Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 21.793
Filtrar
2.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(41): 1485-1491, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056951

RESUMO

Frequent hand hygiene, including handwashing with soap and water or using a hand sanitizer containing ≥60% alcohol when soap and water are not readily available, is one of several critical prevention measures recommended to reduce the spread of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).* Previous studies identified demographic factors associated with handwashing among U.S. adults during the COVID-19 pandemic (1,2); however, demographic factors associated with hand sanitizing and experiences and beliefs associated with hand hygiene have not been well characterized. To evaluate these factors, an Internet-based survey was conducted among U.S. adults aged ≥18 years during June 24-30, 2020. Overall, 85.2% of respondents reported always or often engaging in hand hygiene following contact with high-touch public surfaces such as shopping carts, gas pumps, and automatic teller machines (ATMs).† Respondents who were male (versus female) and of younger age reported lower handwashing and hand sanitizing rates, as did respondents who reported lower concern about their own infection with SARS-CoV-2§ and respondents without personal experience with COVID-19. Focused health promotion efforts to increase hand hygiene adherence should include increasing visibility and accessibility of handwashing and hand sanitizing materials in public settings, along with targeted communication to males and younger adults with focused messages that address COVID-19 risk perception.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Higiene das Mãos/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Grupos de Populações Continentais/psicologia , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/etnologia , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/etnologia , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(41): 1481-1484, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056954

RESUMO

Breast cancer among males in the United States is rare; approximately 2,300 new cases and 500 associated deaths were reported in 2017, accounting for approximately 1% of all breast cancers.* Risk for male breast cancer increases with increasing age (1), and compared with women, men receive diagnoses later in life and often at a later stage of disease (1). Gradual improvement in breast cancer survival from 1976-1985 to 1996-2005 has been more evident for women than for men (1). Studies examining survival differences among female breast cancer patients observed that non-Hispanic White (White) females had a higher survival than non-Hispanic Black (Black) females (2), but because of the rarity of breast cancer among males, few studies have examined survival differences by race or other factors such as age, stage, and geographic region. CDC's National Program of Cancer Registries (NPCR)† data were used to examine relative survival of males with breast cancer diagnosed during 2007-2016 by race/ethnicity, age group, stage at diagnosis, and U.S. Census region. Among males who received a diagnosis of breast cancer during 2007-2016, 1-year relative survival was 96.1%, and 5-year relative survival was 84.7%. Among characteristics examined, relative survival varied most by stage at diagnosis: the 5-year relative survival for males was higher for cancers diagnosed at localized stage (98.7%) than for those diagnosed at distant stage (25.9%). Evaluation of 1-year and 5-year relative survival among males with breast cancer might help guide health care decisions regarding early detection of male breast cancer and establishing programs to support men at high risk for breast cancer and male breast cancer survivors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/mortalidade , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/etnologia , Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/patologia , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Geografia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise de Sobrevida , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
4.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(41): 1473-1480, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056955

RESUMO

Among U.S. men, prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death (1). Past studies documented decreasing incidence of prostate cancer overall since 2000 but increasing incidence of distant stage prostate cancer (i.e., signifying spread to parts of the body remote from the primary tumor) starting in 2010 (2,3). Past studies described disparities in prostate cancer survival by stage, age, and race/ethnicity using data covering ≤80% of the U.S. population (4,5). To provide recent data on incidence and survival of prostate cancer in the United States, CDC analyzed data from population-based cancer registries that contribute to U.S. Cancer Statistics (USCS).* Among 3.1 million new cases of prostate cancer recorded during 2003-2017, localized, regional, distant, and unknown stage prostate cancer accounted for 77%, 11%, 5%, and 7% of cases, respectively, but the incidence of distant stage prostate cancer significantly increased during 2010-2017. During 2001-2016, 10-year relative survival for localized stage prostate cancer was 100%. Overall, 5-year survival for distant stage prostate cancer improved from 28.7% during 2001-2005 to 32.3% during 2011-2016; for the period 2001-2016, 5-year survival was highest among Asian/Pacific Islanders (API) (42.0%), followed by Hispanics (37.2%), American Indian/Alaska Natives (AI/AN) (32.2%), Black men (31.6%), and White men (29.1%). Understanding incidence and survival differences by stage, race/ethnicity, and age can guide public health planning related to screening, treatment, and survivor care. Future research into differences by stage, race/ethnicity, and age could inform interventions aimed at improving disparities in outcomes.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias da Próstata/etnologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
6.
RMD Open ; 6(3)2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33011680

