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1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(4): e217943, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33835172

RESUMO

Importance: As COVID-19 vaccine distribution continues, policy makers are struggling to decide which groups should be prioritized for vaccination. Objective: To assess US adults' preferences regarding COVID-19 vaccine prioritization. Design, Setting, and Participants: This survey study involved 2 independent, online surveys of US adults aged 18 years and older, 1 conducted by Gallup from September 14 to 27, 2020, and the other conducted by the COVID Collaborative from September 19 to 25, 2020. Samples were weighted to reflect sociodemographic characteristics of the US population. Exposures: Respondents were asked to prioritize groups for COVID-19 vaccine and to rank their prioritization considerations. Main Outcomes and Measures: The study assessed prioritization preferences and agreement with the National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine's Preliminary Framework for Equitable Allocation of COVID-19 Vaccine. Results: A total of 4735 individuals participated, 2730 (1474 men [54.1%]; mean [SD] age, 59.2 [14.5] years) in the Gallup survey and 2005 (944 men [47.1%]; 203 participants [21.5%] aged 55-59 years) in the COVID Collaborative survey. In both the Gallup COVID-19 Panel and COVID Collaborative surveys, respondents listed health care workers (Gallup, 93.6% [95% CI, 91.2%-95.3%]; COVID Collaborative, 80.0% [95% CI, 78.0%-81.9%]) and adults of any age with serious comorbid conditions (Gallup, 78.6% [95% CI, 75.2%-81.7%]; COVID Collaborative, 72.9% [95% CI, 70.7%-74.9%]) among their 4 highest priority groups. Respondents of all political affiliations agreed with prioritizing Black, Hispanic, Native American, and other communities that have been disproportionately affected by COVID-19 (Gallup, 74.2% [95% CI, 70.6%-77.5%]; COVID Collaborative, 84.9% [95% CI, 83.1%-86.5%]), and COVID Collaborative respondents were willing to be preceded in line by teachers and childcare workers (92.5%; 95% CI, 91.2%-93.7%) and grocery workers (85.9%; 95% CI, 84.2%-87.5%). Older respondents in both surveys were significantly less likely than younger respondents to prioritize healthy adults aged 65 years and older among their 4 highest priority groups (Gallup, 23.7% vs 39.1% [χ2 = 2160.8; P < .001]; COVID Collaborative, 23.3% vs 28.8% [χ2 = 5.0198; P = .03]). COVID Collaborative respondents believed the 4 most important considerations for prioritization were preventing COVID-19 spread (78.4% [95% CI, 76.3%-80.3%]), preventing the most deaths (72.1% [95% CI, 69.9%-74.2%]), preventing long-term complications (68.9% [66.6%-71.9%]), and protecting frontline workers (63.8% [95% CI, 61.5%-66.1%]). Conclusions and Relevance: US adults broadly agreed with the National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine's prioritization framework. Respondents endorsed prioritizing racial/ethnic communities that are disproportionately affected by COVID-19, and older respondents were significantly less likely than younger respondents to endorse prioritizing healthy people older than 65 years. This provides reason for caution about COVID-19 vaccine distribution plans that prioritize healthy adults older than a cutoff age without including those younger than that age with preexisting conditions, that aim solely to prevent the most deaths, or that give no priority to frontline workers or disproportionately affected communities.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , /prevenção & controle , Vacinação em Massa/psicologia , Opinião Pública , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupos de Populações Continentais/psicologia , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Feminino , Prioridades em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
2.
Mol Cell ; 81(5): 885-888, 2021 03 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33667376

RESUMO

As part of our commitment to amplifying the voices of underrepresented scientists, we are publishing the insights and experiences of a panel of underrepresented scientists. In this segment, we asked about support systems-the types of support that are most helpful (and less helpful), how to find a supportive network, and how institutions can better support underrepresented scientists. These are the personal opinions of the authors and may not reflect the views of their institutions.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/ética , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Pesquisadores/psicologia , Adulto , Pesquisa Biomédica/organização & administração , Diversidade Cultural , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Relações Raciais/psicologia , Apoio Social , Estados Unidos
3.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 27(3): 258-267, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33762541

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether students in minority race categories are more likely to experience race-related bias and hatred in their lifetime and since the onset of COVID-19, after controlling the effect of demographic and other variables. METHODS: This quantitative study used primary data from the survey of 1249 college students at one of the universities in Georgia during April and May 2020. We performed multinomial logistic regression, computing 2 models for the 2 ordinal dependent variables concerning students' experience of race-related bias and hatred-(a) during their lifetime and (b) since the onset of COVID-19 in March 2020-both measured as "never," "rarely," "sometimes," and "fairly often or very often." RESULTS: During their lifetime, 47.5% of students had experienced some level of bias or hatred, ranging from "rarely" to "very often." Since the onset of COVID-19 on March 2 in Georgia, in a short period of 1 to 2 months, 17.6% of students reported experiencing race-related bias or hatred. Univariate statistics revealed substantial differences in race-related bias and hatred by race, experienced during students' lifetime as well as since the onset of COVID-19. Results of multinomial logistic regression showed that the odds of having experienced bias or hatred during their lifetime were significantly higher (P < .05) for the Black students than for White students (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 75.8, for very often or often vs never; AOR = 42 for sometimes vs never). Compared with White students, the odds of hatred and bias were also significantly higher for students who were Asian, multiple races, or another non-White race. The odds of having experienced race-related bias and hatred since the onset of COVID-19 were also higher for Black Asian, multiple races, and other non-White students. CONCLUSIONS: This study adds critical scientific evidence about variation in the perception of bias and hatred that should draw policy attention to race-related issues experienced by college students in the United States.


Assuntos
/psicologia , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Racismo/psicologia , Racismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Georgia/epidemiologia , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Grupos Minoritários/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
4.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 449, 2021 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33673833

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The evidence is now unequivocal that people from Black and Minority Ethnic Backgrounds (BAME) living in the UK are disproportionately affected by covid-19. There is growing evidence that the reasons for this difference are multi-factorial and need further exploration. AIM: The aim of this study was to understand better, perceptions of risk and responses to covid-19 of members of the Muslim community living in the North West of England, and to understand the facilitators and barriers to adherence to restrictions and guidance measures. METHOD: A total of 47 participants took part in 25 in-depth qualitative interviews and four focus groups (n=22) that explored perceptions of risk and responses to risk from covid-19. Data were analysed thematically. FINDINGS: Participants were aware of the mechanism of transmission of covid-19 and took steps to mitigate risk of transmission including, observing a range of hygiene practices and following social distancing guidance. Increased risk of covid-19 for BAME populations was explained largely in terms of exposure to the virus due to the types of employment people from BAME populations are employed in. Limitations both within the working environment and more generally in public spaces, was identified as problematic for effective social distancing. The closure of mosques sent out a strong message about the seriousness of the virus and religious teachings reinforced hygiene and social distancing guidelines. CONCLUSION: Across society there are people that adhere to restrictions and guidelines and those that do not. Improving local information provision and communication pathways during times of the pandemic, could aid understanding of risk and promote adherence to social distancing restrictions.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/psicologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Islamismo/psicologia , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Grupos Minoritários/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
7.
J Appl Psychol ; 106(1): 1-3, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33444047

RESUMO

It is impossible to write this editorial without recognizing that we are living in challenging times. Unprecedented changes in how, when, where, and with whom we work have occurred in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition to the threat to human life, the pandemic is expected to increase poverty and deepen preexisting inequalities for vulnerable groups such as women (United Nations, 2020) and individuals living in poorer countries (United Nations Development Programme, 2020). In the United States, the pandemic has disproportionately negatively affected racial and ethnic minority group members (https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/health-equity/race-ethnicity.html). For example, in the United States infection and mortality rates are especially high among African Americans (Yancy, 2020). These sobering realities, along with the recent deaths of George Floyd, Ahmaud Arbery, and Breonna Taylor, and so many others, are vivid and wrenching reminders of longstanding social injustice and systematic racism, both in the United States and around the globe. When preparing my candidate statement and vision for the journal, a global pandemic and widespread social protest were the furthest thing from my mind. However, several aspects of my vision for JAP are highly relevant to the current context. This includes increasing representation and supporting diversity, as well as improving the translation of our science for the public good. Other elements of my vision for the journal include enhancing the review process and promoting open science. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
/psicologia , Pobreza/psicologia , Psicologia Aplicada/métodos , Racismo/psicologia , Justiça Social/psicologia , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Humanos , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Pandemias , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos
8.
J Racial Ethn Health Disparities ; 8(1): 21-23, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33415704

RESUMO

The wide disparity in coronavirus disease (COVID-19)-related death rates based upon the ethnic origin is well established by now. The higher incidence of COVID-19 deaths amongst the healthcare staff belonging to black and minority ethnic (BAME) communities living in the United Kingdom has generated a great deal of concern and anxiety in clinicians. Public Health England (PHE) has outlined mitigation strategies after immense pressure from professional organisations and influential clinical leaders. Although seemingly well thought through, these measures fall short of addressing the professional, moral and emotional dilemma faced by the BAME clinicians who feel that they are being expected to choose between their duty towards their patients and the profession, and their responsibility to look after their own health.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/psicologia , Conflito Psicológico , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/estatística & dados numéricos , Empatia , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Grupos Minoritários/estatística & dados numéricos
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33081120

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies of minority groups in times of emergency have tended to focus on risk reduction or on individual resilience, overlooking the community factors that could be bolstered to promote better health and safety outcomes. The current study aimed to examine the role of health-care services in the perceived community resilience of urban and suburban Arab communities in Israel during the COVID-19 outbreak. METHOD: The study included 196 adults age 17-76 years, who filled out on-line questionnaires in May 2020; 112 participants lived in an urban community and 84 lived in a suburban community. Community resilience was evaluated using the Conjoint Community Resiliency Assessment Measure (CCRAM), a validated five-factor multidimensional instrument. RESULTS: Residents of the suburban community reported higher community resilience than residents of the urban community. This difference was related to increased preparedness levels and strength of place attachment in the suburban community. Residents of suburban communities were also more satisfied and confident in health-care services than those of urban communities. Regression analysis showed that the satisfaction with primary health-care services, and not community type, significantly predicted community resilience. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the pivotal role of primary health care in building community resilience of minority communities in times of emergency and routine.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Humanos , Israel/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Grupos Minoritários/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Satisfação do Paciente , Projetos Piloto , Adulto Jovem
11.
Int J Equity Health ; 19(1): 154, 2020 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907581

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Arab ethnic minority makes up 21% of Israel's population, yet comprised just 8.8% of confirmed cases and 3.6% of deaths from COVID-19, despite their higher risk profile and greater burden of underlying illness. This paper presents differences in patterns of morbidity and mortality from COVID-19 in the Arab, ultra-Orthodox and overall populations in Israel, and suggests possible reasons for the low rates of infection in the Arab population. METHODS: Data were obtained from the Israeli Ministry of Health's (MOH) open COVID-19 database, which includes information on 1270 localities and is updated daily. The database contains the number of COVID-19 diagnostic tests performed, the number of confirmed cases and deaths in Israel. RESULTS: In the first 4 months of Israel's COVID-19 outbreak, just 2060 cases were confirmed in the Arab population, comprising 8.8% of the 23,345 confirmed cases, or 2.38 times less than would be expected relative to the population size. In contrast, the ultra-Orthodox made up 30.1% of confirmed cases yet just 10.1% of the population. Confirmed case rate per 100,000 was twice as high in the general Jewish population compared to the Arab population. The Arab mortality rate was 0.57 per 100,000, compared to 3.37 in the overall population, and to 7.26 in the ultra-Orthodox community. We discuss possible reasons for this low morbidity and mortality including less use of nursing homes, and effective leadership which led to early closure of mosques and high adherence to social distancing measures, even during the month of Ramadan. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a disproportionate burden of underlying illness, the Arab population did not fulfil initial predictions during the first wave of the COVID-19 outbreak and maintained low numbers of infections and deaths. This contrasts with reports of increased mortality in ethnic minorities and economically disadvantaged populations in other countries, and with high rates of infection in the ultra-Orthodox sector in Israel. Effective leadership and cooperation between individuals and institutions, particularly engagement of community and religious leaders, can reduce a group's vulnerability and build resilience in an emergency situation such as the current pandemic.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Idoso , Árabes/psicologia , Árabes/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Israel/epidemiologia , Liderança , Masculino , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Grupos Minoritários/estatística & dados numéricos , Papel (figurativo)
12.
Womens Health (Lond) ; 16: 1745506520953348, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32856564

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: On account of their racial/ethnic minority status, class, and gender, African-American women of low socioeconomic status are among the least privileged, underserved, and most marginalized groups in the United States. Generally, African Americans continue to experience poorer health outcomes, in which disparities have been attributed to socioeconomic inequities and structural racism. This objective of this study was to explore the lived experiences of low-income African-American women in interacting with the healthcare system and healthcare providers. METHODS: Twenty-two in-depth one-on-one interviews were conducted with low-income African-American women. The audio-recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim. An inductive content analysis was performed, using an analytical software, Dedoose® to enabled hierarchical coding. Codes were grouped into categories which were further analyzed for similarities that led to the emergence of themes. RESULTS: A key finding was the experience of discriminatory treatment. The three themes that emerged relevant to this category were (1) perceived discrimination based on race/ethnicity, (2) perceived discrimination based on socioeconomic status, and (3) stereotypical assumptions such as drug-seeking and having sexually transmitted diseases. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS: Low-income African-American women experience less than satisfactory patient care, where participants attribute to their experience of being stereotyped and their perception of discrimination in the healthcare system and from providers. Patients' experiences within the healthcare system have implications for their healthcare-seeking behaviors and treatment outcomes. Healthcare personnel and providers need to be more aware of the potential for implicit bias toward this population. Healthcare workforce training on culturally responsive patient care approaches and more community engagement will help providers better understand the context of patients from this population and more effectively meet their healthcare needs.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Assistência à Saúde Culturalmente Competente , Assistência à Saúde , Racismo/psicologia , Adulto , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Feminino , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Percepção , Pobreza , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
13.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237395, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817687

RESUMO

The paper relates the results of an ethnolinguistic vitality (ELV) survey among the Kashubs in Poland. The results reveal two interrelated layers of ELV: (1) an individual ELV reflected in language use and shaped by personal experience, emotions, and language proficiency; (2) a more collective ELV associated with the perception of the group's language strength, its status and utility. The most surprising predictor of linguistic praxis in our study, in addition to language skills, was the positive impact of experienced discouragement on language use. This remained significant when controlling for proficiency. We argue that the correlation between experiencing discouragement and increased language use is best explained by the self-empowerment of speakers who, earlier in their lives, met with negative attitudes toward their heritage language. Rather than succumbing to this discouragement and assimilating to the dominant language, their response was to develop an emotional link to Kashubian and increase their use of this minority language as a conscious act of self-determination and engagement.


Assuntos
Empoderamento , Multilinguismo , Inquéritos e Questionários , Emoções , Humanos , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Polônia
16.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1169, 2020 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32718308

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite efforts by the NIH to enhance the participation of women and minorities in clinical research, women with HIV continue to remain underrepresented in alcohol intervention research. The purpose of this study is to better understand the reasons why women with HIV and hazardous drinking participated in the WHAT-IF? study and to discuss their experience (positive or negative) in the study. The WHAT-IF? study was a randomized clinical trial that evaluated pharmacotherapy for a reduction in drinking among women with HIV. METHODS: Convenience and theoretical sampling were used to recruit women with HIV and hazardous drinking to complete qualitative interviews. These women had previously completed a clinical alcohol intervention trial and had consented to be contacted in the future for study-related purposes. The biopsychosocial model was used to frame the interview questions that assessed multiple determinants of drinking behavior and helped explain linkages to broader health constructs. RESULTS: A total of 20 women with HIV and hazardous drinking completed the qualitative interview. Several factors were identified by the women as influential in their decision to participate in the WHAT-IF? study, such as the ability to quit or reduce their drinking to nonhazardous levels (biological), the ability to gain knowledge or a greater understanding of the negative effects of hazardous drinking on HIV disease progression (psychological), and peer pressure and monetary compensation (social). Also, the women identified factors (positive or negative) associated with their clinical trial experience, such as the effects of the study medication on the woman's body (biological), thoughts and feelings toward study procedures (i.e. medication, lab work, study assessments) and the length of the study (psychological), and the interactions with the WHAT-IF? study staff (social). CONCLUSION: Recruiting and retaining women with HIV in alcohol intervention research remains a challenge. Findings from this study suggest that women with HIV who are hazardous drinkers may benefit from participating in research studies that could help them to reduce or quit their drinking, increase their knowledge about specific behavior changes, and earn monetary compensation. Also, positive staff interactions may be instrumental in retaining minority women in alcohol intervention research.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Saúde da Mulher , Adulto , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
17.
J Public Health (Oxf) ; 42(3): 486-492, 2020 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32618332

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus infection Disease 19 impacted every part of the world and routine life. Recent report from the Office of national statistics in UK reported disproportionate death among Black Asian and minority ethnic (BAME) population. NHS is heavily relied on the BAME work force both in front line and in the community. We attempted to explore the beliefs and perception about reported worrying issue among BAME health work force in a Diverse city of Leicester. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional survey using 20 questions in an electronic format. The target population was identified through Leicester Asian Doctors Society and Leicester Asian Nurses Society. The questionnaire was then distributed electronically to the members. Survey questionnaire was accessed by 372, incomplete response (172) were excluded and 200 completed responses were analysed. RESULTS: Majority of BAME workforce are routinely involved in front line duties. More than 70% were anxious about their role during this pandemic. The Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) supply was adequate, and the support received from the local healthcare providers was more than satisfactory. The work force perceived co-morbidity, lack of PPE and testing were one of the few reasons for increased death in BAME. BAME group felt adequate provision of PPE, increased testing and improving mental health well-being is required to alleviate concerns and improve BAME working life in NHS. CONCLUSION: BAME workforce are routinely involved in front line work and current anxiety level is very high. Adequate provision of mental health support with clear risk stratification for return to work is required urgently.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/psicologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Grupos Minoritários/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
20.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234540, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584831

RESUMO

The importance of social connection to well-being is underscored by individuals' reactivity to events highlighting the potential for rejection and exclusion, which extends even to observing the social exclusion of others ("vicarious ostracism"). Because responses to vicarious ostracism depend at least in part on empathy with the target, and individuals tend to empathize less readily with outgroup than ingroup members, the question arises as to whether there is a boundary condition on vicarious ostracism effects whereby individuals are relatively immune to observing ingroup-on-outgroup ostracism. Of particular interest is the case where members of a dominant ethnic group observe fellow ingroup members ostracize a member of a disadvantaged ethnic minority group, as here there is a compelling potential alternative: Perceived violation of contemporary social norms condemning prejudice and discrimination might instead lead dominant group members to be especially upset by "dominant-on-disadvantaged" ostracism. Accordingly, the present research examines, across four studies and 4413 participants, individuals' affective reactions to observing dominant-on-disadvantaged versus dominant-on-dominant ostracism. In each study, dominant group members (White/Europeans) observed dominant group members include or ostracize a fellow dominant group member or a disadvantaged ethnic minority group member (a Black individual) in an online Cyberball game. Results revealed that dominant group members felt more guilt, anger, and sadness after observing severe ostracism of a disadvantaged as opposed to dominant group member. Although no direct effects emerged on behavioral outcomes, exploratory analyses suggested that observing ostracism of a disadvantaged (versus dominant) group member had indirect effects on behavior via increased feelings of anger. These results suggest that observing ostracism may be a sufficiently potent and relatable experience that when it occurs across group boundaries it awakens individuals' sensitivity to injustice and discrimination.


Assuntos
Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Comportamento Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Ira/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Empatia/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Preconceito , Identificação Social , Adulto Jovem
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