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1.
Endocrinol. diabetes nutr. (Ed. impr.) ; 67(3): 179-185, mar. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-188146

RESUMO

Introducción: Los pacientes con obesidad, con frecuencia, tienen dificultad para adherirse a una dieta baja en calorías durante largos períodos de tiempo. Una de las causas del fracaso dietético es la sensación continua de hambre. La grelina es un péptido orexígeno, secretado por células enterocromafines del fundus gástrico. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar las variaciones de los valores plasmáticos de grelina tras PENS del dermatoma T6 asociado a dieta hipocalórica, así como la modificación del apetito y la pérdida de peso, comparándolo con un grupo control en el que solo se pautó una dieta hipocalórica. Material y métodos: Realizamos un estudio prospectivo no aleatorizado, incluyendo 20 pacientes sometidos a PENS del dermatoma T6, asociado a dieta hipocalórica, como tratamiento previo a ser sometidos a una técnica de cirugía bariátrica y con el fin de reducir peso (grupo 1), y 20 pacientes a los que se les pautó exclusivamente dieta hipocalórica previa a la intervención quirúrgica (grupo 2). En el grupo 1 se analizaron los niveles de grelina plasmática en 5 momentos diferentes del procedimiento: antes de realizar la primera sesión de PENS (muestra 1a), al finalizar la primera sesión de PENS (muestra 1b), antes de realizar la última sesión de PENS (muestra 2a), al finalizar la última sesión de PENS (muestra 2b) y un mes después de haber finalizado el tratamiento (muestra 3). En el grupo 2 se obtuvieron solo 2 muestras, antes de comenzar la dieta (muestra 1) y tras 12 semanas de dieta (muestra 2). Resultados: Tras 12 semanas de tratamiento se observó una pérdida de IMC del 8,42 ± 2,6% en el grupo 1 y del 1,32 ± 0,98% en el grupo 2 (p = 0,007). En el grupo 1 se apreció un descenso significativo de los valores de grelina entre las muestras 1a y 2a, y entre las muestras 1a y 3. En el grupo 2 se observó un aumento no significativo de los niveles de grelina entre las muestras 1 y 2. Conclusión: El PENS del dermatoma T6 se asoció con una disminución en los valores de grelina plasmática. Esta terapia, asociada a una dieta hipocalórica, consigue una pérdida de IMC superior al 8% en 12 semanas de tratamiento


Introduction: Obese patients often find it difficult to adhere to long-term low-calorie diets. One of the reasons for dietary failure is the permanent feeling of hunger. Ghrelin is an orexigenic hormone, secreted by enterochromaffin cells in the gastric fundus. The aim of this study was to analyze changes in plasma ghrelin levels after PENS of dermatome T6 associated to a low-calorie diet, as well as changes in appetite and weight loss, as compared to a control group on a low-calorie alone. Material and methods: A prospective, non-randomized study was conducted including 20 patients who underwent PENS of dermatome T6 associated to a low-calorie diet before undergoing bariatric surgery to lose weight (Group 1), and 20 patients who were only prescribed a low-calorie diet before surgery (Group 2). In Group 1, plasma ghrelin levels were measured at 5 timepoints: before the first PENS session (Sample 1a); after the first PENS session (Sample 1b); before the last PENS session (Sample 2a); after the last PENS session (Sample 2b); and one month after treatment completion (Sample 3). In Group 2, only two samples were collected: before the start of the diet (Sample 1) and after 12 weeks of diet (Sample 2). Results: After 12 weeks of treatment, BMI decreases of 8.42% ± 2.6% and 1.32% ± 0.98% were seen in Group 1 and Group 2 respectively (p = 0.007). A significant decrease was seen in ghrelin levels between samples 1a and 2a, and between samples 1a and 3. In Group 2, a non-significant increase was seen in ghrelin levels. Conclusion: PENS of dermatome T6 was associated to decreased plasma ghrelin levels. This therapy, associated to a low-calorie diet, achieves a BMI reduction greater than 8% after 12 weeks of treatment


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Grelina/uso terapêutico , Estimulação Elétrica Nervosa Transcutânea/métodos , Obesidade/terapia , Regulação do Apetite , Dieta Redutora , Grelina/metabolismo , Perda de Peso , Estudos Prospectivos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Dieta Mediterrânea , Grelina/sangue , Análise de Variância , Antropometria/métodos
2.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228637, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32074122