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There is emerging evidence that COVID-19 disproportionately affects people from racial/ethnic minority and low socioeconomic status (SES) groups. Many physicians across the globe are changing practice patterns in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. We sought to examine the practice changes among rheumatologists and what they perceive the impact to be on their most vulnerable patients. METHODS: We administered an online survey to a convenience sample of rheumatologists worldwide during the initial height of the pandemic (between 8 April and 4 May 2020) via social media and group emails. We surveyed rheumatologists about their opinions regarding patients from low SES and racial/ethnic minority groups in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Mainly, what their specific concerns were, including the challenges of medication access; and about specific social factors (health literacy, poverty, food insecurity, access to telehealth video) that may be complicating the management of rheumatologic conditions during this time. RESULTS: 548 rheumatologists responded from 64 countries and shared concerns of food insecurity, low health literacy, poverty and factors that preclude social distancing such as working and dense housing conditions among their patients. Although 82% of rheumatologists had switched to telehealth video, 17% of respondents estimated that about a quarter of their patients did not have access to telehealth video, especially those from below the poverty line. The majority of respondents believed these vulnerable patients, from racial/ethnic minorities and from low SES groups, would do worse, in terms of morbidity and mortality, during the pandemic. CONCLUSION: In this sample of rheumatologists from 64 countries, there is a clear shift in practice to telehealth video consultations and widespread concern for socially and economically vulnerable patients with rheumatic disease.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/etnologia , Betacoronavirus , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Grupos Étnicos , Grupos Minoritários , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pobreza , Doenças Reumáticas/etnologia , Doenças Autoimunes/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Abastecimento de Alimentos/economia , Letramento em Saúde , Habitação , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Doenças Reumáticas/mortalidade , Reumatologistas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Telemedicina
7.
Salvador; s.n; 06 out. 2020. 19 p. ilus, graf, mapas, tab.(Boletim Epidemiológico COVID-19 Bahia, 196).
Monografia em Português | Coleciona SUS, CONASS, SES-BA | ID: biblio-1122633

RESUMO

O boletim descreve de forma detalhada a situação da COVID-19 no Estado da Bahia desde o inicio da pandemia. Contempla informações relacionadas ao registro de casos notificados da COVID-19, taxa de crescimento, distribuição de casos confirmados nos Núcleos Regionais Saúde, casos confirmados segundo raça/cor, ocupação de leitos de UTI, perfil dos casos de Síndrome Multissistêmica Pediátrica, número de curados, número de óbitos. Até 06/10/2020 no Estado da Bahia, o coeficiente de incidência foi de 2.139,08/100.000 habitantes


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Betacoronavirus , Ocupação de Leitos , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/diagnóstico , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva
8.
Salvador; s.n; 07 out. 2020. 19 p. ilus, graf, mapas, tab.(Boletim Epidemiológico COVID-19 Bahia, 197).
Monografia em Português | Coleciona SUS, CONASS, SES-BA | ID: biblio-1122636

RESUMO

O boletim descreve de forma detalhada a situação da COVID-19 no Estado da Bahia desde o inicio da pandemia. Contempla informações relacionadas ao registro de casos notificados da COVID-19, taxa de crescimento, distribuição de casos confirmados nos Núcleos Regionais Saúde, casos confirmados segundo raça/cor, ocupação de leitos de UTI, perfil dos casos de Síndrome Multissistêmica Pediátrica, número de curados, número de óbitos. Até 07/10/2020 no Estado da Bahia, o coeficiente de incidência foi de 2.151,41/100.000 habitantes


Assuntos
Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Betacoronavirus , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva
9.
Salvador; s.n; 11 out. 2020. 19 p. ilus, graf, mapas, tab.(Boletim Epidemiológico COVID-19 Bahia, 201).
Monografia em Português | Coleciona SUS, CONASS, SES-BA | ID: biblio-1122673

