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1.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 891379, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36082078

RESUMO

Objective: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is an effective intervention for metabolic disorder. We aim to elucidate whether ghrelin contributes to weight reduction, and glycemic and lipid control after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Design: Four-week-old WT and Ghrl-TSC1-/- mice were fed high fat diet for 12 weeks before surgery, and continued to be on the same diet for 3 weeks after surgery. Body weight, food intake, glycemic and lipid metabolism were analyzed before and after surgery. Results: Gastric and circulating ghrelin was significantly increased in mice with RYGB surgery. Hypoghrelinemia elicited by deletion of TSC1 to activate mTOR signaling in gastric X/A like cells demonstrated no effect on weight reduction, glycemic and lipid control induced by Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. Conclusion: Lower ghrelin levels does not impact the metabolic benefit induced by Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.


Assuntos
Derivação Gástrica , Grelina , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Grelina/sangue , Grelina/química , Lipídeos , Camundongos , Redução de Peso/fisiologia
2.
Wiad Lek ; 75(4 pt 1): 798-802, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35633350

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim: It aims to study the effect of fasting and low fat diet on ghrelin hormone, glucose level, the liver enzymes AST and ALT. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: The experimental study was conducted using 24 healthy young male albino rat weighing 95±5 gram and age 2 month, one-way (ANOVA) were employed to determine a significance of differences. RESULTS: Results: A significant increase p≤0.05 in glucose level of non-fasting control group compere with non-fasting low fat diet group, significant increase p≤0.05 in glucose level of control group fasting for 20h compared with low fat diet fasting for 20h group, significant decrease p≤0.05 when compares non-fasting low fat diet compares to 20h fasting low fat diet and significant decrease p≤0.05 when compares non-fasting control compares to 20h fasting control, while the effect of fasting and low fat diet on ghrelin hormone. A significant decrease p≤0.05 in ghrelin hormone level of non-fasting control group compere with non-fasting low fat diet group, significant increase p≤0.05 in ghrelin hormone of control group fasting for 20h compared with low fat diet fasting for 20h group, non-fasting control compares to 20h fasting control show a significant (p≤0.05) increase, Fasting with low fat diet cause a significant decrease p≤0.05 in ALT level, also in AST level there was a significant decrease p≤0.05 after 20h fasting. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: The fasting and low fat diet have effected on ghrelin hormone, glucose level and fasting with low fat diet cause decrease in ALT level, also in AST level decrease after 20h fasting in male albino rats.


Assuntos
Glicemia , Dieta com Restrição de Gorduras , Jejum , Grelina , Fígado , Animais , Gorduras na Dieta , Grelina/sangue , Fígado/fisiologia , Masculino , Ratos
3.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(8): 2818-2831, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35503626

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Obesity is a serious public health problem associated with excessive food intake. Regulation of food intake in highly organized organisms is under the control of a large number of orexigenic and anorexigenic molecules. Therefore, the main purpose of this study has been to determine the relationship between obesity and some of the circulating orexigenic and anorexigenic peptides that have a role in appetite control and to determine whether the concentrations of these molecules differ according to blood groups. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study included 400 individuals of whom 100 were obese women, 100 obese men, 100 healthy men and 100 healthy women. Obese women and men were divided into 4 groups, according to their blood groups. In the control group, healthy women and healthy men were similarly divided into 4 blood groups. Each blood group within the groups, therefore, had 25 participants. RESULTS: When leptin, nesfatin-1, obestatin and neuropeptide-Y, ghrelin and galanin levels of the control group and obese participants were compared, regardless of blood groups, leptin, nesfatin-1, obestatin and neuropeptide-Y were significantly higher, whereas only the ghrelin levels were significantly lower in obese patients. When the amounts of these hormones were measured according to gender, the situation was similar. When leptin, nesfatin-1, obestatin and neuropeptide-Y values of the control and obese participants' blood groups were compared with each other; these hormones were high in all blood groups; however, leptin levels in A blood group, nesfatin-1 levels in AB and O blood group, obestatin levels in AB blood group, neuropeptide-Y levels in A, B, AB blood groups were significantly higher. When the ghrelin levels of the blood groups in the control group and obese participants were compared, it was only significantly lower in the AB blood group. The ghrelin levels in the other blood groups of the obese individuals were again low, but not significantly so. When the distribution of hormones according to gender was evaluated, a situation parallel to the above results was recorded. CONCLUSIONS: Leptin, nesfatin-1, obestatin and neuropeptide-Y and galanin levels of obese individuals were significantly higher than the control values, whereas the ghrelin values were significantly lower regardless of blood groups. Also, these hormones in blood partly varied with ABO blood groups. These different concentrations of hormones in ABO blood groups might be related with stimulation or suppression of appetite in human. However, further studies in other ethnic groups are needed to confirm these results.


