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1.
Orv Hetil ; 161(19): 789-796, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32364359

RESUMO

Introduction: The presence and recognition of prejudice during care were examined among healthcare professionals towards the Roma population, the largest ethnic minority in Hungary. Aim: The aim of this study was to explore the extent to which prejudice in the Hungarian healthcare system might affect the quality of care and, thereby, the health of the Roma patients. Method: Semi-structured interviews were conducted between June 2017 and May 2018 with 13 interviewees. Qualitative methods were applied to analyse the transcripts. Results: Our respondents generally confirmed the presence of prejudices in the healthcare system. Prejudicial attitudes and discriminatory behaviour are less common in wards where the prevalence of disadvantaged patients (HIV-positive, homeless) is high (e.g., infectology). Prejudice is not specifically directed at the Roma ethnic minority, but also extends to populations living under poor socio-economic conditions, or with underlying self-destructive behaviour (alcoholism, drug use). In the opinion of our interviewees, occasional prejudicial behaviour does not lead to sub-standard care, but, on the contrary, to positive discrimination. Prejudice does not directly lead to poorer health, but it cannot be ruled out that it may indirectly contribute to it, in the case if the patient does not seek medical attention due to a former negative experience within healthcare. Conclusion: Our results confirmed the occasional presence of prejudice against the Romas in the healthcare system, however, this may not directly contribute to Romas' poorer health status. Our results also highlighted the importance of prevention, including the education of both parties and the prevention of the burnout of care providers. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(19): 789-796.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Discriminação Psicológica , Grupos Étnicos , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Preconceito , Discriminação Social , Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Hungria , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228934, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32059042

RESUMO

Limited empirical data exists on why women and minority students enter Biomedical Career Enrichment Programs (BCEPs) and how program variables-such as duration of research-influence their intention to pursue research careers. This exploratory study reports motivators for participation in BCEPs among women and racial/ethnic minority students-historically underrepresented groups-and the influence of program and personal variables on their research-career intent and self-efficacy beliefs. We studied the program variables of research experience, research duration, and mentor influence; and the personal variables of race, gender, family, and peers. Using the conceptual framework of planned behavior theory and social cognitive career theory, we interviewed students from underrepresented groups participating in BCEPs that offered research experience for short duration (Group A), long duration (Group B), and no research experience (Group C). We utilized Atlas Ti, a qualitative methodological software tool, to analyze the interview responses. Students choosing a BCEP with research experience cited "opportunity to gain experience" and "interest or curiosity in research" as motivators. Duration of research experience had a positive relationship with enhancement in research skills and self-efficacy beliefs, but did not change the initial research-career intent of these BCEP participants. The study revealed an interesting and unexpected theme of "perceived deterrents" to a career in research that included stress of competition (e.g. grants), the instability of projects, and the isolation of scientific research. Importantly, the study findings indicate the need to reform program design and science policies that challenge the current biomedical workforce and dissuade interested students from underrepresented groups from entering the field.


Assuntos
Escolha da Profissão , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Mulheres/psicologia , Pesquisa Biomédica/educação , Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Comportamento de Escolha/ética , Tomada de Decisões , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , Humanos , Intenção , Motivação , Projetos Piloto , Autoeficácia , Fatores Sexuais , Estudantes/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
4.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0228084, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004328

RESUMO

Low-income, racial/ethnic minority groups have disproportionately high rates of problematic substance use yet face barriers in accessing evidence-based interventions (EBIs). Peer recovery coaches (PRCs), individuals with lived experience with problematic substance use, may provide an effective approach to reaching these individuals. Traditionally PRCs have focused on bridging to other types of care rather than delivering EBIs themselves. The aim of this study was to assess perceptions of the appropriateness of a PRC-delivered adapted behavioral activation (BA) intervention to reduce problematic substance use for individuals not engaged in care. This study was conducted at a community resource center in Baltimore, Maryland serving low-income and homeless clients who have high rates of problematic substance use yet also face barriers to accessing care. Guided by the ADAPT-ITT framework, we conducted semi-structured key informant interviews with clients (n = 30) with past or present problematic substance use, and a focus group with community providers, including staff at the community resource center (n = 5) and PRCs (n = 6) from the community. Thirty percent (n = 9) of clients interviewed reported past problematic substance use and 70% (n = 21) met criteria for current use, most commonly cocaine and opioids. Clients, center staff, and PRCs shared that PRC-delivered BA could be acceptable and appropriate with suggested adaptations, including adding peer-delivered case-management and linkage to care alongside BA, and tailoring BA to include activities that are accessible and feasible in the community. These findings will inform the adaptation of PRC-delivered BA to address problematic substance use in this setting.


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Medicina Comunitária/métodos , Área Carente de Assistência Médica , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Baltimore , Administração de Caso , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Pessoas em Situação de Rua , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Grupo Associado , Pobreza
5.
BJOG ; 127(5): 600-608, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31986555

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To explore obstetricians' and gynaecologists' experiences of work-related traumatic events, to measure the prevalence and predictors of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), any impacts on personal and professional lives, and any support needs. DESIGN: Mixed methods: cross-sectional survey and in-depth interviews. SAMPLE AND SETTING: Fellows, members and trainees of the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG). METHODS: A survey was sent to 6300 fellows, members and trainees of RCOG. 1095 people responded. Then 43 in-depth interviews with trauma-exposed participants were completed and analysed by template analysis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Exposure to traumatic work-related events and PTSD, personal and professional impacts, and whether there was any need for support. Interviews explored the impact of trauma, what helped or hindered psychological recovery, and any assistance wanted. RESULTS: Two-thirds reported exposure to traumatic work-related events. Of these, 18% of both consultants and trainees reported clinically significant PTSD symptoms. Staff of black or minority ethnicity were at increased risk of PTSD. Clinically significant PTSD symptoms were associated with lower job satisfaction, emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation. Organisational impacts included sick leave, and 'seriously considering leaving the profession'. 91% wanted a system of care. The culture in obstetrics and gynaecology was identified as a barrier to trauma support. A strategy to manage the impact of work-place trauma is proposed. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to work-related trauma is a feature of the experience of obstetricians and gynaecologists. Some will suffer PTSD with high personal, professional and organisational impacts. A system of care is needed. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: 18% of obstetrics and gynaecology doctors experience post-traumatic stress disorder after traumatic events at work.


Assuntos
Ginecologia , Obstetrícia , Estresse Ocupacional/epidemiologia , Médicos/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Adulto , Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Fadiga por Compaixão/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Despersonalização , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Licença Médica , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
6.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(1): 104466, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31734125

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medical mistrust influences patients' treatment seeking, adherence, health behaviors, and minority participation in research studies. However, medical mistrust remains understudied within neurological diseases like stroke despite disproportionately affecting minority populations. OBJECTIVE: This study examines the relationship of medical mistrust with stroke knowledge among Black, Latino, Korean, and Chinese-Americans. METHODS: Subjects greater than 60 years were enrolled from senior centers to test a culturally-tailored educational curriculum around stroke risk reduction in a randomized controlled trial. A Trust Physician Scale and a modified Trust of Medical Researchers Scale measured medical mistrust. The Stroke Action Test instrument measured stroke knowledge, focusing on intent to call 911 appropriately when presented with stroke symptoms. RESULTS: Of 225 subjects, 69.5% were female (n = 157) with an average age of 73.7 years (standard deviation 6.7). Blacks had highest trust scores of physicians relative to Latino/a, Korean or Chinese subjects (P< .05). In multivariable analysis, decreased stroke knowledge was associated with decreased researcher trust at baseline (<.05), but not physician trust, when controlling for covariates. Among Latino/a, Korean, and Chinese groups, mainstream acculturation reduced the association between researcher trust and stroke knowledge. A mediation model showed no evidence of physician trust mediating researcher trust. CONCLUSIONS: Among minority seniors participating in a randomized controlled trial, decreased trust of researchers, not physicians, was associated with low baseline knowledge of stroke symptoms. Those least acculturated to US culture may be a particular focus for trust building intervention. Future studies should examine whether researcher mistrust is disproportionately preventing those with the largest knowledge gaps from participating in trials.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Pesquisadores/psicologia , Sujeitos da Pesquisa/psicologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Confiança , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/etnologia , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Estudos Transversais , Características Culturais , Assistência à Saúde Culturalmente Competente/etnologia , Currículo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etnologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/psicologia
9.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1741, 2019 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31881953

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While discrimination takes multiple forms, racial or ethnic discrimination is a root cause of this health-damaging social phenomenon. We drew on intersectionality theory, which offers an account of discrimination's multiple effects, to consider associations between women's experiences of discrimination and postpartum depression (PPD) using four measures: single forms of discrimination (SFD); multiple forms of discrimination (MFD); ethnic discrimination combined with MFD (E-MFD); and a composite MFD that interacted with women's identity (C-MFD). METHODS: We interviewed a stratified sample of 1128 mothers face to face in 2014-2015 during mothers' visits to maternal and child health clinics. The mothers belonged to three groups in Israel: Palestinian-Arab minority, Jewish immigrant, and non-immigrant Jewish. We conducted unadjusted and adjusted logistic regressions for PPD, measured on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, in associations with SFD (experiencing discrimination based on any of the following: age, sex, class, ethno-national identity, religiosity level and skin color); MFD (experiencing 0,1, 2 or ≥ 3 of SFD); E-MFD (ethnic discrimination combined with other MFD); and finally, C-MFD (interaction between MFD and women's identity). RESULTS: Palestinian-Arab mothers had higher PPD and reported higher SFD (based on ethnicity, religiosity level, and socioeconomic status), as well as higher MFD and E-MFD. This was followed by Jewish immigrant mothers, and lastly by non-immigrant Jewish mothers. However, both MFD and E-MFD had a strong association with PPD among non-immigrant Jewish mothers reporting 2MFD and ≥ 3MFD, and Palestinian-Arab mothers reporting ≥3MFD, but no significant association among immigrant Jewish mothers. When we used C-MFD, we found a dose-response association in which Palestinian-Arab mothers experiencing more MFD (2MFD and ≥ 3MFD) were more likely to experience PPD. This was followed by immigrant Jewish mothers (reporting 2MFD and ≥ 3MFD), and lastly by non-immigrant Jewish mothers. CONCLUSIONS: MFD should be considered in relation to women's identity (being part of a minority, immigrant, or non-immigrant majority group) in maternal mental health research and practice. Otherwise, we risk underestimating the effects of MFD on PPD, especially in minority and immigrant mothers, who are more likely to face interlocking forms of discrimination.


Assuntos
Árabes/psicologia , Depressão Pós-Parto/etnologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Judeus/psicologia , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Preconceito/etnologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Árabes/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Israel , Judeus/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Grupos Minoritários/estatística & dados numéricos , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
10.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1458, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694587

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The overweight/obesity epidemic is a public health issue in the United States (US), that disproportionately affect certain racial/ethnic minority groups. Perceived discrimination has been implicated as a health risk factor. However, research on race/ethnicity, perceived discrimination, and obesity has been mixed. Researchers suggest that perceptions of discrimination may be dependent upon nativity status. This study evaluated the role that nativity status and race/ethnicity play in the relationship between perceived discrimination and overweight/obesity. METHODS: We used Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (2004-2005) [N = 33,319]). Multinomial logistic regression assessed a three-way interaction (perceived discrimination × race/ethnicity × nativity) on overweight and obesity, adjusting for sociodemographic factors and health-related behaviors. RESULTS: The three-way interaction was significant for overweight [F (17, 49) = 3.35; p < 0.001] and obesity [F (17, 49) = 5.05; p < 0.001]. Among US-born individuals, US-born non-Hispanic Blacks had a decreased risk of being obese compared to US-born non-Hispanic Whites at mean levels of perceived discrimination [aRRR = 0.71; 95% CI (0.51-0.98); p = 0.04). Among foreign-born individuals, foreign-born South Americans had an increased risk of being overweight at mean levels of perceived discrimination compared to foreign-born non-Hispanic Whites [aRRR = 8.07; 95% CI (1.68-38.77); p = 0.01], whereas foreign-born Dominicans had a decreased risk of being obese compared to foreign-born non-Hispanic Whites [aRRR = 0.05; 95% CI (0.01-0.20); p < 0.001]. CONCLUSION: Perceived racial discrimination is a risk factor for overweight/obesity for certain groups. Race/ethnicity and nativity may play important roles in the relationship between perceived discrimination and overweight/obesity. Future research is needed to identify the behavioral and psychological pathways that link perceived discrimination and overweight/obesity.


Assuntos
Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Discriminação Social/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/etnologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/etnologia , Percepção , Fatores de Risco , Discriminação Social/etnologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581695

RESUMO

Addressing health disparities and promoting health equity for Roma has been a challenge. The Roma are the largest disadvantaged ethnic minority population in Europe and have been the victims of deep social and economic injustices, institutional discrimination, and structural antigypsyism over many centuries. This has resulted in a much worse health status than their non-Roma counterparts. Current strategies based on ameliorative and top-down approaches to service delivery have resulted in paradoxical effects that solidify health disparities, since they do not effectively address the problems of vulnerable Roma groups. Following a health justice approach, we present a community-based participatory action research case study generated by a community and university partnership intended to address power imbalances and build collaboration among local stakeholders. This case study involved a group of health providers, Roma residents, researchers, Roma community organizations, and other stakeholders in the Poligono Sur, a neighborhood of Seville, Spain. The case study comprises four phases: (1) identifying Roma health assets, (2) empowering Roma community through sociopolitical awareness, (3) promoting alliances between Roma and community resources/institutions, and (4) building a common agenda for promoting Roma health justice. We highlighted best practices for developing processes to influence Roma health equity in local health policy agendas.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Participativa Baseada na Comunidade/métodos , Equidade em Saúde , Política de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Roma/psicologia , Roma/estatística & dados numéricos , Justiça Social , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Grupos Minoritários/estatística & dados numéricos , Estigma Social , Espanha
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31547132

RESUMO

The Long-Term Care Insurance Law provides support to older Israelis who wish to remain in their home. The present study evaluated the experience of perceived discrimination and stigma in the context of the law among Arab older adults, their family members, and their paid home care workers. For triangulation purposes, we interviewed 15 National Insurance Institute workers (NII; responsible for implementing the law; 47% Arab), 31 older adults (81% Arab), 31 family members (87% Arab), and six paid home care workers (83% Arab) in the north of Israel. Respondents were queried about their home care experience and their encounter with the NII. Thematic analysis was conducted. Four main themes emerged: (a) a strong sense of perceived discrimination among Arab interviewees, (b) reports suggesting the internalization of stigma and the adoption of negative views regarding the Arab population by some Arab respondents, (c) implicit stigma manifested in claims concerning the Arab population (primarily) as "cheating" the system, and (d) the negation of discrimination of Arabs as reported by Jewish interviewees and NII workers. The findings show that a sense of perceived discrimination is common and colors the experience of service seeking among Arabs. On the other hand, the Jewish interviewees in this study completely negated any discrimination or stigma directed toward Arabs. The findings point to the importance of group affiliation (e.g., minority vs. majority) in interpreting the existence of discrimination. The findings likely have major implications for both service providers and policy-makers and legislators.


Assuntos
Seguro de Assistência de Longo Prazo/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Racismo/psicologia , Estigma Social , Árabes , Família/psicologia , Visitadores Domiciliares/psicologia , Visitadores Domiciliares/estatística & dados numéricos , Israel , Judeus , Grupos Minoritários/estatística & dados numéricos , Racismo/estatística & dados numéricos
13.
WMJ ; 118(2): 60-64, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31532929

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diversification of the health care workforce by race and ethnicity offers a strategy for addressing health care disparities. This study explored the experiences with pathways programming and mentoring of minority undergraduates aspiring to health professions careers. METHODS: We interviewed 21 minority undergraduates in 4 focus groups. The interviews explored participants' backgrounds; perceptions of racial climate; exposure to health professions careers, mentors, and pathways programs; barriers to success; and desired support. RESULTS: Many participants described diminished confidence and feelings of isolation due to stereotyping and discrimination; some were empowered to pursue health care careers because of adversity. Common themes included desire for mentorship, earlier career exposure, and college readiness support. DISCUSSION: Minority students desire health career exposure, mentoring, pre-college advising, and a positive racial climate; unfortunately, these desires often go unmet.


Assuntos
Escolha da Profissão , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Ocupações em Saúde , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Masculino , Tutoria , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Wisconsin
14.
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol ; 54(11): 1311-1323, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482194

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Although excess risks particularly for a diagnosis of schizophrenia have been identified for ethnic minority people in England and other contexts, we sought to identify and synthesise up-to-date evidence (2018) for affective in addition to non-affective psychoses by specific ethnic groups in England. METHODS: Systematic review and meta-analysis of ethnic differences in diagnosed incidence of psychoses in England, searching nine databases for reviews (citing relevant studies up to 2009) and an updated search in three databases for studies between 2010 and 2018. Studies from both searches were combined in meta-analyses allowing coverage of more specific ethnic groups than previously. RESULTS: We included 28 primary studies. Relative to the majority population, significantly higher risks of diagnosed schizophrenia were found in Black African (Relative risk, RR 5.72, 95% CI 3.87-8.46, n = 9); Black Caribbean (RR 5.20, 95% CI 4.33-6.24, n = 21); South Asian (RR 2.27, 95% CI 1.63-3.16, n = 14); White Other (RR 2.24, 95% CI 1.59-3.14, n = 9); and Mixed Ethnicity people (RR 2.24, 95% CI 1.32-3.80, n = 4). Significantly higher risks for diagnosed affective psychoses were also revealed: Black African (RR 4.07, 95% CI 2.27-7.28, n = 5); Black Caribbean (RR 2.91, 95% CI 1.78-4.74, n = 16); South Asian (RR 1.71, 95% CI 1.07-2.72, n = 8); White Other (RR 1.55, 95% CI 1.32-1.83, n = 5); Mixed Ethnicity (RR 6.16, 95% CI 3.99-9.52, n = 4). CONCLUSIONS: The risk for a diagnosis of non-affective and affective psychoses is particularly elevated for Black ethnic groups, but is higher for all ethnic minority groups including those previously not assessed through meta-analyses (White Other, Mixed Ethnicity). This calls for further research on broader disadvantages affecting ethnic minority people.


Assuntos
Transtornos Psicóticos Afetivos/etnologia , Transtornos Psicóticos Afetivos/epidemiologia , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Psicóticos/etnologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/epidemiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/psicologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/psicologia , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/psicologia , Feminino , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Esquizofrenia/etnologia
15.
J Youth Adolesc ; 48(10): 1924-1937, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520235

RESUMO

Dual identity (e.g., strong ethnic and national identity) is a psychological resource for minority groups, but how it develops during adolescence is less clear. In this 3-wave longitudinal study, a person-oriented approach was used to examine dual identity development in a sample of 2145 Muslim adolescents (MT1 = 15 years, 51% female) in four Western European countries. The results of a growth-mixture model pointed toward four distinct developmental Classes: (1) "Dual identity", (2) "Separation to dual identity", (3) "Assimilation to dual identity", and (4) "Separation". Multiple group comparisons further showed that adolescents in Class 1 were well adjusted, but well-being (e.g., internalizing problems, life satisfaction) and health were even higher among adolescents in Class 2. Adolescents in Class 3 had consistently lower levels of well-being, and adolescents in Class 4 had lower levels of socio-cultural adjustment (e.g., problem behaviour at school, delinquent behaviour, and lack of intergroup contact). The findings underscore that most Muslim minority adolescents in Western Europe develop a dual identity, and that the developmental process, not simply the outcome, matters for adjustment.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Islamismo/psicologia , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Identificação Social , Adolescente , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Comportamento Problema
16.
J Youth Adolesc ; 48(10): 1883-1898, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520237

RESUMO

Research on sexual and gender minority student achievement indicates that such students report lowered achievement relative to other students. Increased victimization and less school belonging, amongst other factors, have been identified as contributing to these inequalities. However, supportive schooling structures and caregiver support may support their achievement. A nationally representative survey of secondary school students was used to identify specific factors that support achievement for sexual minority (n = 485), gender minority (n = 298), and heterosexual cisgender (where one's sex assigned at birth "matches" a binary gender identity, i.e., a male assigned at birth identifies as a boy/man, n = 7064) students in New Zealand. While reported victimization did not affect achievement for sexual and gender minority students, school belonging, and teacher expectations of success, emerged as significant factors. Differences emerged between sexual minority and gender minority achievement factors, suggesting a range of detailed policy implications and recommendations.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Logro , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Heterossexualidade/psicologia , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Adolescente , Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Heterossexualidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Grupos Minoritários/estatística & dados numéricos , Nova Zelândia , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
J Youth Adolesc ; 48(10): 1952-1966, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31485985

RESUMO

Risky behavior is common among traumatized youth and is associated with juvenile offending. This study examined predictors of posttraumatic risky behavior, the unique contribution of posttraumatic risky behavior in predicting offending, and tested whether a distinct class of youth was characterized by high levels of posttraumatic risky behavior. Participants were 400 adolescents (25% girls) between the ages of 12 and 19 years old (M = 15.97, SD = 1.25) who were involved in the Utah juvenile justice system. Approximately 54% of the sample identified as an ethnic minority. Youth completed self-report measures of trauma exposure, posttraumatic risky behavior, posttraumatic stress symptom severity, and offending. Formal legal records of offending were also collected. The results indicated that female sex was significantly related to posttraumatic risky behavior, though age was not significantly associated with posttraumatic risky behavior. Age and ethnicity were associated with both self-reported and formal offending, and male sex was associated with formal offending. Posttraumatic risky behavior was not related to formal offending, but was related to self-reported offending in some of the tested models. Latent class analysis identified 92 youth characterized by high levels of posttraumatic risky behavior; these youth also evidenced the highest rates of trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress symptom severity, and self-reported offending. There were no ethnic, age, or sex differences between youth in the high and low posttraumatic risky behavior groups. These results add to the extant literature documenting the associations among exposure to trauma, posttraumatic stress, and juvenile offending.


