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1.
J Sports Sci Med ; 18(4): 680-694, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31827353

RESUMO

Agility plays a crucial role in ice hockey training, and it can be developed directly on the ice or by additional off-ice training. Since the effectiveness of on-ice and off-ice training on players' agility have not been previously described, the purpose of this research is to compare the effects of on-ice and off-ice agility training on skating performance. Fourteen ice hockey players performed agility training on-ice for 4 weeks and off-ice for 4 weeks in a crossover design; they were tested before the agility program, after the first month and after finishing both training programs. The players were randomly assigned into one of two groups (n = 7 in each group), either performing the on-ice training protocol first (Ice1) followed by the off-ice agility training or performing the off-ice protocol first and the on-ice training second (Ice2). The test battery included straight sprints to 6.1 m and 35 m and the S corner test, test with break, weave agility with puck test and reactive agility test. The magnitude based decision showed the effect of agility training in both groups in the weave agility (Ice1, 2.9±2.8% likely improvement; Ice2, 3.1±2.5% possible improvement) and reactive agility tests (Ice1, 3.1 ±2.5% likely improvement; Ice2, 1.7±2.1% possible improvement), where the Ice1 protocol resulted in a likely positive change and Ice2 resulted in a possible positive change. The comparison of the training effect resulted in a possibly harmful change of performance in Ice2 protocol (-0.5 ± 8.9%) compared to Ice1 protocol (-1.0 ± 5.1%). On-ice training is more effective in the development of specific types of agility in adolescent U16 players. However, there is evidence that off-ice agility have motor transfer to on-ice agility. Therefore, we recommend developing on-ice agility with additional off-ice agility training during the ice hockey season.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Hóquei/fisiologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Humano/métodos , Adolescente , Desempenho Atlético/psicologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Hóquei/psicologia , Humanos , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
2.
J Strength Cond Res ; 33(11): 2909-2912, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644516

RESUMO

Cordingley, DM, Sirant, L, MacDonald, PB, and Leiter, JR. Three-year longitudinal fitness tracking in top-level competitive youth ice hockey players. J Strength Cond Res 33(11): 2909-2912, 2019-The purpose of this retrospective review was to report the physical and physiological development of top-level competitive male youth hockey players for 3 consecutive years (13, 14, and 15 years of age). Before each hockey season, the athletes (n = 103) underwent a fitness testing combine to assess aerobic, anaerobic, and musculoskeletal fitness. The tests performed included the height, body mass, body fat percentage determined by skinfolds, push-ups, chin-ups, plank, broad jump, grip strength 20-m shuttle run, Wingate bike test, and 5-10-5 shuttle test. Height and body mass increased with each consecutive year (p < 0.05) with no change in body fat percentage. Chin-ups, broad jump, and grip strength all improved with age (p < 0.001). However, push-ups only improved from 13 to 14 years of age (p < 0.001), whereas maximal plank duration decreased from 14 to 15 years of age (p < 0.05). The total distance covered during the 20-m shuttle run decreased from 14 to 15 years of age (p < 0.05). Absolute peak and average power increased with each age increase (p < 0.001), but relative peak and average power only increased from 13 to 14 years of age (p < 0.05). There was no change in the fatigue index with age. The 5-10-5 shuttle test improved with each age increase (p < 0.05). Over a 3-year period (13-15 years of age), there are many physical and physiological changes that occur in top-level competitive male hockey players. Having a better understanding of how these athletes develop could aid in the implementation of specific on- and off-ice training programs.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , Atletas , Hóquei/fisiologia , Aptidão Física , Adolescente , Antropometria , Teste de Esforço , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Esportes Juvenis
3.
J Strength Cond Res ; 33(11): 3114-3122, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644517

RESUMO

McMahon, GE and Kennedy, RA. Changes in player activity profiles after the 2015 FIH rule changes in elite women's hockey. J Strength Cond Res 33(11): 3114-3122, 2019-The aim of this study was to compare the player activity profiles of elite international women's hockey players before (2014) and after (2015) the 2015 the International Hockey Federation (FIH) match rule changes at team and positional levels. The match activity profiles (n = 400) of 19 female hockey players (age 23 ± 4 years, mass 63.6 ± 5.5 kg, VO2max 57 ± 6 ml·kg·min in 2014, 58 ± 6 ml·kg·min in 2015) were recorded during competitive international matches in 2014 (match n = 12) and 2015 (match n = 13) using 10-Hz global positioning system units. The practical utility of an effect was only classified as substantial when there was a >75% likelihood that the ±90% confidence interval of the effect size (ES) was equal to or greater than the small (ES ± 0.2) reference value. Mean match time decreased by over 2 minutes from 71.72 ± 1.38 to 69.40 ± 4.72 minutes. There were increases at the team level in relative substitutions (SUB), relative distance (RD), high-speed running (HSR: 3.08-5.27 m·s), and surges (S), with a fall in low-speed running (LSR: 0-3.05 m·s) between 2014 and 2015. There were no changes in the between-position differences observed from 2014 to 2015. Within positions, there were relative increases in RD for all positions, HSR and S for midfield, and in SUB and S in forwards. The 2015 FIH rule changes seem to have increased the general intensity of international women's hockey. However, the different facets of physical performance did not change uniformly across team positions. Therefore, specific modifications to conditioning practices for each position may be warranted to more accurately reflect match demands.


Assuntos
Hóquei/legislação & jurisprudência , Hóquei/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Feminino , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Hóquei/tendências , Humanos , Corrida/tendências , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Strength Cond Res ; 33(11): 3129-3135, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644518

RESUMO

Orysiak, J, Witek, K, Malczewska-Lenczowska, J, Zembron-Lacny, A, Pokrywka, A, and Sitkowski, D. Upper respiratory tract infection and mucosal immunity in young ice hockey players during the pretournament training period. J Strength Cond Res 33(11): 3129-3135, 2019-The aim of this study was to determine the effects of 17 days of training during preparation for the Ice Hockey Under 18 World Championship of the Polish ice hockey national team on the mucosal immune function and monitor upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) incidence before, during, and after the competition. Twelve male ice hockey players (age, 17.7 ± 0.5 years) were recruited for this study. The first saliva and blood collection took place at the beginning of the training camp (without training at the training camp), the second one was collected on the 9th day of the training camp immediately after the intensification of training, and the third collection was performed on the 13th day of training (4 days before leaving for the World Championship) in the tapering phase. To assess the mucosal immune function, concentrations of secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA), sIgA1, and sIgA2 were analyzed in saliva. Cortisol concentration and creatine kinase activity were determined in blood, as indicators of stress and muscle damage, respectively. The Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey-21 questionnaire was used to assess URTI symptoms. A significant increase in the sIgA1 and sIgA2 concentrations was observed in the third collection compared with the second time point (114.45 ± 33.00 vs. 77.49 ± 27.29 and 88.97 ± 25.33 vs. 71.65 ± 32.44 U, respectively). There were no statistically significant correlations between the URTI incidence and saliva variables. In conclusion, the tapering period positively affects the mucosal immune function, especially sIgA1 and sIgA2 concentrations, with no significant change in the frequency of URTI in young ice hockey players.


Assuntos
Hóquei/fisiologia , Imunidade nas Mucosas , Imunoglobulina A Secretora/metabolismo , Condicionamento Físico Humano/fisiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/imunologia , Adolescente , Creatina Quinase/sangue , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Incidência , Masculino , Saliva/metabolismo , Inquéritos e Questionários , Avaliação de Sintomas
5.
J Strength Cond Res ; 33(10): 2648-2654, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31361729

RESUMO

Warman, GE, Cole, MH, Johnston, RD, Chalkley, D, and Pepping, GJ. Using microtechnology to quantify torso angle during match-play in field hockey. J Strength Cond Res 33(10): 2648-2654, 2019-Field hockey is played in a dynamic environment placing specific postural demands on athletes. Little research has been devoted to understanding the nature of a player's torso postures in field hockey match-play and its relationship with the perceptuomotor demands of the sport. We used commercially available microtechnology worn by 16 athletes during a 6-match national tournament to quantify torso flexion/extension angles. Orientation was derived using the inertial and magnetic sensors housed within global positioning system devices, assessing torso angle in the sagittal plane from 91 individual match files. The main independent variable was playing position, whereas the dependent variable was torso flexion/extension, presented as a percentage of playing time spent in 15 × 10° torso postural bands ranging from ≥40° extension to ≥90° flexion. It was shown that athletes spent 89.26% of their playing time in various torso postures, ranging from 20 to 90° of flexion. Defenders spent more time than midfielders (p = 0.004, effect size [ES] = 0.43) and strikers (p = 0.004; ES = 0.44) in the posture band of 10-20° torso flexion, whereas midfielders spent more time between 20 and 30° of torso flexion (p = 0.05; ES = 0.32) than strikers. Conversely, strikers spent more time between 30 and 40° of flexion than defenders (p < 0.001; ES = 0.74). These results reflect the sport-specific and role-specific torso angles adopted by field hockey athletes during match-play. Coaching staff can use these data to gain insight into the postural demands of their sport and inform the preparation of athletes for the perception-action demands of competition.


