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1.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e044682, 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475140

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To estimate age-specific abortion incidence and unintended pregnancy in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo and compare care experiences between adolescents (15-19 years) and older women (20-49 years). DESIGN: We used the age-specific variant of the Abortion Incidence Complications Method to estimate abortion and unintended pregnancy, with data from three primary sources: Health Facility Survey (n=361) provided postabortion care (PAC) caseloads; Prospective Morbidity Survey (n=1031) provided the age distribution and characteristics of women presenting for PAC and Health Professional Survey (n=115) provided an estimate of the proportion of abortions resulting in facility-based treatment of complications. Bivariate (χ2, t-test) and multivariable (binary logistic regression, Cox proportional hazard) analyses were used to compare abortion care experiences. SETTING: Health facilities proving PAC in Kinshasa. PARTICIPANTS: Women who presented to PAC facilities with abortion complications and their care providers. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary measures were abortion incidence and proportion of pregnancies unintended. The secondary measures were the odd of reporting specific abortion care experiences. RESULTS: Adolescents had an estimated 27 590 induced abortions, constituting 18.8% of abortions in Kinshasa in 2016. Adolescents had the lowest abortion rate among women less than 35 years (55.2/1000 women) but the highest rate among ever sexually active women (138.4/1000) and recently sexually active women (167.2/1000). Also, adolescents had the highest abortion ratio (82.4/100 live births), proportion of pregnancies unintended (80%) and proportion of unintended pregnancies ending in abortion (49%). Compared with older women, adolescents had higher odds of reporting pregnancy unintendedness (adjusted OR, AOR 1.36, 95% CI 1.75 to 2.24), seeking abortion at later than first trimester (AOR 1.34, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.63) and from non-medical professionals (AOR 1.68, 95% CI 1.31 to 2.14), and not using contraceptives before pregnancy (AOR 2.23, 95% CI 2.77 to 3.43) or postabortion (AOR 2.46, 95% CI 1.87 to 3.29). CONCLUSIONS: Interventions are needed to reduce unintended pregnancy among adolescents in Kinshasa and improve their abortion care experiences.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Gravidez não Planejada , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , República Democrática do Congo/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
2.
Womens Health Issues ; 31 Suppl 1: S66-S80, 2021 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454705

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this scoping review was to apply the Social Ecological Model for Military Women's Health to literature on unintended pregnancy (UIP) to answer the question: In United States active duty military women (population) with the potential for UIP (context), what is known about risk factors, prevention, and pregnancy outcomes (concepts)? METHODS: We conducted this review based on a PRISMA-ScR protocol registered a priori in Open Science Framework. Following a literature search of six databases and the grey literature, we used DistillerSR to manage data screening and data charting. The Social Ecological Model for Military Women's Health served as the theoretical framework to chart findings regarding UIP at the individual, microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, and macrosystem levels. RESULTS: A total of 74 research, review, and grey literature articles met the inclusion criteria. Risk factors included specific demographics, military service, and recent deployment. Prevention included contraceptive practices, access, and education that should take place early in servicewomen's careers and before deployment. Outcomes included early return from deployment, personal career challenges, and seeking alternative health services outside the military health system. CONCLUSIONS: Research and policy initiatives should focus on decreasing risk factors in the military working environment, with particular attention to the deployed environment. These initiatives should include input from military leaders, health care providers, servicewomen, and servicemen with the goal of decreasing the incidence of unintended pregnancies. Pregnancy intentionality among military women should be considered as a concept to shape intervention research to reduce unintended pregnancies.


Assuntos
Militares , Gravidez não Planejada , Anticoncepcionais , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Gravidez , Estados Unidos , Local de Trabalho
3.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 720, 2021 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34294104

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Unsafe abortion is common in Tanzania. Currently, postabortion care (PAC) is legally provided, but there is little information on the national cost. We estimated the health system costs of offering PAC in Tanzania in 2018, at existing levels of care and when hypothetically expanded to meet all need. METHODS: We employed a bottom-up costing methodology. Between October 2018 and February 2019, face-to-face interviews were conducted with facility administrators and PAC providers in a sample of 40 health facilities located across seven mainland regions and Zanzibar. We collected data on the direct and indirect cost of care, fees charged to patients, and costs incurred by patients for PAC supplies. Sensitivity analysis was used to explore the impact of uncertainty in the analysis. RESULTS: Overall, 3850 women received PAC at the study facilities in 2018. At the national level, 77,814 women received PAC, and the cost per patient was $58. The national health system cost for PAC provision at current levels totaled nearly $4.5 million. Meeting all need for PAC would increase costs to over $11 million. Public facilities bore the majority of PAC costs, and facilities recovered just 1% of costs through charges to patients. On average PAC patients incurred $7 in costs ($6.17 for fees plus $1.35 in supplies). CONCLUSIONS: Resources for health care are limited. While working to scale up access to PAC services to meet women's needs, Tanzanian policymakers should consider increasing access to contraception to prevent unintended pregnancies.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Assistência ao Convalescente , Anticoncepção , Feminino , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Gravidez , Gravidez não Planejada , Tanzânia
4.
Afr J Reprod Health ; 25(1): 29-40, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077108

