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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053701

RESUMO

The purpose of this work is to evaluate the effects of confinement due to COVID-19 isolation on visual function, considering insufficient convergence as one of the possible effects of living the whole day in a reduced space. We pass a Convergence Insufficiency Symptom Survey (CISS) among 235 people to detect their habits before and after 25 confinement days. The data collection protocol consisted on a Google forms questionnaire included two parts: the first with current data (isolation period) and a second with pre-isolation period data. Differences between the pre-isolation and isolation period were calculated using the related paired T-tests. When statistically significant differences were found, the effect size was estimated using the Cohen's d index (d). The reduction in physical activity levels during confinement were related to the increase in total number of minutes of screen consumption from 433.49 min to 623.97 min per day (d = 0.67; 44.01%). The CISS scores were increased by more than 43% during confinement. The increase in convergence insufficiency was 100% after the studied isolation period of 25 days. The 92.19% increase in television use during 25 days of confinement is not responsible for the increase in convergence insufficiency. However, due to the increase in the use of PCs in this period, there is a notable increase in convergence insufficiency. Therefore, we can conclude that not all increases in tasks with electronic devices are responsible for the increase in convergence insufficiency.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Hábitos , Transtornos da Motilidade Ocular/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 2163-2166, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018435

RESUMO

Different approaches have been proposed in the literature to detect the fall of an elderly person. In this paper, we propose a fall detection method based on the classification of parameters extracted from depth images. Three supervised learning methods are compared: decision tree, K-Nearest Neighbors (K-NN) and Random Forests (RF). The methods have been tested on a database of depth images recorded in a nursing home over a period of 43 days. The Random Forests based method yields the best results, achieving 93% sensitivity and 100% specificity when we restrict our study around the bed. Furthermore, this paper also proposes a 37 days follow-up of the person, to try and estimate his or her daily habits.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas , Aprendizado de Máquina , Algoritmos , Feminino , Hábitos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
3.
Psicothema ; 32(4): 490-500, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33073754

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization has highlighted the importance of studying the consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health. The aim of this study is to examine the role of age in the early psychological responses to the pandemic in a Spanish community sample, focusing on how different generations coped with it. METHOD: An online survey was conducted during the early stages of the quarantine. Sociodemographic, health and behavioral variables were compared for five age groups. Mental health was assessed by the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) and psychological impacts were assessed by the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R). RESULTS: 3,524 participants were included (Mage = 39.24, SDage = 12.00). Participants aged between 18 and 33 years old showed more hyperactivation and evitation, were more depressed, anxious and stressed. Those aged between 26 and 33 years old showed more intrusion. Those aged between 18 and 25 years old suffered more sleep disturbances, claustrophobia and somatization and maintained worse routines. Elderly people showed better psychological responses in general. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides initial evidence that the negative psychological impact of COVID-19 pandemic hits young people harder. These results should be taken into account when developing specific evidence-based strategies.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Ansiedade/etiologia , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/etiologia , Feminino , Hábitos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Amostragem , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Espanha , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32977571

RESUMO

The declaration of the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in drastic changes to life worldwide. In Spain, the state of alarm caused the confinement of 47 million inhabitants, affecting every aspect of life. This study analyzes the impact of such confinement on the health of men and women, as well as the effect on the practice of physical activity (PA) of both genders. An ad hoc questionnaire was administered. A total of 1046 people (48.57% men and 51.43% women) with an average age of 40 years (SD ± 13.35) participated in this study. For both genders, there was a significant decrease in quantity and intensity (p = 0.000). There was also an alteration in the type of PA practiced, shifting from cardiorespiratory exercise and muscular fitness to flexibility and neuromotor exercise (especially in women). The most popular way of practicing PA during the confinement was "autonomously" (statistically higher in men (M = 3.58) compared to women (M = 3.18)) and the most frequent format was "virtual" (statistically higher in women (M = 2.81) compared to men (M = 1.94)). Confinement modifies the habits of PA practice, especially in men. Both genders put their health and quality of life at risk by not following the PA guidelines of the health authorities World Health Organization (WHO) and American College of Sports Medicine ACSM). These conclusions highlight the importance of considering gender when designing programs and PA formats for the promotion of physical activity to reduce the existing gender divide.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Quarentena/psicologia , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hábitos , Humanos , Masculino , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Espanha/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Acta Biomed ; 91(3): e2020043, 2020 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921736

RESUMO

The Sars-Cov2 Pandemic in Italy gave rise in Piacenza, northern Emilia, to one of the most extensive contagions ever recorded in Italy, the area being hit from the beginning of February, with all its dramatic force and enormous impact in terms of human lives, upsetting social lives. Piacenza is only few kilometers away from what was unexpectedly identified as the first known outbreak in the Western world, registered in Codogno, a small town in the province of Lodi, where the first verified Italian case of the infection Covid- 19 was isolated.Due to the advancement of the contagion and the exponential increase of Covid cases which required hospitalization all the surgical wards of our Hospital, except for the Emergency Surgery of the Hospital's central hub "Guglielmo da Saliceto" of Piacenza, were converted into Covid wards with various degrees of management care on behalf of the personnel, as also the operating theatres became new ICU units. Consequently, the professional life habits of the surgeons in general have radically changed: the surgeons have been working for about 70% of their working hours in internist support activities for the management of Covid-correlated pneumonia patients.Since then however, many questions have arisen during our daily reflections regarding the need for future planning of our surgery procedures: how much longer can we delay the planning of our selected surgery? Which epidemiological parameters, and other, should we identify in order to start up selected general surgery?For how long can selected surgery be deferred without compromising outcomes and mid to long term mortality in oncological patients in our province, considering also the diagnostic-therapeutic delays in these exceptional months of the Covid era?


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Hábitos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Cirurgiões/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia
6.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 25(1): 54, 2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32928095

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many studies have already reported on the relationship between exercise habits and health among schoolchildren. However, few have examined social and/or family factors as determinants of exercise habits. METHODS: This study's participants included 1721 schoolchildren aged between 6 and 13 who were involved in the Super Shokuiku School Project in January 2016. A survey was conducted to assess gender, grade level, physical activity, lifestyle, overall health, enrichment of school life, social background, and parental lifestyles. Both dislike and lack of physical activity were used to measure poor exercise habits; correlates were analyzed using logistic regression. RESULTS: "Lack of close friends" had the strongest links with both dislike (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 5.30; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.78-10.1) and lack of (adjusted OR 5.40; 95% CI, 2.81-10.4) physical activity. Further, children who engaged in long periods of screen time and lacked parental communication also tended to dislike and lack physical activity. Children with mothers who were unemployed (housewives) and had unhealthy lifestyles, as well as those with poor health, were also more likely to lack physical activity. CONCLUSION: Social and family factors (e.g., having close friends) may be determinants of exercise habits among schoolchildren, independent of their own lifestyle factors. Although a longitudinal study is needed to determine causality, substantial attention may thus be required to these factors when promoting physical activity in children.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/psicologia , Características da Família , Hábitos , Estilo de Vida , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais
7.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(707): 1757-1762, 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32969613

RESUMO

The effectiveness of hypnosis in the management of pain and anxiety has been widely demonstrated today. While this technique is commonly used in anesthesia and psychiatry, its use in emergencies is still poorly developed. The fields of application in hospital and extra-hospital emergency are however multiple and, contrary to popular belief, emergencies are the ideal place for the practice of hypnosis. Hypnosis is a reliable, safe, effective and inexpensive technique that any caregiver can learn. It strengthens the caregiver-patient relationship and helps us to treat differently, more humanly and more serenely.


Assuntos
Medicina de Emergência/métodos , Hipnose , Ansiedade/psicologia , Ansiedade/terapia , Hábitos , Humanos , Dor/prevenção & controle , Manejo da Dor
8.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1242, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32799849

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Resistance-training (RT) provides significant health benefits. However, roughly 3/4 of adults in the United States do not meet current Physical Activity Guidelines in this regard. There has been a call for research examining the effectiveness of interventions to increase participation in physical activity and to better understand the dose response relationship upon health outcomes. Studies are needed that assess the effectiveness of RT programs that are time-efficient and simple to perform. This fully-powered, randomized controlled study will assess a habit-based RT program consisting of one set of push-ups, angled-rows, and bodyweight-squats performed every weekday for 12-24 weeks in untrained individuals. METHODS: Forty-60 untrained osteopathic medical students and college/university employees who work in an office setting will be recruited and randomized (1:1) to an intervention or waitlist control group. After 12-week follow-up assessment, the intervention group will continue the program and the control group will initiate the program for 12 weeks. In addition to the equipment and training needed to safely perform the exercises, all participants will receive training in the Tiny Habits® Method (THM) and digital coaching for the duration of the study. Participants will complete weekly assessments regarding the program during their initial 12-week intervention phase. The primary outcome is the change from baseline to 12 weeks in the intervention group versus the control group, in the combined number of repetitions performed in one set of each of the three exercises (composite repetitions) under a standardized protocol. Secondary outcomes include adherence to and satisfaction with the program, and change from baseline to 12- and 24-week follow-up in blood pressure, fasting lipid panel, hemoglobin A1c, body mass index, anthropometry, body composition, mid-thigh muscle thickness, and habit strength. DISCUSSION: This study will evaluate a simple, habit-based RT intervention in untrained individuals. The approach is unique in that it utilizes brief but frequent bodyweight exercises and, via the THM, focuses on consistency and habit formation first, with effort being increased as participants are motivated and able. If effective, the program can be easily scaled for wider adoption. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study was prospectively registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier NCT04207567 , on December 23rd, 2019.


Assuntos
Ginástica/psicologia , Hábitos , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Projetos de Pesquisa
9.
Womens Health (Lond) ; 16: 1745506520952045, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32821024

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite many benefits of physical exercise to women during pregnancy, the majority of Saudi women do not engage in an adequate amount of activity because of common barriers such as fatigue, lack of motivation, and childcare. The purpose of this study was to estimate the proportion of Saudi women who get adequate exercise during pregnancy as well as to evaluate their knowledge of, attitude toward, and barriers to physical exercise during pregnancy. METHODS: This study had a cross-sectional design. Data were collected retrospectively (average time: 1 year after the birth), using translated questionnaires (English to Arabic), from primary health care centers and from the Maternity and Children Hospital in Qassim, Saudi Arabia. Logistic regression was employed to assess the a priori correlates of adequate exercise during pregnancy (primary outcome). RESULTS: The sample included 274 women, who had a mean age of 31.9 years. A majority of the women thought that physical exercise during pregnancy was necessary and had high knowledge levels (mean = 77; median = 75) about types and amount of physical activity. Less than half of the women were either walking (26%) or exercising (42%) adequately (i.e. ⩾150 min/week). Age (odds ratio: 1.79), number of pregnancies (odds ratio: 2.41), attitude toward exercise (odds ratio: 2.71), and self-rated health (odds ratio: 2.50) were significant correlates of adequate exercise during pregnancy. Among those who reported no physical exercise during pregnancy (n = 68), the following barriers were most common: tiredness (25.0%), fear (18.1%), dislike of exercise (16.7%), and lack of information (16.7%). CONCLUSION: For Saudi women, interventions are needed during pre-natal checkups to promote and maintain adequate physical activity levels during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Hábitos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Gestantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Estudos Retrospectivos , Arábia Saudita , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
10.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0233253, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822352

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI) comprises both natural and unnatural causes of death. However, few epidemiological surveys have investigated SUDI in Japan. OBJECTIVE: This retrospective study was conducted to investigate the latest trends of circumstances and risk factors of SUDI cases in which collapse occurred during sleep. METHODS: Forensic pathology sections from eight universities participated in the selection of subjects from 2013 to 2018. Data obtained from the checklist form were analyzed based on information at postmortem. RESULTS: There were 259 SUDI cases consisting of 145 male infants and 114 female infants with a mean birth weight of 2888 ± 553 and 2750 ± 370 g, respectively. Deaths most frequently occurred among infants at 1 month of age (18%). According to population data as the control, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of mother's age ≤19 years was 11.1 (6.9-17.7) compared with ages 30-39. The odds ratio for the fourth- and later born infants was 5.2 (3.4-7.9) compared with the frequency of first-born infants. The most frequent time of day for discovery was between 7 and 8 o'clock, and the time difference from the last seen alive was a mean of 4.1 h. Co-sleeping was recorded for 61%, and the prone position was found for 40% of cases at discovery. Mother's smoking habit exhibited an odds ratio of 4.5 (2.9-5.8). CONCLUSION: This study confirmed the trends that have been observed for sudden infant death syndrome; particularly, very high odds ratios were evident for teenage mothers and later birth order in comparison with those in other developed countries. Neglect was suspected in some cases of the prolonged time to discovery of unreactive infants. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an extensive survey of SUDI during sleep in Japan.


Assuntos
Sono , Morte Súbita do Lactente/epidemiologia , Distribuição por Idade , Feminino , Hábitos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Mães , Postura , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo
11.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237822, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32845923

RESUMO

Although popular culture describes them as mortal enemies, more and more often, dogs and cats live under the same roof. Does this make them best friends? Can sharing the same social and physical environment make them similar? This study compares the approaches of dogs and cats living in the same household have towards humans and other pets as perceived by the owner. Questionnaires collected from 1270 people owning both dog(s) and cat(s) were analysed. Most dogs and cats living together are playful with familiar humans (76.2%) but dogs have a more sociable approach towards strangers and conspecifics than cats (P<0.001). Moreover, the percentage of dogs that have a playful relationship with the owner (84.0%) was higher than cats (49.2%; P<0.001). Dogs and cats living together eat in different places and show different mutual interactions: more dogs lick the cat (42.8%) and more cats ignore the dog (41.8%) than vice versa (P<0.001). However, most dogs and cats sleep at least occasionally (68.5%) and play together (62.4%; P<0.001). Although some body postures, such as the tail's position, are interpreted differently by the two species, the greater proportions of dogs and cats show a relaxed response to several kinds of approaches of their roommate. Our questionnaire confirms the common beliefs about the sociability of the dog and the privacy of the cat, but this does not result in continuous internal struggles. Most cohabitations are peaceful. Moreover, it is true that they speak different languages, but they seem to understand each other well and interpret each other's approaches in the right way. Thus, aspiring owners should not blindly believe popular assumptions, but both knowledge and respect for species-specific pet behaviours are essential to establish a balance in the household.


Assuntos
Características da Família , Propriedade , Animais de Estimação/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Gatos , Cães , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Amigos , Hábitos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
13.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236451, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32697789

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lifestyle habits associate with metabolic health in overall populations. Whether such association is similar among subjects with a different nutritional status has been less studied. We aimed to (i) determine the prevalence of metabolic phenotypes in Chile, and (ii) determine the association between lifestyle habits and metabolic health according to the nutritional status. METHODS: The National Health Survey of Chile 2016-2017 was analyzed. A metabolically unhealthy phenotype was defined as manifesting ≥3 of the following risk factors: elevated blood pressure, elevated triglycerides, elevated glucose, elevated waist circumference, or reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Individuals manifesting <2 risk factors were considered as healthy. The nutritional status was defined as normal weight (18.5 to <25 kg/m2), overweight (25 to <30 kg/m2) or obesity (≥30 kg/m2). Questionnaires were used to estimate smoking habits, alcohol intake, sedentary behavior, moderate-vigorous physical activity, fruits/vegetables consumption, and fish/seafood consumption. The association (odds ratio [95%CI]) between lifestyle habits and metabolic health was determined within each nutritional status, adjusting for age, sex, BMI (in kg/m2), and education. RESULTS: The prevalence of a metabolically unhealthy phenotype was 36% in the overall sample. Such a prevalence was 7%, 33% and 58% among subjects with normal weight, overweight and obesity, respectively. In subjects with normal weight, the highest quartile of fruits/vegetables consumption was associated with reduced odds of having a metabolically unhealthy phenotype (0.09 [0.01-0.48]). In subjects with obesity, the highest quartile of moderate-vigorous physical activity was associated with reduced odds of having a metabolically unhealthy phenotype (0.29 [0.09-0.91]). CONCLUSION: One third of the Chilean population manifests an unhealthy phenotype. We identified associations between lifestyle habits and metabolic health that are specific to the nutritional status. Thus, emphasizing fruits/vegetables consumption in subjects with normal weight, and physical activity in subjects with obesity, may maximize the benefits of public health interventions.


Assuntos
Hábitos , Estilo de Vida , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Estado Nutricional/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Glicemia/análise , Chile/epidemiologia , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Hipertensão/sangue , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/metabolismo , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/diagnóstico , Síndrome Metabólica/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Sobrepeso/sangue , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/metabolismo , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Circunferência da Cintura/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Acta Biomed ; 91(9-S): 87-89, 2020 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32701921

RESUMO

In March 2020, when the Government imposed nation-wide lockdown measures to contrast the COVID-19 outbreak, the life of Italians suddenly changed. In order to evaluate the impact of lockdown on lifestyle habits and behavioral risk factors of the general adult population in Italy, we set up the Lost in Italy (LOckdown and lifeSTyles IN ITALY) project. Within this project, the online panel of Doxa was used to conduct a web-based cross-sectional study during the first phase of the lockdown, on a large representative sample of adults aged 18-74 years (N=6003). The self-administered questionnaire included information on lifestyle habits and perceived physical and mental health, through the use of validated scales. As we are working within the Lost in Italy project, we got two additional grants to further research on the medium-term impact of lockdown, a topic of great interest and with anticipated large socio-economic and public health implications. In details: we obtained by the AXA Research Fund support to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 lockdown on physical, mental, and social wellbeing of elderly and fragile populations in the Lombardy region, the area most heavily hit by the pandemic in the country. Moreover, as a fruitful integration, we obtained support by the Directorate General for Welfare of the region to assess health services delivery and access to healthcare in the same study population, combining an analysis of administrative databases with an economic analysis. We are confident that the solid background of our partners, the multi-disciplinary competencies they bring, together with appropriate funding and access to rich data sources will allow us to fulfill our research objectives.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Estilo de Vida , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Hábitos , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde Pública , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Appl Behav Anal ; 53(3): 1225-1236, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32686131

RESUMO

Habit reversal training (HRT) has been a mainstay of behavior analysts' repertoire for nearly the last 50 years. HRT has been effective in treating a host of repetitive behavior problems. In the face of the current coronavirus pandemic, HRT has practical public health importance as a possible intervention for reducing hand-to-head behaviors that increase the risk of viral infection. The current paper provides a brief review of HRT for hand-to-head habits that is designed for a broad audience and concludes with practical suggestions, based on HRT, for reducing face-touching behaviors.


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental , Hábitos , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Face , Mãos , Cabeça , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle
16.
J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent ; 38(2): 115-118, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32611855

RESUMO

Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the content of oral habit videos on YouTube™. Materials and Methods: The four keywords "Oral Habits," "Thumb Sucking," "Tongue Thrust", and "Finger Sucking" relevant terms oral habits were searched on YouTube™. The videos sorted by view count were screened and evaluated. The following exclusion criteria were defined as; non-English videos, unrelated to a topic, poor audio-video quality, and duplication. A hundred videos were analyzed for general video characteristics (number of views, likes, dislikes, number of comments, and uploaded date) the purpose of the video, information content, audio-visual quality, and viewers' interaction index. Results: The top hundred videos have been viewed an average of 26,870.83 times. Most videos were uploaded by dentists (n = 29; 29.0%). Most of the videos (44.0%) were classified as having moderate general information content and 38.0% were rated as good, and 18.0% were rated as poor. Videos generally involved information about oral habits (82.0%), followed by personal experience (12.0%). The viewers' interaction index of all evaluated YouTube™ videos was 0.59. Good content videos had a significantly higher interaction index than the other groups (P = 0.011). Conclusions: YouTube™ videos about the oral habits are generally inadequate and patients must be recommended to view them with caution. High quality and more informative videos about oral habits in dentistry should be uploaded to YouTube™ by professionals.


Assuntos
Mídias Sociais , Emoções , Hábitos , Humanos , Gravação em Vídeo
17.
J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent ; 38(2): 190-199, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32611867

RESUMO

Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a chronic debilitating irreversible oral potentially malignant disorder affecting any part of the oral cavity. It is usually seen in adults but rarely noticed in children and adolescents. Since the paucity of the cases, there exists a gap of knowledge in the causative habits, root reasons of habit initiation, age of habit initiation, and the common clinical representation of this disorder. The current article aims to bridge this gap by presenting unusual 36 cases of children and adolescents reported at the tertiary care hospital of Vadodara, Gujarat, India, with specific areca nut chewing habit and distinct features of OSMF. Furthermore, the present case series is the first of its kind in the scientific literature with a high number of OSMF cases in children and adolescents.


Assuntos
Fibrose Oral Submucosa , Adolescente , Adulto , Areca , Criança , Hábitos , Humanos , Índia , Mastigação
18.
Ned Tijdschr Tandheelkd ; 127(6): 352-357, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32716398

RESUMO

In the context of the growing knowledge about the influence of psychosocial factors on health, this article focuses on the role of stress in painful temporomandibular disorder and oral habits. Knowledge about the influence of stress on health, oral habits, and painful temporomandibular disorders is summarized, making clear that although knowledge is increasing, there is a lot still unclear. With regards to oral habits, it turns out that awake oral habits are, but oral habits during sleep are not influenced by stress, but better diagnostic procedures and more research distinguishing the different types of oral habits are needed in order to further our understanding. Increasing knowledge about the aetiology of painful temporomandibular disorders is showing a complex interplay of aetiological factors. Stress and oral habits are part of this, but much remains to be discovered about the way in which the aetiological factors interact and influence outcomes. When it comes to stress, especially childhood adversity appears to be a promising focus for further research.


Assuntos
Hábitos , Transtornos da Articulação Temporomandibular , Criança , Dor Facial , Humanos , Dor
19.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(7): e2016924, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32725247

RESUMO

Importance: There is insufficient evidence on the efficacy of masks in the general population for the prevention of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in public areas. Therefore, it is imperative to investigate the association of mandatory mask-wearing policies with behaviors associated with the transmission of COVID-19. Objective: To assess the association of mask wearing with face-touching behavior among the general population in public areas. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study used videos recorded in public transportation stations, streets, and parks among the general population in China, Japan, South Korea, Western Europe (ie, England, France, Germany, Spain, and Italy), and the US to analyze mask-wearing and face-touching behavior in public areas. Videos before the COVID-19 pandemic were defined as those recorded from January 2018 to October 2019, and those during the COVID-19 pandemic were defined as those recorded during February 2020 to March 2020 in China, Japan, and South Korea and during March 2020 in Western Europe and the US. Individuals who clearly displayed their face and face-touching behavior were included, and those whose behaviors were influenced by filming or public events were excluded. Exposures: Mandatory mask-wearing policies enacted at various time points in China, Japan, South Korea, Western Europe, and the US. Main Outcomes and Measures: Proportion of individuals wearing masks and incidence of face touching. Results: This study included 4699 individuals before the COVID-19 pandemic and 2887 individuals during the pandemic. During the periods studied, mask wearing increased in all regions except the US, from 20 of 1745 individuals (1.1%) to 1090 of 1097 individuals (99.4%) in mainland China (P < .001), 44 of 1422 individuals (3.1%) to 346 of 893 individuals (38.7%) in Japan (P < .001), 6 of 717 individuals (0.8%) to 277 of 324 individuals (85.5% ) in South Korea (P < .001), 1 of 546 individuals (0.2%) to 6 of 379 individuals (1.6%) in Western Europe (P = .02), and 1 of 269 individuals (0.4%) to 4 of 194 individuals (2.1%) in the US (P = .17). Surgical masks were predominant in China (989 masks [89.1%]), and fabric masks were predominant in the other regions (Japan: 371 masks [95.1%]; South Korea: 240 masks [84.8%]; Western Europe: 6 masks [85.7%]; US: 5 masks [100%]). Face-touching behaviors decreased from before COVID-19 to during COVID-19 among individuals in China (72 incidences of 1745 observations [4.1%] to 12 incidences of 1097 observations [1.1%]; P < .001), South Korea (80 incidences of 717 observations [11.2%] to 7 incidences of 324 observations [2.2%]; P < .001), and Europe (62 incidences of 546 observations [11.4%] to 23 incidences of 379 observations [6.1%]; P = .01). Logistic regression found that mask wearing was associated with a reduction in face touching in China (odds ratio [OR], 3.91; 95% CI, 2.11-7.24) and South Korea (OR, 6.69; 95% CI, 2.69-16.69) and of touching the nose, mouth, and eyes (China: OR, 8.60; 95% CI, 2.65-27.86; South Korea: OR, 29.27; 95% CI, 1.79-478.22). Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this cross-sectional study suggest that mandatory mask-wearing policies were associated with increased mask wearing during the COVID-19 pandemic. Mask wearing was associated with reduced face-touching behavior, especially touching of the eyes, nose, and mouth, which may prevent contact transmission of COVID-19 among the general population in public areas.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Face , Hábitos , Máscaras , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Tato , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Extremo Oriente/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
20.
J Contemp Dent Pract ; 21(5): 568-574, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32690842

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate and evaluate current knowledge and habits in prescribing preoperative antibiotic, and toward specific practice situations, in a subset of dental practitioners performing routine dental implant surgery in Saudi Arabia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was developed, and relevant information was gathered through a web-based survey from a dentist who performed surgical implant placement. Participant demographics, clinical experience, and educational background were obtained. Factors related to knowledge and practice of preoperative antibiotics prescription and relevant information were collected. Descriptive statistics (frequencies and percentages) were used to describe the categorical variables. Pearson's Chi-square test was used to compare the distribution of the categorical responses across specific survey variables. A p value of ≤ 0.05 was used to report the statistical significance of the responses relative to prescription habits. RESULTS: A total of 156 dentists participated in this study. Majority of the study sample was periodontists (70.5%, n = 110). About 63.5% of the study subjects do not prescribe prophylactic antibiotics. Private practitioners prescribed more antibiotics preoperatively (p = 0.019), while public and academic practitioners were in favor of developing guidelines toward antibiotics prescriptions (p = 0.009). Furthermore, a statistically significant difference was found between private and no private practitioners toward possible adverse complications when prescribing multidose antibiotics (p = 0.014). CONCLUSION: Various factors influence the knowledge and prescription habits toward prophylactic antibiotics among dental practitioners in routine dental implant procedures. The variability and conflicting practices require the attention of healthcare legislations and stakeholders, locally and globally, to improve antibiotics prescription habits. Furthermore, large-scale interventions, prescription stewardship programs, and collaborative work between professional and scientific organizations may be beneficial to address areas of concern. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Strategic policies and stewardship programs toward antibiotic prescription among dental practitioners may benefit in reducing the unjustified or misuse of these medications. Subsequently, this could minimize the potential development of bacterial resistance and unwanted events that might complicate the management of straightforward dental implant cases.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Odontólogos , Estudos Transversais , Hábitos , Humanos , Padrões de Prática Odontológica , Papel Profissional , Arábia Saudita , Inquéritos e Questionários
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