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1.
Public Health Res Pract ; 30(1)2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32152618

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The Live Life Well @ School program aims to establish, reinforce and support primary school students (aged 5-11 years) and their families to adopt healthy eating and physical activity behaviours through the implementation of an evidence-based program that focuses on the school curriculum, the school food and physical activity environment, and teacher professional development. This paper examines Live Life Well @ School monitoring data to provide practical insights into program adoption and changes in primary school environments across NSW, particularly in schools characterised as disadvantaged. Type of program: The Live Life Well @ School program provides a universally delivered, state-wide approach to childhood obesity prevention in the primary school setting. The program is a joint initiative between health and education sector agencies. METHODS: The program includes health promotion strategies for primary schools relating to physical activity and nutrition. Adoption of the program is indicated by achievement of evidence-based desirable practices, which are monitored routinely by local health promotion staff using a purpose-built online Population Health Information Management System. Monitoring data are used to provide feedback to schools and identify a staged approach to achieving more desirable practices. Health promotion staff tailor support locally to suit school and community needs, and have additional funding to support socio-economically disadvantaged schools. RESULTS: The program has achieved high reach to schools (82.7%percnt; of the 2570 schools in New South Wales, Australia). Adoption of desirable practices within schools participating in 2017 was 72.9%percnt;. Equitable reach was achieved for schools in areas of socio-economic disadvantage, schools in remote areas and schools with a high propotion of Aboriginal students, who are likely to have higher rates of childhood overweight and obesity. Curriculum-based strategies were more frequently adopted; environmental changes and teacher professional development components were less well adopted. LESSONS LEARNT: The desirable practice approach allows health promotion officers to tailor support by building on school strengths and taking a staged approach to change. Ongoing monitoring of the program provides useful insights that inform quality improvements to the program and implementation process, as well as information on progress towards outcomes. State-wide program targets were adjusted to strengthen impact and focus on desirable practices that were less well achieved. Intentional targeting and tailoring in areas of disadvantage are required to achieve equitable adoption of such a universal health promotion program. Strong relationships at the local level between school champions (teachers and principals) and health promotion staff characterise success.


Assuntos
Currículo , Promoção da Saúde , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , New South Wales , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos , Obesidade Pediátrica/etnologia , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde
2.
Aust N Z J Public Health ; 44(1): 59-64, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31535439

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of an enhanced viral hepatitis surveillance program on data completeness and on epidemiological assessment of affected populations. METHODS: Notified cases of non-acute hepatitis B and C were analysed to determine demographic characteristics and risk factors during the period prior to July 2015-June 2016, and during enhanced surveillance of the period July 2016-June 2017, during which time doctors were contacted for information about new diagnoses. RESULTS: During the enhanced period, completeness for country of birth and Indigenous status doubled for both hepatitis B and hepatitis C, from 18-37% to 48-65%. The incidence ratio of hepatitis C among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people increased from eight-fold to 11.4-fold, and the proportion of hepatitis B cases reported as born in China and Vietnam relative to other countries increased. New data fields identified that 12% of hepatitis C diagnoses occurred in a correctional facility, and 2% of hepatitis B cases were healthcare workers. CONCLUSIONS: Improved data completeness highlighted the underlying epidemiology of chronic viral hepatitis, demonstrating the increased burden of infection among specific priority populations. Implications for public health: Enhanced surveillance provides greater insight into the epidemiology of chronic viral hepatitis, identifying groups at risk and opportunities for public health action.


Assuntos
Hepatite B Crônica/epidemiologia , Hepatite C Crônica/epidemiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Vigilância da População/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Austrália/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde Pública , Fatores de Risco , Vitória/epidemiologia , Vietnã/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Ambio ; 49(1): 299-309, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30900080

RESUMO

In this article, we focus on wellbeing as an important concept relating to bioenergy development in Canada. We use a three-dimensional or social approach to understanding wellbeing, which includes subjective and relational aspects in addition to the more traditional material dimension of wellbeing (e.g. financial resources, a healthy environment). Indigenous business leaders engaged in forestry, energy, and related resource sectors were recruited through our partner organization, the Canadian Council for Aboriginal Business, as a representative sample of key people to be engaged in the scoping of existing and future bioenergy partnerships in Canada. Participants often responded in ways that did not discretely fit into categories, but instead reflected a perspective on their own and their community's dimensions of social wellbeing, which we captured through open coding for emergent themes. Our findings on material wellbeing illustrate that relationships between different wellbeing dimensions need to be considered for community-appropriate bioenergy development.