RESUMO

O boletim descreve de forma detalhada a situação da COVID-19 no Estado da Bahia desde o inicio da pandemia. Contempla informações relacionadas ao registro de casos notificados da COVID-19, taxa de crescimento, distribuição de casos confirmados nos Núcleos Regionais Saúde, casos confirmados segundo raça/cor, ocupação de leitos de UTI, perfil dos casos de Síndrome Multissistêmica Pediátrica, número de curados, número de óbitos. Até 11/10/2020 no Estado da Bahia, o coeficiente de incidência foi de 2.191,59/100.000 habitantes


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Betacoronavirus , Ocupação de Leitos , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/diagnóstico , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Pandemias , Povos Indígenas , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva
10.
Salvador; s.n; 13 out. 2020. 19 p. ilus, graf, mapas, tab.(Boletim Epidemiológico COVID-19 Bahia, 203).
Monografia em Português | Coleciona SUS, CONASS, SES-BA | ID: biblio-1122689

RESUMO

O boletim descreve de forma detalhada a situação da COVID-19 no Estado da Bahia desde o inicio da pandemia. Contempla informações relacionadas ao registro de casos notificados da COVID-19, taxa de crescimento, distribuição de casos confirmados nos Núcleos Regionais Saúde, casos confirmados segundo raça/cor, ocupação de leitos de UTI, perfil dos casos de Síndrome Multissistêmica Pediátrica, número de curados, número de óbitos. Até 13/10/2020 no Estado da Bahia, o coeficiente de incidência foi de 2.200,80/100.000 habitantes


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Betacoronavirus , Ocupação de Leitos , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva
11.
Salvador; s.n; 14 out. 2020. 19 p. ilus, graf, mapas, tab.(Boletim Epidemiológico COVID-19 Bahia, 204).
Monografia em Português | Coleciona SUS, CONASS, SES-BA | ID: biblio-1122693

RESUMO

O boletim descreve de forma detalhada a situação da COVID-19 no Estado da Bahia desde o inicio da pandemia. Contempla informações relacionadas ao registro de casos notificados da COVID-19, taxa de crescimento, distribuição de casos confirmados nos Núcleos Regionais Saúde, casos confirmados segundo raça/cor, ocupação de leitos de UTI, perfil dos casos de Síndrome Multissistêmica Pediátrica, número de curados, número de óbitos. Até 14/10/2020 no Estado da Bahia, o coeficiente de incidência foi de 2.217,34/100.000 habitantes


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Ocupação de Leitos/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Betacoronavirus , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Pandemias , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva
12.
Salvador; s.n; 15 out. 2020. 19 p. ilus, graf, mapas, tab.(Boletim Epidemiológico COVID-19 Bahia, 205).
Monografia em Português | Coleciona SUS, CONASS, SES-BA | ID: biblio-1122896

RESUMO

O boletim descreve de forma detalhada a situação da COVID-19 no Estado da Bahia desde o inicio da pandemia. Contempla informações relacionadas ao registro de casos notificados da COVID-19, taxa de crescimento, distribuição de casos confirmados nos Núcleos Regionais Saúde, casos confirmados segundo raça/cor, ocupação de leitos de UTI, perfil dos casos de Síndrome Multissistêmica Pediátrica, número de curados, número de óbitos. Até 15/10/2020 no Estado da Bahia, o coeficiente de incidência foi de 2.227,93/100.000 habitantes


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Ocupação de Leitos , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva
13.
Natl Vital Stat Rep ; 69(9): 1-11, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33054916

RESUMO

Objective-This report presents 2017-2018 infant mortality rates in the United States by maternal prepregnancy body mass index, and by infant age at death, maternal age, and maternal race and Hispanic origin. Methods-Descriptive tabulations of infant deaths by maternal and infant characteristics are presented using the 2017-2018 linked period birth/infant death files; the linked period birth/infant death file is based on birth and death certificates registered in all states and the District of Columbia. The 2017 linked birth/infant death file is the first year that national data on maternal prepregnancy body mass index were available. Results-Total infant, neonatal, and postneonatal mortality rates were lowest for infants of women who were normal weight prepregnancy, and then rose with increasing prepregnancy body mass index. Total, neonatal, and postneonatal rates were higher for infants of women who were underweight prepregnancy compared with infants of women who were normal or overweight before pregnancy. Mortality rates for infants of underweight women were generally, but not exclusively, lower than those of infants born to women with obesity. Infants born to women of normal weight generally had lower mortality rates than infants born to women who had obesity prepregnancy for all maternal age and race and Hispanic-origin groups.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Adulto , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil/etnologia , Idade Materna , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(39): 1391-1397, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001873

