 to 49 years, and 50 to 59 years, respectively. In conclusion, the findings revealed a very high prevalence of HPV in women with cervical lesions in Taizhou. Routine HPV tests must cover all common HPV genotypes in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Alphapapillomavirus/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/virologia , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/virologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/genética , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/patologia , China/epidemiologia , DNA Viral , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia , Esfregaço Vaginal , Adulto Jovem
17.
Arch Esp Urol ; 74(6): 599-605, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34219063

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine the parameters that predict Gleason Score (GS) upgrading in patients undergoing robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RARP) and especially the ability of neutrophile to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in predicting the upgrading. METHODS: Patients who underwent RARP for prostate cancer in our clinic between January 2013 and January 2018 were retrospectively analyzed. Patients' demographic data, preoperative and postoperative parameters were all recorded in the database. NLR was calculated by dividing the absolute neutrophil count (NC) by the absolute lymphocyte count (LC). Patients were classified as low, moderate and high risk according to the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCNN) Guidelines. Any increase in GS between biopsy results and radical prostatectomy specimens were consideredas an GS upgrading. RESULTS: After applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, a total of 571 patients, 205 patients without GS upgrading (Group 1) and 366 patients with GS upgrading (Group 2), were included. The mean preoperative PSA values and prostate volumes were 10.8 ± 8 ng/dL and 45 ± 18.8 ml, respectively. Group 2 had a significantly high NC and NLR, significantly low platelet count (PC) and LC, (p=0.0001, 0.0001, 0.001 and0.002, respectively). Group 2 was found to have significantly higher positive surgical margin (PSM), extraprostatic extension (EPE) and seminal vesical invasion (SVI) (p<0.001). There was no significant correlation between the parameters of NLR and PSM, EPE, SVI, and lymph node invasion (LNI). Binomial logistic regression showed patients with increased NLR had 1.68 times higher odds to exhibit an upgrade in GS in the post-surgical histopathological analysis. CONCLUSIONS: NLR calculated preoperatively is an easy diagnostic method that can predict GS upgrading in patients scheduled for radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer.


Assuntos
Neutrófilos , Neoplasias da Próstata , Humanos , Linfócitos , Masculino , Gradação de Tumores , Antígeno Prostático Específico , Prostatectomia , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202474

RESUMO

Salivary gland tumors are a rare tumor entity within malignant tumors of all tissues. The most common are malignant mucoepidermoid carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, and acinic cell carcinoma. Pleomorphic adenoma is the most recurrent form of benign salivary gland tumor. Due to their low incidence rates and complex histological patterns, they are difficult to diagnose accurately. Malignant tumors of the salivary glands are challenging in terms of differentiation because of their variability in histochemistry and translocations. Therefore, the primary goal of the study was to review the current literature to identify the recent developments in histochemical diagnostics and translocations for differentiating salivary gland tumors.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos , Neoplasias das Glândulas Salivares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias das Glândulas Salivares/genética , Translocação Genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Testes Genéticos/normas , Humanos , Gradação de Tumores , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/normas , Neoplasias das Glândulas Salivares/metabolismo , Neoplasias das Glândulas Salivares/terapia
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204445

RESUMO

Choriocarcinoma (CC), a subtype of trophoblastic disease, is a rare and highly aggressive neoplasm. There are two main CC subtypes: gestational and non-gestational, (so called when it develops as a component of a germ cell tumor or is related to a somatic mutation of a poorly differentiated carcinoma), each with very diverse biological activity. A therapeutic approach is highly effective in patients with early-stage CC. The advanced stage of the disease also has a good prognosis with around 95% of patients cured following chemotherapy. However, advancements in diagnosis and treatment are always needed to improve outcomes for patients with CC. Long non-coding (lnc) RNAs are non-coding transcripts that are longer than 200 nucleotides. LncRNAs can act as oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes. Deregulation of their expression has a key role in tumor development, angiogenesis, differentiation, migration, apoptosis, and proliferation. Furthermore, detection of cancer-associated lncRNAs in body fluids, such as blood, saliva, and urine of cancer patients, is emerging as a novel method for cancer diagnosis. Although there is evidence for the potential role of lncRNAs in a number of cancers of the female genital tract, their role in CC is poorly understood. This review summarizes the current knowledge of lncRNAs in gestational CC and how this may be applied to future therapeutic strategies in the treatment of this rare cancer.


Assuntos
Coriocarcinoma/genética , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Neoplasias Uterinas/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Coriocarcinoma/diagnóstico , Coriocarcinoma/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Gradação de Tumores , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Gravidez , Neoplasias Uterinas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Uterinas/metabolismo
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