Assuntos
Agricultura Florestal , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos , Canadá , Meio Ambiente , Humanos
4.
BJOG ; 127(1): 47-56, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512355

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiology of rheumatic heart disease (RHD) in pregnancy in Australia and New Zealand (A&NZ). DESIGN: Prospective population-based study. SETTING: Hospital-based maternity units throughout A&NZ. POPULATION: Pregnant women with RHD with a birth outcome of ≥20 weeks of gestation between January 2013 and December 2014. METHODS: We identified eligible women using the Australasian Maternity Outcomes Surveillance System (AMOSS). De-identified antenatal, perinatal and postnatal data were collected and analysed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence of RHD in pregnancy. Perinatal morbidity and mortality. RESULTS: There were 311 pregnancies associated with women with RHD (4.3/10 000 women giving birth, 95% CI 3.9-4.8). In Australia, 78% were Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander (60.4/10 000, 95% CI 50.7-70.0), while in New Zealand 90% were Maori or Pasifika (27.2/10 000, 95% CI 22.0-32.3). One woman (0.3%) died and one in ten was admitted to coronary or intensive care units postpartum. There were 314 births with seven stillbirths (22.3/1000 births) and two neonatal deaths (6.5/1000 births). Sixty-six (21%) live-born babies were preterm and one in three was admitted to neonatal intensive care or special care units. CONCLUSION: Rheumatic heart disease in pregnancy persists in disadvantaged First Nations populations in A&NZ. It is associated with significant cardiac and perinatal morbidity. Preconception planning and counselling and RHD screening in at-risk pregnant women are essential for good maternal and baby outcomes. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: Rheumatic heart disease in pregnancy persists in First Nations people in Australia and New Zealand and is associated with major cardiac and perinatal morbidity.


Assuntos
Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez/etnologia , Cardiopatia Reumática/etnologia , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Nova Zelândia/etnologia , Northern Territory/epidemiologia , Northern Territory/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/etnologia , Paridade , Gravidez , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
5.
Support Care Cancer ; 28(1): 317-327, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31049670

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The role of general practitioners in cancer care has expanded in recent years. However, little is known about utilization of primary health care (PHC) services by patients with cancer, particularly among socio-economically disadvantaged groups. We describe utilization of PHC services by patients with cancer, and the nature of the care provided. The study focuses on a disadvantaged group in Australia, namely Indigenous Australians. METHODS: A retrospective audit of clinical records in ten PHC services in Queensland, Australia. Demographic and clinical data of Indigenous Australians diagnosed with cancer during 2010-2016 were abstracted from patient's medical records at the PHC services. The rates of cancer-related visits were calculated using person years at risk as a denominator. RESULTS: A total of 138 patients' records were audited. During 12 months following the cancer diagnosis, patients visited the PHC service on average 5.95 times per year. Frequency of visits were relatively high in remote areas and among socioeconomic disadvantaged patients (IRR = 1.87, 95%CI 1.61-2.17; IRR = 1.79, 95%CI 1.45-2.21, respectively). Over 80% of visits were for seeking attention for symptoms, wound care, and emotional or social support. Patients who did not undergo surgery, had greater comorbidity, received chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy, and male gender had significantly greater rate of visits than their counterparts. CONCLUSION: The frequency of utilization of PHC services, especially by patients with comorbidities, and the range of reasons for attendance highlights the important role of PHC services in providing cancer care. The reliance on PHC services, particularly by patients in remote and disadvantaged communities, has important implications for appropriate resourcing and support for services in these locations.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde do Indígena/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/terapia , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos , Médicos de Atenção Primária/estatística & dados numéricos , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Austrália/epidemiologia , Auditoria Clínica , Feminino , Clínicos Gerais/normas , Clínicos Gerais/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/normas , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde do Indígena/normas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Padrões de Prática Médica/normas , Atenção Primária à Saúde/normas , Queensland/epidemiologia , Encaminhamento e Consulta/normas , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
7.
Int J Equity Health ; 18(1): 194, 2019 12 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31842869