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Obesity results from excess energy intake over expenditure and is characterized by chronic low-grade inflammation involving circulating monocytes (Mo) and group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) imbalance. We analyzed circulating Mo subsets and ILC2s percentages and ß2-adrenergic receptor (ß2AR) expression in lean and obese subjects, and the possible effect of hypocaloric restriction on these innate immune cells. METHODS: In 139 individuals aged 45 to 57 years, classified in 74 lean individuals (>18.9kg/m2 BMI <24.9kg/m2) and 65 with obesity (n = 65), we collected fasting blood samples to detect Mo subsets, ILC2s number, and ß2AR expression by flow cytometry. Lipids, insulin, leptin, and acylated-ghrelin concentrations were quantified. Resting energy expenditure (REE) was estimated by indirect calorimetry. These measurements were repeated in obese subjects after 7-weeks of hypocaloric restriction. RESULTS: Non-classical monocytes (NCM) and ß2AR expression on intermediate Mo (IM) were increased in obese individuals (p<0.001, in both cases), whereas the percent of ILC2s was decreased (p<0.0001). Stepwise regression analysis showed significantly negative associations of ILC2s with caloric intake, ß2AR expression on IM with REE, but a positive relationship between NCM and HOMA-IR. Caloric restriction allowed a significant diminution of NCM and the ß2AR expression on IM, as well as, an increase in the percent of classical Mo (CM), and ILC2s. ΔREE was related to ΔCD16+/CD16- ratio. CONCLUSIONS: These findings show that in obesity occur changes in NCM, ILC2s and ß2AR expression, which contribute to the low-grade inflammation linked to obesity and might revert with caloric restriction.


Assuntos
Restrição Calórica , Monócitos/metabolismo , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Adulto , Feminino , Grelina/sangue , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Leptina/sangue , Lipídeos/sangue , Subpopulações de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monócitos/citologia , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/metabolismo , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/metabolismo
3.
Life Sci ; 247: 117442, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32081663

RESUMO

Transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) channels are emerging therapeutic targets for metabolic disorders. Berberine, which is a modulator of TRPV1, has proven antiobesity and antidiabetic potentials. The present study was aimed to investigate the protective effects of berberine in olanzapine-induced alterations in hypothalamic appetite control, inflammation and metabolic aberrations in mice targeting TRPV1 channels. Female BALB/c mice (18-23 g) were treated with olanzapine (6 mg/kg, p.o.) for six weeks to induce metabolic alterations, while berberine (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) and metformin (100 mg/kg, p.o) were used as test and standard interventions respectively. Weekly assessment of feed-water intake, body temperature and body weight was done, while locomotion was measured at the end of week 1 and 6. Serum glucose and lipid profile were assessed by biochemical methods, while other serum biomarkers were assessed by ELISA. qPCR was used to quantify the mRNA expression in the hypothalamus. Olanzapine treatment significantly increased the feed intake, weight gain, adiposity index, while reduced body temperature and locomotor activity which were reversed by berberine treatment. Berberine treatment reduced serum ghrelin and leptin levels as well decrease in hypothalamic mRNA expression of orexigenic neuropeptides, inflammatory markers and ghrelin receptor in olanzapine-treated mice. Olanzapine treatment increased expression of TRPV1/TRPV3 in the hypothalamus which was significantly decreased by berberine treatment. Our results suggest that berberine, by TRPV1/TRPV3 modulation, attenuated the olanzapine-induced metabolic alterations in mice. Hence berberine supplementation in psychiatric patients could be a preventive approach to reduce the metabolic adverse effects of antipsychotics.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Berberina/uso terapêutico , Doenças Metabólicas/tratamento farmacológico , Olanzapina/metabolismo , Canais de Cátion TRPV/metabolismo , Animais , Antipsicóticos/efeitos adversos , Berberina/efeitos adversos , Temperatura Corporal , Peso Corporal , Citocinas/metabolismo , Ingestão de Líquidos , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Grelina/sangue , Grelina/metabolismo , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Leptina/sangue , Leptina/metabolismo , Metformina/farmacologia , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/métodos , Neuropeptídeos/metabolismo , Obesidade , RNA Mensageiro , Transdução de Sinais , Canais de Cátion TRPV/genética , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
J Surg Res ; 246: 527-534, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668932

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anorexia is a serious problem in patients with gastric cancer who have undergone gastrectomy. Ghrelin, an orexigenic hormone primarily secreted from the stomach, has been proposed to prevent anorexia. Significant reduction in plasma ghrelin levels after gastrectomy may contribute to lack of appetite and weight loss. In this study, we investigated the effects of Z-505, a ghrelin receptor agonist, on anorexia after total gastrectomy (TG) in a rat model. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used to establish a TG model, and then sham-operated (control) and TG rats were randomly assigned to four subgroups receiving administration of Z-505 (100 mg/kg, p.o., once daily) or vehicle for 14 d from day 14 to day 27 after TG. The food intake, body weight, and fat weight were evaluated during the test period. Moreover, the neuronal activity in the hypothalamus was evaluated on day 21 to investigate the mechanism of action of Z-505. RESULTS: In TG rats, Z-505 significantly improved the decrease in cumulative food intake induced by the surgery over 14 d (TG + vehicle; 213.8 ± 15.3 g, n = 12 versus TG + Z-505; 258.2 ± 13.1 g, n = 14, P < 0.05). Z-505 also significantly increased fat weight and had a milder effect on body weight over 14 d. In addition, Z-505 significantly increased the number of c-Fos-positive cells in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (TG + vehicle; 17.8 ± 2.0, n = 12 versus TG + Z-505; 72.2 ± 11.8, n = 12, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Z-505 may be a useful therapeutic treatment for anorexia after TG.