RESUMO

Vaccination of pregnant women with influenza vaccine and tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) can decrease the risk for influenza and pertussis among pregnant women and their infants. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends that all women who are or might be pregnant during the influenza season receive influenza vaccine, which can be administered at any time during pregnancy (1). ACIP also recommends that women receive Tdap during each pregnancy, preferably during the early part of gestational weeks 27-36 (2,3). Despite these recommendations, vaccination coverage among pregnant women has been found to be suboptimal with racial/ethnic disparities persisting (4-6). To assess influenza and Tdap vaccination coverage among women pregnant during the 2019-20 influenza season, CDC analyzed data from an Internet panel survey conducted during April 2020. Among 1,841 survey respondents who were pregnant anytime during October 2019-January 2020, 61.2% reported receiving influenza vaccine before or during their pregnancy, an increase of 7.5 percentage points compared with the rate during the 2018-19 season. Among 463 respondents who had a live birth by their survey date, 56.6% reported receiving Tdap during pregnancy, similar to the 2018-19 season (4). Vaccination coverage was highest among women who reported receiving a provider offer or referral for vaccination (influenza = 75.2%; Tdap = 72.7%). Compared with the 2018-19 season, increases in influenza vaccination coverage were observed during the 2019-20 season for non-Hispanic Black (Black) women (14.7 percentage points, to 52.7%), Hispanic women (9.9 percentage points, to 67.2%), and women of other non-Hispanic (other) races (7.9 percentage points, to 69.6%), and did not change for non-Hispanic White (White) women (60.6%). As in the 2018-19 season, Hispanic and Black women had the lowest Tdap vaccination coverage (35.8% and 38.8%, respectively), compared with White women (65.5%) and women of other races (54.0%); in addition, a decrease in Tdap vaccination coverage was observed among Hispanic women in 2019-20 compared with the previous season. Racial/ethnic disparities in influenza vaccination coverage decreased but persisted, even among women who received a provider offer or referral for vaccination. Consistent provider offers or referrals, in combination with conversations culturally and linguistically tailored for patients of all races/ethnicities, could increase vaccination coverage among pregnant women in all racial/ethnic groups and reduce disparities in coverage.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Difteria, Tétano e Coqueluche Acelular/administração & dosagem , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/etnologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Gestantes/etnologia , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
15.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(38): 1337-1342, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970045

RESUMO

During 2018, gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) accounted for 69.4% of all diagnoses of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in the United States (1). Moreover, in all 42 jurisdictions with complete laboratory reporting of CD4 and viral load results,* percentages of MSM linked to care within 1 month (80.8%) and virally suppressed (viral load <200 copies of HIV RNA/mL or interpreted as undetected) within 6 months (68.3%) of diagnosis were below target during 2018 (2). African American/Black (Black), Hispanic/Latino (Hispanic), and younger MSM disproportionately experience HIV diagnosis, not being linked to care, and not being virally suppressed. To characterize trends in these outcomes, CDC analyzed National HIV Surveillance System† data from 2014 to 2018. The number of diagnoses of HIV infection among all MSM decreased 2.3% per year (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.9-2.8). However, diagnoses did not significantly change among either Hispanic MSM or any MSM aged 13-19 years; increased 2.2% (95% CI = 1.0-3.4) and 2.0% (95% CI = 0.6-3.3) per year among Black and Hispanic MSM aged 25-34 years, respectively; and were highest in absolute count among Black MSM. Annual percentages of linkage to care within 1 month and viral suppression within 6 months of diagnosis among all MSM increased (2.9% [95% CI = 2.4-3.5] and 6.8% [95% CI = 6.2-7.4] per year, respectively). These findings, albeit promising, warrant intensified prevention efforts for Black, Hispanic, and younger MSM.