Assuntos
Hóquei/fisiologia , Microtecnologia , Postura , Tronco/fisiologia , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Adulto , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Humanos , Masculino , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Strength Cond Res ; 33(9): 2352-2360, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31343551

RESUMO

Vigh-Larsen, JF, Beck, JH, Daasbjerg, A, Knudsen, CB, Kvorning, T, Overgaard, K, Andersen, TB, and Mohr, M. Fitness characteristics of elite and subelite male ice hockey players: A cross-sectional study. J Strength Cond Res 33(9): 2352-2360, 2019-The purpose was to evaluate fitness profiles in elite (age 23.5 ± 4.4 years) and subelite (age 19.4 ± 3.1 years) male ice hockey players. Twenty teams from the best (n = 164) and second-best (n = 132) Danish ice hockey division were assessed in-season using a field-test battery consisting of off-ice measurements of countermovement jump (CMJ) performance and body composition, as well as performance tests on the ice. These included the submaximal and maximal Yo-Yo intermittent recovery ice hockey tests, level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1-IHSUB and Yo-Yo IR1-IHMAX), the 5-10-5 pro-agility test, and a straight-line sprint test. Elite players were heavier (85.7 ± 8.1 vs. 80.8 ± 10.0 kg, p ≤ 0.05) and had a higher skeletal muscle mass (41.9 ± 3.9 vs. 38.8 ± 4.7 kg, p ≤ 0.05) than subelite players. Moreover, elite players elicited a superior CMJ (50.1 ± 6.1 vs. 44.9 ± 5.4 cm, p ≤ 0.05), agility (4.76 ± 0.17 vs. 4.96 ± 0.22 seconds, p ≤ 0.05), and sprint (4.49 ± 0.16 vs. 4.71 ± 0.19 seconds, p ≤ 0.05) performance. Finally, elite players outperformed subelite players in Yo-Yo IR1-IHSUB (79.7 ± 6.8 vs. 88.0 ± 5.4% HRmax, p ≤ 0.05) and Yo-Yo IR1-IHMAX tests (2,434 ± 414 vs. 1,850 ± 499 m, p ≤ 0.05). Top elite teams performed. 1.1 and 7% better than bottom elite teams on the agility and CMJ test (p ≤ 0.05), whereas differences approached significance for sprint (p = 0.08) and Yo-Yo IR1-IHMAX (p = 0.08) performance in favor of top-tier teams. No differences were observed between forwards and defensemen. In conclusion, elite-level ice hockey requires a high level of fitness in terms of muscle mass and explosive strength, as well as a well-developed high-intensity intermittent exercise capacity. In addition, these demands seem to apply for both forwards and defensemen.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Hóquei/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Composição Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Teste de Esforço , Humanos , Masculino , Movimento/fisiologia , Força Muscular , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Strength Cond Res ; 33(8): 2162-2169, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31344012

RESUMO

Delisle-Houde, P, Reid, RER, Insogna, JA, Chiarlitti, NA, and Andersen, RE. Seasonal changes in physiological responses and body composition during a competitive season in male and female elite collegiate ice hockey players. J Strength Cond Res 33(8): 2162-2169, 2019-Ice hockey continually overloads athletes with limited time for recovery, which may affect several physiological responses and alter body composition. The purpose of this study was to identify changes in physiological parameters and body composition profiles over the competitive season in elite collegiate ice hockey players. Forty-four players, 24 males (age = 22.7 ± 1.3 years, height = 1.82 ± 0.6 m, and body mass = 86.87 ± 6.44 kg) and 20 females (age = 19.9 ± 1.8 years, height = 1.66 ± 0.7 m, and body mass = 68.76 ± 5.91 kg) participated in 4-minute submaximal exercise tests and body composition assessments at pre-season, mid-season, and end-season. Changes in physiological parameters and body composition were analyzed using repeated-measures analysis of covariance controlling for age. Males' postexercise blood lactate concentration decreased (p ≤ 0.05) from pre- to mid-season (9.3 vs. 6.2 mmol·L) and increased (p ≤ 0.05) from mid- to end-season (6.2 vs. 8.0 mmol·L). Heart rate increased (p ≤ 0.05) after the third and fourth minute of the submaximal test in both sexes from pre- to end-season and from mid- to end-season. Males' body fat percentage decreased (p ≤ 0.05) from mid-season (17.4 vs. 16.1%), whereas increases were observed (p ≤ 0.05) in both sexes from mid- to end-season. This study produced evidence that male and female collegiate hockey athletes' physiological responses and body composition profiles change over the season. Sport scientists working with collegiate hockey teams, may need to revise annual training programs to attenuate reductions in fitness and hopefully prevent injuries.


Assuntos
Atletas , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Hóquei/fisiologia , Adulto , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Masculino , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Sports Sci ; 37(21): 2475-2482, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311452

RESUMO

Previous research suggests that landing mechanics may be affected by the mechanics of the preceding jump take-off. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether jump take-off mechanics influence the subsequent landing mechanics. Female volleyball (n = 17) and ice hockey (n = 19) players performed maximal vertical jumps with forefoot and heel take-off strategies. During forefoot and heel jumps, participants were instructed to shift their weight to their forefoot or heel, respectively, and push through this portion of the foot throughout the jump. Jump mechanics were examined using 3D motion analysis, where lower extremity net joint moment (NJM) work, NJM, and segment angles were compared between forefoot and heel jumps using multivariate ANOVA. During jump take-off, participants performed more positive ankle plantar flexor and knee extensor NJM work in forefoot compared to heel jumps (P < 0.05). From initial foot contact to foot flat, participants performed more negative ankle plantar flexor and hip extensor NJM work during heel compared to forefoot jumps (P < 0.05). The present results demonstrate that using a heel take-off strategy results in a different distribution of lower extremity NJM work and NJM during landing compared to landings following forefoot jumps.


Assuntos
Pé/fisiologia , Calcanhar/fisiologia , Extremidade Inferior/fisiologia , Exercício Pliométrico , Adolescente , Tornozelo/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Hóquei/fisiologia , Humanos , Joelho/fisiologia , Estudos de Tempo e Movimento , Voleibol/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 197: 16-22, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31077994

RESUMO

The aims of the study were to initially investigate whether the perceived distance of a field hockey push pass task was influenced by manipulating task difficulty (Experiment 1), and further, expanding on the research, whether perceptual biases would translate into the execution of a corresponding push pass action (Experiment 2). Based on predictions from the two-visual systems model, we hypothesized that the action-specific perceptual biases in distance perception would not translate into the control of movement. In Experiment 1, elite field hockey players estimated the distance from targets that differed in size before making push pass actions toward the target (i.e., the smaller targets being more difficult). Results showed that participants did estimate the perceived distance of the push pass task to be larger as a function of task difficulty. We found a similar result in Experiment 2, and in addition, manipulated the required outcome of the push-pass while measuring the speed of the push-pass and found that a perceptual bias did not translate into the execution of the actual push pass task (Experiment 2). In line with the action-specific account of perception, a perceptual bias arose that may assist in making adaptive action choices. However, consistent with the two-visual systems model, this perceptual bias did not affect subsequent control of movement, preventing it from becoming maladaptive. Implications for talent identification and development are briefly discussed.


Assuntos
Percepção de Distância/fisiologia , Hóquei/fisiologia , Hóquei/psicologia , Movimento/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Adolescente , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Desempenho Atlético/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Int J Sports Med ; 40(6): 416-422, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31013534

RESUMO

This study measured sweat losses, voluntary fluid intake, sodium balance, and carbohydrate intake of female ice hockey players during on-ice practices at the Olympic, varsity, and recreational levels. Testing was conducted on 25 Canadian Olympic players, 21 varsity, and 21 recreational players. The average sweat rate for the Olympic players (0.99±0.08 L/h) was significantly greater than both the varsity (0.67±0.05 L/h, p=0.001) and the recreational players (0.42±0.03 L/h, p<0.001), and the varsity players also had a significantly greater sweat rate than the recreational athletes (p=0.016). Total fluid intake was significantly greater for both the Olympic (p=0.001) and varsity players (p=0.007) compared to the recreational group. Only 3 of 25 Olympic players lost>1.5% BM and 4 others lost>1% BM, with no players in both the varsity and recreational teams losing>1% BM. Half of the Olympic players consumed some carbohydrate during practice, but most of the varsity and recreational players did not. In conclusion, sweat rates in female ice hockey players during practices were proportional to competitive level. Fluid intake was similar between groups and resulted in only a few athletes at the Olympic level being at risk of excess body mass loss.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Ingestão de Líquido , Hóquei/fisiologia , Sudorese , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Canadá , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Água Potável , Bebidas Energéticas , Feminino , Hidratação , Humanos , Equilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Strength Cond Res ; 33(4): 1035-1042, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30908458

RESUMO

Whitehead, PN, Conners, RT, and Shimizu, TS. The effect of in-season demands on lower-body power and fatigue in male collegiate hockey players. J Strength Cond Res 33(4): 1035-1042, 2019-The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of in-season demands, such as games, travel, and the subsequent fatigue related to these demands, on lower-body power (LBP) in collegiate hockey players. Two jump protocols (countermovement and squat jumps) were used to calculate LBP. Twenty-seven NCAA (National Collegiate Athletic Association) Division I male hockey players (age, 21.9 ± 1.4 years; height, 176.7 ± 6.5 cm; body mass, 81.4 ± 7.9 kg) participated in the study that spanned 18 weekly sessions. At each session, participants completed an 8-item fatigue questionnaire, which provided a cumulative numerical value for fatigue (total score of fatigue [TSF]), before performing maximal jumps on a contact mat. General linear modeling was conducted to compare dependent variables (jump height, relative LBP, TSF) across weekly sessions. Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients were calculated to examine the relationship between jump height and LBP across the jump protocols, as well as to examine the relationship of TSF with all measured variables. Jump height and LBP declined throughout the season with greater effect of travel observed following the longest travel sequence (p ≤ 0.05; η ≥ 0.60). Differences in TSF were observed from baseline (p ≤ 0.037), and a large effect was seen for away trips that included air travel (d ≥ 1.35). Total score of fatigue had a negative correlation with jump height and power during both jumps (r ≤ -0.742; p < 0.001). In conclusion, the in-season demands of ice hockey resulted in significant reductions in LBP throughout a hockey season, and the 8-item fatigue questionnaire is a sensitive tool reflective of athletic performance measures.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Fadiga/fisiopatologia , Hóquei/fisiologia , Extremidade Inferior/fisiopatologia , Viagem , Teste de Esforço , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Força Muscular , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
12.
Brain ; 142(2): 255-262, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30649205

RESUMO

There is a growing demand for objective evaluations of concussion. We developed a portable evoked potential framework to extract 'brain vital signs' using electroencephalography. Brain vital signs were derived from well established evoked responses representing auditory sensation (N100), basic attention (P300), and cognitive processing (N400) amplitudes and latencies, converted to normative metrics (six total). The study evaluated whether concussion-related neurophysiological impairments were detected over the duration of ice hockey seasons using brain vital signs. Forty-seven Tier III, Junior A, male ice hockey players were monitored over two seasons. Twelve sustained concussions after baseline testing then completed post-injury and return-to-play assessments. Twenty-three were not diagnosed with a concussion during the season and completed both baseline and post-season testing. Scores were evaluated using a repeated-measures analysis of variance with post hoc two-tailed paired t-tests. Concussion resulted in significantly increased amplitude and delayed latency scores for all six brain vital signs (P < 0.0001). Importantly, significant changes at return-to-play were also detected in basic attention (P300) amplitude, indicating persistent subclinical impairment. In the non-concussed group, there was also a significant change between baseline and post-season (P = 0.0047), with specific decreases in cognitive processing (N400) speed (P = 0.011) and overall total score (P = 0.002).


Assuntos
Concussão Encefálica/diagnóstico , Concussão Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Hóquei/lesões , Sinais Vitais/fisiologia , Adolescente , Concussão Encefálica/etiologia , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Potencial Evocado P300/fisiologia , Hóquei/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Sci Med Sport ; 22(7): 821-826, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30660559

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the combined effects of slow isokinetic resistance training and eccentric overload and compare it to traditional resistance training on strength, power, body composition and muscle hypertrophy in young ice hockey players. DESIGN: Experimental, randomized trial. METHODS: Twenty-two resistance-trained ice hockey players (18±1year) were assigned to either isokinetic resistance training and eccentric overload (ISO/ECC; n=11) or traditional resistance training (TRAD; n=11). Participants underwent supervised progressive resistance training for 8 weeks (2-3 sessions/week) involving lower body multiple-joint exercises (heavy squats and explosive jump squats). The ISO/ECC group performed their training using a computerized robotic engine system (1080 Quantum synchro, Sweden), whereas the TRAD group performed the same resistance exercises with isotonic loading. Before and after the intervention, participants were evaluated in 1RM back squat, loaded jump squats, sprint- and jump performance, body composition and muscle thickness using ultrasound measurement. RESULTS: Similar moderate increases in 1RM back squat and power output in the jump squats were found in both the ISO/ECC and TRAD groups (11-17%, P<0.01), whereas only the ISO/ECC group showed improvements in drop jump performance (9.8%, P=0.01). Moreover, similar trivial changes in body composition were observed in both groups, while only the ISO/ECC training group increased muscle thickness in the vastus intermedius (P=0.01) and rectus femoris muscles (P=0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Both modalities effectively increased maximal strength and power output, whereas isokinetic resistance training, combined with eccentric overload, improved drop jump performance and induced greater muscle hypertrophy than traditional training in young ice hockey players.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Hóquei/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Adolescente , Humanos , Hipertrofia , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/diagnóstico por imagem , Noruega , Suécia , Ultrassonografia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Eur J Sport Sci ; 19(7): 893-901, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30606093

RESUMO

The capturing of movements by means of wearable sensors has become increasingly popular in order to obtain sport performance measures during training or competition. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the feasibility of using body worn accelerometers to identify previous highlighted performance related biomechanical changes in terms of substantial differences across skill levels and skating phases. Twenty-two ice hockey players of different caliber were equipped with two 3D accelerometers, located on the skate and the waist, as they performed 30 m forward skating sprints on an ice rink. Two measures of the temporal stride characteristics (contact time and stride time) and one measure of the propulsive power (stride propulsion) of a skating stride were calculated and checked for discriminating effects across (i) skill levels and (ii) sprint phases as well as for their (iii) strength of association with the sprint performance (total sprint time). High caliber players showed an increased stride propulsion (+22%, P < 0.05) and shorter contact time (-5%, P < 0.05). All three analysed variables highlighted substantial biomechanical differences between the accelerative and constant velocity phases (P < 0.05). Stride propulsion of acceleration strides primarily correlated to total sprint time (r = -0.57, P < 0.05). The results demonstrate the potential of accelerometers to assess skating technique elements such as contact time or elements characterizing the propulsive power such as center of mass acceleration, to gauge skating performance. Thus, the findings of this study might contribute to establishing wearable sensors for in-field ice hockey skating performance analysis.


Assuntos
Acelerometria/instrumentação , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Hóquei/fisiologia , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino
15.
J Strength Cond Res ; 33(9): 2496-2502, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29239987

RESUMO

Gilenstam, K and Geithner, CA. Body composition of women's ice hockey players: comparison of estimates using skinfolds and iDXA. J Strength Cond Res 33(9): 2496-2502, 2019-The purpose of this study was to compare percent fat (% fat) estimates from anthropometric equations using skinfolds (SKF) in women's ice hockey players with estimates obtained from Lunar iDXA. Data were collected on 19 elite female Swedish hockey players (mean age ± SD = 18.4 ± 2.4 years). Four SKF (triceps, abdominal, suprailiac, and thigh) were measured within 2 hours of iDXA assessments. The % fat estimates from iDXA and 4 anthropometric equations were compared using paired t tests, and a 1-way analysis of variance was used to compare % fat estimates from the anthropometric equations. Bland-Altman analyses were used to assess agreement between % fat estimates from SKF and iDXA. The significance level was set a priori at p ≤ 0.05. The % fat estimates from anthropometric equations were significantly lower than those from iDXA (mean ± SD: 26.85 ± 4.93%, p = 0.000). Bland-Altman analyses indicated mean differences of -7.96 to -10.13 percentage points between anthropometric equations and iDXA. Estimates of % fat from anthropometric equations (range: 16.72-18.89%) were within the range reported in earlier studies using the sum of 7 SKF. Thus, SKF offer a reasonable alternative to iDXA for this population but result in underestimates of % fat relative to iDXA. Strength and conditioning coaches should use the same body composition assessment method consistently, and interpret the results with caution, as they are estimates and not true values.


Assuntos
Absorciometria de Fóton , Adiposidade , Hóquei/fisiologia , Pregas Cutâneas , Parede Abdominal , Adolescente , Adulto , Braço , Feminino , Humanos , Coxa da Perna , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Strength Cond Res ; 33(9): 2513-2522, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29401193

RESUMO

McGuinness, A, Malone, S, Hughes, B, and Collins, K. Physical activity and physiological profiles of elite international female field hockey players across the quarters of competitive match play. J Strength Cond Res 33(9): 2513-2522, 2019-The aim of the current investigation was to quantify the physical and physiological demands of elite international female field hockey across the quarters of match-play. Twenty-seven elite international female field hockey outfield players (23 ± 3 years; 162.6 ± 13.0 cm; 66.0 ± 6.0 kg) participated in the current observational study during the 2016-2017 season. Participants were monitored using global positioning system technology and HR monitors. Players were categorized based on 3 different playing positions. Activity was categorized into total distance (in meters), relative total distance (m·min), low-, moderate-, and high-intensity distance (m), maximum velocity (km·h), and percentage maximal velocity (%). Physiological demands were quantified through players peak heart rate (HRPeak), which was classified based on the player's individual HRmax determined using a Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 test. Players spent on average 38 ± 8 minutes in match play. The total distance covered was 4,847 ± 583 m (127.6 ± 15.6 m·min). Defenders covered a greater total distance across all 3 positions (p = ≤ 0.05). The midfielders covered a greater moderate-intensity distance (p ≤ 0.001), whereas the forwards covered more high-intensity distance (p ≤ 0.001). The HRpeak of the players was 198 ± 4 b·min with a mean exercise intensity of 95 ± 1% HRmax. The time spent >70% HRmax decreased significantly across the quarters (p = 0.01, η = 0.03). Defenders were found to spend more time >85% HRmax when compared with other positions (p ≤ 0.001, η = 0.28). The current study provides normative data that coaches should consider when developing training drills to better optimize the positional physical and physiological activity profiles that best replicate match play.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Hóquei/fisiologia , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Strength Cond Res ; 33(9): 2503-2512, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29461415

RESUMO

Steeves, D and Campagna, P. The relationship between maximal aerobic power and recovery in elite ice hockey players during a simulated game. J Strength Cond Res 33(9): 2503-2512, 2019-This project investigated whether there was a relationship between maximal aerobic power and the recovery or performance in elite ice hockey players during a simulated hockey game. An on-ice protocol was used to simulate a game of ice hockey. Recovery values were determined by the differences in lactate and heart rate measures. Total distance traveled was also recorded as a performance measure. On 2 other days, subjects returned and completed a maximal aerobic power test on a treadmill and a maximal lactate test on ice. Statistical analysis showed no relationship between maximal aerobic power or maximal lactate values and recovery (heart rate, lactate) or the performance measure of distance traveled. It was concluded that there was no relationship between maximal aerobic power and recovery during a simulated game in elite hockey players.


Assuntos
Frequência Cardíaca , Hóquei/fisiologia , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Consumo de Oxigênio , Adulto , Desempenho Atlético , Teste de Esforço , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Strength Cond Res ; 33(11): 3123-3128, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29470363

RESUMO

Bartolomei, S, Nigro, F, Gubellini, L, Ciacci, S, Merni, F, Treno, F, Cortesi, M, and Semprini, G. Physiological and sport-specific comparison between Division I and Division II Italian male field hockey players. J Strength Cond Res 33(11): 3123-3128, 2019-The purpose of this study was to compare the anthropometric and performance profiles of Division I (D1) and Division II (D2) Italian field hockey players. Fifteen DI players and 15 D2 players (age = 25.4 ± 5.2 years; body mass = 78.5 ± 9.0 kg; and body height = 179.6 ± 7.8 cm) were assessed on one occasion for anthropometry, body composition, physiological measurements, and sport-specific skills. Differences between the 2 groups were evaluated using a 1-way analysis of variance. Pearson correlations were used to examine relationships between the different measurements. Significantly (p = 0.039) lower percentages of body fat were found on D1 group compared with D2 group (-3.5%). A significant difference between the groups were noted for shooting accuracy (p = 0.013), with the D1 group performing 14.5% better than the DII group. No significant differences between the groups were found for shooting speed (p = 0.103) and slalom and dribbling performances (p = 0.292 and p = 0.416, respectively). Physiological assessments did not show any significant differences between the groups. Large correlations (r = 0.73; p < 0.001) were found between shooting speed and accuracy. Moderate correlations were observed between the shooting speed and the hand grip strength, in particular of the left hand (r = 0.61; p = 0.007). Results of this study indicate that the difference between D1 and D2 players may be more related to technical factors than to physical fitness. Ball control, however, may not be a limiting factor in D2 players.


Assuntos
Aptidão , Desempenho Atlético , Hóquei/fisiologia , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Adulto , Composição Corporal , Estatura , Força da Mão , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Sports Sci ; 37(5): 484-491, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30074436

RESUMO

Shoulders of elite field hockey players are loaded continuously during play. However, shoulder girdle muscle performance in this population has never been examined yet. This study aimed to compare isokinetic shoulder girdle performance in elite male field hockey players to matched controls, with respect to strength, endurance and muscle balance. The complete male national field hockey team of Belgium (n = 25) was included and matched to a gender- and age-matched control group of healthy participants (n = 25). A Biodex system-4 dynamometer was used to measure glenohumeral and scapular muscle strength at 2 velocities in a concentric/concentric mode. With the main outcome measures being isokinetic strength values, peak force (protraction-retraction), peak torque (rotations), fatigue index and agonist/antagonist ratio's. Measurement results showed that elite male field hockey players were stronger than their matched controls, for both the rotational and the protraction-retraction movement. Concerning rotational strength, symmetrical findings were established, contrary to scapular strength, where side differences were noted. At low velocity, retraction peak force was higher on the dominant side. Protraction peak force was higher on the non-dominant side when measured at high velocity. In conclusion, elite field hockey players have a symmetrical rotational strength profile, in contrast to their scapular strength profile.


Assuntos
Hóquei/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Ombro/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Bélgica , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Masculino , Fadiga Muscular/fisiologia , Dinamômetro de Força Muscular , Rotação , Escápula , Torque , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Strength Cond Res ; 33(11): 3105-3113, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28746245

RESUMO

McGuinness, A, Malone, S, Petrakos, G, and Collins, K. The physical and physiological demands of elite international female field hockey players during competitive match play. J Strength Cond Res 33(11): 3105-3113, 2019-The aim of the current investigation was to quantify the physical and physiological demands of elite international female field hockey match play across halves of play. Thirty-eight participants (24 ± 5 years; 173 ± 5 cm; 72 ± 5 kg) took part in 19 competitive matches during the 2014-2015 season. Participants were monitored with global positioning system technology and heart rate monitors. Players were categorized based on 3 different playing positions. Activity was categorized into total (m), high-speed running distance (m; >16 km·h), and relative distance (RD) (m·min) due to the use of rolling substitutions. Heart rate was classified based on the percentage of players' individual peak heart rate (HRpeak) determined by a Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 test. Players spent on average 44 ± 7 minutes in match play. The total distance (TD) covered was 5,558 ± 527 m (125 ± 23 m·min) with 589 ± 160 m (13 ± 4 m·min) completed at high speed. Defenders covered a greater TD compared with other positions of play (p ≤ 0.001). Midfield players covered a greater distance at high speed (p ≤ 0.001) with the forwards having a higher relative distance (p ≤ 0.001). The HRpeak of the players was 199 ± 1 b·min with a mean exercise intensity of 86 ± 7.8% of HRpeak. The time spent >85% HRpeak decreased significantly across the halves (p = 0.04, η = 0.09, small). Defenders were found to spend more time >85% HRpeak when compared with forwards (p ≤ 0.001). The current investigation provides normative data that coaches should consider when constructing training regimen.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca , Hóquei/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Adulto , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Feminino , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
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