Assuntos
Criminosos/psicologia , Delinquência Juvenil/psicologia , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Adolescente , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Assunção de Riscos , Utah
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382662

RESUMO

The Chinese Hui ethnic minority group is an Islamic minority. The Hui people comprise the third largest minority population in China and are widely distributed throughout the country. Previous research shows that the Hui had a higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) than most other ethnic groups. Therefore, the availability of health information relating to these factors is especially important for the Hui minority's preventive healthcare. They do, however, experience difficulties in obtaining health-related information. The current research aims to identify the needs of the Hui people on where and how they obtain cardiovascular disease (CVD) related information from the media and other sources. Six focus groups were conducted in Shenyang City. The results revealed that the participants relied on different sources to get advice about CVDs, of which the internet and television were the most prominent ones. The participants expressed a desire for credible and professional information from different sources and asked for mediated health communication programs specifically targeted at the Hui. In addition, the participants felt ignored by the Chinese mainstream media at large, which created barriers for them to get health information.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/etnologia , Informação de Saúde ao Consumidor/métodos , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Comportamento de Busca de Informação , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Comunicação em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416123

RESUMO

As a result of various barriers, several pediatric populations are at risk for poor oral health, including children with disabilities and children from under-represented populations, such as Latinos. To this end, this study aimed to better understand the factors that affect the oral health experiences of 32 Latino parents/caregivers from 18 families (n = 8 with a typically developing child and n = 10 with a child with Autism). Using a qualitative descriptive methodology, each family was interviewed twice. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and coded thematically to identify the individual, social, systemic, and culturally rooted factors contributing to oral health disparities in the families. The three themes that arose were "Why would I want to start trouble?": Latino parents' dissatisfaction with dental treatments, costs, and fear of the dentist and health care providers because of their ethnic minority status as key factors inhibiting receipt of dental care; "We have to put our children first": prioritizing the oral care activities of their children over their own individual oral care needs; and "We always keep baking soda around": familial and cultural influences on oral care habits. Understanding the oral health beliefs and experiences of Latino parents and caregivers of children with and without autism is critical for developing targeted prevention and intervention programs and reducing oral health disparities.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico/psicologia , Cuidadores/psicologia , Assistência Odontológica/psicologia , Crianças com Deficiência/psicologia , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Saúde Bucal , Pais/psicologia , Adulto , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Criança , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Los Angeles , Masculino , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia
20.
Am J Orthopsychiatry ; 89(5): 624-626, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31436468

RESUMO

The research articles in this special issue edited by Zamboanga and Lui focus on sociocultural factors and processes that underlie ethnic disparities in alcohol use in the United States. Major ethnic minority groups such as African Americans, Asian Americans, and Hispanics are included. Contributors to this special issue present their research findings and draw implications for research, theory, and intervention. The focus is clearly needed. We know enough to say that serious alcohol-use disparities exist; finding effective solutions to these problems is vitally important, especially in our increasingly diverse society; and much more research is needed. Priority for ethnic minority research has increased because of the growing ethnic diversity of the nation; concerns over disparities, social justice, and the welfare of minority populations; and increasing political clout of different minority groups. Nevertheless, greater efforts are needed to address research inadequacies and those programs and policies that affect the mental health of various ethnic minority groups. What have we learned from these articles? To address this question, it is important to have a context for viewing the research. In this context, I make three major points. First, the social sciences in general and psychology in particular have not traditionally embraced the importance of culture. Consequently, conducting ethnic minority research has been difficult. Second, the significance of ethnicity and culture in alcohol use is undeniable. The real task is to understand the complexities in ethnic alcohol use. Third, in addition to culture, ethnic minority groups have minority status in our society that affects all facets of alcohol use and its consequences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Minoritários/estatística & dados numéricos , Aculturação , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/etnologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Humanos , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Estados Unidos
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