Assuntos
Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/etnologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/etnologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Distribuição por Idade , Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Carga Viral/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Cien Saude Colet ; 25(9): 3431-3436, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876261

RESUMO

This study aims to reflect the impact of COVID 19, considering gender, race, and class markers. This is an exploratory study, with an emphasis on the analysis of selected publications, based on a systematized search on official websites, and on the PubCovid-19 platform that includes papers published on COVID-19, which are indexed in PubMed and EMBASE. This work was based on these documents and built with reflections from the authors from the perspectives of social markers related to gender, race, and class, which contribute to the prognosis of the disease. The reflection carried out from the analyzed literature revealed that the markers of gender, class, and race emerge as a vulnerable condition to the exposure of COVID-19 in the most diverse world scenarios. This context reveals the historical need to implement strategies to improve the lives of this population, not only during the pandemic but also after their passing. Therefore, it is necessary to adopt socioeconomic policies with a more significant impact on the lives of these people and with greater coverage, expanding access to better health, education, housing, and income.


Assuntos
Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Prognóstico , Fatores Sexuais , Classe Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos
18.
S Afr Med J ; 110(8): 796-801, 2020 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880309

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Smoking cessation is a complex process influenced by factors such as smokers' nicotine dependence levels, socioeconomic status (SES) and other lifestyle behaviours. Little is known about these relationships in South Africa (SA). OBJECTIVES: To explore the relationship between nicotine dependence, SES, lifestyle behaviours and lifetime quit attempts among adult smokers in SA. METHODS: This study used data from 2 651 participants aged ≥16 years in the 2011 South African Social Attitudes Survey. Information on SES (measured by asset ownership), binge drinking, physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake, intention to quit smoking and lifetime quit attempts was extracted. Nicotine dependence was measured using the Heaviness of Smoking Index (HSI). All data were weighted to account for the complex survey design and to yield nationally representative estimates. Data analysis included binary logistic regression with high nicotine dependence (HND) defined as HSI ≥4 and lifetime quit attempts as separate outcomes. RESULTS: The prevalence of smoking was 20.1% (31.6% for males and 9.5% for females), and was highest in the mixed-ancestry group (37.0%). Overall, 14.5% of smokers had HND, with a higher proportion in the high-SES group. The odds of HND increased with every 10  years of smoking history (odds ratio (OR) 2.05; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.40 - 3.00) but decreased among participants who reported frequent physical activity (OR 0.4; 95% CI 0.18 - 0.86) and those who planned to quit (OR 0.37; 95% CI 0.19 - 0.75). Quit attempts were more likely among participants who reported frequent fruit and vegetable intake (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.07 - 2.98) and less likely among those reporting binge drinking (OR 0.31; 95% CI 0.16 - 0.59) or assessed as having HND (OR 0.32; 95% CI 0.17 - 0.58). CONCLUSIONS: Most adult smokers in SA have low nicotine dependence. However, the association of HND with high SES in this study suggests that although cessation treatment based on an integrated lifestyle behavioural intervention package may suffice for most smokers, a more intense cessation treatment package is needed for smokers of higher SES.


Assuntos
Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/estatística & dados numéricos , Tabagismo/epidemiologia , Adulto , Bebedeira/epidemiologia , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Frutas , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Distribuição por Sexo , Classe Social , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Verduras
19.
S Afr Med J ; 110(8): 802-806, 2020 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880310

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of research on homicidal strangulation by gender. OBJECTIVES: A sex-disaggregated and comparative research approach was used to investigate individual-level risk factors for female and male homicidal strangulation in Johannesburg, South Africa (2001 - 2010). METHODS: Data were drawn from the National Injury Mortality Surveillance System. Logistic regressions were used to examine associations between each of the independent variables and homicidal strangulation in females and males relative to all other female and male homicides, respectively. RESULTS: The risk of fatal strangulation was high for both females and males aged ≥60 years, but markedly high only for male children and adolescents. Temporal risk for females was undifferentiated for day of the week, and the risk for males was high during weekdays. Females were more likely to be strangled in public places, and males in private locations. CONCLUSIONS: The study underlines the importance of disaggregating homicide by external cause and gender.


Assuntos
Asfixia/mortalidade , Homicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Lesões do Pescoço/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Estações do Ano , Distribuição por Sexo , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA