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2.
J Surg Oncol ; 121(3): 494-502, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902137

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic disparities in gastric cancer have been associated with differences in care and inferior outcomes. We evaluated the presentation, treatment, and survival for patients with gastric cancer (GC) in a metropolitan setting with a large African American population. METHODS: Retrospective cohort analysis of patients with GC (2003-2018) across a multi-hospital system was performed. Associations between socioeconomic and clinicopathologic data with the presentation, treatment, and survival were examined. RESULTS: Of 359 patients, 255 (71%) were African American and 104 (29%) Caucasian. African Americans were more likely to present at a younger age (64.0 vs 72.5, P < .001), have state-sponsored or no insurance (19.7% vs 6.9%, P = .02), reside within the lowest 2 quintiles for median income (67.4% vs 32.7%, P < .001), and have higher rates of Helicobacter pylori (14.9% vs 4.8%, P = .02). Receipt of multi-modality therapy was not impacted by race or insurance status. On multivariable analysis, only AJCC T class (HR 1.68) and node positivity (HR 2.43) remained significant predictors of disease-specific survival. CONCLUSION: Despite socioeconomic disparities, African Americans, and Caucasians with GC had similar treatment and outcomes. African Americans presented at a younger age with higher rates of H. pylori positivity, warranting further investigation into differences in risk factors and tumor biology.


Assuntos
Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Helicobacter/complicações , Classe Social , Neoplasias Gástricas/mortalidade , Idoso , Terapia Combinada , Gerenciamento Clínico , Feminino , Seguimentos , Infecções por Helicobacter/virologia , Helicobacter pylori/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Renda , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias Gástricas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Gástricas/etiologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/terapia , Taxa de Sobrevida , Estados Unidos
3.
Am J Forensic Med Pathol ; 41(1): 18-26, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000223

RESUMO

The suicide rate in the United States has been increasing steadily over the previous 10 years. In DC, these results are not mirrored. The suicide rate has a tendency to be lower than the rest of the country. During this retrospective review of suicides in DC, factors such as medical history and toxicology results were examined.In this study performed over 8 years (2009-2016), 394 suicides occurred. It was found that decedents committed suicide mostly by hanging (31.2%), firearms (20.3%), or drug intoxication (15.7%). The average age was 44.5 years. Similar to national statistics, male individuals committed suicide at a higher rate (77.9%) than did female individuals (22.1%). The toxicology data showed that ethanol (26.4%), antidepressants (20.1%), opioids (14.9%), and benzodiazepines (12.9%) were the drugs most frequently involved, although the finding of no drugs was most common (33.7%). Ethanol was present in 5 methods of suicide that include death by hanging, drowning, firearm, suffocation, and poisoning.This research provides information that may be useful for public health officials when confronting the issue of suicide. It is hoped that it will encourage other medical examiner offices to perform toxicological analysis and autopsy of all suicide cases.


Assuntos
/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Asfixia/mortalidade , Depressores do Sistema Nervoso Central/análise , Criança , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , District of Columbia/epidemiologia , Afogamento/mortalidade , Etanol/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Lesões do Pescoço/mortalidade , Preparações Farmacêuticas/análise , Envenenamento/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Distribuição por Sexo , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/mortalidade , Adulto Jovem
4.
Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed ; 105(1): 56-63, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31123058

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe ethnic and socioeconomic variation in cause-specific infant mortality of preterm babies by gestational age at birth. DESIGN: National birth cohort study. SETTING: England and Wales 2006-2012. SUBJECTS: Singleton live births at 24-36 completed weeks' gestation (n=256 142). OUTCOME MEASURES: Adjusted rate ratios for death in infancy by cause (three groups), within categories of gestational age at birth (24-27, 28-31, 32-36 weeks), by baby's ethnicity (nine groups) or area deprivation score (Index of Multiple Deprivation quintiles). RESULTS: Among 24-27 week births (5% of subjects; 47% of those who died in infancy), all minority ethnic groups had lower risk of immaturity-related death than White British, the lowest rate ratios being 0.63 (95% CI 0.49 to 0.80) for Black Caribbean, 0.74 (0.64 to 0.85) for Black African and 0.75 (0.60 to 0.94) for Indian. Among 32-36 week births, all minority groups had higher risk of death from congenital anomalies than White British, the highest rate ratios being 4.50 (3.78 to 5.37) for Pakistani, 2.89 (2.10 to 3.97) for Bangladeshi and 2.06 (1.59 to 2.68) for Black African; risks of death from congenital anomalies and combined rarer causes (infection, intrapartum conditions, SIDS and unclassified) increased with deprivation, the rate ratios comparing the most with the least deprived quintile being, respectively, 1.54 (1.22 to 1.93) and 2.05 (1.55 to 2.72). There was no evidence of socioeconomic variation in deaths from immaturity-related conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Gestation-specific preterm infant mortality shows contrasting ethnic patterns of death from immaturity-related conditions in extremely-preterm babies, and congenital anomalies in moderate/late-preterm babies. Socioeconomic variation derives from congenital anomalies and rarer causes in moderate/late-preterm babies. Future research should examine biological origins of extremely preterm birth.