Assuntos
Sistema ABO de Grupos Sanguíneos , Obesidade/sangue , Orexinas/sangue , Feminino , Galanina/sangue , Grelina/sangue , Humanos , Leptina/sangue , Masculino , Neuropeptídeo Y/sangue
4.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 107(8): 2254-2266, 2022 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35544121

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Obesity interventions often result in increased motivation to eat. OBJECTIVE: We investigated relationships between obesity outcomes and changes in brain activation by visual food cues and hormone levels in response to obesity intervention by family-based behavioral treatment (FBT). METHODS: Neuroimaging and hormone assessments were conducted before and after 24-week FBT intervention in children with obesity (OB, n = 28), or children of healthy weight without intervention (HW, n = 17), all 9- to 11-year-old boys and girls. We evaluated meal-induced changes in neural activation to high- vs low-calorie food cues across appetite-processing brain regions and gut hormones. RESULTS: Among children with OB who underwent FBT, greater declines of BMI z-score were associated with lesser reductions after the FBT intervention in meal-induced changes in neural activation to high- vs low-calorie food cues across appetite-processing brain regions (P < 0.05), and the slope of relationship was significantly different compared with children of HW. In children with OB, less reduction in brain responses to a meal from before to after FBT was associated with greater meal-induced reduction in ghrelin and increased meal-induced stimulation in peptide YY and glucagon-like peptide-1 (all P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: In response to FBT, adaptations of central satiety responses and peripheral satiety-regulating hormones were noted. After weight loss, changes of peripheral hormone secretion support weight loss, but there was a weaker central satiety response. The findings suggest that even when peripheral satiety responses by gut hormones are intact, the central regulation of satiety is disturbed in children with OB who significantly improve their weight status during FBT, which could favor future weight regain.


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental , Encéfalo , Hormônios Gastrointestinais , Obesidade , Resposta de Saciedade , Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Relações Familiares , Feminino , Hormônios Gastrointestinais/sangue , Grelina/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/psicologia , Obesidade/terapia , Peptídeo YY/sangue , Período Pós-Prandial/fisiologia , Redução de Peso
5.
J Neuroendocrinol ; 34(4): e13126, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35365872

RESUMO

Lactating rats show changes in the secretion of hormones and brain signals that promote hyperphagia and facilitate the production of milk. Little is known, however, about the role of ghrelin in the mechanisms sustaining lactational hyperphagia. Here, we used Wistar female rats that underwent surgery to sever the galactophores to prevent milk delivery (GC rats) and decrease the energetic drain of milk delivery. We compared plasma acyl-ghrelin concentrations and growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) mRNA expression in different brain regions of GC rats with those of sham operated lactating and nonlactating rats. Additional lactating and nonlactating rats were implanted with cannulae aimed at the lateral ventricles and were used to compare feeding responses to central ghrelin or GHSR antagonist infusions to those of nonlactating rats receiving similar infusions on day 14-16 postpartum (pp). Results show lower plasma acyl-ghrelin concentrations on day 15 pp sham operated lactating rats compared to GC or nonlactating rats. These changes occur in association with increased GHSR mRNA expression in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) and ventral tegmental area (VTA) of sham operated lactating rats. Despite lactational hyperphagia, infusions of ghrelin (0.25 or 1 µg) resulted in similar increases in food intake in lactating and nonlactating rats. In addition, infusions of the GHSR antagonist JMV3002 (4 µg in 1 µl of vehicle) produced greater suppression of food intake in lactating rats than in nonlactating rats. These data suggest that, despite lower plasma ghrelin, the energetic drain of lactation increases sensitivity to the orexigenic effects of ghrelin in brain regions important for food intake and energy balance, and these events are associated with lactational hyperphagia.


Assuntos
Grelina , Hipotálamo , Lactação , Receptores de Grelina , Área Tegmentar Ventral , Animais , Feminino , Grelina/sangue , Hiperfagia , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Lactação/fisiologia , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Receptores de Grelina/metabolismo , Área Tegmentar Ventral/metabolismo
6.
J Vet Med Sci ; 84(6): 841-846, 2022 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35473800