RESUMO

Family planning and contraceptive utilization can have significant effects in reducing unplanned pregnancies and improving maternal and child health indicators. We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study analyzing survey response data within six sub-locations of Migori County, Kenya in 2018 and 2019. We utilize this survey data to estimate both the prevalence of contraceptive uptake and unwanted pregnancies in the study populations, and to examine the potential role that different factors play in meeting related family planning targets. Descriptive statistics were calculated, and multivariable logistic regression was used to model determinants of contraceptive use and reported unplanned pregnancy. A total of 3,642 female heads of household were included. 63% of respondents reported that they currently use some form of contraception, and the prevalence of unplanned pregnancy was 36.7%. Our findings reflect the need for family planning programs to focus interventions on those at highest risk. There is a need for additional research and investigation into community and individual beliefs surrounding family planning in order to ensure that interventions are culturally sensitive and locally responsive.


Assuntos
Comportamento Contraceptivo/estatística & dados numéricos , Anticoncepção/estatística & dados numéricos , Anticoncepcionais/uso terapêutico , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/organização & administração , Gravidez não Planejada , Adolescente , Adulto , Comportamento Contraceptivo/etnologia , Estudos Transversais , Cultura , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Gravidez não Desejada , Prevalência , Religião , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
5.
Afr J Reprod Health ; 25(1): 90-100, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077115

RESUMO

We investigated the relationship between intended pregnancy and utilization of antenatal care services in Rwanda. Using Demographic and Health Survey 2014/2015, secondary data was obtained on maternal health services utilization. We performed stepwise logistic regression analysis to examine the effect of independent variables on women's early and late utilization, as well as their sustained use of antenatal services. Dependent and main independent variables included: first trimester visits, completed antenatal visits and intended pregnancy respectively. Of 5,944 women sampled; 56.6% had made early antenatal visits and 44% had completed 4 visits. Unintended pregnancies were less likely to make early antenatal visits and complete 4 antenatal visits. Religion and being in union had positive association with standard antenatal visits; while age (>24 years), grand multiparty, and poor economic status had negative association. Our results call for deeper sensitization on utilization of antenatal services and more use of contraception to reduce unintended pregnancies.


Assuntos
Intenção , Serviços de Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez não Planejada/psicologia , Gravidez não Desejada/psicologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Saúde Materna , Gravidez , Ruanda , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
6.
BMC Res Notes ; 14(1): 231, 2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34112219

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the psychometric properties of the validated Chichewa version of the London Measure of Unplanned Pregnancy in a large representative community-based sample in Malawi, a low-income country. We collected data on pregnancy intention from a cohort of 4244 pregnant women in Malawi using the validated Chichewa version of the London Measure of Unplanned Pregnancy (LMUP). We evaluated the psychometric properties of the Chichewa LMUP using classical test theory and confirmatory factor analysis to re-assess the performance of items one and six, which had weaker performance in the original smaller, facility-based validation sample. RESULTS: The Chichewa version of the LMUP met all pre-set criteria for validation. There are now nine validations of the LMUP in different low-and-middle-income countries, confirming the validity and applicability of the LMUP in these settings.


Assuntos
Gravidez não Planejada , Feminino , Humanos , Londres , Malaui , Gravidez , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
West J Emerg Med ; 22(3): 769-774, 2021 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34125059

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Unintended pregnancy disproportionately affects marginalized populations and has significant negative health and financial impacts on women, their families, and society. The emergency department (ED) is a promising alternative setting to increase access to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services including contraception, especially among marginalized populations. The primary objective of this study was to determine the extent to which adult women of childbearing age who present to the ED would be receptive to receiving contraception and/or information about contraception in the ED. As a secondary objective, we sought to identify the barriers faced in attempting to obtain SRH care in the past. METHODS: We conducted a quantitative, cross-sectional, assisted, in-person survey of women aged 18-50 in the ED setting at two large, urban, academic EDs between June 2018-September 2019. The survey was approved by the institutional review board. Survey items included demographics, interest in contraception initiation and/or receiving information about contraception in the ED, desire to conceive, prior SRH care utilization, and barriers to SRH. RESULTS: A total of 505 patients participated in the survey. Participants were predominantly single and Black, with a mean age of 31 years, and reporting not wanting to become pregnant in the next year. Of those participants, 55.2% (n = 279) stated they would be interested in receiving information about birth control AND receiving birth control in the ED if it were available. Of those who reported the ability to get pregnant, and not desiring pregnancy in the next year (n = 279, 55.2%), 32.6% were not currently using anything to prevent pregnancy (n = 91). Only 10.5% of participants stated they had experienced barriers to SRH care in the past (n = 53). Participants who experienced barriers to SRH reported higher interest in receiving information and birth control in the ED (74%, n = 39) compared to those who had not experienced barriers (53%, n = 240); (P = 0.004, 95% confidence interval, 1.30-4.66). CONCLUSION: The majority of women of childbearing age indicated the desire to access contraception services in the ED setting. This finding suggests favorable patient acceptability for an implementation study of contraception services in emergency care.


Assuntos
Anticoncepção/psicologia , Anticoncepcionais/administração & dosagem , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Gravidez não Planejada , Saúde Reprodutiva/educação , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Addict Nurs ; 32(2): 107-114, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34060761

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Opioid use among reproductive-age women has greatly increased, resulting in high rates of opioid-exposed pregnancies, which are associated with negative outcomes, such as neonatal abstinence syndrome. Prevention of unintended pregnancy among opioid users is a critical pathway to reducing opioid-exposed pregnancies; however, little is known about pregnancy intention in this group. This article estimates the prevalence of unintended pregnancy among opioid-using women, thereby supporting efforts to develop interventions to reduce unintended pregnancy. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed, Web of Science, PsycINFO, and CINAHL, in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses framework. Reference lists of articles were searched. Eligibility criteria included reported unintended pregnancy rates within a population of opioid-using women of reproductive age. The search was completed in July 2018 and updated in October 2019. RESULTS: We identified 115 citations, screened 64 titles/abstracts, reviewed 31 full-text articles, and included 12 articles for this review. Rates of unintended pregnancy in opioid users were estimated in two ways, across the lifetime and for a current pregnancy, depending on study samples. Rates for both groups were high, with rates among currently pregnant opioid-using women (85%) compared with 45% among the general population. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Unintended pregnancy rates in opioid-using women were strikingly high, indicating a critical need for intervention. Routine inclusion of pregnancy planning in opioid treatment care is indicated. Education regarding contraception and opioid treatment services is essential for nurses in these settings. Family planning and opioid treatment efforts can be optimized by care coordination, with focus on nurse training for screening and patient education.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides , Síndrome de Abstinência Neonatal , Gravidez não Planejada , Anticoncepção , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Cuidados de Enfermagem , Gravidez
9.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 424, 2021 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33947381

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reproductive coercion and abuse is defined as any behaviour that seeks to control a woman's reproductive autonomy. In Australia, women often access reproductive health care through a primary care clinician, however, little is known about clinicians' experiences responding to reproductive coercion and abuse. This study aims to address this gap by exploring the barriers to responding to reproductive coercion and abuse in Australian primary care. METHODS: In this qualitative study, twenty-four primary care clinicians from diverse clinical settings in primary care across Australia were recruited to participate in a semi-structured interview. Data were analysed thematically. RESULTS: Through analysis, three themes were developed: It's not even in the frame; which centred around clinicians lack of awareness around the issue. There's not much we can do, where clinicians described a lack of confidence in responding correctly as well as a lack of services to refer on to. Lastly There's no one to help us, explaining the disconnect between referral services and primary care as well as the impacts of lack of abortion on women experiencing reproductive coercion and abuse. CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians expressed similar experiences of barriers to respond to reproductive coercion and abuse. Many clinicians felt ill-equipped to identify and respond to reproductive coercion and abuse. Some clinicians hadn't received any formal training, others were trained but had nowhere to refer women. Further complicating responses was a lack of support from referral services. This study highlights the need for more training and a streamlined referral pathways for women who experience reproductive coercion and abuse, as well as better access to reproductive health services in rural areas.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Coerção , Austrália , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Gravidez não Planejada , Atenção Primária à Saúde
10.
Afr J AIDS Res ; 20(2): 149-157, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34003077

RESUMO

Unintended pregnancy impacts many young women in South Africa, and rates of consistent contraceptive use among this population are suboptimal. Limited empirical work has investigated reasons for inconsistency between pregnancy intention and contraceptive use behaviour with data collected during pregnancy. We explored pregnancy intentions and discordance between intentions and contraceptive use prior to conception among young pregnant women in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 35 women during pregnancy (mean age = 19.3; range = 18-21) in 2011 and 2012. Data were analysed using content analysis. All participants reported unintended pregnancies; almost half were not using contraception near conception. Reasons for not intending to become pregnant spanned personal, social, health, and economic domains. Participants living with HIV (n = 13) expressed specific concerns related to impacts of pregnancy on HIV disease management and fear of transmission of HIV to the infant. Discordance between pregnancy intentions and contraceptive use prior to conception was attributed to personal, social, health and structural domains. Findings indicate a need for interventions that address barriers to contraceptive use in order to minimise unintended pregnancy and support safe, desired pregnancies among young women.


