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1.
J Pregnancy ; 2020: 7019676, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32953177

RESUMO

Background: Ethiopia still suffers high levels of neonatal and maternal mortality, so the maternity continuum of care is a continuous framework for the delivery of maternal care from pregnancy to the postnatal period. Skilled care during pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period is an important intervention in reducing maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. But in Ethiopia, there are limited studies on the completion of the maternity continuum of care, so this study will help to suggest interventions in order to reduce the dropout of the maternity continuum of care. Objective: To assess the completion of the maternity continuum of care and factors associated with it among mothers who gave birth in the last one year in Enemay District, Northwest Ethiopia. Method and Materials. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from February 25 to March 10, 2019, on 651 women who gave birth in the last one year. The data were collected by a face-to-face interview through pretested and structured questionnaires. Binary logistic regression was used to identify predictors of the completion of the maternity continuum of care. Variables with a P value < 0.05 in multivariable analysis were declared as statistically significant associated factors. Results: This study revealed that about 45% (95% CI: 40.9%, 48.8%) of respondents completed the continuum of care. Women with secondary education (AOR = 6, 95% CI: 2.26, 16.6), women whose occupation is farming (AOR = 0.18, 95%, CI: 0.1, 0.32), women who have autonomy in health care decision (AOR = 4, 95% CI: 2.26, 7.2), women who have exposure to media (AOR = 1.97, 95% CI: 1.2, 3.27), women with wanted pregnancies (AOR = 3.33, 95% CI: 1.87, 5.9), para five and above women (AOR = 2.85, 95% CI: 1.28, 6.3), and women whose husbands are employed (AOR = 4.97, 95% CI: 1.16, 21.2) were significantly associated with the completion of the maternity continuum of care. Conclusions and Recommendation. This study showed that less than half of the participants had achieved the continuum of care and education level, and both respondents and their husband's occupation, parity, autonomy in health care decision, exposure to the mass media, and wantedness of pregnancy were associated with the completion of the maternity continuum of care; therefore, working on enhancing the capacity of women's autonomy in health care and decision-making and preventing unintended pregnancy helps to improve the completion of the maternity continuum of care.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde , Serviços de Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Mães , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Tomada de Decisões , Escolaridade , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Autonomia Pessoal , Gravidez , Gravidez não Planejada , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
3.
Lancet Glob Health ; 8(9): e1152-e1161, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32710833

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Unintended pregnancy and abortion estimates document trends in sexual and reproductive health and autonomy. These estimates inform and motivate investment in global health programmes and policies. Variability in the availability and reliability of data poses challenges for measuring and monitoring trends in unintended pregnancy and abortion. We developed a new statistical model that jointly estimated unintended pregnancy and abortion that aimed to better inform efforts towards global equity in sexual and reproductive health and rights. METHODS: We developed a model that simultaneously estimated incidence of unintended pregnancy and abortion within a Bayesian framework. Data on pregnancy intentions and abortion were compiled from country-based surveys, official statistics, and published studies found through a literature search, and we obtained data on livebirths from the World Population Prospects. We analysed results by World Bank income groups, Sustainable Development Goal regional groupings, and the legal status of abortion. FINDINGS: In 2015-19, there were 121·0 million unintended pregnancies annually (80% uncertainty interval [UI] 112·8-131·5), corresponding to a global rate of 64 unintended pregnancies (UI 60-70) per 1000 women aged 15-49 years. 61% (58-63) of unintended pregnancies ended in abortion (totalling 73·3 million abortions annually [66·7-82·0]), corresponding to a global abortion rate of 39 abortions (36-44) per 1000 women aged 15-49 years. Using World Bank income groups, we found an inverse relationship between unintended pregnancy and income, whereas abortion rates varied non-monotonically across groups. In countries where abortion was restricted, the proportion of unintended pregnancies ending in abortion had increased compared with the proportion for 1990-94, and the unintended pregnancy rates were higher than in countries where abortion was broadly legal. INTERPRETATION: Between 1990-94 and 2015-19, the global unintended pregnancy rate has declined, whereas the proportion of unintended pregnancies ending in abortion has increased. As a result, the global average abortion rate in 2015-19 was roughly equal to the estimates for 1990-94. Our findings suggest that people in high-income countries have better access to sexual and reproductive health care than those in low-income countries. Our findings indicate that individuals seek abortion even in settings where it is restricted. These findings emphasise the importance of ensuring access to the full spectrum of sexual and reproductive health services, including contraception and abortion care, and for additional investment towards equity in health-care services. FUNDING: UK Aid from the UK Government, Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs, UNDP/UNFPA/UNICEF/WHO/World Bank Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction (HRP), and The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido/legislação & jurisprudência , Aborto Induzido/estatística & dados numéricos , Países Desenvolvidos/estatística & dados numéricos , Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez não Planejada , Adolescente , Adulto , Teorema de Bayes , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
5.
Pediatrics ; 146(2)2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32690805

RESUMO

Rates of sexual activity, pregnancies, and births among adolescents have continued to decline during the past decade to historic lows. Despite these positive trends, many adolescents remain at risk for unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). This technical report discusses the new data and trends in adolescent sexual behavior and barrier protection use. Since 2017, STI rates have increased and use of barrier methods, specifically external condom use, has declined among adolescents and young adults. Interventions that increase availability of or accessibility to barrier methods are most efficacious when combined with additional individual, small-group, or community-level activities that include messages about safer sex. Continued research informs public health interventions for adolescents that increase the consistent and correct use of barrier methods and promote dual protection of barrier methods for STI prevention together with other effective methods of contraception.


Assuntos
Preservativos Femininos , Preservativos , Comportamento Sexual , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Preservativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Preservativos Femininos/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Contraceptivo/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoas com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Gravidez , Gravidez na Adolescência/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez não Planejada , Fatores Raciais , Sexo Seguro , Autoimagem , Educação Sexual , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Apoio Social
6.
Pediatrics ; 146(2)2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32690808

RESUMO

Rates of sexual activity, pregnancies, and births among adolescents have continued to decline during the past decade to historic lows. Despite these positive trends, many adolescents remain at risk for unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). When used consistently and correctly, latex and synthetic barrier methods reduce the risk of many STIs, including HIV, and pregnancy. This update of the 2013 policy statement is intended to assist pediatricians in understanding and supporting the use of barrier methods by their patients to prevent unintended pregnancies and STIs and address obstacles to their use.


Assuntos
Preservativos Femininos , Preservativos , Comportamento Sexual , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Gravidez não Planejada , Sexo Seguro , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle
7.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235675, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645075

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Unintended pregnancy rates are substantially higher in developing regions, have significant health consequences, and disproportionately affect subgroups with socio-economic disadvantage. We aimed to examine whether there is an association between husbands' education status and their wives unintended pregnancy in southern Ethiopia. METHODS: The data source for this study was from a cross-sectional study on iron-folate supplementation and compliance in Wolaita, South Ethiopia. Data were collected from October to November 2015 in 627 married pregnant women regarding their husbands' education status, socio-demographic characteristics, and if they wanted to become pregnant at the time of survey using an interviewer administered questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to estimate Odds Ratios (ORs) with associated z-tests and 95% Confidence Intervals (95% CI) for variables associated with unintended pregnancy. RESULTS: The proportion of unintended pregnancy in this sample was 20.6%. Husbands' education status, age, residence, and using family planning methods were associated with unintended pregnancy (all P-values < 0.05). Multivariable models consistently showed that being married to a husband with at least some college or university education was associated with a decreased OR for unintended pregnancy after controlling for age and use of family planning at conception period (OR 0.36 [95%CI: 0.17, 0.82]) and age and rural residence (OR 0.40 [95%CI: 0.18, 0.90]). CONCLUSION: Unintended pregnancy among Ethiopian woman was consistently associated with being married to least educated husbands in southern Ethiopia. Increasing age and living in a rural vs urban area were also independently associated with unintended pregnancy. Strategies for addressing family planning needs of women with poorly educated husbands should be the subject of future research.


Assuntos
Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez não Planejada , Cônjuges/educação , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Gravidez , Gestantes/educação , População Rural , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Pregnancy ; 2020: 2926097, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32685212

RESUMO

Background: Unplanned pregnancy is a fundamental concept that is used to recognize the fertility of populations and the unmet need for contraception and family planning. Unplanned pregnancy happened mainly due to the results of not using contraception or inconsistent or incorrect use of effective methods. Reducing the number of unplanned pregnancy endorses reproductive health mainly by reducing the number of times a woman is exposed to the risk of pregnancy and childbearing. Objective: This study is aimed at assessing the magnitude of unplanned pregnancy and associated factors among pregnant mothers attending antenatal care at Suhul General Hospital, Northern Ethiopia. Methods: A facility-based cross-sectional study design was conducted among pregnant mothers visiting antenatal care follow-up from February to April 2018 at Suhul General Hospital, Shire, and Northern Ethiopia. The study participants were selected using a systematic sampling method, and the data was collected using a pretested structured questionnaire through face-to-face interviews. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were done to determine the association of each independent variable with the dependent variable. Result: The magnitude of unplanned pregnancy among 379 pregnant mothers was 20.6%. Unmarried women [AOR: 4.73, 95% CI: (1.56, 14.33)], age above forty [AOR: 4.17, 95% CI: (1.18, 14.6)], had no history of unplanned pregnancy [AOR: 3.26 95% CI: (1.65, 6.44)], and unemployed [AOR: 6.79; 95% CI: (2.05, 22.46)] were the variables significantly associated with the magnitude of unplanned pregnancy. Conclusion and Recommendation. The findings of this study showed that the magnitude of unplanned pregnancy was high and age, marital status, occupation, and history of unplanned pregnancy were statistically associated with an unplanned pregnancy. There is seeming necessity to plan strategies of communication within couples or individuals on reproductive especially on fertility and promote family planning methods.


Assuntos
Taxa de Gravidez , Gravidez não Planejada , Fatores Etários , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde , Hospitais Gerais , Humanos , Gravidez , Educação Sexual , Desemprego
10.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233907, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497059

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Intimate partner violence during pregnancy can contribute to maternal mortality and morbidity by limiting women's ability to receive maternal health services including antenatal care and skilled delivery care. In Ethiopia, evidence regarding intimate partner violence during pregnancy is limited, and no previous studies have been conducted in the Harari region. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the prevalence and associated factors of intimate partner violence during pregnancy among women who had given birth in public hospitals in Harari regional state, eastern Ethiopia. METHODS: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2018 to April 2019 among women who had given birth in public hospitals in Harari regional state, East Ethiopia. A systematic random sampling method was employed to select 648 participants. Data were collected using an interviewer-administered standardized questionnaire based on the World Health Organization Multi-Country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence against Women survey. Crude and adjusted odds ratios with respective confidence intervals were computed. Variables with a p-value of ≤0.05 were considered to have a significant association with intimate partner violence during pregnancy. RESULTS: The prevalence of intimate partner violence during the most recent pregnancy was found to be 39.81%. Furthermore, the prevalence of physical, emotional and sexual violence were found to be 25.93%, 25.62% and 3.7%, respectively. Longer duration of marriage (adjusted odds ratio = 1.68, 95% confidence interval = 1.01-2.79), most recent pregnancy being unplanned (adjusted odds ratio = 1.55, 95% confidence interval = 1.03-2.34), experiencing controlling behaviour by a partner, (adjusted odds ratio = 2.23, 95% confidence interval = 1.46-3.40) and having an attitude that justifies intimate partner violence (adjusted odds ratio = 1.60, 95% confidence interval = 1.09-2.36) were associated with experiencing intimate partner violence. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of intimate partner violence during pregnancy was found to be high. Pregnancy monitoring programs, which can detect and intervene with regard to partner's controlling behaviors and women's perception regarding justification of intimate partner violence, especially in those women with an unplanned pregnancy, could help to reduce intimate partner violence during pregnancy. Further, changing social norms that condone violence through advocacy and awareness creation might help in preventing partner violence.