RESUMO

Juzen-taiho-to, a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, is used for patients with anorexia and fatigue in human medicine. In our previous study, granulated Juzen-taiho-to improved vincristine-induced gastrointestinal adverse effects through increasing gastric motility in dogs. As the effect of Hozen-S, the sweet liquid form of Juzen-taiho-to, on dog gastric motility has not been investigated, we examined the effect of administration of Hozen-S on gastric motility. Furthermore, we assessed dog plasma ghrelin level to further elucidate the mechanism of the effect of Hozen-S on gastric contraction. Finally, we assessed the palatability of Hozen-S compared to granulated Juzen-taiho-to and its effect on body weight in dogs. Administration of Hozen-S significantly increased gastric motility, plasma ghrelin concentration, and body weight. A palatability evaluation revealed that the dogs preferred Hozen-S to granulated Juzen-taiho-to. In conclusion, Hozen-S administration to dogs promoted gastric motility by raising plasma ghrelin levels. Considering these functional and palatability data, Hozen-S may replace granulated type Juzen-taiho-to and become a prominent traditional Chinese veterinary medicament.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Motilidade Gastrointestinal , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Animais , Peso Corporal , Cães , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Motilidade Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Grelina/sangue , Vincristina
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 2679, 2022 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35177705

RESUMO

Ghrelin is the only known orexigenic gut hormone, and its synthesis, secretion and degradation are affected by different metabolic statuses. This meta-analysis aimed to investigate the potential differences in plasma acyl ghrelin (AG) and des-acyl ghrelin (DAG) concentrations between normal weight and obese adults. Systematic literature searches of PubMed, Embase and Web of Science through October 2021 were conducted for articles reporting AG or DAG levels in obesity and normal weight, and 34 studies with 1863 participants who met the eligibility criteria were identified. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to evaluate group differences in circulating AG and DAG levels. Pooled effect size showed significantly lower levels of baseline AG (SMD: - 0.85; 95% CI: - 1.13 to - 0.57; PSMD < 0.001) and DAG (SMD: - 1.06; 95% CI: - 1.43 to - 0.69; PSMD < 0.001) in obese groups compared with healthy controls, and similar results were observed when subgroup analyses were stratified by the assay technique or storage procedure. Postprandial AG levels in obese subjects were significantly lower than those in controls when stratified by different time points (SMD 30 min: - 0.85, 95% CI: - 1.18 to - 0.53, PSMD < 0.001; SMD 60 min: - 1.00, 95% CI: - 1.37 to - 0.63, PSMD < 0.001; SMD 120 min: - 1.21, 95% CI: - 1.59 to - 0.83, PSMD < 0.001). In healthy subjects, a postprandial decline in AG was observed at 120 min (SMD: - 0.42; 95% CI: - 0.77 to - 0.06; PSMD = 0.021) but not in obese subjects (SMD: - 0.28; 95% CI: - 0.60 to 0.03; PSMD = 0.074). The mean change in AG concentration was similar in both the obese and lean health groups at each time point (ΔSMD30min: 0.31, 95% CI: - 0.35 to 0.97, PSMD = 0.359; ΔSMD60min: 0.17, 95% CI: - 0.12 to 0.46, PSMD = 0.246; ΔSMD120min: 0.21, 95% CI: - 0.13 to 0.54, PSMD = 0.224). This meta-analysis strengthens the clinical evidence supporting the following: lower baseline levels of circulating AG and DAG in obese individuals; declines in postprandial circulating AG levels, both for the healthy and obese individuals; a shorter duration of AG suppression in obese subjects after meal intake. These conclusions have significance for follow-up studies to elucidate the role of various ghrelin forms in energy homeostasis.


Assuntos
Grelina/análogos & derivados , Obesidade/sangue , Acilação , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Grelina/sangue , Humanos
8.
JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr ; 46(6): 1298-1306, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35092043

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ghrelin and peptide-YY (PYY) are two gut peptides with apparent opposing actions. In normal conditions, ghrelin and PYY work together in synergy to regulate energy homeostasis. During critical illness, series of metabolic, endocrine, and inflammatory changes take place in response to a severe insult. Emerging studies recorded alterations in gut hormone levels in critically ill adults. This study aims to assess the effect of inflammation, nutrition, and feeding status on ghrelin and PYY levels in critically ill children. METHODS: In this prospective study, we collected blood samples from critically ill children on days 2 or 3 of pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) admission for the analysis of serum ghrelin, PYY, and inflammatory markers. Data related to the intake anthropometry, as well as other clinical data, were collected from patients' records. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to identify factors affecting serum levels of these hormones. RESULTS: Forty-two children admitted to the PICU were included in this study. Ghrelin level was influenced by admission nutrition status of the children and age. PYY was influenced by macronutrient intake and age. Inflammatory markers also showed an association with the measured levels of these hormones, with C-reactive protein being positively associated with ghrelin levels and tumor necrosis factor alpha showing a positive association with PYY levels. CONCLUSION: Although ghrelin and PYY have been linked to feeding status in healthy patients, during critical illness there might be other factors, such as inflammation and nutrition status, that might contribute to the changes observed in ghrelin/PYY profiles.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal , Grelina , Estado Nutricional , Peptídeo YY , Criança , Grelina/sangue , Humanos , Inflamação , Peptídeo YY/sangue , Estudos Prospectivos
9.
Nutrients ; 14(2)2022 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35057485