Assuntos
Comportamento Contraceptivo/estatística & dados numéricos , Intenção , Gravidez não Planejada/psicologia , Gestantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Anticoncepção/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Humanos , Gravidez , Saúde Reprodutiva/estatística & dados numéricos , África do Sul , Adulto Jovem
11.
Am J Prev Med ; 61(3): e149-e155, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33952412

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Zika virus is primarily transmitted through mosquito bites. Because Zika virus infection during pregnancy can cause serious birth defects, reproductive-aged women need protection from Zika virus infection. This report describes Zika virus prevention behaviors among women aged 18-49 years and assesses whether pregnancy status and healthcare provider counseling increases Zika virus prevention behaviors. METHODS: A population-based cell phone survey of women aged 18-49 years living in Puerto Rico was conducted in July-November 2016. Data were analyzed in 2018-2019. Prevalence estimates and 95% CIs were calculated for Zika virus prevention behaviors. Adjusted prevalence ratios were estimated to examine the association of pregnancy status with healthcare provider counseling on Zika virus prevention behaviors, controlling for age, education, and health insurance status. RESULTS: Most women reported using screens on open doors/windows (87.7%) and eliminating standing water in/around their homes (92.3%). Other Zika virus prevention behaviors were less common (<33%). In adjusted analysis, pregnant women were more likely than women not at risk for unintended pregnancy to report using mosquito repellent every/most days (adjusted prevalence ratio=1.44, 95% CI=1.13, 1.85). Healthcare provider counseling was associated with receiving professional spraying/larvicide treatment (adjusted prevalence ratio=1.42, 95% CI=1.17, 1.74), sleeping under a bed net (adjusted prevalence ratio=2.37, 95% CI=1.33, 4.24), using mosquito repellent (adjusted prevalence ratio=1.57, 95% CI=1.40, 1.77), and wearing long sleeves/pants (adjusted prevalence ratio=1.32, 95% CI=1.12, 1.55). CONCLUSIONS: Receipt of healthcare provider counseling was more consistently associated with Zika virus prevention behaviors than pregnancy status. Healthcare provider counseling is an important strategy for increasing the uptake of Zika virus prevention behaviors among women aged 18-49 years.


Assuntos
Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Gravidez não Planejada , Porto Rico/epidemiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/prevenção & controle
12.
Fertil Steril ; 115(6): 1369-1376, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33931201

RESUMO

Despite significant interests in contraception by men, effective methods of male contraception are limited to vasectomy and condoms. Recently, there have been several promising advances in male contraceptive research. This review will update readers on recent research in both hormonal and nonhormonal approaches to male contraception. Hormonal approaches to male contraception have been stymied by adverse effects, formulations requiring injections or implants, a 5% to10% nonresponse rate, as well as poor understanding of user acceptability. In the last several years, research has focused on novel, orally bioavailable androgens such as dimethandrolone undecanoate and 11ß-methyl-19-nor-testosterone. Additionally, combinations of a topical testosterone gel combined with a gel containing segesterone acetate, a potent progestin, have shown promise in clinical trials recently. Simultaneously, significant preclinical progress has been made in several approaches to nonhormonal male contraceptives, including compounds that inhibit sperm motility such as eppin, compounds that inhibit retinoic acid binding or biosynthesis, and reversible approaches to obstruction of the vas deferens. It is imperative for these areas of research to continue making strides so that there is a gamut of contraceptive options for couples to choose from. Some of these approaches will hopefully reach clinical utility soon, greatly improving contraceptive choice for couples.


Assuntos
Antiespermatogênicos/uso terapêutico , Contraceptivos Hormonais/uso terapêutico , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Saúde do Homem , Espermatogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antiespermatogênicos/efeitos adversos , Contraceptivos Hormonais/efeitos adversos , Eficácia de Contraceptivos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Gravidez não Planejada , Gravidez não Desejada , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
BJOG ; 128(9): 1546-1554, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33988917