Assuntos
Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade Infantil/etnologia , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Grupos Minoritários/estatística & dados numéricos , Pobreza , Causas de Morte , Estudos de Coortes , Anormalidades Congênitas/mortalidade , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Prematuro/mortalidade , País de Gales/epidemiologia
5.
J Surg Oncol ; 121(3): 456-464, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31858609

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary aldosteronism (PA) is the most common cause of secondary hypertension; early diagnosis and intervention correlate with outcomes. We hypothesized that race may influence clinical presentation and outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of patients with PA (1997-2017) who underwent adrenal vein sampling (AVS). Patients were classified by self-reported race as black or non-black. Improvement was defined as postoperative decrease in mean arterial pressure (MAP), antihypertensive medications (AHM), or both. RESULTS: Among patients undergoing AVS (n = 443), 287 underwent adrenalectomy. Black patients (28.2%) had higher body mass index (33.9 vs 31.8 kg/m2 ; P = .01), longer median duration of hypertension (12 vs 10 years; P = .003), higher modified Elixhauser comorbidity index (2 vs 1; P = .004), and lower median income ($47 134 vs $78 280; P < .001). Black patients had similar aldosterone:renin ratios (150 vs 135.6 [ng/dL]/[ng·mL·-1 hr-1 ]; P = .23) compared to non-blacks. At long-term follow-up, black patients had a similar requirement for AHM (1 vs 0; P = .13) but higher MAP (100.6 vs 95.3 mm Hg; P = .004). CONCLUSION: Black patients present with longer duration of hypertension and more comorbidities. They are equally likely to lateralize on AVS, suggesting similar disease phenotype. However, black patients demonstrate less improvement with adrenalectomy; this may reflect a delay in diagnosis or concomitant essential hypertension.


Assuntos
Adrenalectomia/efeitos adversos , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Hiperaldosteronismo/cirurgia , Hipertensão/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Hiperaldosteronismo/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(11): 1461-1469, 2019 Nov 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838822

RESUMO

Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the survival rate and its prognostic factors for patients with biliary tract cancer, and then a prognostic risk prediction model was constructed to predict the survival probability of patients. Methods: A total of 14 005 patients with biliary tract cancer (including gallbladder cancer, extrahepatic bile duct cancer, and ampulla of Vater cancer), who were diagnosed between 2010 and 2015 in the US National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (SEER) were included in the development cohort. The prognostic risk factors of biliary tract cancer were investigated using multivariate Cox regression models. The predictive nomograms were then constructed to predict the overall survival probability of 1, 3, and 5 years, and the predictive discrimination and calibration ability of the nomograms were further evaluated. Meanwhile, 11 953 patients who were diagnosed during 2004 to 2009 from SEER Program were then selected to validate the external predictive accuracy of the prediction models. Results: The 1, 3 and 5-year cumulative survival rates of patients with biliary tract cancer were 41.9%, 20.4% and 15.3%, respectively, in the development cohort. Age greater than 50 years, African Americans and Native Americans and Alaska Natives, higher T, N and M stage and poor histological differentiation grade were risk factors for death, while married status, Asia-Pacific Islanders, insured status and surgery on primary site were protective factors. Gender was not significantly associated with the overall survival. The C statistic of the prediction model was 0.73 (95%CI: 0.72-0.74), and the calibration curve showed that the interaction curves of predictive and actual survival rates of 1, 3 and 5 years were close to the 45 degree diagonal. Results in the validation cohort were similar with those in the construction cohort, with a C statistic of 0.70 (95%CI: 0.69-0.72), indicating high external applicability of the prediction model. Findings from gallbladder cancer, extrahepatic bile duct cancer, and ampulla of Vater cancer are in consistent with the overall biliary tract cancer. Conclusions: The survival rate of patients with biliary tract cancer is relatively poor, and the survival prediction model based on prognostic factors has high prediction accuracy. In the future, this prognostic prediction model could be applied to clinical practice to guide individualized treatment for patients with biliary tract cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Sistema Biliar/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/diagnóstico , Nomogramas , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias do Sistema Biliar/mortalidade , Neoplasias do Sistema Biliar/terapia , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Programa de SEER , Taxa de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
JAMA ; 322(24): 2389-2398, 2019 12 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860047

