Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 979
Filtrar
1.
Acta Med Acad ; 48(1): 121-126, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31264440

RESUMO

This biographical note details Anna Bayerová's (1853-1924) activities as the first female Austro-Hungarian health officer in 1878 to1918 occupied Bosnia and Herzegovina (BH). Anna Bayerová is known as a heroine of Czech feminism and the 'first Czech female physician', though she only practised in the Czech lands from 1913 to 1916. In 1891, Bayerová was enrolled as the first Austro-Hungarian female health officer and assigned to treat Muslim women in the district of Tuzla, Bosnia. She pursued this mission for the first three months of 1892, had herself transferred to Sarajevo in the summer, and soon thereafter quitted the service. Her biographers point to a series of political and personal motivations to abandon her mission in Bosnia, which, from the viewpoint of Czech feminists, included fulfilling her professional duties in an exemplary way. She spent most of her professional life as a physician in Switzerland and did not request Austrian recognition of her medical degree until 1913. Bayerová died in Prague in 1924. Conclusion. Bayerová, partly for political reasons and partly due to her panic-fuelled fear of catching tuberculosis, quitted her role as the first Austro-Hungarian female health officer in BH soon after her arrival in 1892.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/história , Grupos Étnicos/história , Médicas/história , Áustria-Hungria , Bósnia e Herzegóvina , Tchecoslováquia , Feminino , Feminismo/história , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Islamismo , Suíça
2.
Pediatr Clin North Am ; 66(3): 525-536, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31036232

RESUMO

This article briefly covers the history of immigration from the US perspective, including the demographic variation over time and the ever-changing policies. Displaced children and their families are facing increasing challenges to their health and overall wellbeing. Since enactment of the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965, the needs of minors have been caught up in complex immigration policy. Recognition of the unique needs of minors and the Dreamers must be addressed as part of comprehensive immigration reform or in more targeted legislative proposals. The challenges posed by the magnitude and scope of the immigration problem are discussed.


Assuntos
Emigração e Imigração/história , Emigração e Imigração/legislação & jurisprudência , Grupos Étnicos/história , Grupos Étnicos/legislação & jurisprudência , Política Pública/história , Política Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Demografia , Escravização/história , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Dinâmica Populacional/história , Crescimento Demográfico , Estados Unidos
3.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(5): 977-984, 2019 05 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31006515

RESUMO

During the medieval period, hundreds of thousands of Europeans migrated to the Near East to take part in the Crusades, and many of them settled in the newly established Christian states along the Eastern Mediterranean coast. Here, we present a genetic snapshot of these events and their aftermath by sequencing the whole genomes of 13 individuals who lived in what is today known as Lebanon between the 3rd and 13th centuries CE. These include nine individuals from the "Crusaders' pit" in Sidon, a mass burial in South Lebanon identified from the archaeology as the grave of Crusaders killed during a battle in the 13th century CE. We show that all of the Crusaders' pit individuals were males; some were Western Europeans from diverse origins, some were locals (genetically indistinguishable from present-day Lebanese), and two individuals were a mixture of European and Near Eastern ancestries, providing direct evidence that the Crusaders admixed with the local population. However, these mixtures appear to have had limited genetic consequences since signals of admixture with Europeans are not significant in any Lebanese group today-in particular, Lebanese Christians are today genetically similar to local people who lived during the Roman period which preceded the Crusades by more than four centuries.


Assuntos
Grupos Étnicos/genética , Grupos Étnicos/história , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Fluxo Gênico , Genética Populacional , Genoma Humano , Cromossomos Humanos Y/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/análise , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Feminino , História Antiga , Humanos , Líbano/etnologia , Masculino
4.
Hum Genet ; 138(4): 411-423, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30923892

RESUMO

Scythians are known from written sources as horse-riding nomadic peoples who dominated the Eurasian steppe throughout the Iron Age. However, their origins and the exact nature of their social organization remain debated. Three hypotheses prevail regarding their origins that can be summarized as a "western origin", an "eastern origin" and a "multi-regional origin". In this work, we first aimed to address the question of the familial and social organization of some Scythian groups (Scytho-Siberians) by testing genetic kinship and, second, to add new elements on their origins through phylogeographical analyses. Twenty-eight Scythian individuals from 5 archeological sites in the Tuva Republic (Russia) were analyzed using autosomal Short Tandem Repeats (STR), Y-STR and Y-SNP typing as well as whole mitochondrial (mtDNA) genome sequencing. Familial relationships were assessed using the Likelihood Ratio (LR) method. Thirteen of the 28 individuals tested were linked by first-degree relationships. When related, the individuals were buried together, except for one adult woman, buried separately from her mother and young sister. Y-chromosome analysis revealed a burial pattern linked to paternal lineages, with men bearing closely related Y-haplotypes buried on the same sites. Inversely, various mtDNA lineages can be found on each site. Y-chromosomal and mtDNA haplogroups were almost equally distributed between Western and Eastern Eurasian haplogroups. These results suggest that Siberian Scythians were organized in patrilocal and patrilineal societies with burial practices linked to both kinship and paternal lineages. It also appears that the group analyzed shared a greater genetic link with Asian populations than Western Scythians did.


Assuntos
Arqueologia , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Família , Genética Populacional , Adolescente , Adulto , Cemitérios/história , Cromossomos Humanos Y/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/análise , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Grupos Étnicos/história , Feminino , Genética Populacional/métodos , Haplótipos , História Antiga , Humanos , Masculino , Repetições de Microssatélites , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Filogeografia , Sibéria/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Homo ; 69(4): 147-157, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30055809

RESUMO

The process of the peopling of the Nile Valley likely shaped the population structure and early biological similarity of Egyptians and Nubians. As others have noted, affinity among Nilotic populations was due to an aggregation of events, including environmental, linguistic, and sociopolitical changes over a great deal of time. This study seeks to evaluate the relationships of Nubian and Egyptian groups in the context of the original peopling event. Cranial nonmetric traits from 18 Nubian and Egyptian samples, spanning Lower Egypt to Lower Nubia and approximately 7400 years, were analyzed using Mahalanobis D2 as a measure of biological distance. A principal coordinates analysis and spatial-temporal model were applied to these data. The results reveal temporal and spatial patterning consistent with documented events in Egyptian and Nubian population history. Moreover, the Mesolithic Nubian sample clustered with later Nubian and Egyptian samples, indicating that events prior to the Mesolithic were important in shaping the later genetic patterning of the Nubian population. Later contact through the establishment of the Egyptian fort at Buhen, Kerma's position as a strategic trade center along the Nile, and Egyptian colonization at Tombos maintained genetic similarity among the populations.


Assuntos
Grupos Étnicos/história , Cefalometria , Cromossomos Humanos Y , Egito , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Fósseis , Genética Populacional/história , História Antiga , Humanos , Masculino , Sistemas Políticos/história , Dinâmica Populacional/história
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(26): 6774-6779, 2018 06 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29895688

RESUMO

The extent to which prehistoric migrations of farmers influenced the genetic pool of western North Africans remains unclear. Archaeological evidence suggests that the Neolithization process may have happened through the adoption of innovations by local Epipaleolithic communities or by demic diffusion from the Eastern Mediterranean shores or Iberia. Here, we present an analysis of individuals' genome sequences from Early and Late Neolithic sites in Morocco and from Early Neolithic individuals from southern Iberia. We show that Early Neolithic Moroccans (∼5,000 BCE) are similar to Later Stone Age individuals from the same region and possess an endemic element retained in present-day Maghrebi populations, confirming a long-term genetic continuity in the region. This scenario is consistent with Early Neolithic traditions in North Africa deriving from Epipaleolithic communities that adopted certain agricultural techniques from neighboring populations. Among Eurasian ancient populations, Early Neolithic Moroccans are distantly related to Levantine Natufian hunter-gatherers (∼9,000 BCE) and Pre-Pottery Neolithic farmers (∼6,500 BCE). Late Neolithic (∼3,000 BCE) Moroccans, in contrast, share an Iberian component, supporting theories of trans-Gibraltar gene flow and indicating that Neolithization of North Africa involved both the movement of ideas and people. Lastly, the southern Iberian Early Neolithic samples share the same genetic composition as the Cardial Mediterranean Neolithic culture that reached Iberia ∼5,500 BCE. The cultural and genetic similarities between Iberian and North African Neolithic traditions further reinforce the model of an Iberian migration into the Maghreb.


Assuntos
Grupos Étnicos/genética , Genoma Humano , Migração Humana/história , África do Norte , Agricultura/história , Cromossomos Humanos Y/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Grupos Étnicos/história , Europa (Continente) , Fluxo Gênico , Biblioteca Gênica , Genética Populacional , História Antiga , Humanos , Oriente Médio , Marrocos , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Espanha/etnologia
8.
Int J Circumpolar Health ; 77(1): 1454784, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29580190

RESUMO

Music as a possible health-promoting agent has attained increasing academic and scientific interest over the last decades. Nonetheless, possible connections between indigenous singing traditions and health beyond traditional ceremonial healing practices are still under-researched worldwide. The Sami, the indigenous people living in Northern Fennoscandia, have a distinct ancient vocal music tradition called "yoik" practiced from immemorial times. The Sami share a history of assimilation with many indigenous people. During this period of nearly 400 years, yoik alongside other cultural markers was under hard pressure and even banned at times. Compared to other indigenous people in the Arctic, Sami public health shows few significant unfavourable differences to the majority population. The potential role of yoik as a protective health and resilience factor within the Sami culture is the topic of this review. We suggest a two stage model for the health promoting effects of yoik through i) emotion regulation and stress relief on the level of the individual, and ii) as a socio-cultural resilience factors within the Sami population. This review is to be understood as theory-building review article striving for a scholarly review of the literature.


Assuntos
Cultura , Grupos Étnicos , Música , Canto , Alostase , Emoções , Grupos Étnicos/história , Saúde , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Música/história , Resiliência Psicológica , Países Escandinavos e Nórdicos
9.
PLoS One ; 13(1): e0190169, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29320542

RESUMO

The Phoenicians emerged in the Northern Levant around 1800 BCE and by the 9th century BCE had spread their culture across the Mediterranean Basin, establishing trading posts, and settlements in various European Mediterranean and North African locations. Despite their widespread influence, what is known of the Phoenicians comes from what was written about them by the Greeks and Egyptians. In this study, we investigate the extent of Phoenician integration with the Sardinian communities they settled. We present 14 new ancient mitogenome sequences from pre-Phoenician (~1800 BCE) and Phoenician (~700-400 BCE) samples from Lebanon (n = 4) and Sardinia (n = 10) and compare these with 87 new complete mitogenomes from modern Lebanese and 21 recently published pre-Phoenician ancient mitogenomes from Sardinia to investigate the population dynamics of the Phoenician (Punic) site of Monte Sirai, in southern Sardinia. Our results indicate evidence of continuity of some lineages from pre-Phoenician populations suggesting integration of indigenous Sardinians in the Monte Sirai Phoenician community. We also find evidence of the arrival of new, unique mitochondrial lineages, indicating the movement of women from sites in the Near East or North Africa to Sardinia, but also possibly from non-Mediterranean populations and the likely movement of women from Europe to Phoenician sites in Lebanon. Combined, this evidence suggests female mobility and genetic diversity in Phoenician communities, reflecting the inclusive and multicultural nature of Phoenician society.


Assuntos
Demografia , Grupos Étnicos/história , Genoma Mitocondrial , Migração Humana/história , Mulheres , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Cultura , DNA Mitocondrial/análise , DNA Mitocondrial/isolamento & purificação , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Feminino , Variação Genética , Haplótipos , História Antiga , Humanos , Itália , Líbano/etnologia , Região do Mediterrâneo , Filogenia , Dinâmica Populacional , Dente
10.
PLoS Genet ; 14(1): e1007152, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29370172

RESUMO

Previous studies of the genetic landscape of Ireland have suggested homogeneity, with population substructure undetectable using single-marker methods. Here we have harnessed the haplotype-based method fineSTRUCTURE in an Irish genome-wide SNP dataset, identifying 23 discrete genetic clusters which segregate with geographical provenance. Cluster diversity is pronounced in the west of Ireland but reduced in the east where older structure has been eroded by historical migrations. Accordingly, when populations from the neighbouring island of Britain are included, a west-east cline of Celtic-British ancestry is revealed along with a particularly striking correlation between haplotypes and geography across both islands. A strong relationship is revealed between subsets of Northern Irish and Scottish populations, where discordant genetic and geographic affinities reflect major migrations in recent centuries. Additionally, Irish genetic proximity of all Scottish samples likely reflects older strata of communication across the narrowest inter-island crossing. Using GLOBETROTTER we detected Irish admixture signals from Britain and Europe and estimated dates for events consistent with the historical migrations of the Norse-Vikings, the Anglo-Normans and the British Plantations. The influence of the former is greater than previously estimated from Y chromosome haplotypes. In all, we paint a new picture of the genetic landscape of Ireland, revealing structure which should be considered in the design of studies examining rare genetic variation and its association with traits.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Variação Genética , Migração Humana , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Grupos Étnicos/história , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/história , Genética Populacional , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genômica , História Antiga , Migração Humana/história , Humanos , Irlanda , Ilhas/etnologia , Dinâmica Populacional , Migrantes , Reino Unido
11.
Turk Neurosurg ; 28(3): 490-494, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28758181

RESUMO

In the medical literature, various ethnic terms such as Caucasian or Mongolian,are sporadically cited to indicate the relationship between certain disorders and the geographical origin of individuals. Few scientists recognize that those definitions stem from a medical thesis written by the German physician Johann Friedrich Blumenbach in 1775. Through considering cranial shapes, Blumenbach proposed five race varieties including the Caucasian, the Mongolian, the Malayan, the Ethiopian, and the American. While he favored only beauty, his contemporaries reclaimed an intellectuality arrangement among those race types and gave the highest credibility to Caucasian, which therefore, besides defining an ethnicity, has conveyed a discriminatory meaning. The term had been widely used in the medical literature without knowledge of its historical background. Although not commonly used any longer, the Caucasian and similar terms that reflect racial preference should be abandoned in medical text and replaced by more favorable definitions.


Assuntos
Diversidade Cultural , Grupos Étnicos/história , Crânio , Grupos Étnicos/classificação , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Masculino , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Estados Unidos
13.
Science ; 357(6356): 1160-1163, 2017 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28912245

RESUMO

New Guinea shows human occupation since ~50 thousand years ago (ka), independent adoption of plant cultivation ~10 ka, and great cultural and linguistic diversity today. We performed genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping on 381 individuals from 85 language groups in Papua New Guinea and find a sharp divide originating 10 to 20 ka between lowland and highland groups and a lack of non-New Guinean admixture in the latter. All highlanders share ancestry within the last 10 thousand years, with major population growth in the same period, suggesting population structure was reshaped following the Neolithic lifestyle transition. However, genetic differentiation between groups in Papua New Guinea is much stronger than in comparable regions in Eurasia, demonstrating that such a transition does not necessarily limit the genetic and linguistic diversity of human societies.


Assuntos
Grupos Étnicos/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Grupos Étnicos/história , Estruturas Genéticas , Genótipo , Técnicas de Genotipagem , História Antiga , Humanos , Linguagem , Estilo de Vida/história , Linguística , Ocupações/história , Papua Nova Guiné/etnologia
14.
Nature ; 548(7666): 214-218, 2017 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28783727

RESUMO

The origins of the Bronze Age Minoan and Mycenaean cultures have puzzled archaeologists for more than a century. We have assembled genome-wide data from 19 ancient individuals, including Minoans from Crete, Mycenaeans from mainland Greece, and their eastern neighbours from southwestern Anatolia. Here we show that Minoans and Mycenaeans were genetically similar, having at least three-quarters of their ancestry from the first Neolithic farmers of western Anatolia and the Aegean, and most of the remainder from ancient populations related to those of the Caucasus and Iran. However, the Mycenaeans differed from Minoans in deriving additional ancestry from an ultimate source related to the hunter-gatherers of eastern Europe and Siberia, introduced via a proximal source related to the inhabitants of either the Eurasian steppe or Armenia. Modern Greeks resemble the Mycenaeans, but with some additional dilution of the Early Neolithic ancestry. Our results support the idea of continuity but not isolation in the history of populations of the Aegean, before and after the time of its earliest civilizations.


Assuntos
Grupos Étnicos/genética , Filogenia , Cromossomos Humanos X/genética , Grupos Étnicos/história , Feminino , Grécia , História Antiga , Migração Humana/história , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Análise de Componente Principal
15.
Homo ; 68(4): 243-255, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28733025

RESUMO

As the identity of a large number of Khoe-San skeletal material in European collections recently came into question during its documentation, a re-evaluation of the remains by employing a non-invasive method such as craniometrics was done to investigate the biological affinity. For this purpose, gene flow and population diversity present within the group, as well as between the study sample (N=63) and other modern and historic population groups from southern, central and east Africa were explored. Available comparative groups included the historic Khoe-San from Riet River (N=31), the Sotho-Tswana from southern Africa (N=61), the Basuku from central Africa (N=66) and the Bahutu (N=53) and Teita (N=24) from east Africa. Ten craniometric variables were selected and used to perform population structure analysis based on model bound quantitative genetics and multiple discriminant function analysis (MDA). Quantitative genetic distances revealed that the Khoe-San sample was closest to the Riet River group. Residual variance analysis performed on two-sample subsets of the Khoe-San group (Cape KS and Various KS) showed a higher level of heterogeneity in the Cape KS than seen in the Khoe-San from various other areas in southern Africa. MDA revealed that Khoe-San intra-sample variance is relatively high, with 44% of the sample (sexes pooled) classified into the Riet River group. The remaining individuals were classified (in decreasing order) into Bahutu (24%), Basuku (24%) and Sotho-Tswana (8%). Although the Khoe-San specimens are closest to the Riet River group, they are clearly not homogenous. Their high level of phenotypic diversity most likely originated from a complex population history involving many group interactions driven by social and political marginalization.


Assuntos
Cefalometria/métodos , Grupos Étnicos/história , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , África Austral , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Restos Mortais/anatomia & histologia , Cefalometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Fluxo Gênico , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Masculino , Museus , África do Sul
16.
Genome Biol ; 18(1): 110, 2017 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28615043

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Parsis are one of the smallest religious communities in the world. To understand the population structure and demographic history of this group in detail, we analyzed Indian and Pakistani Parsi populations using high-resolution genetic variation data on autosomal and uniparental loci (Y-chromosomal and mitochondrial DNA). Additionally, we also assayed mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms among ancient Parsi DNA samples excavated from Sanjan, in present day Gujarat, the place of their original settlement in India. RESULTS: Among present-day populations, the Parsis are genetically closest to Iranian and the Caucasus populations rather than their South Asian neighbors. They also share the highest number of haplotypes with present-day Iranians and we estimate that the admixture of the Parsis with Indian populations occurred ~1,200 years ago. Enriched homozygosity in the Parsi reflects their recent isolation and inbreeding. We also observed 48% South-Asian-specific mitochondrial lineages among the ancient samples, which might have resulted from the assimilation of local females during the initial settlement. Finally, we show that Parsis are genetically closer to Neolithic Iranians than to modern Iranians, who have witnessed a more recent wave of admixture from the Near East. CONCLUSIONS: Our results are consistent with the historically-recorded migration of the Parsi populations to South Asia in the 7th century and in agreement with their assimilation into the Indian sub-continent's population and cultural milieu "like sugar in milk". Moreover, in a wider context our results support a major demographic transition in West Asia due to the Islamic conquest.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Y/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Genética Populacional , Emigração e Imigração , Grupos Étnicos/história , Feminino , Geografia , Haplótipos , História Antiga , Humanos , Índia , Irã (Geográfico) , Paquistão , Filogenia
17.
PLoS One ; 12(2): e0171064, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28152046

RESUMO

An intentionally modified head is a visually distinctive sign of group identity. In the Migration Period of Europe (4th- 7th century AD) the practice of intentional cranial modification was common among several nomadic groups, but was strongly associated with the Huns from the Carpathian Basin in Hungary, where modified crania are abundant in archaeological sites. The frequency of modified crania increased substantially in the Mtskheta region of Georgia in this time period, but there are no records that Huns settled here. We compare the Migration Period modified skulls from Georgia with those from Hungary to test the hypothesis that the Huns were responsible for cranial modification in Georgia. We use extended eigenshape analysis to quantify cranial outlines, enabling a discriminant analysis to assess group separation and identify morphological differences. Twenty-one intentionally modified skulls from Georgia are compared with sixteen from Hungary, using nineteen unmodified crania from a modern population as a comparative baseline. Results indicate that modified crania can be differentiated from modern unmodified crania with 100% accuracy. The Hungarian and Georgian crania show some overlap in shape, but can be classified with 81% accuracy. Shape gradations along the main eigenvectors indicate that the Hungarian crania show little variation in cranial shape, in accordance with a two-bandage binding technique, whereas the Georgian crania had a wider range of variation, fitting with a diversity of binding styles. As modification style is a strong signifier of social identity, our results indicate weak Hunnic influence on cranial modification in Georgia and are equivocal about the presence of Huns in Georgia. We suggest instead that other nomadic groups such as Alans and Sarmatians living in this region were responsible for modified crania in Georgia.


Assuntos
Modificação Corporal não Terapêutica/história , Grupos Étnicos/história , Fósseis/anatomia & histologia , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Emigração e Imigração/história , Feminino , Fósseis/diagnóstico por imagem , Georgia , República da Geórgia , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História Antiga , Humanos , Hungria , Imagem Tridimensional , Masculino , Modelos Anatômicos , Crânio/diagnóstico por imagem
18.
Neurocirugia (Astur) ; 28(1): 28-40, 2017.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27208912

RESUMO

A review is presented on cranial trepanations performed by primitive cultures. The scientific interest in this topic began after the discovery in 1965 by Ephraim G. Squier of a pre-Columbian trepanated skull, and studied by Paul Broca in Paris. Pseudotrepanation and other types of cranial manipulation are reviewed. The techniques, technology, and instruments for every type of trepanation are well known. There are a surprisingly high percentage of cases showing signs of post-trepanation survival. Indications for trepanation are speculative, perhaps magic. Although trepanation in primitive cultures is widespread around the world, and throughout time, the main fields of interest are the Neolithic Period in Europe, the pre-Columbian Period in Andean South America, and some contemporaneous Pacific and African tribes. This particular trepanation procedure has no relationship with modern Neurosurgery, or with trepanations with therapeutic purposes performed since the Greco-Roman period in Europe, and afterwards around the world.


Assuntos
Medicina Tradicional/história , Trepanação/história , África , Antropologia Cultural , Remodelação Óssea , Comportamento Ritualístico , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/cirurgia , Grupos Étnicos/história , Europa (Continente) , Fósseis , Cefaleia/cirurgia , História do Século XVI , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , História Antiga , Humanos , Imagem Tridimensional , Oceania , Osteogênese , Peru , Crânio/diagnóstico por imagem , Crânio/patologia , Crânio/cirurgia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Trepanação/instrumentação , Trepanação/métodos , Trepanação/mortalidade , Cicatrização
19.
Econ Hum Biol ; 24: 153-163, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28024175

RESUMO

Anthropometric literature on the American territories of the Hispanic monarchy before their independence is still scarce. We attempt to expand the field with a case study that includes some important novelties. Albeit our main source, the military records of the Censo de Revillagigedo (conducted in the early 1790s), has already been used, the sample size and the geographical scope are unprecedented: 19,390 males of four ethnicities (castizos, españoles, mestizos, and mulatos) aged from 16 to 39 from 24 localities, including towns and villages scattered across central regions of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. We build a database that, complemented with information on resource endowments obtained from other sources, permits to analyze the determinants of height. Our results show the importance of spatial differences as well as the significance of ethnicity, occupation, rurality, age and resource endowments as determinants of height. Unprivileged mulatos are only 0.5cm shorter than, assumedly privileged, españoles in the "first world" (El Bajío) and 1.3cm taller in the "second world" (Eastern Central Highlands). In turn, living in the "first world" implies being between nearly 1.5cm and 5cm taller than the inhabitants of the "second world". Our estimates of physical statures are placed within an international comparative context and offer a relatively "optimistic" picture.


Assuntos
Antropometria/história , Estatura/etnologia , Grupos Étnicos/história , Militares/história , Fatores Socioeconômicos/história , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/história , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/estatística & dados numéricos , Agricultura/história , Agricultura/estatística & dados numéricos , Estatura/fisiologia , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/história , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , História do Século XVIII , Humanos , Índios Norte-Americanos/etnologia , Índios Norte-Americanos/história , Índios Norte-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Mineração/história , Mineração/estatística & dados numéricos , População Rural/história , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Espanha/etnologia , População Urbana/história , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Sci Rep ; 6: 35837, 2016 11 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27848937

RESUMO

The Druze are an aggregate of communities in the Levant and Near East living almost exclusively in the mountains of Syria, Lebanon and Israel whose ~1000 year old religion formally opposes mixed marriages and conversions. Despite increasing interest in genetics of the population structure of the Druze, their population history remains unknown. We investigated the genetic relationships between Israeli Druze and both modern and ancient populations. We evaluated our findings in light of three hypotheses purporting to explain Druze history that posit Arabian, Persian or mixed Near Eastern-Levantine roots. The biogeographical analysis localised proto-Druze to the mountainous regions of southeastern Turkey, northern Iraq and southeast Syria and their descendants clustered along a trajectory between these two regions. The mixed Near Eastern-Middle Eastern localisation of the Druze, shown using both modern and ancient DNA data, is distinct from that of neighbouring Syrians, Palestinians and most of the Lebanese, who exhibit a high affinity to the Levant. Druze biogeographic affinity, migration patterns, time of emergence and genetic similarity to Near Eastern populations are highly suggestive of Armenian-Turkish ancestries for the proto-Druze.


Assuntos
Emigração e Imigração/história , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Grupos Étnicos/história , Antropologia Cultural , Feminino , História Antiga , Humanos , Israel , Líbano , Masculino , Filogeografia , Síria
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA