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3.
Law Hum Behav ; 45(3): 243-255, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351206

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Although researchers, policymakers, and practitioners recognize the importance of the public's perceptions of police, few studies have examined developmental trends in adolescents and young adults' views of police. HYPOTHESES: Hypothesis 1: Perceptions of police legitimacy would exhibit a U-shaped curve, declining in adolescence before improving in young adulthood. Hypothesis 2: At all ages, Black youth would report more negative perceptions of police legitimacy than Latino youth, who would report more negative perceptions than White youth. Hypothesis 3: Perceptions of police bias would be consistently associated with worse perceptions of police legitimacy. METHOD: Utilizing longitudinal data from the Crossroads Study, this study examined within-person trends in males' perceptions of police legitimacy from ages 13 to 22, as well as whether perceptions of police bias were associated with perceptions of police legitimacy. RESULTS: Perceptions of police legitimacy followed a U-shaped curve that declined during adolescence, reached its lowest point around age 18, and improved during the transition to young adulthood. Compared with White youth, Latino and Black youth had shallower curves in perceptions of police legitimacy that exhibited less improvement during the transition to adulthood. Further, perceptions of police bias were consistently associated with more negative perceptions of police legitimacy across races and ages. CONCLUSIONS: While perceptions of police legitimacy may decline during adolescence before improving during the transition to adulthood, perceptions of police bias are consistently negatively related to youth and young adults' perceptions of police legitimacy. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/psicologia , Atitude/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/psicologia , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Percepção , Polícia , Racismo/etnologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Humanos , Aplicação da Lei , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estados Unidos/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Res Nurs Health ; 44(5): 767-775, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34227136

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has had devastating effects on Black and rural populations with a mortality rate among Blacks three times that of Whites and both rural and Black populations experiencing limited access to COVID-19 resources. The primary purpose of this study was to explore the health, financial, and psychological impact of COVID-19 among rural White Appalachian and Black nonrural central Kentucky church congregants. Secondarily we sought to examine the association between sociodemographics and behaviors, attitudes, and beliefs regarding COVID-19 and intent to vaccinate. We used a cross sectional survey design developed with the constructs of the Health Belief and Theory of Planned Behavior models. The majority of the 942 respondents were ≥36 years. A total of 54% were from central Kentucky, while 47.5% were from Appalachia. Among all participants, the pandemic worsened anxiety and depression and delayed access to medical care. There were no associations between sociodemographics and practicing COVID-19 prevention behaviors. Appalachian region was associated with financial burden and delay in medical care (p = 0.03). Appalachian respondents had lower perceived benefit and attitude for COVID-19 prevention behaviors (p = 0.004 and <0.001, respectively). Among all respondents, the perceived risk of contracting COVID was high (54%), yet 33.2% indicated unlikeliness to receive the COVID-19 vaccine if offered. The COVID-19 pandemic had a differential impact on White rural and Black nonrural populations. Nurses and public health officials should assess knowledge and explore patient's attitudes regarding COVID-19 prevention behaviors, as well as advocate for public health resources to reduce the differential impact of COVID-19 on these at-risk populations.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Protestantismo/psicologia , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/psicologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , COVID-19/etnologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Kentucky , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , População Rural/tendências , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Nurs Res ; 70(5S Suppl 1): S3-S12, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074961