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In recent decades, financial investment has been made in health-related programs and services to overcome inequities and improve Indigenous people's wellbeing in Australia and New Zealand. Despite policies aiming to 'close the gap', limited evaluation evidence has informed evidence-based policy and practice. Indigenous leaders have called for evaluation stakeholders to align their practices with Indigenous approaches. METHODS: This study aimed to strengthen culturally safe evaluation practice in Indigenous settings by engaging evaluation stakeholders, in both countries, in a participatory concept mapping study. Concept maps for each country were generated from multi-dimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analysis. RESULTS: The 12-cluster Australia map identifies four cluster regions: An Evaluation Approach that Honours Community; Respect and Reciprocity; Core Heart of the Evaluation; and Cultural Integrity of the Evaluation. The 11-cluster New Zealand map identifies four cluster regions: Authentic Evaluation Practice; Building Maori Evaluation Expertise; Integrity in Maori Evaluation; and Putting Community First. Both maps highlight the importance of cultural integrity in evaluation. Differences include the distinctiveness of the 'Respecting Language Protocols' concept in the Australia map in contrast to language being embedded within the cluster of 'Knowing Yourself as an Evaluator in a Maori Evaluation Context' in the New Zealand map. Participant ratings highlight the importance of all clusters with some relatively more difficult to achieve, in practice. Notably, the 'Funding Responsive to Community Needs and Priorities' and 'Translating Evaluation Findings to Benefit Community' clusters were rated the least achievable, in Australia. The 'Conduct of the Evaluation' and the 'Prioritising Maori Interests' clusters were rated as least achievable in New Zealand. In both countries, clusters of strategies related to commissioning were deemed least achievable. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the commissioning of evaluation is crucial as it sets the stage for whether evaluations: reflect Indigenous interests, are planned in ways that align with Indigenous ways of working and are translated to benefit Indigenous communities Identified strategies align with health promotion principles and relational accountability values of Indigenous approaches to research. These findings may be relevant to the commissioning and conduct of Indigenous health program evaluations in developed nations.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde Culturalmente Competente/organização & administração , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Serviços de Saúde do Indígena/organização & administração , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos , Austrália , Análise por Conglomerados , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Nova Zelândia , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde
8.
Aust N Z J Public Health ; 43(6): 538-543, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31667912

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Community Controlled Health Organisations (ACCHOs) have been identified as having an important role in improving the health and wellbeing of individuals in prison; however, a lack of information exists on how to strengthen this role. This paper explores the experiences of ACCHO staff in primary health care to individuals inside or leaving prison. METHODS: Nineteen staff from four ACCHOs were interviewed. ACCHO selection was informed by proximity to prisons, town size and/or Local Government Area offending rates. Thematic analysis of the interviews was undertaken. RESULTS: While most ACCHOs had delivered post-release programs, primary health care delivery to prisoners was limited. Three themes emerged: i) a lack of access to prisoners; ii) limited funding to provide services to prisoners; and iii) the need for a team approach to primary health care delivery. CONCLUSION: A holistic model of care underpinned by a reliable funding model (including access to certain Medicare items) and consistent access to prisoners could strengthen ACCHOs' role in primary health care delivery to people inside or leaving prison. Implications for public health: ACCHOs have an important role to play in the delivery of primary health care to prisoners. Existing models of care for prisoners should be examined to explore how this can occur.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde do Indígena/organização & administração , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/psicologia , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Prisioneiros , Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Prisioneiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Apoio Social
9.
Aust N Z J Public Health ; 43(6): 551-557, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31667933

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To create supportive environments to reduce sugary drink consumption and increase water consumption by partnering with remote Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities in Cape York. METHODS: This paper applied qualitative and quantitative methods to evaluate a co-designed multi-strategy health promotion initiative, implemented over 12 months from 2017 to 2018. Outcome measures included changes in community readiness, awareness of the social marketing campaign and changes in drink availability. Changes in store drink sales were measured in one community and compared to sales in a control store. RESULTS: Community readiness to address sugary drink consumption increased in two of the three communities. Awareness of social marketing campaign messaging was high (56-94%). Availability of drinking water increased in all communities. Water sales as a proportion of total drink volume sales increased by 3.1% (p<0.001) while sugary drink volume sales decreased by 3.4% (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: A multi-component strategy with strong engagement from local government, community leaders and the wider community was associated with positive changes in community readiness, drink availability and sales. Implications for public health: Partnering with community leaders in the co-design of strategies to create environments that support healthy drink consumption can stimulate local action and may positively affect drink consumption.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Meio Social , Marketing Social , /estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento de Escolha , Humanos , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos , População Rural , /provisão & distribução
10.
Aust N Z J Public Health ; 43(6): 544-550, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31667969

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between hearing impairment (HI) and Year 1 school attendance in Aboriginal children in the Northern Territory (NT) of Australia. METHODS: Observational cohort study (n=3,744) by analysing linked individual-level information for Aboriginal children from the NT Government school attendance records, NT Perinatal Register and Remote Hearing Assessment dataset, and community level data for relative remoteness, socioeconomic disadvantage and housing crowdedness. RESULTS: Children with unilateral hearing loss, mild HI and moderate or worse HI had significantly lower Year 1 attendance than those with normal hearing, attending 5.6 (95%CI, -9.10 ∼-2.10), 4.0 (95%CI, -7.17 ∼-0.90) and 6.1 (95%CI, -10.71 ∼-1.49) days fewer, respectively. Other variables that yielded significant association were: male gender, having attended preschool less than 20% of available days, speaking English as second language, twin birth and average household size >5. CONCLUSIONS: Aboriginal children with any level of HI are likely to have lower school attendance rates in Year 1 than their peers with normal hearing. Implications for public health: In this population, where the prevalence of otitis media and accompanying HI remains extremely high, the early detection and management of hearing loss on entry into primary school should be included in the measures to improve school attendance.


Assuntos
Perda Auditiva/etiologia , Habitação , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/psicologia , Otite Média/complicações , Instituições Acadêmicas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Serviços de Saúde do Indígena , Perda Auditiva/epidemiologia , Perda Auditiva/etnologia , Humanos , Masculino , Northern Territory , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Otite Média/epidemiologia , Otite Média/etnologia , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos
11.
Aust N Z J Public Health ; 43(6): 570-576, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31667984

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the under-identification of Indigenous∗ infants in death records and examine the impact of a multi-stage algorithm on disparities in sudden unexpected deaths in infancy (SUDI). METHODS: Data on SUDI in Queensland between 2010 and 2014 were linked to birth and death registrations, health data, and child protection and coronial records. An algorithm was applied to cases of SUDI and population data to derive Indigenous status. Numbers, proportions and rates of SUDI were compared. RESULTS: Using multiple sources of Indigenous status resulted in a 64.9% increase in the number of infants identified as Indigenous. The Indigenous SUDI rate increased by 54.3%, from 1.38 to 2.13 per 1,000 live births after applying the algorithm to SUDI and live births data. CONCLUSIONS: Applying an algorithm to both numerator and denominator data reduced numerator-denominator incompatibility, to more accurately report rates of Indigenous SUDI and measure the gap in Indigenous infant mortality. Implications for public health: Estimation of the true magnitude of the disparity is restricted by under-identification of Indigenous status in death records. Data linkage improved the reporting of Indigenous infant mortality. Accuracy in reporting of measures is integral to determining genuine progress towards Closing the Gap.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Infantil/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos , Morte Súbita do Lactente/etnologia , Algoritmos , Causas de Morte , Atestado de Óbito , Documentação/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação , Masculino , Queensland/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Morte Súbita do Lactente/epidemiologia
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31738865

RESUMO

This eleventh national annual immunisation coverage report focuses on data for the calendar year 2017 derived from the Australian Immunisation Register (AIR) and the National Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccination Program Register. This is the first report to include data on HPV vaccine course completion in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous) adolescents. 'Fully immunised' vaccination coverage in 2017 increased at the 12-month assessment age reaching 93.8% in December 2017, and at the 60-month assessment age reaching 94.5%. 'Fully immunised' coverage at the 24-month assessment age decreased slightly to 89.8% in December 2017, following amendment in December 2016 to require the fourth DTPa vaccine dose at 18 months. 'Fully immunised' coverage at 12 and 60 months of age in Indigenous children reached the highest ever recorded levels of 93.2% and 96.9% in December 2017. Catch-up vaccination activity for the second dose of measles-mumps-rubella-containing vaccine was considerably higher in 2017 for Indigenous compared to non-Indigenous adolescents aged 10-19 years (20.3% vs. 6.4%, respectively, of those who had not previously received that dose). In 2017, 80.2% of females and 75.9% of males aged 15 years had received a full course of three doses of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. Of those who received dose one, 79% and 77% respectively of Indigenous girls and boys aged 15 years in 2017 completed three doses, compared to 91% and 90% of non-Indigenous girls and boys, respectively. A separate future report is planned to present adult AIR data and to assess completeness of reporting.


Assuntos
Programas de Imunização , Imunização , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Papillomaviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Cobertura Vacinal , Adolescente , Algoritmos , Relatórios Anuais como Assunto , Austrália/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Serviços de Saúde do Indígena , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Sistema de Registros
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31738867

RESUMO

Introduction: Maternal influenza vaccination was introduced in 2010 due to the high morbidity and mortality associated with influenza in pregnancy. The aim of this study was to assess the maternal influenza vaccination uptake in Northern Territory public hospitals and identify gaps to improve uptake. Methods: Birth data from Northern Territory (NT) public hospitals obtained from the Perinatal Register for deliveries in 2016 were merged with vaccination records from the NT immunisation register. Results: There were 3,392 viable pregnancies in NT public hospitals in 2016 with 45.6% vaccination coverage against influenza. There was a statistically significant difference in coverage with 68.5% in Indigenous vs 31.7% in non-Indigenous deliveries (p < 0.001), yielding an odds ratio of 4.67 (95% CI 4.02, 5.42) for maternal influenza vaccination across Indigenous status. Influenza vaccination coverage for preterm births (< 37 weeks) was low especially in non-Indigenous mothers at 27.2% vs 65.05% in Indigenous mothers (p < 0.001). A distinct immunisation administration pattern was noted for 2016 with 58.9% of vaccinations occurring between April and June regardless of Indigenous status and maternal gestational age. This correlated with the annual influenza immunisation campaign by the NT and Commonwealth. Conclusion: A year-round maternal influenza vaccination campaign is crucial to avoid missed opportunities and increase vaccination protection for mother and baby. Antenatal influenza vaccination campaign with health care workers education and increasing patient awareness should continue throughout the year.


Assuntos
Programas de Imunização , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Cobertura Vacinal , Vacinação , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Influenza Humana/virologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mães , Northern Territory , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos , Gravidez , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
15.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1551, 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31760942

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few large cohort studies have examined the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension (HTN), coronary artery disease (CAD), obesity, and smoking among middle-aged and older adults in the major Asian-American ethnic groups and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islanders (PIs). The aim of this study was to evaluate how prevalence of these conditions and risk factors differs across Asian-American and PI ethnic groups and compares with an aggregated All Asian-American racial group. METHODS: This study used a cohort of 1.4 million adults aged 45 to 84 who were Kaiser Permanente Northern California health plan members during 2016. The cohort included approximately 274,910 Asian-Americans (Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Southeast Asian, South Asian, other), 8450 PIs, 795,080 non-Hispanic whites, 107,200 blacks, and 210,050 Latinos. We used electronic health record data to produce age-standardized prevalence estimates of DM, HTN, CAD, obesity (using standard and Asian thresholds), and smoking for men and women in all racial/ethnic subgroups and compared these subgroups to an aggregated All Asian-American racial group and to whites, blacks, and Latinos. RESULTS: We found large differences in health burden across Asian-American ethnic subgroups. For both sexes, there were 16 and > 22 percentage point differences between the lowest and highest prevalence of DM and HTN, respectively. Obesity prevalence among Asian subgroups (based on an Asian BMI ≥ 27.5 kg/m2 threshold) ranged from 14 to 39% among women and 21 to 45% among men. Prevalence of smoking ranged from 1 to 4% among women and 5 to 14% among men. Across all conditions and risk factors, prevalence estimates for Asian-American and PI ethnic groups significantly differed from those for the All Asian-American group. In general, Filipinos and PIs had greater health burden than All Asians, with prevalence estimates approaching those of blacks. CONCLUSIONS: In a population of middle-aged and older adult Northern California health plan members, we found substantive differences in prevalence of chronic cardiovascular conditions, obesity, and smoking across Asian-American ethnic groups and between Asian-American ethnic groups and an aggregated All Asian racial group. Our study confirms that reporting statistics for an aggregated Asian-American racial group masks meaningful differences in Asian-American ethnic group health.


Assuntos
Americanos Asiáticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença Crônica/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , California/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
17.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1521, 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31727039

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Improving the rates of, and instruments used in, screening for perinatal depression and anxiety among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women are important public health priorities. The Kimberley Mum's Mood Scale (KMMS) was developed and later validated as an effective and acceptable perinatal depression and anxiety screening tool for the Kimberley region under research conditions. Other regions have expressed interest in using the KMMS with perinatal Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women. It is, however, important to re-evaluate the KMMS in a larger Kimberley sample via a real world implementation study, and to test for applicability in other remote and regional environments before recommendations for wider use can be made. This paper outlines the protocol for evaluating the process of implementation and establishing the 'real world' validity and acceptability of the KMMS in the Kimberley, Pilbara and Far North Queensland in northern Australia. METHODS: The study will use a range of quantitative and qualitative methods across all sites. KMMS validation/revalidation internal consistency of Part 1 will be determined using Cronbach's alpha. Equivalence for identifying risk of depression and anxiety compared to a standard reference assessment will be determined from receiver operating characteristic curves. Sensitivity and specificity will be determined based on these cut-points. Qualitative methods of phenomenology will be used to explore concepts of KMMS user acceptability (women and health professionals). Additional process evaluation methods will collate, assess and report on KMMS quality review data, consultations with health service administrators and management, field notes, and other documentation from the research team. This information will be reported on using the Dynamic Sustainability Framework. DISCUSSION: This project is contributing to the important public health priority of screening Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women for perinatal depression and anxiety with tools that are meaningful and responsive to cultural and clinical needs. Identifying and addressing barriers to implementation contributes to our understanding of the complexity of improving routine clinical practie. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was registered retrospectively on 15/05/2019 with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trial registry (ACTRN12619000580178).


Assuntos
Afeto , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Depressão/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Saúde Mental/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/psicologia , Assistência Perinatal/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade/etnologia , Depressão/etnologia , Transtorno Depressivo/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Ilhas , Programas de Rastreamento/normas , Mães/psicologia , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações na Gravidez/etnologia , Gestantes/etnologia , Gestantes/psicologia , Psicometria , Queensland , Projetos de Pesquisa , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
18.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 771, 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31665005

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians have poorer cancer outcomes than other Australians. Comparatively little is known of the type and amount of cancer treatment provided to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people and the consequences for cancer survival. This study quantifies the influence of surgical, systemic and radiotherapy treatment on risk of cancer death among matched cohorts of cancer cases and, the comparative exposure of cohorts to these treatments. METHODS: Cancers registered among Aboriginal South Australians in 1990-2010 (N = 777) were matched with randomly selected non-Indigenous cases by sex, birth and diagnostic year, and primary site, then linked to administrative cancer treatment for the period from 2 months before to 13 months after diagnosis. Competing risk regression summarised associations of Indigenous status, geographic remoteness, comorbidities, cancer stage and treatment exposure with risk of cancer death. RESULTS: Fewer Aboriginal cases had localised disease at diagnosis (37.2% versus 50.2%) and they were less likely to: experience hospitalisation with cancer diagnosis, unadjusted odds ratio (UOR) = 0.76; 95%CI = 0.59-0.98; have surgery UOR = 0.65; 95%CI = 0.53-0.80; systemic therapies UOR = 0.64; 95%CI = 0.52-0.78; or radiotherapy, UOR = 0.76; 95%CI = 0.63-0.94. Localised disease carried lower risk of cancer death compared to advanced cases receiving surgery or systemic therapies, SHR = 0.34; 95%CI = 0.25-0.47 and SHR = 0.35; 95%CI = 0.25-0.48. Advanced disease and no treatment carried higher risk of cancer death, SHR = 1.82; 95%CI = 1.26-2.63. CONCLUSION: The effects of treatment did not differ between Aboriginal and non-Indigenous cohorts. However, comparatively less exposure to surgical and systemic treatments among Aboriginal cancer cases further complicated the disadvantages associated with geographic remoteness, advanced stage of disease and co-morbid conditions at diagnosis and add to disparities in cancer death. System level responses to improving access, utilisation and quality of effective treatments are needed to improve survival after cancer diagnosis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/etnologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Medição de Risco , Austrália do Sul/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Med Care ; 57(12): 937-944, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31567862

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asian American Pacific Islander (AAPI) sexual and gender minorities (SGM) face unique challenges in mental health and accessing high-quality health care. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to identify barriers and facilitators for shared decision making (SDM) between AAPI SGM and providers, especially surrounding mental health. RESEARCH DESIGN: Interviews, focus groups, and surveys. SUBJECTS: AAPI SGM interviewees in Chicago (n=20) and San Francisco (n=20). Two focus groups (n=10) in San Francisco. MEASURES: Participants were asked open-ended questions about their health care experiences and how their identities impacted these encounters. Follow-up probes explored SDM and mental health. Participants were also surveyed about attitudes towards SGM disclosure and preferences about providers. Transcripts were analyzed for themes and a conceptual model was developed. RESULTS: Our conceptual model elucidates the patient, provider, and encounter-centered factors that feed into SDM for AAPI SGM. Some participants shared the stigma of SGM identities and mental health in their AAPI families. Their AAPI and SGM identities were intertwined in affecting mental health. Some providers inappropriately controlled the visibility of the patient's identities, ignoring or overemphasizing them. Participants varied on whether they preferred a provider of the same race, and how prominently their AAPI and/or SGM identities affected SDM. CONCLUSIONS: Providers should understand identity-specific challenges for AAPI SGM to engage in SDM. Providers should self-educate about AAPI and SGM history and intracommunity heterogeneity before the encounter, create a safe environment conducive to patient disclosure of SGM identity, and ask questions about patient priorities for the visit, pronouns, and mental health.


Assuntos
Americanos Asiáticos/psicologia , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/psicologia , Participação do Paciente/psicologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Estigma Social
20.
N Z Med J ; 132(1503): 66-74, 2019 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581183

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate Maori (Indigenous people of Aotearoa New Zealand) understandings of dementia, its causes, and ways to manage a whanau (extended family) member with dementia. METHOD: We undertook kaupapa Maori research (Maori informed research) with 223 kaumatua (Maori elders) who participated in 17 focus groups across seven study regions throughout Aotearoa New Zealand and eight whanau from the Waikato region. We audio recorded all interviews, transcribed them and then coded and categorised the data into themes. RESULTS: Mate wareware (becoming forgetful and unwell) ('dementia') affects the wairua (spiritual dimension) of Maori. The findings elucidate Maori understandings of the causes of mate wareware, and the role of aroha (love, compassion) and manaakitanga (hospitality, kindness, generosity, support, caring) involved in caregiving for whanau living with mate wareware. Participants perceived cultural activities acted as protective factors that optimised a person's functioning within their whanau and community. CONCLUSION: Whanau are crucial for the care of a kaumatua with mate wareware, along with promoting healthy wairua for all. Whanau urgently need information to assist with their knowledge building and empowerment to meet the needs of a member affected by mate wareware. This requires collaborative healthcare practice and practitioners accessing the necessary matauranga Maori (Maori knowledge) to provide culturally appropriate and comprehensive care for whanau.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Atitude Frente a Saúde/etnologia , Demência , Etnopsicologia/métodos , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos , Adulto , Idoso , Cultura , Demência/diagnóstico , Demência/etnologia , Demência/psicologia , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Transição Epidemiológica , Humanos , Incidência , Entrevistas como Assunto/métodos , Masculino , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/psicologia , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Técnicas Psicológicas
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