RESUMO

Disturbances in eating behaviors have been widely related to obesity. However, little is known about the role of obesity-related biomarkers in shaping habitual patterns of eating behaviors (i.e., eating styles) in childhood. The objective of the present study was to explore the relationships between several biomarkers crucially involved in obesity (ghrelin, insulin resistance, and leptin/adiponectin ratio) and eating styles in children and adolescents with obesity. Seventy participants aged between 8 and 16 (56.2% men) fulfilled the Spanish version of the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire for Children to measure external, emotional, and restrained eating styles. In addition, concentrations of ghrelin, leptin, adiponectin, insulin, and glucose were obtained through a blood test. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses controlling for age and sex were computed for each eating style. Results indicated that individuals with higher ghrelin concentration levels showed lower scores in restrained eating (ß = -0.61, p < 0.001). The total model explained 32% of the variance of the restrained pattern. No other relationships between obesity-related biomarkers and eating behaviors were found. This study highlights that one of the obesity-risk factors, namely lower plasma ghrelin levels, is substantially involved in a well-known maladaptive eating style, restraint eating, in childhood obesity.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Comportamento Infantil/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/sangue , Adiponectina/sangue , Adolescente , Biomarcadores/sangue , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Grelina/sangue , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Leptina/sangue , Masculino , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco , Espanha , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Clin Nutr ; 41(2): 517-525, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35016146

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lactate serves as an alternative energy fuel but is also an important signaling metabolite. We aimed to investigate whether oral lactate administration affects appetite-regulating hormones, slows gastric emptying rate, and dampens appetite. METHODS: Ten healthy male volunteers were investigated on two separate occasions: 1) following oral ingestion of D/L-Na-lactate and 2) following oral ingestion of isotonic iso-voluminous NaCl and intravenous iso-lactemic D/L-Na-lactate infusions. Appetite was evaluated by questionnaires and ad libitum meal tests were performed at the end of each study day. Gastric emptying rate was evaluated using the acetaminophen test. RESULTS: Plasma concentrations of growth differential factor 15 (GDF15, primary outcome) increased following oral and iv administration of lactate (p < 0.001) with no detectable difference between interventions (p = 0.15). Oral lactate administration lowered plasma concentrations of acylated ghrelin (p = 0.02) and elevated glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1, p = 0.045), insulin (p < 0.001), and glucagon (p < 0.001) compared with iv administration. Oral lactate administration slowed gastric emptying (p < 0.001), increased the feeling of being "full" (p = 0.008) and lowered the "anticipated future food intake" (p = 0.007) compared with iv administration. Food intake during the ad libitum meal test did not differ between the two study days. CONCLUSION: Oral lactate administration has a direct effect on the upper gastrointestinal tract, affecting gut hormone secretion, motility and appetite sensations which cannot be mediated through lactate in the systemic circulation alone. These data suggest that compounds rich in lactate may be useful in the treatment of metabolic disease. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRY NUMBER: NCT0429981, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04299815.


Assuntos
Depressores do Apetite/administração & dosagem , Apetite/efeitos dos fármacos , Esvaziamento Gástrico/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Láctico/administração & dosagem , Administração Intravenosa , Administração Oral , Adulto , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Hormônios Gastrointestinais/sangue , Grelina/sangue , Glucagon/sangue , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/sangue , Fator 15 de Diferenciação de Crescimento/sangue , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
11.
Heart Vessels ; 37(3): 419-425, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34533592

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plasma ghrelin levels can be elevated in patients with acute heart failure (AHF). This study aimed to analyze the temporal changes and prognostic value of ghrelin levels in patients with AHF. METHODS: This prospective study included patients with AHF at the Cardiology Department, Weifang People's Hospital (May 2018-October 2019), and age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Plasma ghrelin levels were measured. Multivariable logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses were used to evaluate whether ghrelin levels could predict major cardiac adverse events (MACEs) during a 1-year follow-up. RESULTS: Finally, 92 patients with AHF and 50 healthy controls were enrolled. Ghrelin levels were higher in patients with AHF at 1, 3, 12, and 24 h compared with controls (all P < 0.01). Ghrelin levels in the AHF group were higher at 3 and 12 h than at 1 and 24 h (P < 0.001). Ghrelin level at 3 h in patients with AHF was negatively correlated with the left ventricular end-diastolic diameter and left ventricular ejection fraction (both P < 0.05). MACEs occurred in 48 patients with AHF. Ghrelin levels were higher in the MACE group than in the non-MACE group at 1 (P = 0.011) and 3 h (P = 0.034). Multivariable regression showed that ghrelin level at 3 h was independently associated with MACEs [OR = 0.629, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.515-0.742, P = 0.010], but the area under the ROC curve was only 0.629 (95% CI 0.515-0.742). CONCLUSIONS: Plasma ghrelin levels are elevated in AHF and patients with MACEs during follow-up.


Assuntos
Grelina/sangue , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Doença Aguda , Biomarcadores , Humanos , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Volume Sistólico , Função Ventricular Esquerda
12.
J Endocrinol Invest ; 45(3): 527-535, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34550535

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of the study was to determine how the administration of a high-fat diet supplemented with various forms of chromium to rats affects accumulation of this element in the tissues and levels of leptin, ghrelin, insulin, glucagon, serotonin, noradrenaline and histamine, as well as selected mineral elements. METHODS: The experiment was conducted on 56 male Wistar rats, which were divided into 8 experimental groups. The rats received standard diet or high fat diet (HFD) with addition of 0.3 mg/kg body weight of chromium(III) picolinate (Cr-Pic), chromium(III)-methioninate (Cr-Met), or chromium nanoparticles (Cr-NP). RESULTS: Chromium in organic forms was found to be better retained in the body of rats than Cr in nanoparticles form. However, Cr-Pic was the only form that increased the insulin level, which indicates its beneficial effect on carbohydrate metabolism. In blood plasma of rats fed a high-fat diet noted an increased level of serotonin and a reduced level of noradrenaline. The addition of Cr to the diet, irrespective of its form, also increased the serotonin level, which should be considered a beneficial effect. Rats fed a high-fat diet had an unfavourable reduction in the plasma concentrations of Ca, P, Mg and Zn. The reduction of P in the plasma induced by supplementation with Cr in the form of Cr-Pic or Cr-NP may exacerbate the adverse effect of a high-fat diet on the level of this element. CONCLUSION: A high-fat diet was shown to negatively affect the level of hormones regulating carbohydrate metabolism (increasing leptin levels and decreasing levels of ghrelin and insulin).


Assuntos
Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/fisiologia , Cromo , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Grelina/sangue , Leptina/sangue , Serotonina/sangue , Animais , Cromo/administração & dosagem , Cromo/metabolismo , Cromo/farmacocinética , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Dieta Hiperlipídica/métodos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Glucagon/metabolismo , Insulina/sangue , Norepinefrina/sangue , Ratos , Distribuição Tecidual , Oligoelementos/sangue , Oligoelementos/classificação
13.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 115(1): 284-297, 2022 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555151

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence is emerging that interdaily meal pattern variability potentially affects response such as thermic effect of food (TEF), macronutrient metabolism, and appetite. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of irregular meal pattern on TEF, glucose, insulin, lipid profile, and appetite regulation in women who are overweight or with obesity and confirmed insulin resistance. DESIGN: In a randomized crossover trial, 9 women [mean ± SD BMI (in kg/m2): 33.3 ± 3.1] with confirmed insulin resistance consumed a regular (14 d; 6 meals/d) and an irregular (14 d; 3-9 meals/d) meal pattern separated by a 14-d washout interval. Identical foods were provided during the interventions, and at the start and end of each meal pattern, participants attended the laboratory after an overnight fast. Energy expenditure, glucose, insulin, lipids, adiponectin, leptin, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY), and ghrelin were measured at baseline and for 3 h after consumption of a test drink, after which an ad libitum test meal was offered. Subjective appetite ratings were recorded before and after the test drink, after the ad libitum meal, and during the intervention. Continuous interstitial glucose monitoring was undertaken for 7 consecutive days during each intervention. RESULTS: TEF (over 3 h) was significantly lower postirregular intervention compared with postregular (97.7 ± 19.2 kJ*3 h in postregular visit and 76.7 ± 35.2 kJ*3 h in postirregular visit, paired t test, P = 0.048). Differences in HOMA-IR between the 2 interventions (3.3 ± 1.7 and 3.6 ± 1.6 in postregular and postirregular meal pattern, respectively) were not significant. Net incremental AUC for GLP-1 concentrations (over 3 h) for the postregular meal pattern were higher (864.9 ± 456.1 pmol/L*3 h) than the postirregular meal pattern (487.6 ± 271.7 pmol/L*3 h, paired t test, P = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: Following a 14-d period of an irregular meal pattern, TEF was significantly less than following a regular meal pattern, potentially compromising weight management if sustained long term. This study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02582606.


Assuntos
Apetite/fisiologia , Glicemia/metabolismo , Refeições/fisiologia , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Termogênese/fisiologia , Adiponectina/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Automonitorização da Glicemia , Metabolismo Energético , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Feminino , Grelina/sangue , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/sangue , Humanos , Insulina , Resistência à Insulina , Leptina/sangue , Lipídeos/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Sobrepeso/sangue , Peptídeo YY/sangue , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 107(2): 336-345, 2022 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34643713

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Lower fasting ghrelin levels (FGL) are associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to explore the dynamics of FGL during weight loss and its metabolic and adiposity-related manifestations beyond weight loss. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of a clinical trial that randomized participants with abdominal obesity/dyslipidemia to 1 of 3 diets: healthy dietary guidelines (HDG), Mediterranean diet (MED), or green-MED diet, all combined with physical activity (PA). Both MED diets were similarly hypocaloric and included 28 g/day walnuts. The green-MED group further consumed green tea (3-4 cups/day) and a Wolffia globosa (Mankai) plant green shake. We measured FGL and quantified body fat depots by magnetic resonance imaging at baseline and after 18 months. RESULTS: Among 294 participants (body mass index = 31.3 kg/m2; FGL = 504 ± 208 pg/mL; retention rate = 89.8%), lower FGL was associated with unfavorable cardiometabolic parameters such as higher visceral adipose tissue (VAT), intrahepatic fat, leptin, and blood pressure (P < 0.05 for all; multivariate models). The ∆FGL18-month differed between men (+7.3 ± 26.6%) and women (-9.2% ± 21.3%; P = 0.001). After 18 months of moderate and similar weight loss among the MED groups, FGL increased by 1.3%, 5.4%, and 10.5% in HDG, MED, and green-MED groups, respectively (P = 0.03 for green-MED vs HDG); sex-stratified analysis revealed similar changes in men only. Among men, FGL18-month elevation was associated with favorable changes in insulin resistance profile and VAT regression, after adjusting for relative weight loss (HbA1c: r = -0.216; homeostatic model of insulin resistance: r = -0.154; HDL-c: r = 0.147; VAT: r = -0.221; P < 0.05 for all). Insulin resistance and VAT remained inversely related with FGL elevation beyond that explained by weight loss (residual regression analyses; P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Diet-induced FGL elevation may reflect insulin sensitivity recovery and VAT regression beyond weight loss, specifically among men. Green-MED diet is associated with greater FGL elevation.


Assuntos
Dislipidemias/dietoterapia , Grelina/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/dietoterapia , Obesidade Abdominal/dietoterapia , Redução de Peso , Adiposidade , Adulto , Dieta Mediterrânea , Dislipidemias/sangue , Dislipidemias/metabolismo , Jejum , Feminino , Grelina/metabolismo , Humanos , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/metabolismo , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade Abdominal/sangue , Obesidade Abdominal/diagnóstico , Obesidade Abdominal/metabolismo , Fatores Sexuais , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
J Affect Disord ; 296: 103-110, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600170

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ghrelin, leptin and high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin have been linked to depression in middle-aged adults. Pathophysiological mechanisms of depression change as age progresses and it is unclear whether the same associations exist in older adults. METHODS: We analyzed the associations between ghrelin, leptin and HMW adiponectin and depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) score ≥ 16) in a community-dwelling cohort of 898 participants in a multivariable logistic regression analysis at baseline and after three years of follow-up, were applicable stratified by sex, age and waist-hip-ratio (WHR). RESULTS: At baseline no significant associations were found. After three years of follow-up ghrelin was associated with higher odds for depressive symptoms (fully adjusted continuous analysis OR 2.27, 95% CI 1.42 - 3.61). There was effect modification for age and WHR, with significant associations in participants younger than 69.7 years (median) and with a WHR below 0.9554 (mean). In the sex-stratified analysis for leptin we found significant associations in men (fully adjusted continuous analysis OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.02 - 1.12). For HMW adiponectin there were no significant associations in the multivariable analysis. LIMITATIONS: As our cohort consisted of relatively healthy participants with intact cognitive function, selection bias may have contributed to lack of significant baseline associations. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show significant associations between ghrelin and - for men only - leptin and depressive symptoms after three years of follow up. This may provide a new therapeutic window for treatment of depressive symptoms in older adults, as both ghrelin and leptin are positively influenced by weight loss.