Assuntos
Amidas/administração & dosagem , Anorexia/tratamento farmacológico , Gastrectomia/efeitos adversos , Grelina/sangue , Pirrolidinas/administração & dosagem , Receptores de Grelina/agonistas , Animais , Anorexia/sangue , Anorexia/etiologia , Núcleo Arqueado do Hipotálamo/citologia , Núcleo Arqueado do Hipotálamo/efeitos dos fármacos , Núcleo Arqueado do Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Neoplasias Gástricas/cirurgia
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(20)2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615150

RESUMO

The micronutrients vitamins B9 and B12 act as methyl donors in the one-carbon metabolism involved in transmethylation reactions which critically influence epigenetic mechanisms and gene expression. Both vitamins are essential for proper development, and their deficiency during pregnancy has been associated with a wide range of disorders, including persisting growth retardation. Energy homeostasis and feeding are centrally regulated by the hypothalamus which integrates peripheral signals and acts through several orexigenic and anorexigenic mediators. We studied this regulating system in a rat model of methyl donor deficiency during gestation and lactation. At weaning, a predominance of the anorexigenic pathway was observed in deficient pups, with increased plasma peptide YY and increased hypothalamic pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA, in line with abnormal leptin, ghrelin, and insulin secretion and/or signaling during critical periods of fetal and/or postnatal development of the hypothalamus. These results suggest that early methyl donor deficiency can affect the development and function of energy balance circuits, resulting in growth and weight deficits. Maternal administration of folic acid (3 mg/kg/day) during the perinatal period tended to rectify peripheral metabolic signaling and central neuropeptide and receptor expression, leading to reduced growth retardation.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético/genética , Grelina/genética , Peptídeo YY/genética , Pró-Opiomelanocortina/genética , Animais , Depressores do Apetite/farmacologia , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Alimentar/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Ácido Fólico/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Grelina/sangue , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Insulina/sangue , Insulina/genética , Lactação , Leptina/sangue , Leptina/genética , Metilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptídeo YY/sangue , Gravidez , Pró-Opiomelanocortina/sangue , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Ratos , Vitamina B 12/genética , Vitamina B 12/farmacologia
6.
Arch Oral Biol ; 108: 104518, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472279

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the correlations between the levels of ghrelin and inflammatory and bone metabolism markers in rats with periodontitis. DESIGN: Thirty female Wistar rats (6 trial rats and 4 control rats in each group) were divided into pubertal, adult and postmenopausal groups. Periodontitis was induced by ligatures. On the 21 st day, blood was collected and all rats were then sacrificed. The levels of osteocalcin, osteoprotegerin, alkaline phosphatase, tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 1 beta (IL-1ß), acylated ghrelin, total ghrelin and soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor-kB ligands in the blood samples were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The jaws were decalcified in a Tris-EDTA solution and embedded in paraffin and 4-5 µm sections were cut for IL-ß, TNF -α and ghrelin staining. RESULTS: Significantly higher serum alkaline phosphatase levels were detected in the trial rats in the pubertal group than in the control rats (p = 0.033). In the postmenopausal group, ghrelin levels positively correlated with interleukin 1 beta levels (r = 0.708, p < 0.05). Among all trial rats, the postmenopausal group exhibited significantly higher levels of acylated ghrelin than the other groups (p = 0.001). Significantly higher osteoprotegerin levels were observed in the control rats than in the trial rats in the postmenopausal group (p = 0.012). Inflammation scores were significantly higher in adult trial rats than in controls (p = 0.024); significantly higher TNF-α levels were detected in postmenopausal experimental rats than in the adult experimental group (p = 0.025). CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that total ghrelin levels in serum only correlated with IL-ß levels in postmenopausal rats.


Assuntos
Citocinas , Grelina , Menopausa/fisiologia , Periodontite , Animais , Citocinas/sangue , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Grelina/sangue , Grelina/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Periodontite/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
7.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0220853, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408482