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of structured contraceptive counselling on the uptake of long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) and pregnancy rates. DESIGN: Cluster randomised trial. SETTING: Abortion, youth and maternal health clinics in Stockholm, Sweden. POPULATION: Sexually active women aged ≥18 years without a wish for pregnancy seeking abortion and/or contraceptive counselling. METHODS: For participants in clinics randomised to intervention, trained healthcare providers implemented a study-specific intervention package designed for structured contraceptive counselling. Participants in the control clinics received routine counselling. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was choice of LARCs at first visit. Secondary outcomes were LARC initiation at 3 months and pregnancy rates at 3 and 12 months. We used logistic mixed-effects models with random intercept for clinic to account for clustering. RESULTS: From September 2017 to May 2019, 28 randomised clinics enrolled 1364 participants. Analyses including 1338 subjects showed that more participants in the intervention group compared with the control group chose LARCs: 267/658 (40.6%) versus 206/680 (30.3%) (OR 2.77, 95% CI 1.99-3.86). LARC initiation was higher in the intervention group compared with the control group: 213/528 (40.3%) versus 153/531 (28.8%) (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.22-2.49). At the abortion clinics, the pregnancy rate was significantly lower at 12 months in the intervention group compared with the control group: 13/101 (12.9%) versus 28/103 (27.2%) (OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.18-0.88). CONCLUSIONS: Structured contraceptive counselling increased LARC uptake in all clinics and significantly reduced unintended pregnancy rates in abortion clinics at the 12 months follow-up. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: Structured contraceptive counselling increased LARC uptake and reduced pregnancy rates at 12 months.


Assuntos
Comportamento Contraceptivo , Anticoncepcionais Femininos/administração & dosagem , Aconselhamento/métodos , Contracepção Reversível de Longo Prazo/métodos , Aborto Induzido/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Análise por Conglomerados , Aconselhamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Contracepção Reversível de Longo Prazo/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Gravidez não Planejada/psicologia , Suécia
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806809

RESUMO

This study presents findings from a randomized control trial replication evaluation of Pulse, an app-based pregnancy prevention program implemented with Black and Latinx women aged 18-20, a population with high rates of unplanned pregnancy. We used social media advertisements to enroll 1013 women online across the U.S. and automatically randomized participants to either the Pulse reproductive health app or a general health control app, stratifying by age and race/Latinx ethnicity. Participants received reminder text messages to view the app as well as text messages with app-related content throughout the intervention. Linear probability models were conducted on the analytic sample of 871 participants who completed the six-week survey and 798 who completed the six-month survey and adjusted for permuted block randomization and multiple hypothesis testing. Compared to the control group, intervention group participants had higher contraceptive knowledge (p = 0.000), which replicates findings from an earlier evaluation. However, these impacts were not sustained at six-month follow-up (p = 0.162). We found no other significant program impacts. This contrasts with an earlier evaluation that found intervention participants were less likely to have had sex without a hormonal or long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) method and had greater self-confidence to use contraception consistently than the control group. Different demographic characteristics, lower app usage, and more negative attitudes about and usage of hormonal/LARC contraception in the current sample may help to explain fewer impacts than the earlier evaluation.


Assuntos
Contracepção Reversível de Longo Prazo , Aplicativos Móveis , Saúde Sexual , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticoncepção , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Gravidez não Planejada , Adulto Jovem
15.
BMJ Open ; 11(4): e043532, 2021 04 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33895714

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate whether child marriage had causal effects on unmet needs for modern contraception, and unintended pregnancy, by estimating the marginal (population-averaged) treatment effect of child marriage. DESIGN: This study used secondary data from the Nepal Demographic and Health Survey 2016. Applying one-to-one nearest-neighbour matching with replacement within a calliper range of ±0.01, 15-49 years old women married before the age of 18 were matched with similar women who were married at 18 or above to reduce selection bias. SETTING: Nationally representative population survey data. PARTICIPANTS: The sample consisted of 7833 women aged 15-49 years who were married for more than 5 years. OUTCOME MEASURES: Unmet needs for modern contraception and unintended pregnancy. RESULTS: The matching method achieved adequate overlap in the propensity score distributions and balance in measured covariates between treatment and control groups with the same propensity score. Propensity score matching analysis showed that the risk of unmet needs for modern contraception, and unintended pregnancy among women married as children were a 14.3 percentage point (95 % CI 10.3 to 18.2) and a 10.1 percentage point (95 % CI 3.7 to 16.4) higher, respectively, than among women married as adults. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the estimated effects were robust to unmeasured covariates. CONCLUSIONS: Child marriage appears to increase the risk of unmet needs for modern contraception and unintended pregnancy. These findings call for social development and public health programmes that promote delayed entry into marriage and childbearing to improve reproductive health and rights.


Assuntos
Casamento , Gravidez não Planejada , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Anticoncepção , Comportamento Contraceptivo , Estudos Transversais , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nepal , Gravidez , Pontuação de Propensão , Adulto Jovem
16.
Infant Ment Health J ; 42(3): 362-373, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33860552

RESUMO

This study models associations between pregnancy intendedness and prenatal maternal-fetal bonding with postnatal maternal-infant bonding. Unintended pregnancies are associated with disruptions in maternal-infant bonding, which has long-term adverse implications for maternal and child well-being. Given the high proportion of births that are unintended in the United States, identifying protective factors is critical. Pregnant women (ages 16-38) were recruited from two prenatal clinics in a metropolitan city in the South Central United States at their first prenatal visit and followed throughout pregnancy and postbirth. Multiple regression analyses examined associations, mediation, and moderation. Results indicate that the more unintended/unwanted women reported their pregnancies to be, the lower they reported their maternal-infant bonding postbirth, and higher maternal-fetal bonding scores are associated with higher postnatal maternal-infant bonding. An interaction revealed that a higher level of prenatal bonding is protective for postnatal bonding among those with unintended/unwanted pregnancies. Because prenatal bonding can be enhanced through intervention, it is a promising target to reduce the risks associated with unintended pregnancy.


Assuntos
Relações Mãe-Filho , Apego ao Objeto , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Gravidez , Gravidez não Planejada , Gestantes , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Adulto Jovem
17.
Brasília; CONITEC; abr. 2021.
Não convencional em Português | BRISA/RedTESA | ID: biblio-1254316

RESUMO

CONTEXTO: A gravidez não intencional se caracteriza como um problema de saúde pública e abrange de forma ampla a gravidez não planejada e a gravidez não desejada. A taxa global de gravidez não intencional tem apresentado declínio nos últimos anos em todo o mundo. No Brasil, estima-se que mais da metade das gravidezes podem ser consideradas como não planejadas. A contracepção é a prevenção intencional da gravidez e é capaz de reduzir a mortalidade materna e neonatal. Contudo, muitas mulheres que desejam evitar a gravidez não utilizam contraceptivos, usam de forma inconsistente ou incorreto. O aconselhamento sobre os métodos contraceptivos e a educação sexual são estratégias que auxiliam a evitar a gravidez não intencional. O SUS disponibiliza uma variedade de métodos contraceptivos, reversíveis ou permanentes, além de ações e políticas voltadas para a saúde sexual e o planejamento familiar. TECNOLOGIA: Implante contraceptivo subdérmico de etonogestrel (IMPLANON NXT®). PERGUNTA: O uso do implante subdérmico de etonogestrel por mulheres adultas em idade reprodutiva é eficaz na prevenção de gravidez não planejada, custo-efetivo, e apresenta maior adesão ou satisfação comparadas aos contraceptivos oferecidos pelo SUS? EVIDÊNCIAS CLÍNICAS: O conjunto da evidência clínica de eficácia, adesão e segurança do implante subdérmico de etonogestrel para mulheres adultas em idade reprodutiva, maiores de 18 anos, é proveniente de três ensaios clínicos e cinco estudos de coorte, que foram avaliados como de baixa a moderada qualidade metodológica. O implante subdérmico de etonogestrel demonstrou maior eficácia contraceptiva e maior taxa de continuação de uso no decorrer de três anos frente ao DIU de cobre, embora as suas taxas de eficácia e continuação de uso também sejam elevadas. Ao final de um ano, o implante de etonogestrel demonstrou maior taxa de satisfação do que o DIU de cobre, embora a sua taxa de satisfação também seja elevada. De um modo geral, alterações no peso corporal e no índice de massa corporal foram maiores entre as usuárias do implante de etonogestrel e do injetável trimestral de acetato de medroxiprogesterona quando comparado ao DIU de cobre, embora para alguns autores estes achados não possuem significância clínica. O distúrbio do sangramento está entre as principais causas para a descontinuação de uso do implante subdérmico de etonogestrel, seguido por ganho de peso, e a expulsão do dispositivo e o distúrbio do sangramento estão entre as principais causas para a descontinuação de uso do DIU de cobre. Não foram encontrados estudos que preenchessem os critérios de inclusão da pergunta de pesquisa e que comparassem o implante subdérmico de etonogestrel frente aos demais contraceptivos reversíveis disponíveis no SUS. AVALIAÇÃO ECONÔMICA: Análise de custo-efetividade, com horizonte temporal de três anos, na perspectiva do SUS, comparou o implante subdérmico de etonogestrel frente ao DIU de cobre, aos injetáveis mensal e trimestral, à pílula e à minipílula disponível no SUS. Frente ao DIU de cobre, o implante resultou em uma razão de custo-efetividade incremental (RCEI) de R$ 6.356,07 por gravidez não planejada. O implante de etonogestrel foi dominante frente aos demais contraceptivos disponíveis no SUS. Em suas análises de sensibilidade, os resultados se mantiveram e o custo do implante de etonogestrel se destacou entre as variáveis que mais impactam no modelo. Foram identificadas algumas incertezas nos parâmetros, que podem estar impactando consideravelmente nos resultados, desfavorecendo os comparadores. ANÁLISE DE IMPACTO ORÇAMENTÁRIO: Na perspectiva da população por demanda aferida, o demandante estimou um incremento de R$5.924.413 no primeiro ano, para uma população de 3.869.561, e uma economia de R$4.426.700 no quinto ano, para uma população de 3.911.195. Ao final de cinco anos, uma economia de R$ 6.780.627,00. Na perspectiva epidemiológica da população, foi estimado um incremento de R$40.890.518 no primeiro ano, para uma população de 26.707.854, e uma economia de R$30.553.251, para uma população de 26.995.213. Ao final de cinco anos, uma economia de R$ 46.800.143,00. Para se chegar a estes valores, o demandante contabilizou os gastos com os métodos contraceptivos e com a gravidez não planejada, e subtraiu os valores entre cenários sem e com o implante subdérmico, considerando uma possível incorporação. As incertezas descritas podem estar subestimando o impacto orçamentário incremental, favorecendo a intervenção. Em cenários alternativos, desconsiderando os gastos com gravidez não planejada, estes valores podem variar de R$ 183.017.788,83 a R$ 1.263.195.588,17 ao final de cinco anos. MONITORAMENTO DO HORIZONTE TECNOLÓGICO: Foi detectado um anel vaginal de etinilestradiol associado com segestrone, indicado para mulheres adultas e em idade reprodutiva. RECOMENDAÇÃO PRELIMINAR DA CONITEC: A Conitec, em sua 93ª Reunião Ordinária, realizada no dia 09 de dezembro de 2020, deliberou que a matéria fosse disponibilizada em consulta pública com recomendação preliminar desfavorável à incorporação do implante subdérmico de etonogestrel para prevenção da gravidez não planejada por mulheres adultas em idade reprodutiva entre 18 e 49 anos no SUS. Considerou-se que as evidências são favoráveis ao implante de etonogestrel, mas que a ampla população proposta pelo demandante juntamente com o impacto orçamentário estimado dificultaria a incorporação desta tecnologia no SUS. ANÁLISE DE IMPACTO ORÇAMENTÁRIO DE ACORDO COM O SEGMENTO POPULACIONAL DELINEADO PELA SVS E PELA SAPS: A Secretaria de Vigilância em Saúde (SVS) e a Secretaria de Atenção Primária à Saúde (SAPS) propuseram, na 92ª Reunião da Conitec, delinear um segmento da população que mais se beneficiaria com a possível incorporação do implante subdérmico de etonogestrel. De acordo com o levantamento, esta população seria compreendida por: mulheres usuárias de drogas; mulheres em situação de rua; mulheres vivendo com HIV; mulheres em idade fértil e em uso de talidomida; mulheres privadas de liberdade; mulheres cis trabalhadoras do sexo e mulheres em idade fértil em tratamento com tuberculose e em uso de aminoglicosídeos. Desta forma, o quantitativo apresentado desta população foi de 356.381 indivíduos. Desconsiderando os custos da gravidez não planejada, o percentual de uso do implante subdérmico de etonogestrel no cenário base e atualizando os custos de alguns métodos contraceptivos, o novo cenário apresentou um incremento de R$ 1.747.690,30 no primeiro ano e de R$ 5.580.520,95 no quinto ano. Ao final de cinco anos, o impacto orçamentário incremental de uma possível incorporação do implante subdérmico de etonogestrel no SUS para o segmento populacional proposto foi de R$ 17.710.388,26. CONSULTA PÚBLICA: A consulta pública (CP) nº 01/2021 foi realizada entre os dias 12/01/2021 a 01/02/2021. Foram recebidas 191 contribuições, sendo 72 pelo formulário para contribuições técnico-científico e 119 pelo formulário para contribuições sobre experiência ou opinião de pacientes, familiares, amigos ou cuidadores de pacientes, profissionais de saúde ou pessoas interessadas no tema. De um modo geral, os participantes da CP discordaram da recomendação preliminar da Conitec. As contribuições versaram sobre a eficácia, a efetividade e a segurança do implante de etonogestrel, além dassuas altastaxas de continuação e satisfação das usuárias. O desejo de se ampliar os contraceptivos disponíveis no SUS e de favorecer o planejamento familiar também foi mencionado. Outro ponto muito destacado foi acerca do benefício do implante hormonal para um grupo mais vulnerável da população. A redução no número de gravidez não planejada também foi amplamente considerada nas participações, e os seus custos foram atribuídos de forma intercalada entre indivíduo, SUS e sociedade. Por fim, conclui-se que as contribuições recebidas na CP sobre o implante subdérmico de etonogestrel para prevenção da gravidez não planejada por mulheres adultas em idade reprodutiva, entre 18 e 49 anos, foram importantes e evidenciaram o desejo de que este método pudesse ser disponibilizado a um subgrupo mais vulnerável da população. RECOMENDAÇÃO FINAL DA CONITEC: Os membros do Plenário presentes na 95ª Reunião Ordinária da Conitec, no dia 03 de março de 2021, deliberaram, por maioria simples, sem nenhuma declaração de conflito de interesses, recomendar a incorporação, condicionada à criação de programa específico, do implante subdérmico de etonogestrel na prevenção da gravidez não planejada por mulheres em idade fértil: em situação de rua; com HIV/AIDS e em uso de dolutegravir; em uso de talidomida; privadas de liberdade; cis trabalhadoras do sexo; e em tratamento de tuberculose, usando aminoglicosídeos. Considerou-se que as evidências são favoráveis ao implante de etonogestrel e que o segmento da população delineada pela SVS e pela SAPS seria a que mais se beneficiaria do implante subdérmico de etonogestrel. Foi assinado o Registro de Deliberação nº 594/2021. DECISÃO: Incorporar o implante subdérmico de etonogestrel, condicionada à criação de programa específico, na prevenção da gravidez não planejada para mulheres em idade fértil: em situação de rua; com HIV/AIDS em uso de dolutegravir; em uso de talidomida; privadas de liberdade; trabalhadoras do sexo; e em tratamento de tuberculose em uso de aminoglicosídeos, no âmbito do Sistema Único de Saúde ­ SUS, conforme Portaria nº 13, publicada no Diário Oficial da União nº 74, seção 1, página 235, em 22 de abril de 2021.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Desogestrel/administração & dosagem , Anticoncepção/métodos , Gravidez não Planejada , Planejamento Familiar , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica , Sistema Único de Saúde , Análise Custo-Benefício/economia , Implantes de Medicamento
19.
BMC Womens Health ; 21(1): 106, 2021 03 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33731107

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Kenya has successfully expanded HIV treatment, but HIV-related stigma and discrimination, and unintended pregnancy remain issues for many Kenyan women living with HIV. While HIV-related stigma can influence the health seeking behaviors of those living with HIV, less is known about how reproductive health outcomes influence internalized stigma among women living with HIV. METHODS: Baseline data only were used in this analysis and came from an implementation science study conducted in Kenya from 2015 to 2017. The analytic sample was limited to 1116 women who are living with HIV, between 18 to 44 years old, and have ever experienced a pregnancy. The outcome variable was constructed from 7 internalized stigma statements and agreement with at least 3 statements was categorized as medium/high levels of internalized stigma. Unintended pregnancy, categorized as unintended if the last pregnancy was mistimed or unwanted, was the key independent variable. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to assess the association between unintended pregnancy and internalized stigma. Associations between internalized stigma and HIV-related discrimination and violence/abuse were also explored. RESULTS: About 48% agreed with at least one internalized stigma statement and 19% agreed with at least three. Over half of women reported that their last pregnancy was unintended (59%). Within the year preceding the survey, 52% reported experiencing discrimination and 41% reported experiencing violence or abuse due to their HIV status. Women whose last pregnancy was unintended were 1.6 times (95% CI 1.2-2.3) more likely to have medium/high levels of internalized stigma compared to those whose pregnancy was wanted at the time, adjusting for respondents' characteristics, experiences of discrimination, and experiences of violence and abuse. Women who experienced HIV-related discrimination in the past 12 months were 1.8 times (95% CI 1.3-2.6) more likely to have medium/high levels of internalized stigma compared to those who experienced no discrimination. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that unintended pregnancy is associated with internalized stigma. Integrated HIV and FP programs in Kenya should continue to address stigma and discrimination while increasing access to comprehensive voluntary family planning services for women living with HIV.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Gravidez não Planejada , Adolescente , Adulto , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar , Feminino , Humanos , Quênia , Gravidez , Estigma Social , Adulto Jovem
20.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd ; 1642021 01 21.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33651516

RESUMO

A clinical picture of a 35-year-old woman presented at the gynaecology department with a positive pregnancy test even though she had an intra-uterine device (IUD) inserted three months previously. During laparoscopy the Ballerina IUD turns out to be located in the appendix.


Assuntos
Dor Abdominal/etiologia , Apêndice/lesões , Migração de Dispositivo Intrauterino/efeitos adversos , Dispositivos Intrauterinos , Gravidez não Planejada , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Laparoscopia , Gravidez
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