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Black/African American women in the United States are more likely to live in neighborhoods with higher social vulnerability than other racial/ethnic groups, even when adjusting for personal income. Social vulnerability, defined as the degree to which the social conditions of a community affect its ability to prevent loss and suffering in the event of disaster, has been used in research as an objective measure of neighborhood social vulnerability. Black/African American women also have the highest rates of hypertension and obesity in the United States. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between neighborhood social vulnerability and cardiovascular risk (hypertension and obesity) among Black/African American women. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of data from the InterGEN Study that enrolled Black/African American women in the Northeast United States. Participants' addresses were geocoded to ascertain neighborhood vulnerability using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Social Vulnerability Index at the census tract level. We used multivariable regression models to examine associations between objective measures of neighborhood quality and indicators of structural racism and systolic and diastolic blood pressure and obesity (body mass index > 24.9) and to test psychological stress, coping, and depression as potential moderators of these relationships. RESULTS: Seventy-four percent of participating Black/African American women lived in neighborhoods in the top quartile for social vulnerability nationally. Women living in the top 10% of most socially vulnerable neighborhoods in our sample had more than a threefold greater likelihood of hypertension when compared to those living in less vulnerable neighborhoods. Objective neighborhood measures of structural racism (percentage of poverty, percentage of unemployment, percentage of residents >25 years old without a high school diploma, and percentage of residents without access to a vehicle) were significantly associated with elevated diastolic blood pressure and obesity in adjusted models. Psychological stress had a significant moderating effect on the associations between neighborhood vulnerability and cardiovascular risk. DISCUSSION: We identified important associations between structural racism, the neighborhood environment, and cardiovascular health among Black/African American women. These findings add to a critical body of evidence documenting the role of structural racism in perpetuating health inequities and highlight the need for a multifaceted approach to policy, research, and interventions to address racial health inequities.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/etnologia , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Segregação Social/psicologia , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/psicologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/estatística & dados numéricos , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ohio , Fatores Socioeconômicos
6.
Int J Equity Health ; 20(1): 108, 2021 04 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33902594

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We assessed the prevalence and trends in racial discrimination among African Canadian adolescents in British Columbia. The association between racial discrimination and self-rated health, access to mental health services, substance use, suicidal thoughts and attempts, experience of extreme stress, among others were examined within the 2018 dataset. METHODS: Secondary analysis used the data collected from African Canadian adolescents (n = 2448) as part of the British Columbia Adolescent Health Surveys (2003-2018). We examined whether racial discrimination increased, decreased, or remained stable over time. We evaluated experiences of racial discrimination for all adolescents, and then disaggregated analyses for boys, girls, immigrant, and Canadian-born African adolescents. We used Rao-Scott's adjusted chi-square to test differences in racial discrimination and adjusted logistic regressions to test trends across survey years, widening or narrowing gaps in racial discrimination, as well as the link to health outcomes. RESULTS: Racial discrimination was significantly different across the survey years (Adjusted F = 4.60, p < .01), with the highest percentage of adolescents reporting past year racial discrimination in 2018 (29.9%) and the lowest percentage in 2013 (21.3%). Girls and immigrant African Canadian adolescents were more likely to have experienced racial discrimination. However, girls and Canadian-born adolescents had the highest odds of reporting racial discrimination in 2018 compared to 2003, AOR = 1.85, and 1.58, respectively. The findings reveal significant differences in the experiences of racial discrimination for boys and girls, as well as for immigrant and Canadian-born African adolescents. Significant differences were noted in the link between racial discrimination and self-rated health and engaging in behaviours that might expose them to health risks. The worst negative health outcomes were found for boys and immigrant African Canadian adolescents. CONCLUSION: The study suggests that more than 1 in 4 African Canadian adolescents in British Columbia report racial discrimination, which is an increasing trend in recent years. Those who reported racial discrimination also had the worst adverse health outcomes. There is a need for more public health action to reduce racism, create awareness about the negative health impacts, and provide better support for African Canadian adolescents.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/psicologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Racismo/tendências , Adolescente , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/etnologia , Colúmbia Britânica , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/etnologia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Autorrelato
7.
Br J Clin Psychol ; 60(2): 270-289, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33651377

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In the UK, people of African-Caribbean background have the highest rates of psychosis and greatest inequity in mental health services of all ethnicities. National policies have highlighted the lack of evidence-based psychological interventions for this group. The aim of this study was to examine the acceptability of a novel Culturally adapted Family Intervention (CaFI) for African-Caribbean individuals diagnosed with non-affective psychosis and their relatives. DESIGN: A qualitative design. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews conducted with 22 service users and 12 family members following participation in CaFI. The interview topic guide included perceptions of the needs and benefits of CaFI; usefulness, cultural specificity and accessibility of CaFI therapy and supporting materials; content and delivering of CaFI sessions; views and experiences of working with CaFI therapists; and perceived barriers and facilitators to implementation. RESULTS: Deductive framework analysis identified three main themes for service users: perceived benefits, barriers and limitations, and delivery of the therapy. Four themes were identified for family members: perceived benefits, perceptions of therapists, delivery of therapy, and accessibility of therapy content, supporting materials, and cultural appropriateness. CONCLUSIONS: CaFI was found to be an acceptable intervention for African-Caribbean service users with psychosis and their relatives. Family interventions considering the needs of ethnic and cultural groups have the potential to improve the mental health care and experiences of service users and their families. PRACTITIONER POINTS: The Culturally adapted Family Intervention (CaFI) was viewed as acceptable to African-Caribbean service users with psychosis and their families. Through adapting interventions to be more culturally sensitive, it is possible to enhance the care of those who typically have poor engagement with mental health services. In-keeping with their ethos of individualized care delivery, mental health services should place more emphasis on being able to offer appropriate, culturally adapted interventions to their service users.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/psicologia , Família/psicologia , Serviços de Saúde Mental/normas , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Região do Caribe , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Adulto Jovem
8.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 35(3): 274-282, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33734786

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Research indicates that emerging adults (EAs) are at an increased risk for heavy drinking and its associated alcohol problems, and that both proximal and distal stressors (e.g., adverse childhood experiences [ACEs], and subtle racial discrimination [racial microaggressions]) may contribute to these high-risk outcomes. We investigated the relationship of ACEs with alcohol consumption and alcohol problems in a sample of Black and White EAs, and racial microaggressions with alcohol consumption and alcohol problems in the Black EAs in our sample. METHOD: Six hundred two EAs (41.5% Black, 47% White; 57.3% women) completed measures assessing ACEs, alcohol consumption, and alcohol problems. One hundred ninety-six Black EAs in the sample were also asked to complete a measure of racial microaggressions that assessed their level of distress related to these experiences. RESULTS: Regression analyses demonstrated a positive association of ACEs with alcohol consumption and alcohol problems. Sex moderated the relation of ACEs with alcohol consumption such that the positive relationship between ACEs and alcohol consumption was minimally stronger for females. College status moderated the relation of ACEs with alcohol consumption such that the relationship between ACEs and alcohol consumption was stronger for college students than non-college students. Racial microaggressions were positively associated with alcohol problems, but not alcohol consumption. CONCLUSION: Findings underscore the importance of childhood stressors with alcohol consumption and problems for EAs, and the need for additional research on racial microaggressions and alcohol problems in Black EAs. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/psicologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Racismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Experiências Adversas da Infância/psicologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/psicologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Criança , Escolaridade , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Racismo/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
9.
Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med ; 13(1): e1-e9, 2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33764139

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Living with diabetes is challenging, especially for adolescents at risk of poor glycaemic control. Understanding the illness perceptions of this group is important to be able to develop interventions for this growing population in need. AIM: This study explored the illness perception amongst adolescents living with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and how these perceptions interacted with the management of T1D. SETTING: This study was conducted at a medical centre providing care for adolescents living with T1D in Parktown, South Africa. METHODS: A qualitative, explorative design with semi-structured interviews was followed. A non-random purposive sampling method was utilised. The illness perception amongst eight adolescents, aged 12-18 years, at risk of poor glycaemic control, was analysed through thematic analysis. RESULTS: Two subthemes related to illness perception were generated, namely (1) illness perception of T1D is negative and (2) living with T1D leads to a sense of being different. Furthermore, two subthemes were generated in relation to how illness perceptions interacted with diabetes management, namely (3) management of T1D is challenging and (4) management of T1D is motivated by fear. CONCLUSION: This group of adolescents with at-risk glycaemic control believed that T1D is difficult to manage, leading to a largely negative perception of the disease. This study contributes to the body of literature on adolescents where illness perception may play a role in adhering to diabetes care plans. This research may give additional insights into the awareness of illness perception in designing successful interventions.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/psicologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/psicologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/terapia , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Autogestão/psicologia , Adolescente , Automonitorização da Glicemia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/etnologia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Feminino , Controle Glicêmico , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção , África do Sul
10.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 35(4): 432-443, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33764088

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Diminished access to environmental rewards is an established risk factor for addiction and a focus of many effective treatment approaches. Nevertheless, there is inconsistency in measurement approaches and a need for a psychometrically sound measure. The Reward Probability Index (RPI; Carvalho, Behavior Therapy, 42, 2011, pp. 249-262) is a 20-item self-report rating scale that measures access to and ability to experience psychosocial reward. METHOD: The current studies sought to evaluate the psychometric properties of the RPI in 2 samples of emerging adult heavy drinkers. RESULTS: In Study 1, exploratory factor analysis in a sample of 393 college student drinkers supported a 2-factor model of the RPI (Reward Probability and Environmental Suppressors) after removal of redundant items, and corresponding subscales demonstrated good internal consistency. In Study 2, confirmatory factor analysis with 602 emerging adult drinkers recruited from the community supported the 2-factor model as best fitting after removal of one poor indicator, although absolute fit was only adequate. This 2-factor model demonstrated configural, metric, and scalar invariance across non-college and college subgroups as well as Black and White subgroups. Study 2 also demonstrated that the revised RPI subscales showed significant associations with measures of substance-free activity participation and enjoyment, anhedonia, and depressive symptoms. Furthermore, the study revealed the RPI Environmental Suppressors subscale predicted alcohol-related problems (ß = .25, p < .001) beyond demographic covariates, weekly drinking, and depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: These studies provide evidence for the validity of the RPI as an efficient measure of access to reward among emerging adult heavy drinkers. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/psicologia , Psicometria , Recompensa , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/psicologia , Consumo de Álcool na Faculdade/psicologia , Escolaridade , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/psicologia , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Probabilidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Autorrelato , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
11.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 449, 2021 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33673833

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The evidence is now unequivocal that people from Black and Minority Ethnic Backgrounds (BAME) living in the UK are disproportionately affected by covid-19. There is growing evidence that the reasons for this difference are multi-factorial and need further exploration. AIM: The aim of this study was to understand better, perceptions of risk and responses to covid-19 of members of the Muslim community living in the North West of England, and to understand the facilitators and barriers to adherence to restrictions and guidance measures. METHOD: A total of 47 participants took part in 25 in-depth qualitative interviews and four focus groups (n=22) that explored perceptions of risk and responses to risk from covid-19. Data were analysed thematically. FINDINGS: Participants were aware of the mechanism of transmission of covid-19 and took steps to mitigate risk of transmission including, observing a range of hygiene practices and following social distancing guidance. Increased risk of covid-19 for BAME populations was explained largely in terms of exposure to the virus due to the types of employment people from BAME populations are employed in. Limitations both within the working environment and more generally in public spaces, was identified as problematic for effective social distancing. The closure of mosques sent out a strong message about the seriousness of the virus and religious teachings reinforced hygiene and social distancing guidelines. CONCLUSION: Across society there are people that adhere to restrictions and guidelines and those that do not. Improving local information provision and communication pathways during times of the pandemic, could aid understanding of risk and promote adherence to social distancing restrictions.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/psicologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Islamismo/psicologia , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Grupos Minoritários/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
14.
J Racial Ethn Health Disparities ; 8(1): 21-23, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33415704

RESUMO

The wide disparity in coronavirus disease (COVID-19)-related death rates based upon the ethnic origin is well established by now. The higher incidence of COVID-19 deaths amongst the healthcare staff belonging to black and minority ethnic (BAME) communities living in the United Kingdom has generated a great deal of concern and anxiety in clinicians. Public Health England (PHE) has outlined mitigation strategies after immense pressure from professional organisations and influential clinical leaders. Although seemingly well thought through, these measures fall short of addressing the professional, moral and emotional dilemma faced by the BAME clinicians who feel that they are being expected to choose between their duty towards their patients and the profession, and their responsibility to look after their own health.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/psicologia , COVID-19/etnologia , Conflito Psicológico , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/estatística & dados numéricos , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Empatia , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Grupos Minoritários/estatística & dados numéricos
15.
J Lesbian Stud ; 25(3): 258-273, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32657257

RESUMO

Saving Delaney is one of a number of "special needs" parent memoirs published in the United States since 2000 and is the only memoir about raising a disabled child in the United States written by lesbian parents. Like many representations of disability, "special needs" parent memoirs use a problematic narrative in which the presumed negative effects of disability are individually overcome before life lived happily ever after. Also like popular and positive representations of disability, the children subjects of "special needs" parent memoirs are almost entirely white. In this paper, I contextualize Saving Delaney within histories of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) family-making in the United States, drawing particular attention to the overrepresentation of children with disabilities among gay and lesbian adoptive parent households. Then, drawing attention to the overwhelming whiteness of both positive portrayals of children with disabilities in "special needs" parent memoirs and LGBT families in scholarship, data, and media, I argue that white privilege facilitates visibility and protection against disability stigmas. I demonstrate that LGBT family-making and caring for children with disabilities cohere as issues of comprehensive reproductive justice and that narratives like Delaney's fail to advance the reproductive justice movement due to reiterative entrenchment in the material and discursive privileges of whiteness.


Assuntos
Crianças com Deficiência , Homossexualidade Feminina/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/psicologia , Criança , Cuidado da Criança , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/psicologia , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Literatura Moderna , Estados Unidos
16.
AIDS Behav ; 25(3): 773-786, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32940827

RESUMO

Resilience may help people living with HIV (PLWH) overcome adversities to disease management. This study identifies multilevel resilience resources among African American/Black (AA/B) PLWH and examines whether resilience resources differ by demographics and neighborhood risk environments. We recruited participants and conducted concept mapping at two clinics in the southeastern United States. Concept Mapping incorporates qualitative and quantitative methods to represent participant-generated concepts via two-dimensional maps. Eligible participants had to attend ≥ 75% of their scheduled clinic appointments and did not have ≥ 2 consecutive detectable HIV-1 viral load measurements in the past 2 years. Of the 85 AA/B PLWH who were invited, forty-eight participated. Twelve resilience resource clusters emerged-five individual, two interpersonal, two organizational/policy and three neighborhood level clusters. There were strong correlations in cluster ratings for demographic and neighborhood risk environment comparison groups (r ≥ 0.89). These findings could inform development of theories, measures and interventions for AA/B PLWH.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Equidade em Saúde , Resiliência Psicológica , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/psicologia , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/etnologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multinível , Características de Residência , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
17.
J Pers Soc Psychol ; 120(3): 601-625, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915038

RESUMO

Race is fraught with meaning, but unequal status is central. Race-status associations (RSAs) link White Americans with high status and Black Americans with low status. RSAs could occur via observation of racially distributed jobs, perceived status-related stereotypic attributes, or simple ranking. Nine samples (N = 3,933) validate 3 novel measures of White = high status/Black = low status RSAs-based on jobs, rank, and attributes. First, RSA measures showed clear factor structure, internal validity, and test-retest reliability. Second, these measures differentially corresponded to White Americans' hierarchy-maintaining attitudes, beliefs, and preferences. Potentially based on observation, the more spontaneous Job-based RSAs predicted interracial bias, social dominance orientation, meritocracy beliefs, and hierarchy-maintaining hiring or policy preferences. Preference effects held after controlling for bias and support for the status quo. In contrast, the more deliberate Rank- and Attribute-based RSAs negatively predicted hierarchy-maintaining beliefs and policy preferences; direct inferences of racial inequality linked to preferences for undoing it. Third, Black = low status, rather than White = high status, associations largely drove these effects. Finally, Black Americans also held RSAs; Rank- or Attribute-based RSAs predicted increased perceived discrimination, reduced social dominance, and reduced meritocracy beliefs. Although individuals' RSAs vary, only White Americans' Job-based stratifying associations help maintain racial status hierarchies. Theory-guided evidence of race-status associations introduces powerful new assessment tools. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/psicologia , Status Econômico , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/psicologia , Hierarquia Social , Predomínio Social , Estereotipagem , Adulto , Emprego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Seleção de Pessoal , Psicometria/instrumentação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estados Unidos
18.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 51(3): 855-867, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32125566

RESUMO

The Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers, Revised, with Follow-Up (M-CHAT-R/F) is the most widely used screener for ASD. Despite the comparable rate of ASD in Black and White children, the M-CHAT-R/F was validated on a primarily White, Non-Hispanic sample. Few studies have assessed whether the screener performs adequately with racial minorities. This study compared the M-CHAT-R/F Positive Predictive Value (PPV), for ASD, and for any developmental condition, in Black and White children. We also examined M-CHAT-R/F item-level PPV by race. The PPVs for ASD and other developmental disorders were similar in both racial groups for total score and individual items. Therefore, our findings support the use of the M-CHAT-R/F with Black and White children.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/psicologia , Transtorno Autístico/diagnóstico , Transtorno Autístico/psicologia , Lista de Checagem/métodos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/psicologia , Lista de Checagem/normas , Grupos de Populações Continentais/psicologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Programas de Rastreamento/normas , Valor Preditivo dos Testes
19.
AIDS Care ; 33(2): 137-147, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005076

RESUMO

This article sets out to investigate alcohol and substance use (ASU) among adolescents living with HIV (ALWH) in the sub-Saharan African setting of Uganda. A cross-sectional analysis of the records of 479 adolescents (aged between 12and 17 years) attending the study, "Mental health among HIV infected CHildren and Adolescents in KAmpala and Masaka, Uganda (the CHAKA study)" was undertaken. ASU was assessed through both youth self-report and caregiver report using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 referenced instruments, the Youth Inventory-4R and the Child and Adolescent Symptom Inventory-5 (CASI-5). Rates and association with potential risk and outcome factors were investigated using logistic regression models. The rate of ASU was 29/484 (5.9%) with the most frequently reported ASU being alcohol 22/484 (4.3%) and marijuana 10/484 (2.1%). Functional impairment secondary to ASU was reported by 10/484 (2.1%) of the youth. ASU was significantly associated with urban residence, caregiver psychological distress and the psychiatric diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder. On associations with negative outcomes, ASU was significantly associated with only "ever had sex". Health care for ALWH in sub-Saharan Africa should include ASU prevention and management strategies.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/psicologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Adolescente , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/estatística & dados numéricos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Autorrelato , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Uganda/epidemiologia
20.
Obstet Gynecol ; 137(1): 156-163, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33278280

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the relationship between race and depression symptoms among participants in an early pregnancy loss clinical trial. METHODS: We performed a planned secondary analysis of a randomized trial by comparing treatments for medical management of early pregnancy loss. We hypothesized that Black participants would have higher odds of risk for major depression (measured with the CES-D [Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression] scale) 30 days after early pregnancy loss treatment when compared with non-Black participants. We analyzed the data as a cohort, with the primary exposure being race and secondary exposure being high adverse childhood experience scores (measured with the Adverse Childhood Experience scale). Our primary outcome was risk for major depression (score of 21 or higher on the CES-D scale) 30 days after early pregnancy loss treatment. RESULTS: Three hundred participants diagnosed with a nonviable intrauterine pregnancy from 5 to 12 weeks of gestation were randomized as part of the original trial from May 2014 to April 2017. Of 275 respondents included in this analysis, 120 [44%] self-identified as Black and 155 [56%] self-identified as non-Black. After early pregnancy loss treatment, 65 [24%] participants were at risk for major depression. Black participants had an increased risk for major depression (57%) after early pregnancy loss treatment compared with non-Black participants (43%; odds ratio [OR] 2.02; 95% CI 1.15-3.55). After adjustment for risk for baseline depression, adverse childhood experience score, and parity, the odds of risk for major depression 30 days after pregnancy loss treatment remained higher for Black participants when compared with non-Black participants (OR 2.02; 95% CI 1.15-3.55; adjusted OR 2.48; 95% CI 1.28-4.81). CONCLUSION: Overall, approximately one quarter of women who experience an early pregnancy loss are at an increased risk for major depression 30 days after treatment. This risk is about twice as high for Black women compared with non-Black women. There is a need for appropriate mental health resources for women undergoing early pregnancy loss care. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02012491.


Assuntos
Aborto Espontâneo/psicologia , Experiências Adversas da Infância/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/etnologia , Saúde Mental/etnologia , Aborto Espontâneo/etnologia , Aborto Espontâneo/terapia , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/etiologia , Feminino , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/etnologia , Humanos , Gravidez , Estresse Psicológico/etnologia , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
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