RESUMO

During the lactation period, rat pups are fed by the dam, and the patterns of mother-pup interaction change during this period. Additionally, there are changes in feeding; first, mother´s milk is the only food needed for sustenance, and later, it is combined with solid food and water. GH serum concentrations depend on both maternal-pup interaction and energy metabolism. In the artificial rearing (AR) procedure, pups are deprived of mother-pup interaction, and the feeding pattern is controlled. This rearing paradigm has been used in rats to analyze the effects of maternal deprivation on social behavior. In the present study, we analyzed the variation in GH, acylated ghrelin and IGF-1 serum concentrations throughout the lactation period in AR pups. At pnd7, the maternal rearing (MR) pups responded to a 4 h fast with a drop in GH serum concentration, which is a well-known response to maternal deprivation. GH serum levels in the AR pups did not change, suggesting an adaptation phenomenon. A dopamine inhibitory effect of GH secretion was observed in pnd7 cultured somatotropes, suggesting dopamine regulation of GH secretion at this age. Acylated ghrelin serum levels in the AR pups showed an inverted pattern compared to that in the MR pups, which was related to the artificial feeding pattern. IGF-1 serum levels were lower in the AR pups than in MR pups, which was associated with hepatic GH resistance and with low Igf1 mRNA expression at pnd7. Interestingly, at pnd14, both pup groups showed high hepatic Igf1 mRNA expression but low IGF-1 serum levels, and this was inverted at pnd21. However, serum glucose levels were lower in the AR pups at pnd14 but reached the same levels as the MR pups at pnd21. Moreover, hepatomegaly and higher hepatic GH-receptor levels were observed in the AR pups at pnd21, which was in agreement with an absence of a solid food meal. During AR, the pups lost the maternal interaction-stimulated GH secretion, which correlated with lower IGF-1 serum levels during the first week of postnatal development. Later, the AR pups exhibited hepatic responses, in order to satisfy the metabolic demand for the normal weaning, with low carbohydrates levels in their meal.


Assuntos
Animais Recém-Nascidos/sangue , Hormônio do Crescimento/sangue , Lactação/fisiologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais Recém-Nascidos/fisiologia , Glicemia/análise , Feminino , Grelina/sangue , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/análise , Fígado/química , Masculino , Privação Materna , Hipófise/citologia , Hipófise/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar/sangue , Ratos Wistar/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ratos Wistar/fisiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Tíbia/crescimento & desenvolvimento
8.
Indian J Med Res ; 149(4): 544-547, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411179

RESUMO

Background & objectives: Ghrelin is an orexigenic gut hormone expressed by the gastric fundus. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) procedure involves resection of the gastric fundus leading to a decreased appetite and weight loss. This study was undertaken to determine the levels of plasma ghrelin after sleeve gastrectomy in obese patients. Methods: The study was conducted on 90 morbidly obese patients [body mass index (BMI) >40 kg/m[2]] and severely obese patients (BMI >35/kg/m[2]) who underwent sleeve gastrectomy. The patients were followed up for six months. Weight loss parameters and plasma ghrelin levels were assessed pre- and postoperatively. Results: A significant weight loss and decrease in BMI were observed at three and six months postoperatively. A significant decrease in plasma ghrelin levels over six months of follow up postoperatively was also seen. Interpretation & conclusions: These preliminary findings indicated inhibition of ghrelin production after LSG leading to a decrease in the plasma ghrelin levels within a few days of surgery and sustainable weight loss in obese patients.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Grelina/sangue , Obesidade Mórbida/sangue , Perda de Peso , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Gastrectomia , Humanos , Laparoscopia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade Mórbida/patologia , Obesidade Mórbida/cirurgia , Período Pós-Operatório
9.
Nutrients ; 11(9)2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466276

RESUMO

African Americans (AAs) have a higher obesity risk than Whites; however, it is unclear if appetite-related hormones and food intake are implicated. We examined differences in appetite-related hormones, appetite, and food intake between AAs (n = 53) and Whites (n = 111) with overweight or obesity. Participants were randomized into a control group or into supervised, controlled exercise groups at 8 kcal/kg of body weight/week (KKW) or 20 KKW. Participants consumed lunch and dinner at baseline and follow-up, with appetite and hormones measured before and after meals (except leptin). At baseline, AAs had lower peptide YY (PYY; p < 0.01) and a blunted elevation in PYY after lunch (p = 0.01), as well as lower ghrelin (p = 0.02) and higher leptin (p < 0.01) compared to Whites. Despite desire to eat being lower and satisfaction being higher in AAs relative to Whites (p ≤ 0.03), no racial differences in food intake were observed. Compared to Whites, leptin increased in the 8 KKW group in AAs (p = 0.01), yet no other race-by-group interactions were evident. Differences in appetite-related hormones between AAs and Whites exist; however, their influence on racial disparities in appetite, food intake, and obesity within this trial was limited.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Regulação do Apetite/etnologia , Ingestão de Energia/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Obesidade/etnologia , Hormônios Peptídicos/sangue , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Grelina/sangue , Humanos , Leptina/sangue , Louisiana/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Peptídeo YY/sangue , Período Pós-Prandial , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Nutr Hosp ; 36(4): 799-804, 2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282166

RESUMO

Introduction: Objective: we assessed the relationship between serum and human foremilk and hindmilk concentrations of ghrelin and leptin in nursing mothers according to the type of feeding. Methods: this cohort design was carried out on 131 mother-newborn dyads admitted to a physiological puerperium ward. The independent variables were the type of feeding, full breastfeeding (FBF, 56.5%) and partial breastfeeding (PBF, 43.5%). The dependent variables were the concentration of total ghrelin (pg/ml) and leptin (ng/ml) in serum, foremilk and hindmilk at eight and 16 weeks. Fasting blood samples were obtained from the nursing mothers at four months for serum assays. Unpaired Student's t-test, Mann-Whitney U test, Pearson's correlation tests, coefficient of determination and linear regression were used. Results: the concentration of ghrelin and leptin in hindmilk was higher than that of foremilk in both groups at eight and 16 weeks. The concentration of ghrelin and leptin was higher in serum than in foremilk in both groups. These values showed a direct and significant linear correlation with the exception of ghrelin in the FBF group. The serum concentration of leptin in mothers explained 32% of the variance of its concentration in foremilk in the FBF and 13% in the PBF groups. Conclusion: the hindmilk/foremilk gradient suggests an intake regulating mechanism during the fed. The concentration of ghrelin and leptin was higher in the serum than in foremilk and its correlation and determination coefficients could suggest plasma-milk transfer in addition to synthesis regulation by the mammary gland, adipose tissue or other organs.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/métodos , Grelina/análise , Leptina/análise , Leite Humano/química , Fatores Etários , Biomarcadores/análise , Biomarcadores/sangue , Jejum/sangue , Feminino , Grelina/sangue , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Leptina/sangue , Modelos Lineares , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
11.
Bull Exp Biol Med ; 167(3): 325-328, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31346871

RESUMO

We studied the relationships between body composition parameters and plasma levels of pancreatic, gut, and adipose tissue hormones regulating energy balance and glucose metabolism in diabetic db/db mice (BKS.Cg-Dock7m+/+Leprdb/J). The body composition parameters in mice aged 8, 12, and 16 weeks were assessed by magnetic resonance imaging. The concentrations of insulin, glucagon, ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide-1, glucose-dependent immunotropic peptide, leptin, resistin, and plasminogen activator-1 were measured by multiplex analysis at the age of 8 and 16 weeks. In comparison with non-diabetic control (db/+), db/db mice demonstrated high fat mass and reduced lean body mass and water content. In 8- and 16-week-old db/db mice, the levels of leptin (p<0.001), insulin (p<0.01), and glucagon-like peptide-1 (p<0.05) were elevated and the concentration of ghrelin (p<0.05) was reduced. The body weight and fat mass positively correlated with the levels of leptin, insulin, plasminogen activator-1, and glucagon-like peptide-1 and negatively correlated with ghrelin concentration. The results provide further details for characteristics of db/db mice, a widely used model of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Hormônios Gastrointestinais/sangue , Hormônios Pancreáticos/sangue , Animais , Grelina/sangue , Glucagon/sangue , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/sangue , Glucose/metabolismo , Insulina/sangue , Leptina/sangue , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Ativadores de Plasminogênio/sangue , Resistina/sangue
12.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31349661

RESUMO

The classical ketogenic diet (cKD) is an isocaloric, high fat, very low-carbohydrate diet that induces ketosis, strongly influencing leptin and ghrelin regulation. However, not enough is known about the impact of a long-term cKD. This study evaluated the effects of a 12-month cKD on ghrelin and leptin concentrations in children, adolescents and adults affected by the GLUT1-Deficiency Syndrome or drug resistant epilepsy (DRE). We also investigated the relationship between the nutritional status, body composition and ghrelin and leptin variations. We carried out a longitudinal study on 30 patients: Twenty-five children and adolescents (15 females, 8 ± 4 years), and five adults (two females, 34 ± 16 years). After 12-monoths cKD, there were no significant changes in ghrelin and leptin, or in the nutritional status, body fat, glucose and lipid profiles. However, a slight height z-score reduction (from -0.603 ± 1.178 to -0.953 ± 1.354, p ≤ 0.001) and a drop in fasting insulin occurred. We found no correlations between ghrelin changes and nutritional status and body composition, whereas leptin changes correlated positively with variations in the weight z-score and body fat (ρ = 0.4534, p = 0.0341; ρ = 0.5901, p = 0.0135; respectively). These results suggest that a long-term cKD does not change ghrelin and leptin concentrations independently of age and neurological condition.


Assuntos
Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/dietoterapia , Dieta Cetogênica , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/dietoterapia , Grelina/sangue , Leptina/sangue , Proteínas de Transporte de Monossacarídeos/deficiência , Adolescente , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/sangue , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/diagnóstico , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/fisiopatologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/sangue , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas de Transporte de Monossacarídeos/sangue , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
13.
Biomol Concepts ; 10(1): 82-90, 2019 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31188744

RESUMO

Purpose We aimed to determine optimal cut-off points of plasma levels of ghrelin and serum levels of pepsinogen I, II, and their ratio for screening of gastric cancer (GC). Methods Blood samples were taken from 41 patients with confirmed gastric cancer along with 82 patients without malignancy. Serum levels of pepsinogen I and II, plus plasma levels of acylated ghrelin were measured using commercial ELISA kits. Results The case group had significant lower plasma levels of ghrelin, pepsinogen I, and pepsinogen I/II ratio in comparison to the control group (P<0.001). In the control group, there was significant higher serum pepsinogen I (P=0.028) and pepsinogen II (P=0.003) and lower pepsinogen I/II ratio (P=0.020) in males versus females; significantly higher serum pepsinogen II (P=0.047) and lower pepsinogen I/II ratio (P=0.030) in overweight compared to normal weight patients; and significantly lower pepsinogen I/II ratio (P=0.030) in smokers versus non-smoker. In the case group, there was only significantly lower pepsinogen I (P=0.006) in males versus females, and significantly lower plasma ghrelin (P=0.017) in overweight compared to normal weight patients. The characteristic curve analysis indicated that pepsinogen I at a cut-off of 70.95 µg/L and pepsinogen I/II ratio at cut-off of 2.99, had good sensitivity and specificity. Conclusions Just serums levels of pepsinogen I and the ratio of pepsinogen I/II can be used as biomarker to screen GC.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Pepsinogênios/sangue , Neoplasias Gástricas/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/normas , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Grelina/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pepsinogênios/normas , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
14.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 157: 138-142, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31153461

RESUMO

The evidence shows that organophosphate compounds (OPCs), as toxic agents that stimulate the cholinergic system, can increase the incidence of metabolic disorders such as dyslipidemia. In the present study, we focused on the role of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and serum leptin and ghrelin in Diazinon (DZN)-induced dyslipidemia. The rats were randomly divided into five groups comprising eight animals, and all were treated via oral gavage for 28 consecutive days as follows: group one received only corn oil daily, while groups two through five received different doses of DZN dissolved in corn oil equal to 1/40, 1/20, 1/10 and 1/5 of the LD50 daily, respectively. The alteration of the serum lipid profile, such as triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), was confirmed the occurrence of dyslipidemia in the range of doses 1/20-1/5 LD50 of DZN. Although no changes were found in the serum leptin levels, a significant increase was observed in the size of adipocytes, as well as in the TNF-α and ghrelin serum levels, and in the accumulation of epididymal fat, especially at a dose of 1/5 LD50 of DZN. It seems that interactions among the inflammatory reaction, cholinergic pathways and ghrelin secretion may be effective causes of DZN-induced dyslipidemia.


Assuntos
Diazinon/farmacologia , Dislipidemias/sangue , Dislipidemias/induzido quimicamente , Grelina/sangue , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue , Animais , Antioxidantes , Butirilcolinesterase/sangue , Leptina/sangue , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/fisiologia , Masculino , Compostos Organofosforados/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Ratos
15.
Clin Rheumatol ; 38(9): 2547-2552, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31147798

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Adipokines have been considered in the pathogenesis of the inflammatory processes of psoriatic arthritis (PsA). The main aim of the current study is to investigate possible differences and correlations between adipokines and clinical expression in PsA patients with and without clinical evident psoriasis. METHODS: Serum levels of TNF-α, IL-6, leptin, resistin, visfatin, and ghrelin were measured in 80 consecutive PsA patients, 42 PsA patients with clinically evident psoriasis (group 1) and 38 PsA patients sine psoriasis (group 2), fulfilling the CASPAR criteria. RESULTS: Patients of the two groups were not significantly different for levels of TNF-α, IL-6, leptin, resistin, visfatin, and ghrelin. In the entire cohort, a positive association has been shown between leptin levels and female gender (ß = 0.3, p = 0.001), BMI (ß = 0.8, p < 0.0001), tender joint count (ß = 0.23, p = 0.05), and patient pain-VAS score (ß = 0.4, p = 0.049). In group 1, serum concentration of leptin was associated with female gender (ß = 0.41, p < 0.0001) and BMI (ß = 0.6, p = 0.012), whereas in group 2, a positive association was shown between leptin levels and BMI (ß = 0.7, p = 0.003) and CRP (ß = 0.35, p = 0.012). With regard to resistin, in the multivariate model, only the association between resistin and IL-6 was found (ß = 0.33, p = 0.002). The association between resistin and IL-6 was confirmed in group 1 (ß = 0.46, p = 0.004) but not in group 2. CONCLUSIONS: Until today, the present study represents the first investigating difference in the adipokine pattern between PsA patients with psoriasis and sine psoriasis. We report a strict interplay between leptin, female gender, BMI, and inflammatory activity in overall PsA patients. In PsA patients with clinical evident psoriasis, leptin was associated with female gender and BMI, and a close association between resistin and IL-6 was found. Further, a positive association between leptin levels and BMI and CRP was found in PsA sine psoriasis patients. Further studies are also advocated for clarifying the possible role of these adipokines as laboratory findings or as disease mediators in addressing the different phenotypes of the disease. Key Points •Levels of TNF-α, IL-6, leptin, resistin, visfatin, and ghrelin did not differ between PsA patients with clinical evident psoriasis and PsA sine psoriasis. •There is a strict interplay between leptin, female gender, BMI, and inflammatory activity in PsA. •There is a close association between resistin and IL-6 in PsA patients with clinical evident psoriasis.


Assuntos
Adipocinas/sangue , Artrite Psoriásica/sangue , Inflamação/sangue , Psoríase/sangue , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Grelina/sangue , Humanos , Interleucina-6/sangue , Leptina/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nicotinamida Fosforribosiltransferase/sangue , Resistina/sangue , Fatores Sexuais , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue
16.
Adv Gerontol ; 32(1-2): 85-92, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228372

RESUMO

Currently, one of the approaches to correct metabolic disorders in the type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) with obesity are bariatric surgery (BS), including sleeve gastrectomy (SG), gastric bypass (GB) and ileal transposition (IT). However, their effectiveness and impact on the hypothalamic signaling and hormonal status in severe forms of DM2 without obesity remain little studied. The aim of the work was to study the effect of IT, SG and GB on the insulin, leptin, ghrelin and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels in the blood and on the expression of the genes encoding the main components of the hypothalamic signaling systems in rats with decompensated form of DM2, which was induced by a high-fat diet (3 months) and a single low dose of streptozotocin (25 mg/kg, 2 months after the start of the diet). In diabetic rats, a significantly expressed hyperglycemia, an impaired glucose tolerance, a decrease in glucose-stimulated GLP-1 level, a slight decrease in the insulin and leptin levels and an slight increase in ghrelin level were detected. In the hypothalamus, the expression of the genes encoding GLP-1 receptor, orexigenic agouti-related peptide (AgRP), as well as phosphotyrosine phosphatase 1B and SOCS3, the negative regulators of the leptin and insulin pathways was increased. In diabetic rats, the IT reduced the glucose levels 120 minutes after glucose load, increased the basal and glucose-stimulated GLP-1 levels, normalized the gene expression for phosphotyrosine phosphatase 1B, SOCS3, AgRP and GLP-1 receptor, which indicates the restoration of the hypothalamic signaling responsible for the control of energy metabolism and insulin sensitivity. In the case of SG and GB, an improvement in the glucose tolerance was found, and in the case of SG, an increase in the basal and glucose-stimulated GLP-1 levels was shown. However, no significant effect on the expression of the hypothalamic genes in SG and GB was found. Thus, IT is the most effective of all studied BS in the treatment of severe forms of DM2 without obesity.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Animais , Glicemia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/cirurgia , Gastrectomia , Grelina/sangue , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/metabolismo , Insulina/análise , Leptina/sangue , Ratos
17.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 145, 2019 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31088464

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Melatonin regulates metabolism and metabolism related hormones in mammalians. Castration has some adverse effects on the metabolic hormones of dog. This study was conducted to determine the effects of oral melatonin administration on metabolic hormones, as well as to compare changes of these hormones after administration of melatonin in castrated and intact dogs. Twenty healthy mixed breed mature male dogs were divided randomly into four groups (n = 5): melatonin (3 mg/10 kg(, castrated, castrated and melatonin treated, and negative control. Blood sample was collected from jugular vein weekly for 1 month. RESULTS: T3 and T4 hormones had a significant decrease within 1 month following administration of melatonin. No significant change was observed in concentration of FT3 and FT4 hormones. Leptin and ghrelin hormones also had a significant decrease in this period. Leptin and ghrelin had a more significant decrease in "non-castrated and melatonin treated" group compared to "castrated and melatonin treated" group. Galanin had a significant decrease but this neurotransmitter had no significant change in "non-castrated and melatonin treated" group in comparison to "castrated and melatonin treated" group. CONCLUSIONS: It seems that daily administration of melatonin capsule in all dogs can probably decrease concentration of T3 and T4 hormones and balance other metabolic hormones following castration. METHODS: The dogs underwent castration, melatonin treatment and blood sampling.


Assuntos
Cães/metabolismo , Galanina/sangue , Grelina/sangue , Leptina/sangue , Melatonina/farmacologia , Orquiectomia/veterinária , Hormônios Tireóideos/sangue , Administração Oral , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Masculino , Melatonina/administração & dosagem , Orquiectomia/efeitos adversos
18.
Med Sci Monit ; 25: 3417-3424, 2019 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31068569

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Nowadays, more than 170 million patients suffer from diabetes mellitus worldwide. This study aimed to investigate the effects of sleeve gastrectomy (SG) and ileal transposition (IT) surgery on the control of diabetes. MATERIAL AND METHODS Goto-Kakizaki rats were used to establish type 2 diabetes models and undergo SG or IT surgery. At 2 months post-surgery, insulin, glucose, triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), glucose tolerance, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels, and insulin sensitivity were evaluated. RESULTS SG significantly shortened operative time and post-operative recovery time compared to IT surgery (P<0.05). SG and IT surgery resulted in significantly induced weight loss, significantly decreased levels of glucose, and significantly enhanced levels of Ghrelin compared the Sham surgery group (P<0.001). SG and IT surgery resulted in significantly increased GLP-1 levels compared to Sham surgery (P<0.001). SG resulted in better reduction of oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) glucose compared to IT surgery (P<0.05). SG and IT surgery significantly upregulated insulin tolerance test (ITT) levels compared to Sham surgery (P<0.001). SG induced better reductions in TC and TG compared to IT surgery (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS In non-obese rats with spontaneous diabetes, both SG and IT surgery were found to control diabetes by regulating body weight and levels of glucose, Ghrelin, GLP-1, OGTT glucose, insulin, TC, and TG. Moreover, SG demonstrated advantages of shorter operative time, shorter post-operative recovery time, and better control of diabetes compared to IT surgery.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/terapia , Gastrectomia/métodos , Íleo/cirurgia , Anastomose Cirúrgica/métodos , Animais , Glicemia/análise , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Colesterol/análise , Colesterol/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Grelina/análise , Grelina/sangue , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/análise , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/sangue , Glucose/metabolismo , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Insulina/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos , Perda de Peso
19.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 181(1): 23-30, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31075759

RESUMO

Objective: Acyl ghrelin, which is the endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor, potently stimulates pituitary growth hormone release, and to some degree adrenocorticotropic hormone and prolactin. Ghrelin is also orexigenic and has recently been shown to stimulate renal sodium absorption in rodent models. Increased thirst sensation has been observed as a side effect of acyl ghrelin administration in some human studies. The objective of this clinical trial was to investigate the direct effects of acyl ghrelin on thirst sensation and sodium excretion in hypopituitary patients. Design: Hypopituitary patients on stable replacement with hydrocortisone and growth hormone were investigated in two double-blind and placebo-controlled crossover studies. The patients received a 5-h intravenous infusion of acyl ghrelin (5 pmol/kg/min in the first study and 1 pmol/kg/min in the second study). Thirst sensation was measured on a Visual Analog Scale (VAS). In the second study plasma osmolality, vasopressin, copeptin, water intake, diuresis and urinary excretion of sodium and creatinine were measured. Results: In the initial study, acyl ghrelin (5 pmol/kg/min) increased thirst sensation (time × treatment analysis of variance for the effect of acyl ghrelin infusion P = 0.003). In the second study acyl ghrelin (1 pmol/kg/min) also increased thirst (P = 0.04) but did not affect urinary excretion of either sodium or water. Conclusions: We demonstrate that acyl ghrelin infusion increases thirst sensation, without affecting sodium excretion or diuresis in human subjects.


Assuntos
Grelina/administração & dosagem , Grelina/efeitos adversos , Hipopituitarismo/tratamento farmacológico , Natriurese/efeitos dos fármacos , Sede/efeitos dos fármacos , Arginina Vasopressina/sangue , Creatinina/urina , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Ingestão de Líquidos , Grelina/sangue , Glicopeptídeos/sangue , Hormônio do Crescimento/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/uso terapêutico , Hipopituitarismo/fisiopatologia , Infusões Intravenosas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Concentração Osmolar , Placebos
20.
Psychiatry Res ; 276: 269-277, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31125904

RESUMO

This study is an investigation of neuropsychological performance in patients with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder and hormonal secretion patterns for ghrelin, leptin, insulin, and glucose. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed in a cohort of n = 30 female patients suffering from eating disorders as well as n = 20 control females. All participants underwent the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), the Trail Making Test (TMT), and a go/no-go task using food vs. neutral stimuli. Patients with anorexia nervosa differed from controls in their leptin response to the OGTT. While the four groups under investigation did not differ in neuropsychological performance, we found leptin responses to the OGTT to be associated with performance in the food-specific go/no-go task. These preliminary results may indicate a putative association between leptin concentrations and neuropsychological performance, particularly in measures of inhibitory control. Further studies investigating the role of leptin in impulsive behaviors in eating disorders would be useful.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/sangue , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Leptina/sangue , Adulto , Anorexia Nervosa/sangue , Anorexia Nervosa/psicologia , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/sangue , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/psicologia , Glicemia/análise , Bulimia Nervosa/sangue , Bulimia Nervosa/psicologia , Feminino , Alimentos , Grelina/sangue , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Adulto Jovem
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