RESUMO

Importance: The prevalence of diabetes among Hispanic and Asian American subpopulations in the United States is unknown. Objective: To estimate racial/ethnic differences in the prevalence of diabetes among US adults 20 years or older by major race/ethnicity groups and selected Hispanic and non-Hispanic Asian subpopulations. Design, Setting, and Participants: National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 2011-2016, cross-sectional samples representing the noninstitutionalized, civilian, US population. The sample included adults 20 years or older who had self-reported diagnosed diabetes during the interview or measurements of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and 2-hour plasma glucose (2hPG). Exposures: Race/ethnicity groups: non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, Hispanic and Hispanic subgroups (Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban/Dominican, Central American, and South American), non-Hispanic Asian and non-Hispanic Asian subgroups (East, South, and Southeast Asian), and non-Hispanic other. Main Outcomes and Measures: Diagnosed diabetes was based on self-reported prior diagnosis. Undiagnosed diabetes was defined as HbA1c 6.5% or greater, FPG 126 mg/dL or greater, or 2hPG 200 mg/dL or greater in participants without diagnosed diabetes. Total diabetes was defined as diagnosed or undiagnosed diabetes. Results: The study sample included 7575 US adults (mean age, 47.5 years; 52% women; 2866 [65%] non-Hispanic white, 1636 [11%] non-Hispanic black, 1952 [15%] Hispanic, 909 [6%] non-Hispanic Asian, and 212 [3%] non-Hispanic other). A total of 2266 individuals had diagnosed diabetes; 377 had undiagnosed diabetes. Weighted age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of total diabetes was 12.1% (95% CI, 11.0%-13.4%) for non-Hispanic white, 20.4% (95% CI, 18.8%-22.1%) for non-Hispanic black, 22.1% (95% CI, 19.6%-24.7%) for Hispanic, and 19.1% (95% CI, 16.0%-22.1%) for non-Hispanic Asian adults (overall P < .001). Among Hispanic adults, the prevalence of total diabetes was 24.6% (95% CI, 21.6%-27.6%) for Mexican, 21.7% (95% CI, 14.6%-28.8%) for Puerto Rican, 20.5% (95% CI, 13.7%-27.3%) for Cuban/Dominican, 19.3% (95% CI, 12.4%-26.1%) for Central American, and 12.3% (95% CI, 8.5%-16.2%) for South American subgroups (overall P < .001). Among non-Hispanic Asian adults, the prevalence of total diabetes was 14.0% (95% CI, 9.5%-18.4%) for East Asian, 23.3% (95% CI, 15.6%-30.9%) for South Asian, and 22.4% (95% CI, 15.9%-28.9%) for Southeast Asian subgroups (overall P = .02). The prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes was 3.9% (95% CI, 3.0%-4.8%) for non-Hispanic white, 5.2% (95% CI, 3.9%-6.4%) for non-Hispanic black, 7.5% (95% CI, 5.9%-9.1%) for Hispanic, and 7.5% (95% CI, 4.9%-10.0%) for non-Hispanic Asian adults (overall P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In this nationally representative survey of US adults from 2011 to 2016, the prevalence of diabetes and undiagnosed diabetes varied by race/ethnicity and among subgroups identified within the Hispanic and non-Hispanic Asian populations.


Assuntos
Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Diabetes Mellitus/etnologia , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Americanos Asiáticos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
8.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(46): 1050-1056, 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31751321

RESUMO

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) affects the lives of millions of Americans each year (1). To describe the trends in TBI-related deaths among different racial/ethnic groups and by sex, CDC analyzed death data from the National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) over an 18-year period (2000-2017). Injuries were also categorized by intent, and unintentional injuries were further categorized by mechanism of injury. In 2017, TBI contributed to 61,131 deaths in the United States, representing 2.2% of approximately 2.8 million deaths that year. From 2015 to 2017, 44% of TBI-related deaths were categorized as intentional injuries (i.e., homicides or suicides). The leading category of TBI-related death varied over time and by race/ethnicity. For example, during the last 10 years of the study period, suicide surpassed unintentional motor vehicle crashes as the leading category of TBI-related death. This shift was in part driven by a 32% increase in TBI-related suicide deaths among non-Hispanic whites. Firearm injury was the underlying mechanism of injury in nearly all (97%) TBI-related suicides among all groups. An analysis of TBI-related death rates by sex and race/ethnicity found that TBI-related deaths were significantly higher among males and persons who were American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) than among all other groups across all years. Other leading categories of TBI-related deaths included unintentional motor vehicle crashes, unintentional falls, and homicide. Understanding the leading contributors to TBI-related death and identifying groups at increased risk is important in preventing this injury. Broader implementation of evidence-based TBI prevention efforts for the leading categories of injury, such as those aimed at stemming the significant increase in TBI-related deaths from suicide, are warranted.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/mortalidade , Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/etnologia , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/etiologia , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Armas de Fogo/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Intenção , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Suicídio/etnologia , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
9.
Am J Forensic Med Pathol ; 40(4): 312-317, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31688052

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is a detrimental psychiatric disorder, with an increased mortality from natural and nonnatural causes. METHODS: This study was a retrospective review of autopsy cases of all the individuals with history of schizophrenia investigated by the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner, State of Maryland, for a 5-year period from 2008 to 2012. RESULT: A total of 391 schizophrenia patients were autopsied at the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner because they died suddenly and unexpectedly. Their age ranged from 15 to 100 years with the mean age of 49.5 years. Of the 391 deaths, 191 (48.8%) were white, 185 (47.3%) were African American, and 15 (3.9%) were either Hispanic or Asian. The male and female ratio was 1.5:1. The majority of deaths (64.2%) were caused by natural diseases, 12.0% deaths were accidents, 11.5% deaths were suicides, and 9.7% deaths were homicides. The manner of death remained undetermined in 38 cases (9.7%). Of the 251 natural deaths, 198 cases (78.9%) were owing to cardiovascular diseases. Cause of death was listed as cardiac arrhythmia in 11 cases. This diagnosis of cardiac arrhythmia was made by exclusion based on death scene investigation, review of medical history, complete autopsy, and toxicological tests. Drug intoxication was the second most common cause of death. CONCLUSIONS: The study shows high fatality caused by cardiovascular diseases and drug intoxication among schizophrenia patients, which calls attention of the medical community to closely monitor the high risk factors of sudden death among schizophrenia patients.


Assuntos
Morte Súbita/epidemiologia , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Acidentes/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Médicos Legistas , Feminino , Homicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Maryland/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Envenenamento/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Distribuição por Sexo , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
10.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(43): 967-973, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671083

RESUMO

Among the 47,600 opioid-involved overdose deaths in the United States in 2017, 59.8% (28,466) involved synthetic opioids (1). Since 2013, synthetic opioids, particularly illicitly manufactured fentanyl (IMF), including fentanyl analogs, have been fueling the U.S. overdose epidemic (1,2). Although initially mixed with heroin, IMF is increasingly being found in supplies of cocaine, methamphetamine, and counterfeit prescription pills, which increases the number of populations at risk for an opioid-involved overdose (3,4). With the proliferation of IMF, opioid-involved overdose deaths have increased among minority populations including non-Hispanic blacks (blacks) and Hispanics, groups that have historically had low opioid-involved overdose death rates (5). In addition, metropolitan areas have experienced sharp increases in drug and opioid-involved overdose deaths since 2013 (6,7). This study analyzed changes in overdose death rates involving any opioid and synthetic opioids among persons aged ≥18 years during 2015-2017, by age and race/ethnicity across metropolitan areas. Nearly all racial/ethnic groups and age groups experienced increases in opioid-involved and synthetic opioid-involved overdose death rates, particularly blacks aged 45-54 years (from 19.3 to 41.9 per 100,000) and 55-64 years (from 21.8 to 42.7) in large central metro areas and non-Hispanic whites (whites) aged 25-34 years (from 36.9 to 58.3) in large fringe metro areas. Comprehensive and culturally tailored interventions are needed to address the rise in drug overdose deaths in all populations, including prevention strategies that address the risk factors for substance use across each racial/ethnic group, public health messaging to increase awareness about synthetic opioids in the drug supply, expansion of naloxone distribution for overdose reversal, and increased access to medication-assisted treatment.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/envenenamento , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Overdose de Drogas/etnologia , Overdose de Drogas/mortalidade , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicamentos Sintéticos/envenenamento , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(46): e17960, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725657

RESUMO

Despite near universal health coverage under Medicare, racial disparities persist in the treatment of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) among older patients in the United States. Studies evaluating DLBCL outcomes often treat socioeconomic status (SES) measures as confounders, potentially introducing biases when SES factors are mediators of disparities in cancer treatment.To examine differences in DLBCL treatment, we performed causal mediation analyses of SES measures, including: metropolitan statistical area (MSA) of residence; census-tract poverty level; and private Medicare supplementation using the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results-Medicare linked database between 2001 and 2011. In this retrospective cohort study of DLBCL patients ages 66+ years, we conducted a series of multivariable logistic regression analyses estimating odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) relating chemo- and/or immuno-therapy treatment and each SES measure, comparing non-Hispanic (NH)-black, Hispanic/Latino, and Asian/Pacific Islander (API) to NH-white patients.Compared to NH-white patients, racial/ethnic minority patients had lower odds of receiving chemo- and/or immuno-therapy treatment (NH-black: OR 0.84, 95% CI 0.65, 1.08; API: OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.64, 1.01; Hispanic/Latino: OR 0.78, 95% CI 0.64, 0.96) and higher odds of lacking private Medicare supplementation and residence within an urban MSA and poor census tracts. Adjustment for SES measures as confounders nullified observed racial differences. In causal mediation analyses, between 31% and 38% of race/ethnicity differences were mediated by having private Medicare supplementation.Providing equitable access to Medicare supplementation may reduce disparities in receipt of chemo- and/or immuno-therapy treatment in older DLBCL patients.


Assuntos
Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/etnologia , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/terapia , Afro-Americanos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Americanos Asiáticos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Modelos Logísticos , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/etnologia , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/patologia , Masculino , Medicare/estatística & dados numéricos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Características de Residência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Programa de SEER , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(46): e17964, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725658

RESUMO

Despite evidence suggesting race and ethnicity are important factors in responses to environmental exposures, drug therapies, and disease risk, few studies focus on the health needs of racially- and ethnically-diverse aging adults.The objective of this study was to determine the burden of 10 health conditions across race and ethnicity for a nationally-representative sample of aging Americans.Data from the 1998 to 2014 waves of the Health and Retirement Study, an ongoing longitudinal-panel study, were analyzed.Those aged over 50 years who identified as Black, Hispanic, or White were included. There were 5510 Blacks, 3423 Hispanics, and 21,168 Whites in the study.At each wave, participants reported if they had cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, congestive heart failure, diabetes, back pain, hypertension, a fractured hip, myocardial infarction, rheumatism or arthritis, and a stroke. Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) were calculated for each health condition by race and ethnicity. Ranked DALYs determined how race and ethnicity was differentially impacted by the burden of each health condition. Sample weights were utilized to make DALY estimates nationally-representative.Weighted DALY estimates (in thousands) ranged from 1405 to 55,631 for Blacks, 931 to 28,442 for Hispanics, and 15,313 to 295,623 for Whites. Although the health conditions affected each race and ethnicity differently, hypertension had the largest number of DALYs, and hip fractures had the fewest across race and ethnicity. In total, there were an estimated 198,621, 101,462, and 1,187,725 DALYs for older Black, Hispanic, and White aging adults.Our findings indicate that race and ethnicity may be influential on health and disease for aging adults in the United States. Monitoring DALYs may help guide the flow of health-related expenditures, improve the impact of health interventions, advance inclusive health care for diverse aging adult populations, and prepare healthcare providers for serving the health needs of aging adults.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/etnologia , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Nível de Saúde , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença Crônica/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos
13.
J Surg Oncol ; 120(8): 1365-1370, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31642056

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C (HCV) is the primary etiology of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the US multidisciplinary disease management teams (DMT) that optimize oncologic care. The impact of DMT for HCC in safety-net hospitals is unknown. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with HCC from 2009 to 2016 at Grady Memorial Hospital (GMH) were included. The primary aim was to evaluate referrals to care, receipt of therapy, and overall survival (OS) after DMT formation. Screening patterns of HCV patients for HCC were also examined. RESULTS: Of 204 HCC patients, median age was 58 years, with 81% male, 83% black. 46% presented with stage 4 disease, 53% had treatment with median OS 9.8 months. DMT formation was associated with increased referrals to surgery (49% vs 30%; P = .02), liver-directed therapy (58% vs 31%; P = .001), and radiation (13% vs 3%; P = .019). Patients were also more likely to get treatment (59% vs 41%; P = .026), with improved median OS (30.7 vs 4.9 months; P < .001). DMT did not alter HCV screening for HCC (23%). HCV patients screened for HCC had earlier stage disease (P = .001). CONCLUSION: Implementation of a DMT at GMH is associated with increased HCC patients referred for/receiving treatment, as well as improved survival. Few patients with HCV at risk for HCC are screened, despite DMT. Future efforts should aim to establish screening programs for HCV patients at risk for HCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/mortalidade , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/terapia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Hepáticas/terapia , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Terapia Combinada , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hepatite C Crônica/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Provedores de Redes de Segurança , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
Cancer Causes Control ; 30(11): 1231-1241, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522320

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Lung cancer mortality has been shown to vary by race and ethnicity in cancer registries; however, studies often do not account for smoking status. We sought to summarize the independent contribution of race and ethnicity to survival in US lung cancer patients, accounting for important variables including smoking status. METHODS: PubMed was used to identify 1,877 potentially eligible studies of which 27 were included. Studies were excluded if they did not account for age, race and/or ethnicity, and smoking status. Fixed- and random-effects meta-analyses were conducted using the reported adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of Hispanic ethnicity and Asian and African-American race compared to Non-Hispanic whites (NHWs) on overall survival in lung cancer. RESULTS: Hispanic ethnicity and Asian race were associated with decreased adjusted risk of death (Hispanic: Nstudies = 5, Nsubjects = 108,810, HR = 0.95, 95% CI 0.90-1.00; Asian: Nstudies = 6, Nsubjects = 128,950, HR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.81-0.90). The results were similar when excluding studies of solely never-smokers. There was no significant difference in survival between African-American and white race after adjustment (Nstudies = 10, Nsubjects = 131,378, HR = 0.98, 95% CI 0.96-1.01). Other prognostic factors were female gender (HR = 0.88, 95% CI 0.87-0.89), unmarried status (HR = 1.08, 95% CI 1.04-1.11), ever-smoking status (HR = 1.11, 95% CI 1.08-1.15), having comorbidities (HR = 1.39, 95% CI 1.24-1.56), and treatment receipt (surgery: HR = 0.33, 95% CI 0.32-0.34; radiation: HR = 0.87, 95% CI 0.85-0.88; chemotherapy: HR = 0.64, 95% CI 0.63-0.65). CONCLUSIONS: Even after adjustment for clinical factors and smoking status, Hispanics and Asians experienced improved survival compared to NHWs. Future studies are needed to elucidate the drivers of these survival disparities.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/etnologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
15.
Undersea Hyperb Med ; 46(4): 495-501, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31509905

RESUMO

Objective: Government programs have attempted to impact a recognized elevated risk for carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning among minority racial and ethnic groups. This study sought to describe U.S. mortality due to unintentional, non-fire-related CO poisoning, examining the distribution and trends by race and ethnicity. Methods: CDC Wonder was used to extract and analyze data on all U.S. resident deaths from unintentional CO poisoning from 2000-2017, categorizing them by year, race, ethnic origin and gender. Results: The absolute number of unintentional CO deaths decreased from about 450 to 380 per year during the period studied, a number near totally accounted for by the decrease in deaths occurring among non-Hispanic/Latino whites. The number of deaths among the remainder of the population did not significantly change. However, greater growth in minority populations resulted in a similar decline in the mortality rate between non-Hispanic/Latino whites and the combined minority population. The decline in combined minority death rate resulted from a decrease in the Hispanic/Latino white rate. Death rate did not decline in the black or African American population. Conclusions: All minority groups continue to display a disproportionate number of unintentional non-fire-related CO poisoning deaths compared to non-Hispanic/Latino whites. The decrease in U.S. deaths from unintentional non-fire-related carbon monoxide poisoning from 2000-2017 is accounted for by a decrease in non-Hispanic/Latino white deaths. While numbers of such deaths among minority groups have not changed since 2000, increases in the size of minority populations have resulted in a declining crude death rate for Hispanic/Latino whites.


Assuntos
Intoxicação por Monóxido de Carbono/etnologia , Intoxicação por Monóxido de Carbono/mortalidade , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mortalidade/tendências , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
Clin Nephrol ; 92(5): 221-225, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31496515

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple studies have revealed disparity in renal healthcare access and outcomes in racial/ethnic minorities with the socioeconomic status explaining the majority but not all of the disparity. We wanted to determine if racial/ethnic disparities existed at the first step toward renal transplantation, the renal transplant referral process. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cohort of 200 adult end-stage renal disease patients was followed retrospectively for 2 years from January 2016 to February 2018. The study exposure was based on self-declared race/ethnicity of the patients, who were categorized as Black, White, and Hispanic. The study outcome was based on medical team patient evaluation and consisted of the patients who refused referral, who were not referred, and who were referred for transplant. Medical and demographic factors collected were age, gender, socioeconomic status, hemoglobin A1c ≥ 7, body mass index ≥ 40, left ventricular ejection fraction ≤ 40%, the presence of coronary or peripheral arterial disease, albumin level, history of smoking, cirrhosis, and cancer. The data were analyzed using univariate analyses and multinomial logistic regression. RESULTS: In the adjusted analysis, there was no difference in the likelihood of transplant referral between Black and White patients (OR = 0.71, 95% CI 0.22 - 2.3, p = 0.56). However, both Black (OR = 16, 95% CI 3.3 - 77, p = 0.0006) and White (OR = 22, 95% CI 3.4 - 150, p = 0.0013) patients were more likely to be referred for transplant when compared with Hispanic patients. Odds of transplant refusal were not different across race/ethnic groups. CONCLUSION: Hispanic patients are disadvantaged in the referral for renal transplant when compared to Black and White patients for reasons unclear at this time.


Assuntos
Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Transplante de Rim/estatística & dados numéricos , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(35): 762-765, 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487273

RESUMO

Approximately 700 women die in the United States each year as a result of pregnancy or its complications, and significant racial/ethnic disparities in pregnancy-related mortality exist (1). Data from CDC's Pregnancy Mortality Surveillance System (PMSS) for 2007-2016 were analyzed. Pregnancy-related mortality ratios (PRMRs) (i.e., pregnancy-related deaths per 100,000 live births) were analyzed by demographic characteristics and state PRMR tertiles (i.e., states with lowest, middle, and highest PRMR); cause-specific proportionate mortality by race/ethnicity also was calculated. Over the period analyzed, the U.S. overall PRMR was 16.7 pregnancy-related deaths per 100,000 births. Non-Hispanic black (black) and non-Hispanic American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) women experienced higher PRMRs (40.8 and 29.7, respectively) than did all other racial/ethnic groups. This disparity persisted over time and across age groups. The PRMR for black and AI/AN women aged ≥30 years was approximately four to five times that for their white counterparts. PRMRs for black and AI/AN women with at least some college education were higher than those for all other racial/ethnic groups with less than a high school diploma. Among state PRMR tertiles, the PRMRs for black and AI/AN women were 2.8-3.3 and 1.7-3.3 times as high, respectively, as those for non-Hispanic white (white) women. Significant differences in cause-specific proportionate mortality were observed among racial/ethnic populations. Strategies to address racial/ethnic disparities in pregnancy-related deaths, including improving women's health and access to quality care in the preconception, pregnancy, and postpartum periods, can be implemented through coordination at the community, health facility, patient, provider, and system levels.


Assuntos
Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Complicações na Gravidez/etnologia , Complicações na Gravidez/mortalidade , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31480556

RESUMO

This study contributes to previous research by advancing a "racialized structural vulnerability" framework and presenting a new empirical analysis of the relationship between neighborhood Asian, Black, and Latinx composition; extrinsic and intrinsic vulnerability; and PM2.5 exposures in California with secondary data from 2004-2014. Principal component analyses revealed that tract Latinx composition was highly correlated with extrinsic vulnerability (economic disadvantage and limited English-speaking ability), and that tract Black composition was highly correlated with intrinsic vulnerability (elevated prevalence of asthma-related emergency department visits and low birth weight). Spatial lag regression models tested hypotheses regarding the association between Asian, Black, and Latinx population vulnerability factors and the 2009-2011 annual average PM2.5 percentile rankings, net of emissions and spatial covariates. Results indicated that the percent Latinx population, followed by the regional clustering of PM2.5, and the percent of non-Latinx Black and non-Latinx Asian population were the strongest positive multivariable correlates of PM2.5 percentile rankings, net of other factors. Additional analyses suggested that despite shifting demographic and spatial correlates of 2012-2014 PM2.5 exposures, the tracts' Black and Latinx composition and location in the San Joaquin Valley remain important vulnerability factors with implications for future research and policy.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Material Particulado , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Atmosféricos , Asma , California , Análise por Conglomerados , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Análise de Componente Principal , Fatores de Risco , Populações Vulneráveis
19.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1069, 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395043

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The minimum wage creates both winners (through wage increases) and-potentially-losers (through job losses). Research on the health effects of minimum wage policies has been sparse, particularly across gender and among racial/ethnic minorities. We test the impact of minimum wage increases on health outcomes, health behaviors and access to healthcare across gender and race/ethnicity. METHODS: Using 1993-2014 data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, variables for access to healthcare (insurance coverage, missed care due to cost), health behavior (exercise, fruit, vegetable and alcohol consumption) and health outcomes (self-reported fair/poor health, hypertension, poor physical health days, poor mental health days, unhealthy days) were regressed on the product of the ratio of the 1-year lagged minimum wage to the state median wage and the national median wage, using Linear Probability Models and Poisson Regression Models for dichotomous and count outcomes, respectively. Regressions (total population, gender-stratified, race/ethnicity stratified (white, black, Latino), gender/race/ethnicity stratified and total population with interaction terms for race/ethnicity/gender) controlled for state-level ecologic variables, individual-level demographics and fixed-effects (state and year). Results were adjusted for complex survey design and Bonferroni corrections were applied to p-values such that the level of statistical significance for a given outcome category was 0.05 divided by the number of outcomes in that category. RESULTS: Minimum wage increases were positively associated with access to care among white men, black women and Latino women but negatively associated with access to care among white women and black men. With respect to dietary quality, minimum wage increases were associated with improvements, mixed results and negative impacts among white, Latino and black men, respectively. With respect to health outcomes, minimum wage increases were associated with positive, negative and mixed impacts among white women, white men and Latino men, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: While there is enthusiasm for minimum wage increases in the public health community, such increases may have to be paired with deliberate strategies to protect workers that might be vulnerable to economic dislocation. Such strategies may include more robust unemployment insurance or increased access to job training for displaced workers.


Assuntos
Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Salários e Benefícios/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
20.
S Afr Med J ; 109(8): 597-604, 2019 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31456556

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Amenable mortality comprises causes of death that should not occur with timely and effective healthcare. It is commonly used to assess healthcare performance. It could also be used to assess the effectiveness of the pending National Health Insurance (NHI) in South Africa (SA), but to do this, the level and distribution of amenable mortality are required using a local list of amenable causes. OBJECTIVES: To establish an amenable cause-of-death list appropriate for SA and to determine the levels, trends, geographical distribution, population group differences and international comparisons of mortality amenable to healthcare. METHODS: A local list of amenable causes of death was developed with input from public health and disease-specific medical experts. The Second SA National Burden of Disease estimates were reclassified into amenable mortality. Analyses of age-standardised death rates (ASDRs) and amenable mortality proportions were conducted by province and population group between 1997 and 2012. Excess mortality in relation to the best- performing province and population group was also analysed. ASDRs for SA were compared with those of European Union (EU) and Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries. RESULTS: The local list of amenable conditions contained 45 causes of death. There were large disparities in amenable mortality between provinces and population groups, which did not attenuate over time. There was an average annual percentage increase in amenable ASDRs, but when HIV/AIDS was excluded from the analysis there was an average annual decrease of 1.12%. In the post-peak HIV/AIDS period between 2008 and 2012, an annual average of 207 810 amenable deaths could have been saved if all provinces had the same ASDR as the Western Cape. SA's ASDR was 2.6 and 2.2 times higher than that of the worst-performing EU and OECD country, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study known to the authors that has established a local amenable mortality list and described the epidemiology of amenable mortality in SA. Amenable mortality could be used as an indicator of the performance of the pending NHI over time and, in combination with other indicators, could identify areas of the health system that require improvement. Benchmarking could also quantify gaps in health system performance between geographical regions and indicate whether these are reduced with time.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte/tendências , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Mortalidade/tendências , Estudos Retrospectivos , África do Sul/epidemiologia
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