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1.
Vet J ; 271: 105652, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33840485

RESUMO

Metabolic and endocrine disorders, such as dyslipidemia, are common in donkeys. Negative energy balance due to fasting, stressful conditions, or disease is a major trigger for fat mobilization often leading to dyslipidemia. The hormonal response to fasting has not been well characterized in donkeys. Therefore, this work aimed to study variations in insulin, glucagon, leptin, total adiponectin, ghrelin, and insulin-like growth factor-1 concentrations, insulin-to-glucagon (IGR) and glucagon-to-insulin (GIR) molar ratios, and lipid and carbohydrate parameters during a 66 h fasting period in 8 adult donkeys, and to determine differences depending on body condition. Obese donkeys developed earlier lipid mobilization (increased plasma total triglyceride and total cholesterol concentrations) compared to non-obese donkeys. Plasma glucose and leptin concentrations decreased in obese animals. After 60 h fasting, obese donkeys showed a significant increase in glucagon and decrease in leptin. GIR significantly increased, while insulin and IGR decreased in both groups. These findings support faster lipid mobilization in response to negative energy status in obese donkeys during fasting, which could be linked to greater glucagonemia and could explain the predisposition of these animals to dyslipidemia.


Assuntos
Dislipidemias/veterinária , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Equidae/sangue , Jejum/sangue , Obesidade/veterinária , Adiponectina/sangue , Animais , Glicemia/análise , Dislipidemias/sangue , Dislipidemias/etiologia , Feminino , Grelina/sangue , Glucagon/sangue , Insulina/sangue , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/análise , Leptina/sangue , Lipídeos/sangue , Obesidade/sangue
2.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 184(6): 847-856, 2021 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33852427

RESUMO

Objective: Ghrelin is an orexigenic peptide hormone involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis, food intake and glucose metabolism. Serum levels increase anticipating a meal and fall afterwards. Underlying genetic mechanisms of the ghrelin secretion are unknown. Methods: Total serum ghrelin was measured in 1501 subjects selected from the population-based LIFE-ADULT-sample after an overnight fast. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed. Gene-based expression association analyses (transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS)) are statistical tests associating genetically predicted expression to a certain trait and were done using MetaXcan. Results: In the GWAS, three loci reached genome-wide significance: the WW-domain containing the oxidoreductase-gene (WWOX; P = 1.80E-10) on chromosome 16q23.3-24.1 (SNP: rs76823993); the contactin-associated protein-like 2 gene (CNTNAP2; P = 9.0E-9) on chromosome 7q35-q36 (SNP: rs192092592) and the ghrelin And obestatin prepropeptide gene (GHRL; P = 2.72E-8) on chromosome 3p25.3 (SNP: rs143729751). In the TWAS, the three genes where the expression was strongest associated with serum ghrelin levels was the ribosomal protein L36 (RPL36; P = 1.3E-06, FDR = 0.011, positively correlated), AP1B1 (P = 1.1E-5, FDR = 0.048, negatively correlated) and the GDNF family receptor alpha like (GFRAL), receptor of the anorexigenic growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF15), (P = 1.8E-05, FDR = 0.15, also negatively correlated). Conclusions: The three genome-wide significant genetic loci from the GWA and the genes identified in the TWA are functionally plausible and should initiate further research.


Assuntos
Grelina/sangue , Receptores de Fator Neurotrófico Derivado de Linhagem de Célula Glial/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Transcriptoma , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Oxidorredutase com Domínios WW/genética , Adulto Jovem
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(8): e24368, 2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33663049

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) and plasma/serum ghrelin levels remains controversial. We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the difference in plasma/serum ghrelin levels between OSAHS patients and controls. METHODS: Database of PubMed, SCI, and Elsevier were searched entirely. Two independents identified eligible studies of ghrelin levels in OSAHS patients. ReviewManager (version 5.3) was adopted for data synthesis. RESULTS: The meta-analysis A pooled the comparison of ghrelin concentrations in OSAHS patients and controls, which included 7 studies and involving 446 participants. The result of the meta-analysis A indicated that plasma/serum ghrelin levels were no significant differences between the OSAHS group and the control group (standard mean difference (SMD) = 0.08, 95% confidence interval (CI) = -0.12 to 0.28, P = .43). As a supplementary, meta-analysis B pooled the comparison of plasma/serum ghrelin levels in OSAHS patients before and after continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy, which included 155 participants from 4 studies, it revealed that plasma/serum ghrelin levels were no significant differences between before and after CPAP therapy (SMD = 0.12, 95%CI = -0.07 to 0.31, P = .22). CONCLUSION: The meta-analysis A demonstrated that plasma/serum ghrelin levels were no significant differences between the OSAHS group and the control group. The meta-analysis B showed plasma/serum ghrelin levels have no significant changes after CPAP therapy in OSAHS patients.


Assuntos
Grelina/sangue , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/sangue , Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas/métodos , Humanos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/terapia
4.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672297

RESUMO

Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a severe psychiatric condition associated with high mortality and chronicity. The hunt for state, trait, subtyping, and prognostic biomarkers is ongoing and the orexigenic hormone ghrelin and its different forms, acyl ghrelin and desacyl ghrelin, have been proposed to be increased in AN, especially in the restrictive subtype. A systematic literature search was performed using established databases up to 30 November 2020. Forty-nine studies met inclusion criteria for cross-sectional and longitudinal meta-analyses on total ghrelin, acyl ghrelin, and desacyl ghrelin. All forms of ghrelin were increased in the acute stage of anorexia nervosa during fasting compared to healthy controls. Previous notions on differences in ghrelin levels between AN subtypes were not supported by current data. In addition, a significant decrease in total ghrelin was observed pre-treatment to follow-up. However, total ghrelin levels at follow-up were still marginally elevated compared to healthy controls, whereas for acyl ghrelin, no overall effect of treatment was observed. Due to heterogeneity in follow-up designs and only few data on long-term recovered patients, longitudinal results should be interpreted with caution. While the first steps towards a biomarker in acute AN have been completed, the value of ghrelin as a potential indicator of treatment success or recovery status or its use in subtype differentiation are yet to be established.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa/sangue , Bulimia/sangue , Jejum/sangue , Grelina/sangue , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Grelina/análogos & derivados , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Fenótipo , Adulto Jovem
5.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33673594

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Ghrelin is an orexigenic hormone which favors food-seeking behavior and has been postulated to be a biomarker of stress. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis on the evolution of ghrelin levels following acute stress. METHODS: The PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, and ScienceDirect databases were searched for studies reporting ghrelin levels before and after acute stress in humans. RESULTS: We included ten studies for a total of 348 patients. Acute stress (intervention) was always in a laboratory. Acute stress was psychological (Trier Social Stress Test), physical, or mixed (cold pressure test). The overall meta-analysis demonstrated an increase in ghrelin after the stress intervention (ES = 0.21, 95CI 0.09 to 0.34) compared with baseline levels. Stratification by time demonstrated an acute increase in ghrelin levels in the five minutes immediately following the initiation of stress (0.29, 0.10 to 0.48) but without any difference after. Obese individuals had a more significant (ES = 0.51, 95CI 0.18 to 0.84) and prolonged increase in ghrelin levels for up to 45 min compared with non-obese individuals who had a significant increase only five minutes after stress. Moreover, the ghrelin levels increased in response to stress with BMI (coefficient 0.028, 0.01 to 0.49; p = 0.013) and decreased with the time after the stress intervention (coefficient -0.007, -0.014 to -0.001; p = 0.025). CONCLUSION: Ghrelin is a biomarker of stress, with a short-term increase following acute stress. Obese individuals have both a higher and prolonged response, emphasizing the link between obesity and stress.


Assuntos
Grelina/sangue , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Estresse Psicológico/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Grelina/metabolismo , Humanos , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo
6.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(4): 1227-1237, 2021 04 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33549435

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: High Protein diets may be associated with endocrine responses that favor improved metabolic outcomes. We studied the response to High Protein (HP) versus High Carbohydrate (HC) Diets in terms of incretin hormones GLP-1 and GIP, the hunger hormone ghrelin and BNP, which is associated with cardiac function. We hypothesized that HP diets induce more pronounced release of glucose lowering hormones, suppress hunger and improve cardiac function. METHODS AND RESULTS: 24 obese women and men with prediabetes were recruited and randomized to either a High Protein (HP) (n = 12) or High Carbohydrate (HC) (n = 12) diet for 6 months with all food provided. OGTT and MTT were performed and GLP-1, GIP, Ghrelin, BNP, insulin and glucose were measured at baseline and 6 months on the respective diets. Our studies showed that subjects on the HP diet had 100% remission of prediabetes compared to only 33% on the HC diet with similar weight loss. HP diet subjects had a greater increase in (1) OGTT GLP-1 AUC(p = 0.001) and MTT GLP-1 AUC(p = 0.001), (2) OGTT GIP AUC(p = 0.005) and MTT GIP AUC(p = 0.005), and a greater decrease in OGTT ghrelin AUC(p = 0.005) and MTT ghrelin AUC(p = 0.001) and BNP(p = 0.001) compared to the HC diet at 6 months. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that the HP diet increases GLP-1 and GIP which may be responsible in part for improved insulin sensitivity and ß cell function compared to the HC diet. HP ghrelin results demonstrate the HP diet can reduce hunger more effectively than the HC diet. BNP and other CVRF, metabolic parameters and oxidative stress are significantly improved compared to the HC diet. CLINICALTRIALS. GOV IDENTIFIER: NCT01642849.


Assuntos
Dieta Rica em Proteínas , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Incretinas/sangue , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Estado Pré-Diabético/dietoterapia , Adulto , Regulação do Apetite , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Polipeptídeo Inibidor Gástrico/sangue , Grelina/sangue , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/sangue , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Fome , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Estado Pré-Diabético/sangue , Estado Pré-Diabético/diagnóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Indução de Remissão , Tennessee , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Perda de Peso , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Postgrad Med ; 67(1): 12-17, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33565472

RESUMO

Background: Craving plays an important role in maintenance of alcohol dependence. Earlier studies have analyzed the role of ghrelin in craving and their results have been heterogenous. Acyl ghrelin is its more active form as it crosses the blood brain barrier. Hence we aimed to examine the relationship between plasma acyl ghrelin and craving in Indian patients having alcohol dependence syndrome. Methods: The present study was a hospital-based prospective study. A total of 60 drug-naive patients of alcohol dependence and 30 healthy controls were included. After taking informed consent fasting blood samples were collected from them on day 1 and tested for plasma acyl ghrelin level. Fasting blood samples were repeated in all cases on day 14. During this time, we also assessed the patients' cravings by obsessive compulsive drinking scale, and alcohol craving questionnaire; and withdrawal by clinical institute withdrawal assessment for alcohol scale. These scales were repeated on day 14. Data analysis was done by SPSS version 25.0. Results: Plasma concentrations of acyl ghrelin increased significantly during early abstinence in patients from day 1 to day 14 (P < 0.0001). Pearson correlation test revealed a trend of positive correlation between plasma concentration of acyl ghrelin on day 14 and severity of craving on day 1. Conclusion: Our results suggest the plasma concentration of acyl ghrelin may be a predictor of severity of alcohol craving during early abstinence. Anti-craving drugs acting on acyl ghrelin level in brain may open an innovative avenue for optimum treatment of alcohol dependence.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Alcoolismo/sangue , Fissura , Grelina/sangue , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/sangue , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
8.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0244667, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33411809

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with congenital generalized lipodystrophy (CGL) have very low levels of leptin and are described as having a voracious appetite. However, a direct comparison between CGL and eutrophic individuals is lacking, regarding both appetite parameters and acylated ghrelin, the hormone form that is active in acute food intake stimulation. The objective of the present study was to address whether and in what extent the subjective appetite parameters and acylated ghrelin response to a meal are affected in CGL individuals, in comparison to eutrophic individuals. Additionally, an obese group was included in the study, to allow the comparison between a leptin-resistant and a leptin-deficient condition on these aspects. METHODS: Eutrophic controls (EUT, n = 10), obese subjects (OB, n = 10) and CGL (n = 11) were fasted overnight and then received an ad libitum meal. Blood was collected and the visual analogue scale was applied before and 90 minutes after the meal. An additional blood sample was collected at 60 minutes for ghrelin determination. RESULTS: The CGL patients showed low fasting levels of leptin and adiponectin, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance. The caloric intake was similar among the 3 groups. However, both CGL (p = 0.02) and OB (p = 0.04) had shorter satiation times than EUT. The CGL patients also had lower satiety time (p = 0.01) and their sensation of hunger was less attenuated by the meal (p = 0.03). Fasting acylated ghrelin levels were lower in CGL than in EUT (p = 0.003). After the meal, the levels tended to decrease in EUT but not in CGL and OB individuals. CONCLUSION: The data indicate that, although not hyperphagic, the CGL patients present appetite disturbances in relation to eutrophic individuals. Their low fasting levels of acylated ghrelin and the absence of the physiological drop after meal intake suggest a role of these disturbances in hunger attenuation and satiety but not in acute satiation.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Jejum/sangue , Grelina/sangue , Lipodistrofia Generalizada Congênita/sangue , Obesidade/sangue , Adiponectina/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Leptina/sangue , Masculino , Refeições , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Cancer Res Ther ; 16(4): 855-859, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32930130

RESUMO

Background: Ghrelin plays a role in mechanisms related to cancer progression - including cell proliferation, invasion and migration, and resistance to apoptosis in the cell lines from several cancers. We investigated the role of ghrelin levels in cancer cachexia-anorexia in patients with locally advanced nonsmall-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Materials and Methods: This study involved 84 NSCLC patients who had received concomitant CRT. Blood ghrelin levels were compared before and 3 months after CRT. Meanwhile, changes in body weight of the patients were also investigated with changes in ghrelin levels before and after CRT. Results: Ghrelin levels were significantly decreased in line with changes in patients' weights in patients receiving CRT (P < 0.001). Serum albumin levels and inflammatory-nutritional index were significantly decreased after radiotherapy (RT) (3.01 ± 0.40 g/dL, 0.38 ± 0.20) when compared with its baseline levels (3.40 ± 0.55 g/dL,P < 0.001; 0.86 ± 0.71,P < 0.001, respectively). Serum C-reactive protein levels were significantly increased after CRT (7.49 ± 6.53 mg/L) when compared with its baseline levels (9.54 ± 3.80 mg/L,P = 0.038). After RT, ghrelin levels in patients were positively correlated with body mass index (r = 0.830,P < 0.001) and albumin (r = 0.758,P < 0.001). Conclusion: Ghrelin may play a role in the pathogenesis of weight loss in NSCLC patients. Ghrelin seems to be implicated in cancer-related weight loss. Ghrelin, cancer, and RT all together have a role in tumor-related anorexia-cachexia in patients with NSCLC. Results of this study need further evaluation as regards to its potential role as an adjuvant diagnostic or prognostic marker.


Assuntos
Caquexia/sangue , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/sangue , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/terapia , Grelina/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Caquexia/diagnóstico , Caquexia/etiologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Quimiorradioterapia , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Albumina Sérica Humana/metabolismo
10.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238522, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946478

RESUMO

The effects of feeding frequency on postprandial response of circulating appetite-regulating hormones, insulin, glucose and amino acids, and on physical activity, energy expenditure, and respiratory quotient were studied in healthy adult cats. Two experiments were designed as a 2 x 3 replicated incomplete Latin square design. Eight cats, with an average body weight (BW) of 4.34 kg ± 0.04 and body condition score (BCS) of 5.4 ± 1.4 (9 point scale), were fed isocaloric amounts of a commercial adult maintenance canned cat food either once (0800 h) or four times daily (0800 h, 1130 h, 1500 h, 1830 h). Study 1 consisted of three 21-d periods. On day 14, two fasted and 11 postprandial blood samples were collected over 24 hours to measure plasma concentrations of ghrelin, GLP-1, GIP, leptin, PYY, insulin and amino acids, and whole blood glucose. Physical activity was monitored from day 15 to 21 of each period. In Study 2 indirect calorimetry was performed on the last day of each period. Body weight was measured weekly and feed intake recorded daily in both experiments. No effect of feeding regimen on BW was detected. Cats eating four times daily had lesser plasma concentrations of GIP and GLP-1 (P<0.05) and tended to have lesser plasma PYY concentrations (P<0.1). Plasma leptin and whole blood glucose concentrations did not differ between regimens (P>0.1). Cats fed once daily had a greater postprandial plasma amino acid response, and greater plasma ghrelin and insulin concentrations (P<0.05). Physical activity was greater in cats fed four times (P<0.05), though energy expenditure was similar between treatments at fasting and in postprandial phases. Finally, cats eating one meal had a lower fasting respiratory quotient (P<0.05). Overall, these data indicate that feeding once a day may be a beneficial feeding management strategy for indoor cats to promote satiation and lean body mass.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Regulação do Apetite , Gatos/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Hormônios/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/sangue , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Apetite , Glicemia/análise , Glicemia/metabolismo , Gatos/sangue , Metabolismo Energético , Feminino , Grelina/sangue , Grelina/metabolismo , Hormônios/sangue , Insulina/sangue , Insulina/metabolismo , Masculino , Fotoperíodo , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Respiração
11.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237922, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32845924

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Levels of cortisol, melatonin, ghrelin, and leptin are highly correlated with circadian rhythmicity. The levels of these hormones are affected by sleep, feeding, and general behaviors, and fluctuate with light and dark cycles. During the fasting month of Ramadan, a shift to nighttime eating is expected to affect circadian rhythm hormones and, subsequently, the levels of melatonin, cortisol, ghrelin, and leptin. The present study aimed to examine the effect of diurnal intermittent fasting (DIF) during Ramadan on daytime levels of ghrelin, leptin, melatonin, and cortisol hormones in a group of overweight and obese subjects, and to determine how anthropometric, dietary, and lifestyle changes during the month of Ramadan correlate with these hormonal changes. METHODS: Fifty-seven overweight and obese male (40) and female (17) subjects were enrolled in this study. Anthropometric measurements, dietary intake, sleep duration, and hormonal levels of serum ghrelin, leptin, melatonin, and salivary cortisol were assessed one week before the start of Ramadan fasting and after 28 days of fasting at fixed times of the day (11:00 am-1:00 pm). RESULTS: At the end of Ramadan, serum levels of ghrelin, melatonin, and leptin significantly (P<0.001) decreased, while salivary cortisol did not change compared to the levels assessed in the pre-fasting state. CONCLUSIONS: DIF during Ramadan significantly altered serum levels of ghrelin, melatonin, and serum leptin. Further, male sex and anthropometric variables were the most impacting factors on the tested four hormones. Further studies are needed to assess DIF's impact on the circadian rhythmicity of overweight and obese fasting people.


Assuntos
Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Jejum/sangue , Grelina/sangue , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Melatonina/sangue , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Dieta , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Leptina/sangue , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Sono/fisiologia
12.
J Vasc Interv Radiol ; 31(9): 1483-1491, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800664

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To examine safety and efficacy of bariatric arterial embolization (BAE) with x-ray-visible embolic microspheres (XEMs) and an antireflux catheter in swine. MATERIAL AND METHODS: BAE with selective infusion of XEMs (n = 6) or saline (n = 4, control) into gastric fundal arteries was performed under x-ray guidance. Weight and plasma hormone levels were measured at baseline and weekly for 4 weeks after embolization. Cone-beam CT images were acquired immediately after embolization and weekly for 4 weeks. Hormone-expressing cells in the stomach were assessed by immunohistochemical staining. RESULTS: BAE pigs lost weight 1 week after embolization followed by significantly impaired weight gain relative to control animals (14.3% vs 20.9% at 4 weeks, P = .03). Plasma ghrelin levels were significantly lower in BAE pigs than in control animals (1,221.6 pg/mL vs 1,706.2 pg/mL at 4 weeks, P < .01). XEMs were visible on x-ray and cone-beam CT during embolization, and radiopacity persisted over 4 weeks (165.5 HU at week 1 vs 158.5 HU at week 4, P = .9). Superficial mucosal ulcerations were noted in 1 of 6 BAE animals. Ghrelin-expressing cell counts were significantly lower in the gastric fundus (17.7 vs 36.8, P < .00001) and antrum (24.2 vs 46.3, P < .0001) of BAE pigs compared with control animals. Gastrin-expressing cell counts were markedly reduced in BAE pigs relative to control animals (98.5 vs 127.0, P < .02). Trichrome staining demonstrated significantly more fibrosis in BAE animals compared with control animals (13.8% vs 8.7%, P < .0001). CONCLUSIONS: XEMs enabled direct visualization of embolic material during and after embolization. BAE with XEMs and antireflux microcatheters was safe and effective.


Assuntos
Regulação do Apetite , Comportamento Animal , Cateteres , Embolização Terapêutica/instrumentação , Artéria Gástrica , Fundo Gástrico/irrigação sanguínea , Grelina/sangue , Perda de Peso , Animais , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico , Artéria Gástrica/diagnóstico por imagem , Fundo Gástrico/metabolismo , Fundo Gástrico/patologia , Infusões Intra-Arteriais , Microesferas , Sus scrofa , Fatores de Tempo
13.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0232099, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330183

RESUMO

Food cues affect hunger and nutritional choices. Omnipresent stimulation with palatable food contributes to the epidemics of obesity. The objective of the study was to investigate the impact of food cues on appetite-related hormones and to assess the functionality of the secreted hormones on macronutrient uptake in healthy subjects. Additionally, we aimed at verifying differences in the response of total and active ghrelin to stimulation with food pictures and to a meal followed by the stimulation. We were also interested in the identification of factors contributing to response to food cues. We recruited healthy, non-obese participants for two independent cross-over studies. During the first study, the subjects were presented random non-food pictures on the first day and pictures of foods on the second day of the study. Throughout the second study, following the picture session, the participants were additionally asked to drink a milkshake. Concentrations of blood glucose, triglycerides and hunger-related hormones were measured. The results showed that concentrations of several hormones measured in the blood are interdependent. In the case of ghrelin and gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP) as well as ghrelin and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), this co-occurrence relies on the visual cues. Regulation of total ghrelin concentration following food stimulation is highly individual and responders showed upregulated total ghrelin, while the concentration of active ghrelin decreases following a meal. Protein content and colour intensity of food pictures reversely correlated with participants' rating of the pictures. We conclude that observation of food pictures influences the concentration of several appetite-related hormones. The close link of visual clues to physiological responses is likely of clinical relevance. Additionally, the protein content of displayed foods and green colour intensity in pictures may serve as a predictor of subjective attractiveness of the presented meal.


Assuntos
Fome/fisiologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Apetite/fisiologia , Glicemia/metabolismo , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Feminino , Polipeptídeo Inibidor Gástrico/sangue , Grelina/sangue , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/sangue , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Nutrientes , Peptídeo YY/sangue
14.
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol ; 318(5): R1014-R1023, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32292065

RESUMO

In rats, overnight fasting reduces the ability of systemic cholecystokinin-8 (CCK) to suppress food intake and to activate cFos in the caudal nucleus of the solitary tract (cNTS), specifically within glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and noradrenergic (NA) neurons of the A2 cell group. Systemic CCK increases vagal sensory signaling to the cNTS, an effect that is amplified by leptin and reduced by ghrelin. Since fasting reduces plasma leptin and increases plasma ghrelin levels, we hypothesized that peripheral leptin administration and/or antagonism of ghrelin receptors in fasted rats would rescue the ability of CCK to activate GLP-1 neurons and a caudal subset of A2 neurons that coexpress prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP). To test this, cFos expression was examined in ad libitum-fed and overnight food-deprived (DEP) rats after intraperitoneal CCK, after coadministration of leptin and CCK, or after intraperitoneal injection of a ghrelin receptor antagonist (GRA) before CCK. In fed rats, CCK activated cFos in ~60% of GLP-1 and PrRP neurons. Few or no GLP-1 or PrRP neurons expressed cFos in DEP rats treated with CCK alone, CCK combined with leptin, or GRA alone. However, GRA pretreatment increased the ability of CCK to activate GLP-1 and PrRP neurons and also enhanced the hypophagic effect of CCK in DEP rats. Considered together, these new findings suggest that reduced behavioral sensitivity to CCK in fasted rats is at least partially due to ghrelin-mediated suppression of hindbrain GLP-1 and PrRP neural responsiveness to CCK.


Assuntos
Regulação do Apetite/efeitos dos fármacos , Colecistocinina/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Jejum/metabolismo , Comportamento Alimentar/efeitos dos fármacos , Grelina/sangue , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Rombencéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/metabolismo , Leptina/sangue , Masculino , Neurônios/metabolismo , Hormônio Liberador de Prolactina/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores de Grelina/metabolismo , Rombencéfalo/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
15.
Br J Nutr ; 124(4): 407-417, 2020 08 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32248846

RESUMO

This study investigated metabolic, endocrine, appetite and mood responses to a maximal eating occasion in fourteen men (mean: age 28 (sd 5) years, body mass 77·2 (sd 6·6) kg and BMI 24·2 (sd 2·2) kg/m2) who completed two trials in a randomised crossover design. On each occasion, participants ate a homogenous mixed-macronutrient meal (pizza). On one occasion, they ate until 'comfortably full' (ad libitum) and on the other, until they 'could not eat another bite' (maximal). Mean energy intake was double in the maximal (13 024 (95 % CI 10 964, 15 084) kJ; 3113 (95 % CI 2620, 3605) kcal) compared with the ad libitum trial (6627 (95 % CI 5708, 7547) kJ; 1584 (95 % CI 1364, 1804) kcal). Serum insulin incremental AUC (iAUC) increased approximately 1·5-fold in the maximal compared with ad libitum trial (mean: ad libitum 43·8 (95 % CI 28·3, 59·3) nmol/l × 240 min and maximal 67·7 (95 % CI 47·0, 88·5) nmol/l × 240 min, P < 0·01), but glucose iAUC did not differ between trials (ad libitum 94·3 (95 % CI 30·3, 158·2) mmol/l × 240 min and maximal 126·5 (95 % CI 76·9, 176·0) mmol/l × 240 min, P = 0·19). TAG iAUC was approximately 1·5-fold greater in the maximal v. ad libitum trial (ad libitum 98·6 (95 % CI 69·9, 127·2) mmol/l × 240 min and maximal 146·4 (95 % CI 88·6, 204·1) mmol/l × 240 min, P < 0·01). Total glucagon-like peptide-1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide and peptide tyrosine-tyrosine iAUC were greater in the maximal compared with ad libitum trial (P < 0·05). Total ghrelin concentrations decreased to a similar extent, but AUC was slightly lower in the maximal v. ad libitum trial (P = 0·02). There were marked differences on appetite and mood between trials, most notably maximal eating caused a prolonged increase in lethargy. Healthy men have the capacity to eat twice the energy content required to achieve comfortable fullness at a single meal. Postprandial glycaemia is well regulated following initial overeating, with elevated postprandial insulinaemia probably contributing.


Assuntos
Afeto/fisiologia , Apetite/fisiologia , Hiperfagia/sangue , Refeições/fisiologia , Período Pós-Prandial/fisiologia , Adulto , Área Sob a Curva , Glicemia/análise , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Cross-Over , Dipeptídeos/sangue , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Polipeptídeo Inibidor Gástrico/sangue , Grelina/sangue , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/sangue , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32143340

RESUMO

Ghrelin is a peptide hormone with direct or indirect effects on obesity and asthma. More data are required to understand the effect of ghrelin on the control and pathogenesis of these diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate ghrelin levels in selected groups of children to identify the association between serum ghrelin, obesity, and the severity of asthma. The study included 401 school children selected from the Najran area and grouped into non-obese asthmatics, obese asthmatics, obese non-asthmatics and controls (non-obese non-asthmatics). Blood levels of ghrelin, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5 and IL-21 were determined by ELISA. The mean ghrelin values were insignificantly increased in obese children compared with non-obese children. The highest blood ghrelin values were in the non-obese asthmatic group. Serum ghrelin, IL-4 and IL-21 levels were significantly increased in asthmatic children compared with non-asthmatic children (p < 0.05), and there were significant positive correlations between ghrelin and IL-4, IL-5, and IL-21 in asthmatic children. Furthermore, ghrelin, IL-4, and IL-21 levels were significantly higher in uncontrolled asthmatics compared with controlled-asthmatic children (p < 0.05). Asthma was the only significant risk factor for high ghrelin values. This study provides evidence supporting the anti-inflammatory role of ghrelin in the pathogenesis of asthma. Asthma might be considered as an important determinant of high ghrelin values in children.


Assuntos
Asma , Grelina , Interleucinas , Asma/sangue , Asma/patologia , Criança , Grelina/sangue , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Interleucina-4/sangue , Interleucina-5/sangue , Interleucinas/sangue , Obesidade/sangue , Arábia Saudita
17.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 5495, 2020 03 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32218464

RESUMO

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a multi-factorial disorder including central obesity (CO), insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and hypertension which increases the risk of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. CO is considered as an essential component of MetS according to International Diabetes Federation (IDF), which may further modulate distinct signalling pathways compared with the other four MetS risk factors. Given that ghrelin signalling and the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 (GH/IGF-1) axis regulates energy balance and metabolic homeostasis, this study examined the changes in various ghrelin products and circulating hormones in response to the interaction between CO and other MetS components including blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in 133 Hong Kong Chinese adults. Circulating obestatin and GH were increased and reduced, respectively, by either CO or the other 4-risk factor cluster. These changes were further augmented by the presence of all MetS risk factors. However, changes of ghrelin levels were not mediated by CO but the other MetS risk factors. Our findings suggest that CO does not predict all the dysregulation of signalling pathways in individuals with MetS. Although CO and other MetS may share common signalling targets (i.e., obestatin and GH), CO does not contribute to the perturbation of ghrelin signalling.


Assuntos
Grelina/sangue , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Obesidade Abdominal/sangue , Obesidade Abdominal/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Pressão Sanguínea , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Feminino , Hong Kong , Humanos , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/fisiopatologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nucleobindinas/sangue , Fatores de Risco , Transdução de Sinais , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Adulto Jovem
18.
Endocrinol. diabetes nutr. (Ed. impr.) ; 67(3): 179-185, mar. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-188146

RESUMO

Introducción: Los pacientes con obesidad, con frecuencia, tienen dificultad para adherirse a una dieta baja en calorías durante largos períodos de tiempo. Una de las causas del fracaso dietético es la sensación continua de hambre. La grelina es un péptido orexígeno, secretado por células enterocromafines del fundus gástrico. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar las variaciones de los valores plasmáticos de grelina tras PENS del dermatoma T6 asociado a dieta hipocalórica, así como la modificación del apetito y la pérdida de peso, comparándolo con un grupo control en el que solo se pautó una dieta hipocalórica. Material y métodos: Realizamos un estudio prospectivo no aleatorizado, incluyendo 20 pacientes sometidos a PENS del dermatoma T6, asociado a dieta hipocalórica, como tratamiento previo a ser sometidos a una técnica de cirugía bariátrica y con el fin de reducir peso (grupo 1), y 20 pacientes a los que se les pautó exclusivamente dieta hipocalórica previa a la intervención quirúrgica (grupo 2). En el grupo 1 se analizaron los niveles de grelina plasmática en 5 momentos diferentes del procedimiento: antes de realizar la primera sesión de PENS (muestra 1a), al finalizar la primera sesión de PENS (muestra 1b), antes de realizar la última sesión de PENS (muestra 2a), al finalizar la última sesión de PENS (muestra 2b) y un mes después de haber finalizado el tratamiento (muestra 3). En el grupo 2 se obtuvieron solo 2 muestras, antes de comenzar la dieta (muestra 1) y tras 12 semanas de dieta (muestra 2). Resultados: Tras 12 semanas de tratamiento se observó una pérdida de IMC del 8,42 ± 2,6% en el grupo 1 y del 1,32 ± 0,98% en el grupo 2 (p = 0,007). En el grupo 1 se apreció un descenso significativo de los valores de grelina entre las muestras 1a y 2a, y entre las muestras 1a y 3. En el grupo 2 se observó un aumento no significativo de los niveles de grelina entre las muestras 1 y 2. Conclusión: El PENS del dermatoma T6 se asoció con una disminución en los valores de grelina plasmática. Esta terapia, asociada a una dieta hipocalórica, consigue una pérdida de IMC superior al 8% en 12 semanas de tratamiento


Introduction: Obese patients often find it difficult to adhere to long-term low-calorie diets. One of the reasons for dietary failure is the permanent feeling of hunger. Ghrelin is an orexigenic hormone, secreted by enterochromaffin cells in the gastric fundus. The aim of this study was to analyze changes in plasma ghrelin levels after PENS of dermatome T6 associated to a low-calorie diet, as well as changes in appetite and weight loss, as compared to a control group on a low-calorie alone. Material and methods: A prospective, non-randomized study was conducted including 20 patients who underwent PENS of dermatome T6 associated to a low-calorie diet before undergoing bariatric surgery to lose weight (Group 1), and 20 patients who were only prescribed a low-calorie diet before surgery (Group 2). In Group 1, plasma ghrelin levels were measured at 5 timepoints: before the first PENS session (Sample 1a); after the first PENS session (Sample 1b); before the last PENS session (Sample 2a); after the last PENS session (Sample 2b); and one month after treatment completion (Sample 3). In Group 2, only two samples were collected: before the start of the diet (Sample 1) and after 12 weeks of diet (Sample 2). Results: After 12 weeks of treatment, BMI decreases of 8.42% ± 2.6% and 1.32% ± 0.98% were seen in Group 1 and Group 2 respectively (p = 0.007). A significant decrease was seen in ghrelin levels between samples 1a and 2a, and between samples 1a and 3. In Group 2, a non-significant increase was seen in ghrelin levels. Conclusion: PENS of dermatome T6 was associated to decreased plasma ghrelin levels. This therapy, associated to a low-calorie diet, achieves a BMI reduction greater than 8% after 12 weeks of treatment


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Grelina/uso terapêutico , Estimulação Elétrica Nervosa Transcutânea/métodos , Obesidade/terapia , Regulação do Apetite , Dieta Redutora , Grelina/metabolismo , Perda de Peso , Estudos Prospectivos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Dieta Mediterrânea , Grelina/sangue , Análise de Variância , Antropometria/métodos
19.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228637, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32074122

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Obesity results from excess energy intake over expenditure and is characterized by chronic low-grade inflammation involving circulating monocytes (Mo) and group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) imbalance. We analyzed circulating Mo subsets and ILC2s percentages and ß2-adrenergic receptor (ß2AR) expression in lean and obese subjects, and the possible effect of hypocaloric restriction on these innate immune cells. METHODS: In 139 individuals aged 45 to 57 years, classified in 74 lean individuals (>18.9kg/m2 BMI <24.9kg/m2) and 65 with obesity (n = 65), we collected fasting blood samples to detect Mo subsets, ILC2s number, and ß2AR expression by flow cytometry. Lipids, insulin, leptin, and acylated-ghrelin concentrations were quantified. Resting energy expenditure (REE) was estimated by indirect calorimetry. These measurements were repeated in obese subjects after 7-weeks of hypocaloric restriction. RESULTS: Non-classical monocytes (NCM) and ß2AR expression on intermediate Mo (IM) were increased in obese individuals (p<0.001, in both cases), whereas the percent of ILC2s was decreased (p<0.0001). Stepwise regression analysis showed significantly negative associations of ILC2s with caloric intake, ß2AR expression on IM with REE, but a positive relationship between NCM and HOMA-IR. Caloric restriction allowed a significant diminution of NCM and the ß2AR expression on IM, as well as, an increase in the percent of classical Mo (CM), and ILC2s. ΔREE was related to ΔCD16+/CD16- ratio. CONCLUSIONS: These findings show that in obesity occur changes in NCM, ILC2s and ß2AR expression, which contribute to the low-grade inflammation linked to obesity and might revert with caloric restriction.


Assuntos
Restrição Calórica , Monócitos/metabolismo , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Adulto , Feminino , Grelina/sangue , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Leptina/sangue , Lipídeos/sangue , Subpopulações de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monócitos/citologia , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/metabolismo , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/metabolismo
20.
Life Sci ; 247: 117442, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32081663

RESUMO

Transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) channels are emerging therapeutic targets for metabolic disorders. Berberine, which is a modulator of TRPV1, has proven antiobesity and antidiabetic potentials. The present study was aimed to investigate the protective effects of berberine in olanzapine-induced alterations in hypothalamic appetite control, inflammation and metabolic aberrations in mice targeting TRPV1 channels. Female BALB/c mice (18-23 g) were treated with olanzapine (6 mg/kg, p.o.) for six weeks to induce metabolic alterations, while berberine (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) and metformin (100 mg/kg, p.o) were used as test and standard interventions respectively. Weekly assessment of feed-water intake, body temperature and body weight was done, while locomotion was measured at the end of week 1 and 6. Serum glucose and lipid profile were assessed by biochemical methods, while other serum biomarkers were assessed by ELISA. qPCR was used to quantify the mRNA expression in the hypothalamus. Olanzapine treatment significantly increased the feed intake, weight gain, adiposity index, while reduced body temperature and locomotor activity which were reversed by berberine treatment. Berberine treatment reduced serum ghrelin and leptin levels as well decrease in hypothalamic mRNA expression of orexigenic neuropeptides, inflammatory markers and ghrelin receptor in olanzapine-treated mice. Olanzapine treatment increased expression of TRPV1/TRPV3 in the hypothalamus which was significantly decreased by berberine treatment. Our results suggest that berberine, by TRPV1/TRPV3 modulation, attenuated the olanzapine-induced metabolic alterations in mice. Hence berberine supplementation in psychiatric patients could be a preventive approach to reduce the metabolic adverse effects of antipsychotics.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Berberina/uso terapêutico , Doenças Metabólicas/tratamento farmacológico , Olanzapina/metabolismo , Canais de Cátion TRPV/metabolismo , Animais , Antipsicóticos/efeitos adversos , Berberina/efeitos adversos , Temperatura Corporal , Peso Corporal , Citocinas/metabolismo , Ingestão de Líquidos , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Grelina/sangue , Grelina/metabolismo , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Leptina/sangue , Leptina/metabolismo , Metformina/farmacologia , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/métodos , Neuropeptídeos/metabolismo , Obesidade , RNA Mensageiro , Transdução de Sinais , Canais de Cátion TRPV/genética , Resultado do Tratamento
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