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1.
BMC Ecol ; 19(1): 35, 2019 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31510977

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Japan, invasive raccoons cause severe ecological and social problems by transmitting pathogens to humans, livestock, and native species, causing substantial crop damage, and competing with native species. Possible competition between invasive raccoons and native raccoon dogs is of concern in Japan because Japanese raccoon dogs have a limited distribution and are native only to Japan and the two species have similar characteristics. We assessed potential competition between raccoons and raccoon dogs by comparing feeding habits and habitat use. RESULTS: Both species were captured in Hokkaido, Japan from 2004 to 2017. More raccoons were captured close to agricultural land at the forest periphery (70.1%, 358/511); conversely, more raccoon dogs were captured in the forest core (74.9%, 253/338). Feeding habits were then examined by fecal analysis and stable isotope analyses. Fecal analysis revealed both species to be opportunistic omnivores that consumed easily found food items. However, raccoon feces contained more crops, whereas raccoon dog feces contained more insects, reflecting the different locations in which the species were trapped. Moreover, stable isotope ratios were significantly higher in raccoons than raccoon dogs (Corn has the highest carbon stable isotope (δ13C) value, and amphibians and reptiles are high in nitrogen stable isotope (δ15N); forest resources such as insects and wild fruits are low in δ13C and δ15N). CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that both species ate similar food types, but their food preferences appeared to differ. Raccoon and raccoon dog habitat use also differed, possibly because the two species inhabited areas where they could easily obtain their preferred foods. Therefore, the current feeding habits and habitat use of raccoons do not appear to overlap sufficiently with those of raccoon dogs to impact the latter. The results of this study, particularly the stable isotope data, may provide a useful precedent for future studies of competition in medium-sized mammals, particularly canids.


Assuntos
Cães Guaxinins , Guaxinins , Animais , Ecossistema , Hábitos , Humanos , Japão
2.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 22(9): 1218-1223, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489857

RESUMO

Aim: This study aimed to determine the sleeping habits and sleeping periods of kindergarten children, in order to analyze the problems related to sleep hygiene and determine the underlying factors. Methods: The sample size of this cross-sectional study consisted of 390 children. A questionnaire filled in by the parents was used as the data collection tool. The data were analyzed with appropriate statistical tests. Results: According to the mothers, 77.2% of the children had their own room at home. Thirty nine percent of children slept with the full light on in their room, 50.3% slept with night light on in their room, 12.3% slept with the radio/television on in their room. Infant sleep practices found in this study are swaddling (18.5%), wrapping of the infant's arms (21.0%), and rocking (58.7%). Conclusions: In terms of sleep hygiene, the vast majority of the children slept in a bright environment, and there were electronic appliances in the room. Common infant-transition-to-sleep practices observed were wrapping their arms and swaddling them. In our point of view, awareness training for parents about the subject will support sleep hygiene practices.


Assuntos
Hábitos , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/prevenção & controle , Sono/fisiologia , Criança , Saúde da Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mães , Pais , Instituições Acadêmicas , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Eur J Paediatr Dent ; 20(3): 183-188, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489815

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of this cross-sectional (analytical) study was to investigate the influence of nutritional and hygienic habits on oral health in children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: There were 143 children aged six to thirteen years attending primary school Blato, Blato, Croatia who participated in this study. Children were divided into groups according to age in younger primary school children (6-9 years old, n=82) and older primary school children (10-13 years old, n=61): according to gender in males (n=53) and females (n=90). The study was conducted by using a questionnaire of nutritional and hygienic habits and clinical dental examination. Decayed-missed-filled tooth index (DMFT) and plaque index were calculated. DIAGNOdent pen was used to assess caries presence on the first permanent molars. RESULTS: There are no statistically significant differences in the consumption of sugar and sweetened beverages among the tested groups. There were 124 (86.71%) children brushing their teeth one or more times a day. The DMFT index for older children (10-13 years, DMFT=2.66±2.45) was significantly higher (p <0.001) than the DMFT index in younger children (6-9 years, DMFT=1.08±1.36). There is no statistically significant difference in the DMFT index between the sexes (p = 0.405). Results obtained by comparing the plaque index value among children of different ages and sexes show that there are no statistically significant differences among the comparable groups as well as the values obtained with the device KaVo DIAGNodent Pen in both groups (age and gender). STATISTICS: Statistical analysis was carried out using the MedCalc for Windows software version 11.5.1.0 (MedCalc software, Mariakerke, Belgium). For comparison of continuous variables, the Mann-Whitney U test was used, and a ?2-test was used to compare the category variables. The level of statistical significance was set at p <0.05. CONCLUSION: Results of this study showed that DMFT index is higher in older children than in younger children although their nutritional and oral hygiene habits are similar. Oral health in children of different sexes was the same as well as their nutritional and oral hygiene habits.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Higiene Bucal , Adolescente , Idoso , Bélgica , Criança , Croácia , Estudos Transversais , Índice CPO , Feminino , Hábitos , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Bucal
4.
Eur J Paediatr Dent ; 20(3): 204-208, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489819

RESUMO

AIM: This cross-sectional study was carried out to evaluate the prevalence of malocclusion and associated factors in preschoolers with the aim of assessing the existence of an association between bad habits and mouth breathing with the most severe malocclusions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A sample of 1616 children aged 3-6 years was visited by applying the Baby ROMA index, an orthodontic treatment need index for preschool age. The following were searched: the prevalence of malocclusion, the association of bad habits and mouth breathing with malocclusion, how often are found in association and how this association is statistically significant. Chi-square and Fischer test were applied to verify the statistical significance of the association between the variables. RESULTS: The data show that 38% of the sample need orthodontic treatment and 46% have signs of malocclusion of less severe degree that require a close monitoring and the elimination of risk factors so that they can improve spontaneously with growth. Moreover the prevalence of bad habits and oral breathing increases with increasing severity of the malocclusion, and sucking habits and oral breathing are both closely related to anterior open bite, posterior crossbite and increased overjet. CONCLUSIONS: In the context of prevention and early treatment of disorders of the craniofacial growth, bad habits and mouth breathing, being risk factors of malocclusion, should be intercepted and corrected early on to prevent the development of malocclusion, or the worsening of existing ones. From this point of view it is important to follow the patients with a multidisciplinary approach.


Assuntos
Má Oclusão , Respiração Bucal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Sucção de Dedo , Hábitos , Humanos , Lactente , Itália , Prevalência
5.
Ideggyogy Sz ; 72(7-8): 264-272, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31517459

RESUMO

Background and purpose: Objective - Our aim is to evaluate sleep habits, sleep quality and influencing factors among preschool- and schoolchildren. Methods: Two questionnaires were recorded. Questionnaire 1 dealt with sleeping habits, breastfeeding and health behavior of preschool children and infant, and it contained the abbreviated version of the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire. Questionnaire 2 dealt with health behavior and the application of sleep hygiene rules, as well as it contained the Athens Insomnia Scale. Subjects - We assessed a total of 1063 questionnaires: 516 kindergarten children participated in our online survey across the country; 547 primary and secondary school students participated in the 2nd questionnaire survey in Szolnok. Results: Parents' observation shows that the average nighttime sleeping time of kindergarten children is 10 hours 20 minutes on weekdays and 10 hours 36 minutes on weekends. The most popular sleeping habits in kindergarten age: teal reading (65.1%) and co-sleeping (42.8%). Parents of infants used breastfeeding (50.4%) and rocking (43.2%) most frequently before sleep. Co-sleeping has a positive influence on the length of lactation. Among the preschool sleeping habits we have proved a number of positive effects of teal reading, while watching television have negative effects. The sleep quality of school-age children according to the Athens Insomnia Scale is 6.11 points (SD: 4.11), 19% of the children are insomniac. Their sleep time is 7 hours 31 minutes on weekdays and 9 hours 30 minutes on weekends. The usage of good health behavior and sleep hygiene rules positively influence sleep quality and sleep duration. Conclusion: With our results, we would like to draw the attention of children and parents to the importance of sleeping and using sleep hygiene rules.


Assuntos
Hábitos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Higiene do Sono , Sono/fisiologia , Televisão , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Iluminação , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 264: 916-919, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438057

RESUMO

The habits and lifestyles are the fundamental factors in the control of cardiovascular risk. Patients who have had a cerebrovascular accident (CVA) have a high risk of having a new event with similar characteristics. The exponentially growing success, penetration and adherence of the new communication technologies, based on applications (APPs), allows to use them to obtain information and influence the risk factors. We propose that empowering patients in their disease can make a more efficient management of it. For this reason, we designed and developed a system which integrates a mobile application and a web application. This system also makes use of peripheral devices to monitor patients and allow the automatic acquisition of information to enable the characterization of this kind of patients in relation to habits and lifestyle. At the same time, the system can also empower these patients with their disease to do secondary prevention.


Assuntos
Aplicativos Móveis , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Hábitos , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Prevenção Secundária , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle
7.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1009851

RESUMO

A mordida aberta anterior é uma maloclusão caracterizada por um trespasse vertical negativo entre os dentes anteriores, quando os dentes posteriores estão em oclusão. Ela pode ser desenvolvida através de diversos fatores etiológicos, tais como os hábitos bucais deletérios (sucção de polegar ou chupeta), anquilose dentária, respiração bucal, amígdalas hipertróficas, interposição lingual e anormalidades no processo de erupção. Esses fatores interferem diretamente no crescimento e desenvolvimento normais das estruturas faciais. É uma das maloclusões de maior comprometimento estético-funcional, além das alterações dentárias e esqueléticas, e seu tratamento é constituído de diferentes abordagens, pois depende de suaclassificação e severidade. O objetivo deste trabalho é destacar a importância do diagnóstico e tratamento da mordida aberta anterior, bem como mostrar o que pode causá-la, interferindo no correto funcionamento do sistema estomatognático e bem-estar do paciente


The anterior open bite is a malocclusion characterized by a negative vertical overlap between the anterior teeth when the posterior teeth are in occlusion. It can be developed through several etiological factors, such as deleterious oral habits (thumb sucking or pacifiers), dental ankylosis, mouth breathing, hypertrophic tonsils, lingual interposition, and abnormalities in the eruption process. These factors directly interfere with the normal growth and development of facial structures. It is one of the malocclusions of greater aesthetic-functional impairment, besides the dental and skeletal alterations, and its treatment is constituted of different approaches, as it depends on its classification and severity. The objective of this study is to highlight the importance of diagnosis and treatment of anterior open bite, as well as to show what can cause it, interfering in the correct functioning of the stomatognathic system and the patient's well-being.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Mordida Aberta , Sucção de Dedo , Má Oclusão , Hábitos
8.
J Contemp Dent Pract ; 20(4): 428-433, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31308272

RESUMO

AIMS: To investigate the relationship between tooth loss, age, gender, and its correlation with several local habits that affect oral health, especially the khat, and Shammah use. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The current study included 580 participants. They were divided into five age groups15-24, 25-34, 35-44, 45-54, and 55-64-years-old. Clinical and radiographic examinations were done for each subject. Reasons for teeth loss, age, gender, khat chewing, Shammah use, smoking, and use of oral hygiene aids were recorded. The data were statically analyzed using Chi-square tests of the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) program. The p value < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Caries was the most cause of tooth loss in the young age groups 15-34 years-old and was significantly more common compared to the older groups (p < 0.001). The periodontal diseases increased with age and progressively became the main cause of tooth loss of 100% in the 55-64 years-old group. Orthodontic reasons for tooth extractions were limited to the young age group 15-24 years old. Third molars were the highest extracted teeth in the maxillary arch, while the first molars were the highest in the mandibular arch. Anterior teeth were the lowest extracted teeth ranging from 9; 1.6% in maxillary teeth and 9-29; 1.6-5% in the mandibular teeth. CONCLUSION: This study highlights the importance of local habitual use of khat 52.9% and Shammah 8.1% besides smoking in tooth loss. Caries was the main cause of tooth loss in the young age groups, followed by the periodontal disease in the older age. Molars were frequently extracted followed by maxillary first premolars. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Limited number of epidemiological surveys were carried out in Taiz Governorate to investigate the reasons of tooth loss and its relationship with social habits like Khat chewing, Shammah use, smoking, using of Miswake and toothbrush. The results of this study will guide us to develop a preventive program which may minimize tooth loss and its adverse effects.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Doenças Periodontais , Perda de Dente , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Hábitos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Extração Dentária , Iêmen , Adulto Jovem
9.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ; 22(7): 477-485, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295024

RESUMO

Social media users often experience the difficulty of controlling their social media use while having important tasks to do. Recent theorizing on self-control and media use proposes four possible factors (immediate gratifications, habitual checking, ubiquity, and notifications) that might cause social media self-control failure (SMSCF). We tested whether these factors indeed predict SMSCF among 590 daily social media users. Results showed that, when people checked social media habitually, or strongly experienced the online ubiquity of social media, or perceived strong disturbances from social media notifications, they were more likely to fail to control their social media use. However, social media-related immediate gratifications did not predict SMSCF. This study empirically identified social media-related factors that might induce social media users' self-control difficulty.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Hábitos , Autocontrole/psicologia , Mídias Sociais , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino
10.
Int J Dent Hyg ; 17(4): 359-368, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31125488

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to compare the self-reported oral health knowledge, habits and attitudes of adults in Portugal, Romania and Sweden, each benefitting from a different oral health system. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1081 adults in the three countries, using an adapted version of the WHO oral health questionnaire. This survey took place between November 2015 and June 2016. RESULTS: The mean age of the respondents was 46.85 with 95% CI (45.84, 47.86). Over 85% of the Portuguese and the Swedish, but only 55% of the Romanians, reported having 20 or more teeth left (P < 0.001). Most Swedes visit the dental office regularly, but only 50.5% of the Portuguese and 20.6% of the Romanians do so (P < 0.001). Interdental cleaning aids and fluoridated toothpaste were used the most in Sweden and the least in Romania. Daily consumption of sweets was lowest for Portugal and highest for Romania (P < 0.001), and daily intake of fresh fruits and vegetables was lowest for Sweden (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: There is a difference between the three countries regarding oral health, diet, dental attendance and oral health-related quality of life, with Romania being in most need of improvement in these areas. The differences could be explained by the distinct healthcare systems adopted by the countries.


Assuntos
Saúde Bucal , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Hábitos , Humanos , Portugal , Romênia , Autorrelato , Suécia
12.
Environ Pollut ; 252(Pt A): 146-154, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146229

RESUMO

The accumulation of 17 human pharmaceuticals (HPs) was investigated in the muscle of three fish species characteristic of the "Rio de la Plata Basin" with different feeding habits and of relevance for human consumption: Megaleporinus obtusidens, Salminus brasiliensis, and Prochilodus lineatus. Fish were sampled in fall and spring from 8 localities distributed along 500 Km of the Uruguay River. Atenolol and carbamazepine were the most frequently detected HPs (>50%), but at concentrations always below 1 µg/kg wet weight (w/w). Hydrochlorothiazide, metoprolol, venlafaxine, propranolol, codeine, and the carbamazepine metabolite, 2-hydroxycarbamazepine, were accumulated at higher levels showing maximum concentrations between 1 and 10 µg/kg (w/w), but infrequently (<50%). The other HPs were always below 1 µg/kg (w/w) and at frequencies lower than 50%. Distinctive accumulation patterns were observed among species at different trophic levels. However, biomagnification trends were not identified for any compound. The highest number and concentration of HPs were found in M. obtusidens (omnivorous), followed by P. lineatus (detritivorous), and lastly S. brasiliensis (piscivorous). The most recurrent HPs (i.e. carbamazepine and atenolol) were present in all species, but others exclusively in one. Geographical variations were only found for carbamazepine and atenolol in M. obtusidens and P. lineatus, showing higher concentrations in localities closer to the Rio de la Plata estuary. Differences in the HPs concentrations among seasons were not identified. Acceptable daily intake and predicted no effect concentrations would indicate that measured muscle concentrations in fish from the Uruguay River do not pose a serious risk for human consumption nowadays. Further studies will be necessary for assessing the potential adverse effects on studied fish species.


Assuntos
Caraciformes/metabolismo , Peixes/metabolismo , Músculos/química , Preparações Farmacêuticas/análise , Rios/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Estuários , Hábitos , Humanos , Alimentos Marinhos , Estações do Ano , América do Sul , Uruguai
13.
Wiad Lek ; 72(3): 384-390, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31050985

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Introduction: The relevance of scientific research is determined by the significant importance of lifestyle in preserving and strengthening the health of the population especially young people what determines the future of any society. Among the numerous youth lifestyle characteristics, particular attention is paid to behavioral factors, including the presence of bad habits. Data of scientific publications indicate a significant prevalence in student environment of tobacco-smoking, consumption of alcohol and other manifestations of unhealthy behavior, which are powerful factors of the risk of developing non-communicable diseases, injuries and other health disorders. One of the most important tasks is the formation and establishment of a healthy lifestyle among medical students, because in the future they will not only treat patients, but also carry out professional activities for the prevention of diseases and risk factors for their development, correcting and overcoming already existing risk factors. Doctors must be conscious supporter of healthy lifestyle and serve as a role model for their patients. The aim: To identify the features of prevalence of tobacco use, alcohol and energy drinks among medical students and justify ways of counteraction based on the results of own sociological research, scientific literature, WHO program and strategic documents. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: An anonymous questioning was covered 948 students of institutions of higher medical education including 34.5% of men and 65.5% women. It had been used bibliosemantic, sociological and medical-statistical methods. The information base of the study included program and strategic documents of WHO, sources of scientific literature, data of own research. Statistical processing of the obtained results was carried out using generally accepted medical statistics methods using licensed programs (SPSS, STATA, Statistica 10.0 and MS Excel XP). RESULTS: Results: The results of the study indicate a sufficient significant prevalence in the student environment of tobacco, alcohol and energy drinks. Third part of students consumes tobacco, of which 15.2 per 100 respondents are regular smokers with experience, 9.3 per 100 respondents smoked 10 or more cigarettes a day. A new negative trend is the use of hookah by almost half of the interviewed students and consumption of electronic cigarettes (8.5 per 100 respondents), what must be taken into account when substantiating counteraction ways. Three quarters of the respondents consume alcohol. Despite the prevailing consumption of low-alcohol beverages and wine by respondents, every seventh of the respondents consumes strong drinks. The reason for the worrying is the fact that 13.6 ± 4.7 in 100 respondents combine the consuming of energy drinks with alcohol. By 4.9 per 100 students interviewed, energy drink increases the desire to drink alcohol. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: The revealed connection between tobacco, alcohol and energy drinks consumption among medical students proves the need for an integrated approach to reduce the prevalence of risk factors in the context of a healthy lifestyle.


Assuntos
Educação Médica , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Estudantes de Medicina , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Feminino , Hábitos , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
An Bras Dermatol ; 94(2): 172-181, 2019 Mar-Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31090822

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Excessive sun exposure is the major risk factor for skin cancer. Thus, sun exposure behavior is the major focus for prevention of this disease, since it is potentially modifiable. Increasing the knowledge on sun related habits and other skin cancer risk factors is fundamental in the development of preventive programs, especially when directed to young people. OBJECTIVES: To assess the photoprotection habits and the knowledge about skin cancer in college students. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study from Oct. 16 to Feb. 17, including 371 students from the Federal University of Santa Maria, RS, Brazil, through a self-administered questionnaire. RESULTS: The level of knowledge about skin cancer and photoprotection was unsatisfactory in more than 10% of the students. The occurrence of sunburn was extremely high among students, and 25% reported at least one episode of second degree sunburn. Proper use of sunscreen was referred by only 34% of individuals. Students who reported having received photo education in college were associated with a more consistent use of sunscreen. STUDY LIMITATIONS: health area represented a large part of the sample; instrument validated outside Brazil. CONCLUSIONS: Young people are unaware of basic information about sun protection and exposure. Even among those with proper knowledge, the use of photoprotective measures is very low. The sun exposure has shown to be excessive in most of the students, which makes this population an important target for photo-educational measures.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Hábitos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Estudantes/psicologia , Luz Solar , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Pigmentação da Pele , Queimadura Solar/prevenção & controle , Protetores Solares/uso terapêutico , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Soins Gerontol ; 24(137): 38-42, 2019.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31084808

RESUMO

Certain inappropriate routines can have a negative impact on sleep, leading to sleep disorders or even aggravating pre-existing sleep pathologies. An observational study of 176 patients aged 60 or over, suffering from chronic insomnia, has been carried out in order to find out more about these patients' sleep habits and lifestyles and to identify those that can be corrected to improve insomnia in this population.


Assuntos
Hábitos , Estilo de Vida , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/epidemiologia , Sono , Idoso , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30939732

RESUMO

The purpose of the paper was a cross sectional study to evaluate the use of sugars and selected sweeteners by Polish consumers in their diet. The survey was conducted using the direct interview method on the group of 2000 adults declaring the consumption of sugar or sweeteners. The ANOVA test and multi-dimensional cluster analysis was used to the data interpretation (p < 0.05). It was stated that the consumption of sugar among consumers remained at a high level. Respondents declared taking up the activities towards reducing sugar intake in their diet mostly due to health-related reasons. It was emphasized in particular by women taking part in the survey. The most frequent way to limit the amount of sugar in the diet consisted in choosing sweeteners, mainly stevia and xylitol. However, the knowledge concerning steviol glycosides among the consumers was not extensive. Results are the source of up-to-date information concerning the consumption of sugar and sweeteners. Consumers to whom nutrition campaigns on the necessity to limit the content of sugar in the diet are worth addressing were identified. A hypothesis, that consumers are currently more aware of the negative influence of increased sugar consumption on their health and they aim at limiting the content of added sugar in their diet, was confirmed.


Assuntos
Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Açúcares da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Edulcorantes/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hábitos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polônia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Rev. enferm. Inst. Mex. Seguro Soc ; 27(2): 64-72, Abr-Jun 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1015111

RESUMO

Introducción: en el mundo hay aproximadamente 1800 millones de jóvenes entre los 10 y 24 años de edad, los cuales constituyen 25% del total de la población mundial. Esto genera un potencial de avance económico y social y, en consecuencia, un incremento en la incidencia de enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles (ECNT), infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS) y adicciones. Objetivo: analizar en estudiantes universitarios de nuevo ingreso el nivel de autopercepción de capacidades de autocuidado (CAc) ante las ECNT, la salud sexual y reproductiva (SSyR) y prevención de adicciones con base en la teoría del déficit de autocuidado. Métodos: estudio analítico correlacional en una muestra por conveniencia de 2342 estudiantes de nuevo ingreso. Se utilizó un instrumento diseñado y validado en el año 2015 para identificar las CAc en ECNT, SSyR, y prevención de adicciones, con un alfa de Cronbach de 0.88. Asimismo, se hizo un análisis bivariado, con las pruebas no paramétricas U de Mann-Whitney, H de Kruskal-Wallis y ANOVA de Kruskal-Wallis. También se empleó la prueba de correlación Rho de Spearman (p < 0.05). Resultados: el nivel de autopercepción de los estudiantes en cuanto a sus CAc fue bueno (61%) ante las ECNT, la SSyR y la prevención de adicciones. Se encontró que el nivel de autopercepción de CAc es diferente entre los estudiantes de las tres divisiones académicas (p = 0.000). Conclusiones: aunque la autopercepción de las CAc en los estudiantes tiene un nivel bueno, es necesario que durante la trayectoria académica se promuevan hábitos de vida saludables.


Introduction: In the world there are approximately 1800 million young people between 10 and 24 years, which constitute 25% of total world population. This creates a potential for economic and social advance and, consequently, an increase in the incidence of chronic non- communicable diseases (CNCDs), sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and addictions. Objective: To analyze the level of self-perception of self-care skills (SCS) in new university students in the presence of CNCDs, sexual and reproductive health (SRH) and addiction prevention. Methods: Correlational analytical study in a convenience sample of 2342 new students. An instrument designed and validated in 2015 was used to identify SCSs in CNCDs, SRH, and addiction prevention, with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.88. It was performed a bivariate analysis, with non-parametric tests Mann-Whitney U, Kruskal-Wallis H, and Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA. It was used Rho Spearman's correlation test (p < 0.05) as well. Results: The level of self-perception of the students in terms of their SCSs was good (61%) in the face of CNCDs, SRH and addiction prevention. It was found that the level of self-perception of SCSs is different among the students of the three academic divisions (p = 0.000). Conclusions: Although self-perception of SCS in the students is at a good level, it is necessary the promotion of healthy habits of living during the academic career.


Assuntos
Humanos , Autocuidado , Autoimagem , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Doença Crônica , Saúde Sexual e Reprodutiva , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar , Hábitos , México
18.
Compend Contin Educ Dent ; 40(3): 149-154; quiz 155, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30829496

RESUMO

Interceptive orthodontics is intended to optimize dentofacial growth and development. This treatment concept attempts to prevent or minimize dental development abnormalities while enabling craniofacial growth modification. Utilizing preventative holistic concepts, it also focuses on habit intervention. Interceptive orthodontics in children entails monitoring for a variety of conditions, including excessive space, severe crowding, open or deep bites, anterior and/or posterior crossbites, severe overjet, and abnormal eruption patterns. This article will review the etiologies of these clinical presentations, categorizing them into three groupings: abnormalities in development, craniofacial growth alterations, and oral habits. The prevention of orthodontic issues also will be discussed.


Assuntos
Hábitos , Má Oclusão/prevenção & controle , Ortodontia Interceptora , Criança , Humanos , Má Oclusão/etiologia , Má Oclusão/terapia , Erupção Dentária
19.
J Drugs Dermatol ; 18(3): 246-250, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30909328

RESUMO

The purpose of this review is to discuss the disease process and wide variety of treatment options for psuedofolliculitis barbae (PFB), or razor bumps. PFB is caused by hair follicles penetrating the skin and causing an inflammatory response. PFB can occur to anyone who shaves, and is more likely in those with curly hair. PFB can cause significant hyperpigmentation and scarring, more noticeable in darker skin types. PFB can be treated with a variety of topical, systemic, or light/laser therapies. Minimal progress has been made in treating PFB in recent years, partially due to the success of well-established current treatments discussed in this review. The most effective treatments involve a multifaceted approach including behavioral changes in shaving habits as well as the use of topical therapies. J Drugs Dermatol. 2019;18(3):246-250.


Assuntos
Fármacos Dermatológicos/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Cabelo/terapia , Remoção de Cabelo/efeitos adversos , Terapia com Luz de Baixa Intensidade/métodos , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Administração Cutânea , Administração Oral , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Face , Hábitos , Doenças do Cabelo/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cabelo/etiologia , Folículo Piloso/patologia , Folículo Piloso/efeitos da radiação , Humanos , Queratinas Específicas do Cabelo/genética , Queratinas Tipo II/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 69(3): 373-377, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30890830

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the perceptions of parents about constraint-induced movement therapy to treat their children with cerebral palsy. METHODS: The qualitative study was conducted in three rehabilitation centres situated in Lahore, Pakistan, from January to July 2014, and comprised parents with enough experience of constraint-induced movement therapy. Therapy session was given to children with hemiplegic spastic cerebral palsy for 4 5 hours per day for at least a month. The interview was recorded and then transcribed verbatim. RESULTS: There were 5 sets of parents whose children were aged 4-12 years. Five main themes emerged from the interviews and they were: child behaviour towards the therapy is variable; increase in cognitive level of the child; group therapy is more beneficial than individual therapy; after therapy the children developed a habit to use the affected hand in their activities; and other than change in the physical condition, parents also observed change in the social behaviour. CONCLUSIONS: Constraint-induced movement therapy seemed to offer a promising opportunity to tackle and promote both social and physical outcomes in cerebral palsy children.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Paralisia Cerebral/reabilitação , Pais , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Restrição Física , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Hábitos , Humanos , Masculino , Paquistão , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Centros de Reabilitação , Comportamento Social
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