Assuntos
Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Maus-Tratos Conjugais , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia , Feminino , Hospitais Públicos , Humanos , Masculino , Abuso Físico , Gravidez , Gravidez não Planejada , Delitos Sexuais , Parceiros Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
11.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234474, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525935

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Ethiopia is one of the Sub-Saharan African countries with high unintended pregnancy rate. Every woman in Ethiopia experiences at least one unintended birth. Although there were some studies about contraceptive use among all women in Ethiopia, evidence about contraceptive use among women with no fertility intention was limited. Therefore, this analysis was performed to assess the prevalence of contraceptive use and associated factors among fecund, married reproductive-age women who intended no more children. METHODS: We used the 2016 Ethiopian Demography and Health Survey (EDHS) data collected through a two-stage stratified cluster sampling technique. EDHS was a community based, cross-sectional study conducted from January 18, 2016, to June 27, 2016. A total of 2,859 fecund married reproductive age women with no desire to have more children were included in this study. Both descriptive and logistic regression analysis were performed using STATA V.14. A 95% confidence interval was used to declare statistical significance. RESULTS: Contraceptive use among fecund married reproductive-age women who want no more children was 51.1% (95%CI: 47.0-55.24%). Visit by health workers at home (AOR = 1.37, 95%CI: 1.02, 1.83), living in Addis Ababa (AOR = 3.38 95%CI: 1.76, 6.37) and having better wealth index (middle (AOR = 1.76, 95%CI: 1.25, 2.47) and being rich (AOR = 1.96, 95%CI: 1.40, 2.74)) were found positively associated with contraceptive use. On the other hand, living in the Somali region (AOR = 0.10, 95%CI: 0.01, 0.85), and being Muslim (AOR = 0.45, 95%CI: 0.30, 0.67) were found negatively associated with contraceptive use. CONCLUSION: Contraceptive use among fecund married reproductive-age women with no fertility intention was low compared to their demand. Therefore, to improve contraceptive use, the provision of family planning counseling and information should be strengthened. Further intervention is needed to narrow disparities in contraceptive use among regions and different population groups.


Assuntos
Comportamento Contraceptivo/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/organização & administração , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Gravidez não Planejada , Adolescente , Adulto , Comportamento Contraceptivo/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia , Características da Família , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Islamismo/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
12.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 661, 2020 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32398123

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The postpartum period is a critical time to improve maternal and child health. It is a time for accessing contraceptives to prevent short inter-pregnancy intervals. More than 95% of postpartum women do not want to get pregnant within 12 months. However, many women in Ethiopia experience an unintended pregnancy, and there is low information about postpartum contraceptive use among women who have family planning demand. Therefore, this study aimed to estimate the prevalence of postpartum contraceptive use and its predictors among women who give birth 12 months before the survey in Ethiopia. METHODS: We used the 2016 Ethiopia demographic health survey data for this analysis. The survey was a community-based cross-sectional study conducted from January 18 to June 27, 2016. The survey employed a two-stage stratified cluster sampling technique. A total of 2304 postpartum women were included. Bivariate and multivariable logistics regressions were done to identify factors associated with postpartum contraceptive use. A p-value < 0.05 was used to declare statistical significance. RESULTS: About 23.7% (23.7, 95% CI: 20.7-27.0%) of postpartum women were using modern contraceptives. Women who were urban residents (AOR = 2.18; 95%CI: 1.34-3.55), those who attended secondary or higher education (AOR = 1.79; 95%CI: 1.04-3.10), women who attended 1-3 (AOR = 2.33; 95%CI:1.27-4.25) or 4 or more ANC visits (AOR = 2.59; 95%CI:1.43-4.69) and women who delivered at a health facility (AOR = 1.86; 95%CI: 1.23-2.81) had higher odds of modern contraceptive use during the postpartum period. Similarly, women who reported the last child was no more wanted (AOR = 1.83; 95%CI: 1.01-3.31), women who decided for contraceptive use (AOR = 2.03; 95%CI: 1.13-3.65) and women whose recent child was male (AOR = 1.38; 95%CI: 1.01-1.88) had higher odds of modern contraceptive use. CONCLUSION: Postpartum contraceptive use was low in Ethiopia. Strengthening health facility delivery, promoting girls' education and encouraging women's participation in deciding for contraceptive use would improve the uptake of modern contraceptives use during the postpartum period.


Assuntos
Comportamento Contraceptivo/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/estatística & dados numéricos , Período Pós-Parto/psicologia , Gravidez não Planejada/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Gravidez , Prevalência , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
13.
West J Emerg Med ; 21(3): 640-646, 2020 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32421513

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Adolescents who seek care in the emergency department (ED) are a cohort at increased risk of unintended pregnancy. Although adolescents are interested in learning about pregnancy prevention in the ED, there is a lack of effective educational interventions in this setting. Long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARC) are highly effective and safe in teens, yet are underutilized. This study assessed contraception use among adolescents in the ED and evaluated the impact of an educational video on their interest in and uptake of LARCs. METHODS: We conducted a two-arm randomized controlled trial on a convenience sample of sexually active females 14 to 21 years old in an urban pediatric ED. Participants were randomized to an educational video or standard care. All participants completed a survey and were given an informational card about affiliated teen clinics with the option to schedule an appointment. We assessed pre-post mean differences between control and intervention participants and pre-post differences among intervention participants. Participants were followed three months after their ED visit to examine use of contraception. RESULTS: A total of 79 females were enrolled (42 control and 37 intervention). The mean age was 17 years, and most were youth of color. The proportion of participants with a prior pregnancy was 18%. Almost all participants reported wanting to avoid pregnancy, yet 18% reported not using contraception at last intercourse. At baseline, 17.7% of participants were somewhat or very interested in the intrauterine device (IUD) or implant. After watching the video, 42.3% were somewhat or very interested in the IUD and 35.7% in the implant. Among those who watched the video, there were significant increases in interest in using an IUD or implant (p<.001). Compared to controls, adolescents who watched the video were also significantly more likely to report wanting an IUD (p<0.001) or implant (p=0.002). A total of 46% were reached for follow-up. Of these, 16% had initiated a LARC method after their ED visit (p=NS). CONCLUSION: Most adolescent females in the ED want to avoid pregnancy, but are using ineffective methods of contraception. A brief educational video on LARCs was acceptable to adolescents and feasible to implement in a busy urban ED setting. Adolescents who watched the video had significantly greater interest in using LARCs, but no demonstrated change in actual adoption of contraception.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Contracepção Reversível de Longo Prazo/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Gravidez na Adolescência/prevenção & controle , Sexo sem Proteção/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Dispositivos Intrauterinos/estatística & dados numéricos , Contracepção Reversível de Longo Prazo/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Gravidez , Gravidez na Adolescência/psicologia , Gravidez não Planejada , Gravidez não Desejada , Estudos Prospectivos , Sexo sem Proteção/psicologia , Gravação em Vídeo , Adulto Jovem
14.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233136, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32433689

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Access to antiretroviral treatment has improved the life expectancy of HIV-positive patients, most often associated with a desire to limit childbearing. Women living with HIV (WLHIV) commonly have unmet need for contraception and could be at risk of unintended pregnancy. Preventing unintended pregnancies among women living with HIV are effective strategies to eliminate mother-to-child transmission of HIV. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess unmet need for limiting childbirth and its associated factors among women living with HIV in Togo. METHODS: This facility based cross-sectional study was conducted, between June and August 2016, among WLHIV in their reproductive age (15-49 years) in HIV-care settings in Centrale and Kara regions Data was collected using a structured and pretested questionnaire. WLHIV who desired to limit childbirth but not using contraception were considered to have unmet need of birth limitations. Univariate and multivariate Poisson regression models with robust variance were performed to identify associated factors with unmet needs. A multi-model averaging approach was used to estimate the degree of the association between these factors and the unmet need of birth limitations. RESULTS: A total of 443 WLHIV were enrolled, with mean age of 34.5 years (standard deviation [SD] = 7.0). Among them 244 (55.1%) were in couple and 200 (45.1%) had at least the secondary level of education. 39.1% were followed-up in a private healthcare facility. At the time of the survey, 40.0% did not desire childbearing but only 9.0% (95% CI [6.7-12.1]) of them expressed unmet needs for limiting childbirth. In multivariable analysis, associated factors with unmet needs of birth limitations were: being aged 35 years or more (adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) = 3.11, 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) [1.52-6.38]), living in couple (aPR = 2.32 [1.15-4.65]), living in Kara region (aPR = 0.10 [0.01-0.76]), being followed in a private healthcare facility (aPR = 0.08[0.01-0.53]) and having severe HIV symptoms (aPR = 3.50 [1.31-9.37]). CONCLUSION: Even though the unmet need for births limitation was relatively low among WLHIV in Togo, interventions to improve more access to contraceptive methods, and targeting 35 to 49 years old women, those in couple or followed in the public healthcare facilities would contribute to the eradication of mother-to-child transmission of HIV.


Assuntos
Comportamento Contraceptivo , Anticoncepção , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Parto , Gravidez não Planejada , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Togo/epidemiologia
15.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(14): 405-410, 2020 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32271729

RESUMO

"U.S. Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use" (U.S. MEC) 2016 provides evidence-based guidance for the safe use of contraceptive methods among U.S. women with certain characteristics or medical conditions (1). The U.S. MEC is adapted from global guidance from the World Health Organization (WHO) and kept up to date through continual review of published literature (1). CDC recently evaluated the evidence and the updated WHO guidance on the risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition among women using hormonal contraception and intrauterine devices (IUDs) (2). After careful review, CDC adopted WHO's 2019 updated guidance for inclusion in the U.S. MEC guidance; CDC's updated guidance states that progestin-only injectable contraception (including depot medroxyprogesterone acetate [DMPA]) and IUDs (including levonorgestrel-releasing and copper-bearing) are safe for use without restriction among women at high risk for HIV infection (U.S. MEC category 1 [previously U.S. MEC category 2, advantages outweigh risks]) (Box). CDC's guidance also adds an accompanying clarification for women who wish to use IUDs, which states "Many women at a high risk for HIV infection are also at risk for other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). For these women, refer to the recommendations in the 'U.S. Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use' for women with other factors related to STDs, and the 'U.S. Selected Practice Recommendations for Contraceptive Use' on STD screening before IUD insertion" (1,3). Recommendations for other hormonal contraceptive methods (including combined hormonal methods, implants, and progestin-only pills) remain the same; there is also no restriction for their use among women at high risk for HIV infection (U.S. MEC category 1). Finally, CDC clarified that the U.S. MEC recommendations for concurrent use of hormonal contraceptives or IUDs and antiretroviral use for treatment of HIV infection also apply to use of antiretrovirals for prevention of HIV acquisition (preexposure prophylaxis [PrEP]).


Assuntos
Contraceptivos Hormonais/administração & dosagem , Definição da Elegibilidade/organização & administração , Dispositivos Intrauterinos , Progestinas/administração & dosagem , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Contraceptivos Hormonais/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Dispositivos Intrauterinos/efeitos adversos , Gravidez , Gravidez não Planejada , Progestinas/efeitos adversos , Medição de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
Womens Health Issues ; 30(4): 283-291, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32321666

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women veterans who use the Veterans Affairs Healthcare System theoretically have access to the full range of contraceptive methods. This study explores match between currently used and self-reported "ideal" methods as a potential marker of contraceptive access and preference matching. METHODS: This mixed methods study uses data from a nationally representative survey of reproductive-aged women veterans who use the Veterans Affairs Healthcare System for primary care, including 979 participants at risk of unintended pregnancy. Women reported all contraceptive methods used in the past month and were asked, "If you could choose any method of contraception or birth control to prevent pregnancy, what would be your ideal choice?" and selected a single "ideal" method. If applicable, participants were additionally asked, "Why aren't you currently using this method of contraception?" We used adjusted logistic regression to identify patient-, provider-, and system-level factors associated with ideal-current method match. We qualitatively analyzed open-ended responses about reasons for ideal method nonuse. RESULTS: Overall, 58% were currently using their ideal method; match was greatest among women selecting an IUD as ideal (73%). Non-White race/ethnicity (adjusted odds ratio, 0.68; 95% confidence interval, 0.52-0.89) and mental illness (adjusted odds ratio, 0.69; 95% confidence interval, 0.52-0.92) were negatively associated with ideal-current match in adjusted analyses; the presence of a gynecologist at the primary care site was associated with an increased odds of match (adjusted odds ratio, 1.35; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.75). Modifiable barriers to ideal method use were cited by 23% of women, including access issues, cost concerns, and provider-level barriers; 79% of responses included nonmodifiable reasons for mismatch including relationship factors and pregnancy plans incongruent with ideal method use, suggesting limitations of our measure based on differential interpretation of the word "ideal." CONCLUSIONS: Many women veterans are not currently using the contraceptive method they consider ideal. Results emphasize the complexity of contraceptive method selection and of measuring contraceptive preference matching.


Assuntos
Comportamento Contraceptivo/psicologia , Anticoncepção/métodos , Anticoncepcionais/uso terapêutico , Serviços de Saúde para Veteranos Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Veteranos/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Comportamento Contraceptivo/estatística & dados numéricos , Assistência à Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Gravidez não Planejada , Autorrelato , Veteranos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Womens Health Issues ; 30(3): 153-160, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32303431

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To model the impacts of out-of-pocket cost of an over-the-counter (OTC) progestin-only pill on use and associated unintended pregnancy among U.S. women. STUDY DESIGN: Using data from a 2015 nationally representative survey of 2,539 U.S. women aged 15 to 44 assessing interest in using an OTC progestin-only pill, we used discrete survival analysis and a Markov model to analyze women's likelihood of using of an OTC pill at different price points and by sociodemographic characteristics. We modeled the impact of product price on the potential total number of U.S. users and on unintended pregnancies in 1 year among adult women at risk of unintended pregnancy. RESULTS: In a model assuming no out-of-pocket costs, more than 12.5 million adults and 1.75 million teens reported likely use of an OTC progestin-only pill if available. Among adults, this resulted in an estimated 8% decrease in unintended pregnancy in 1 year. Adult and teen women on average were willing to pay $15 and $10, respectively, resulting in 7.1 million adult and 1.3 million teen users and an estimated 5% decrease in unintended pregnancy among adults. CONCLUSIONS: At low and no out-of-pocket cost, a large population of women in the United States might likely use an OTC progestin-only pill. A low retail price and insurance coverage are necessary to provide equitable access to this method for low-income populations across the United States, fill current gaps in contraceptive access, and potentially decrease unintended pregnancy.


Assuntos
Anticoncepcionais/economia , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicamentos sem Prescrição/economia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos , Gravidez , Gravidez não Planejada , Progestinas/economia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Pregnancy ; 2020: 3179193, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32257441

RESUMO

Background: A pregnancy is described unintended if it is either unwanted or mistimed. The former occurs when no child or no more children are desired, and the latter is when the conception occurs earlier than the desired time, but wanted later. Unwanted pregnancy causes a serious health, economic, and social problem to the woman and her family. In the study area, there is limited data on unintended pregnancy. Therefore, this study fills this gap by studying the magnitude of unintended pregnancy and its associated factors among pregnant women attending antenatal care in the study area. Methods: A facility-based cross-sectional study was done from 1 March to 1 April 2019, among 612 randomly selected pregnant women attending antenatal care at Bako Tibe district public health facility. The data were collected via interview using a structured and pretested questionnaire. They were entered into EpiData Version 3.1 and SPSS Version 23 for cleaning and analyses. The variables, which were significant at P ≤ 0.2 in the bivariate logistic regression, were included in the multivariable analysis. The direction and strength of statistical association were measured by an odds ratio with 95% CI. A variable with a P value < 0.05 was considered a significantly associated factor with the outcome one. Results: In this study, the prevalence of unintended pregnancy was 33.3%, at 95% CI (29.8, 37.3). The factors that had significant association with unintended pregnancy were family size ≥ 6 (AOR = 8.0, 95% CI: 1.38-46.66), women who did not communicate about family planning with their husbands (AOR = 2.8, 95% CI: 1.50-5.20), and parity ≥ 5 (AOR = 3.0, 95% CI: 1.34-6.8). Conclusion: About one-third of the pregnant women reported that their pregnancy was unintended. Parity, family size, and lack of spousal communication showed a significant association with the problem. To decrease the current level of unintended pregnancy in the area, the Bako Tibe District Health Bureau and the health workers should work harder to scale up spousal communication on family planning.


Assuntos
Gravidez não Planejada , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez
19.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231012, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32255774

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Unintended pregnancy has significant consequences for the health and welfare of women and children. Despite this, a number of studies with inconsistent findings were conducted to reduce unintended pregnancy in Ethiopia; unavailability of a nationwide study that determines the prevalence of unintended pregnancy and its determinants is an important research gap. Thus, this study was conducted to determine the overall prevalence of unintended pregnancy and its determinants in Ethiopia. METHODS: We searched from Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, CINAHL, and Cochrane Library databases for studies. Each of the original studies was assessed using a tool for the risk of bias of observational studies. The heterogeneity of studies was also assessed using I2 test statistics. Data were pooled and a random effect meta-analysis model was fitted to provide the overall prevalence of unintended pregnancy and its determinants in Ethiopia. In addition, the subgroup analyses were performed to investigate how the prevalence of unintended pregnancy varies across different groups of studies. RESULTS: Twenty-eight studies that satisfy the eligibility criteria were included. We found that the overall prevalence of unintended pregnancy in Ethiopia was 28% (95% CI: 26-31). The subgroup analyses showed that the highest prevalence of unintended pregnancy was observed from the Oromiya region (33.8%) followed by Southern Nations Nationalities and Peoples' region (30.6%) and the lowest was in Harar. In addition, the pooled prevalence of unintended pregnancy was 26.4% (20.8-32.4) and 30.0% (26.6-33.6) for community-based cross-sectional and institution-based cross-sectional studies respectively. The pooled analysis showed that not communicating with one's husband about family planning was more likely to lead to unintended pregnancy (OR: 3.56, 95%CI: 1.68-7.53). The pooled odds ratio also showed that unintended pregnancy is more likely among women who never use family planning methods (OR: 2.08, 95%CI: 1.18-3.69). Furthermore, the narrative review of this study showed that maternal education, age, and household wealth index are strongly associated with an unintended pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, the prevalence of unintended pregnancy was high. Lack of spousal communication, never using family planning, maternal education, and household wealth level were significantly associated with an unintended pregnancy. This study implies the need to develop plans and policies to improve the awareness of contraceptive utilization and strengthen spousal communication related to pregnancy.


Assuntos
Gravidez não Planejada , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Gravidez , Prevalência
20.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231392, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32282817

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this analysis was to compare and contrast reproductive health (RH), gender equity attitudes, and intimate partner violence (IPV) among married very young adolescent (VYA) girls with married older adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) in rural Niger given limited literature on the topic. METHODS: We conducted an exploratory analysis of baseline data from the Reaching Married Adolescents Trial in Dosso region, Niger. We report counts and percents, by age group (13-14 years (VYA), 15-16 years, 17-19 years), of AGYW's self-efficacy to use family planning (FP), accurate knowledge of FP, current use of modern FP, and unintended last pregnancy (UIP); lifetime reproductive coercion (RC), physical IPV, and sexual IPV; and gender equity attitudes. We also assess whether percents differ between VYA and older groups using Pearson's Chi-Square and Fisher's exact p-values. Results are stratified by parity. Finally, we use logistic regression to consider associations. RESULTS: There were 49 VYA, 248 girls aged 15-16, and 775 AGYW aged 17-19 in our sample (n = 1072). Accurate knowledge of FP, self-efficacy to use FP, current use of modern FP, and UIP increased with age; all percents between VYA and AGYW 17-19 were marginally or statistically significantly different. We also saw VYA report higher lifetime RC and sexual IPV versus older groups, with sexual IPV statistically different between VYA and girls 17-19. Parous VYA reported a significantly higher percent of lifetime RC versus older AGYW. Among 17-19 year-olds, odds of current use of FP were higher among AGYW who reported physical IPV, and odds of UIP were higher among those reporting more gender equitable attitudes, both adjusted for parity. CONCLUSIONS: We observed differences in RH, RC, and sexual IPV among married VYA and older AGYW in rural Niger. VYA should be prioritized in research to confirm and further understand their RH needs.


Assuntos
Coerção , Delitos Sexuais , Adolescente , Adulto , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar , Feminino , Humanos , Conhecimento , Masculino , Casamento , Níger , Gravidez , Gravidez não Planejada , Autoeficácia , Adulto Jovem
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