Assuntos
Adiponectina , Depressão , Grelina , Leptina , Adiponectina/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Grelina/sangue , Humanos , Leptina/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos
16.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260546, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34879109

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adipose and hepatic metabolic dysfunctions are critical comorbidities that also aggravate insulin resistance in obese individuals. Melatonin is a low-cost agent and previous studies suggest that its use may promote metabolic health. However, its effects on some comorbidities associated with obesity are unknown. Herein, we investigated the hypothesis that melatonin supplementation would attenuate adipose-hepatic metabolic dysfunction in high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity in male Wistar rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-four adult male Wistar rats (n = 6/group) were used: Control group received vehicle (normal saline), obese group received 40% high fat diet, melatonin-treated group received 4 mg/kg of melatonin, and obese plus melatonin group received 40% HFD and melatonin. The treatment lasted for 12 weeks. RESULTS: HFD caused increased food intake, body weight, insulin level, insulin resistance and plasma and liver lipid but decreased adipose lipid. In addition, HFD also increased plasma, adipose and liver malondialdehyde, IL-6, uric acid and decreased Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glutathione, nitric oxide and circulating obestatin concentration. However, these deleterious effects except food intake were attenuated when supplemented with melatonin. CONCLUSION: Taken together, the present results indicate that HFD exposure causes adipose-hepatic metabolic disturbance in obese animals, which are accompanied by oxidative stress and inflammation. In addition, the present results suggest that melatonin supplementation attenuates adipose-hepatic metabolic dysfunction, accompanying obesity by suppression of oxidative stress/inflammation-dependent mechanism and increasing circulating obestatin.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Fígado/metabolismo , Melatonina/administração & dosagem , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Grelina/sangue , Grelina/metabolismo , Glucosefosfato Desidrogenase/sangue , Glucosefosfato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/sangue , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Malondialdeído/sangue , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Melatonina/farmacologia , Óxido Nítrico/sangue , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Obesidade/induzido quimicamente , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Resultado do Tratamento , Ácido Úrico/sangue , Ácido Úrico/metabolismo
17.
Nutrients ; 13(12)2021 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34959967

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Overnutrition is one of the risk factors of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The factors related to both obesity and CKD are adiponectin and ghrelin. The aim of the study was to assess if there is a link of nutritional status and selected nutrients intake with adiponectin and ghrelin in patients with diabetic nephropathy (DN). METHODS: The study involved 55 patients diagnosed with DN in the pre-dialysis period (two groups: GFR < 30 and >30 mL/min/1.73 m2). In all participants standard blood tests, total ghrelin and total adiponectin plasma concentrations and anthropometric measurements (BMI, WHR- waist-hip ratio, body composition analysis) were performed. The evaluation of energy and nutrient intakes was made using the three-day food record method. RESULTS: Excessive body weight was found in 92.80% patients. The average daily energy intake was 1979.67 kcal/day (14.45% protein energy, 28.86% fat, and carbohydrates 56.89%). In the group with eGFR < 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 the analysis showed a negative relationship between ghrelin and WHR value, and the creatine and albumin concentrations. There was a positive correlation between ghrelin concentration and the consumption of carbohydrates and sucrose. In the group of patients with eGFR > 30 mL/min/1.73 m2, a positive correlation was found between the concentration of ghrelin and the consumption of vegetable protein, carbohydrates, and glucose. CONCLUSIONS: The study confirms the high prevalence of obesity in patients with DN-Excessive supply of protein was found in the patients' diets, which may contribute to the deterioration of the course of the disease and its prognosis. In patients with eGFR < 30 there was a negative correlation between ghrelin concentration and nutritional status, and in patents with eGFR > 30 between ghrelin concentration and some nutrients intake.


Assuntos
Adiponectina/sangue , Nefropatias Diabéticas/sangue , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Grelina/sangue , Estado Nutricional , Idoso , Antropometria , Composição Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Nefropatias Diabéticas/fisiopatologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Registros de Dieta , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Rim/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Relação Cintura-Quadril
18.
Nutrients ; 13(11)2021 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34836065

RESUMO

Background: Gastrointestinal hormones (GIHs) are crucial for the regulation of a variety of physiological functions and have been linked to hunger, satiety, and appetite control. Thus, they might constitute meaningful biomarkers in longitudinal and interventional studies on eating behavior and body weight control. However, little is known about the physiological levels of GIHs, their intra-individual stability over time, and their interaction with other metabolic and lifestyle-related parameters. Therefore, the aim of this pilot study is to investigate the intra-individual stability of GIHs in normal-weight adults over time. Methods: Plasma concentrations of ghrelin, leptin, GLP-1 (glucagon-like-peptide), and PP (pancreatic polypeptide) were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in 17 normal-weight, healthy adults in a longitudinal design at baseline and at follow-up six months later. The reliability of the measurements was estimated using intra-class correlation (ICC). In a second step, we considered the stability of GIH levels after controlling for changes in blood glucose and hemoglobin A1 (HbA1c) as well as self-reported physical activity and dietary habits. Results: We found excellent reliability for ghrelin, good reliability for GLP1 and PP, and moderate reliability for leptin. After considering glucose, HbA1c, physical activity, and dietary habits as co-variates, the reliability of ghrelin, GLP1, and PP did not change significantly; the reliability of leptin changed to poor reliability. Conclusions: The GIHs ghrelin, GLP1, and PP demonstrated good to excellent test-retest reliability in healthy individuals, a finding that was not modified after adjusting for glucose control, physical activity, or dietary habits. Leptin showed only moderate to poor reliability, which might be linked to weight fluctuations, albeit small, between baseline and follow-up assessment in our study sample. Together, these findings support that ghrelin, GLP1, and PP might be further examined as biomarkers in studies on weight control, with GLP1 and PP serving as anorexic markers and ghrelin as an orexigenic marker. Additional reliability studies in obese individuals are necessary to verify or refute our findings for this cohort.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Hormônios Gastrointestinais/sangue , Avaliação Nutricional , Adulto , Antropometria , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/análise , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Feminino , Grelina/sangue , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/sangue , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Peso Corporal Ideal , Leptina/sangue , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Polipeptídeo Pancreático/sangue , Projetos Piloto , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
19.
Nutrients ; 13(11)2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34836101

RESUMO

We used time-restricted feeding (TRF) to investigate whether microbial metabolites and the hunger hormone ghrelin can become the dominant entraining factor during chronic jetlag to prevent disruption of the master and peripheral clocks, in order to promote health. Therefore, hypothalamic clock gene and Agrp/Npy mRNA expression were measured in mice that were either chronically jetlagged and fed ad libitum, jetlagged and fed a TRF diet, or not jetlagged and fed a TRF diet. Fecal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations, plasma ghrelin and corticosterone levels, and colonic clock gene mRNA expression were measured. Preventing the disruption of the food intake pattern during chronic jetlag using TRF restored the rhythmicity in hypothalamic clock gene mRNA expression of Reverbα but not of Arntl. TRF countered the changes in plasma ghrelin levels and in hypothalamic Npy mRNA expression induced by chronic jetlag, thereby reestablishing the food intake pattern. Increase in body mass induced by chronic jetlag was prevented. Alterations in diurnal fluctuations in fecal SCFAs during chronic jetlag were prevented thereby re-entraining the rhythmic expression of peripheral clock genes. In conclusion, TRF during chronodisruption re-entrains the rhythms in clock gene expression and signals from the gut that regulate food intake to normalize body homeostasis.


Assuntos
Proteínas CLOCK/metabolismo , Relógios Circadianos/genética , Ritmo Circadiano/genética , Jejum/metabolismo , Síndrome do Jet Lag/prevenção & controle , Animais , Doença Crônica , Colo/metabolismo , Corticosterona/sangue , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fezes/química , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Grelina/sangue , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Síndrome do Jet Lag/genética , Camundongos , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
20.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684558

RESUMO

Markers of iron metabolism are altered in new-onset diabetes, but their relationship with metabolic signals involved in the maintenance of energy balance is poorly understood. The primary aim was to explore the associations between markers of iron metabolism (hepcidin and ferritin) and markers of energy balance (leptin, ghrelin, and the leptin/ghrelin ratio) in both the fasted and postprandial states. These associations were also studied in the sub-groups stratified by diabetes status. This was a cross-sectional study of individuals without disorders of iron metabolism who were investigated after an overnight fast and, in addition, some of these individuals underwent a mixed meal test to determine postprandial responses of metabolic signals. The associations between hepcidin, ferritin, and leptin, ghrelin, leptin/ghrelin ratio were studied using several multiple linear regression models. A total of 76 individuals in the fasted state and 34 individuals in the postprandial state were included. In the overall cohort, hepcidin was significantly inversely associated with leptin (in the most adjusted model, the ß coefficient ± SE was -883.45 ± 400.94; p = 0.031) and the leptin/ghrelin ratio (in the most adjusted model, the ß coefficient ± SE was -148.26 ± 61.20; p = 0.018) in the fasted state. The same associations were not statistically significant in the postprandial state. In individuals with new-onset prediabetes or diabetes (but not in those with normoglycaemia or longstanding prediabetes or diabetes), hepcidin was significantly inversely associated with leptin (in the most adjusted model, the ß coefficient ± SE was -806.09 ± 395.44; p = 0.050) and the leptin/ghrelin ratio (in the most adjusted model, the ß coefficient ± SE was -129.40 ± 59.14; p = 0.037). Leptin appears to be a mediator in the link between iron metabolism and new-onset diabetes mellitus. These findings add to the growing understanding of mechanisms underlying the derangements of glucose metabolism.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Jejum/sangue , Ferritinas/sangue , Hepcidinas/sangue , Período Pós-Prandial/fisiologia , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Feminino , Grelina/sangue , Humanos , Leptina/sangue , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Refeições/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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