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1.
Emergencias (Sant Vicenç dels Horts) ; 34(3): 204-212, Jun. 2022. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-203724

RESUMO

Objetivo. Existe una elevada tasa de infección oculta y diagnóstico tardío en el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH). La realización de pruebas diagnósticas de infección por VIH en los servicios de urgencias hospitalarios (SUH) puede representar una oportunidad para aumentar el número de diagnósticos. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar si el cribado universal para el VIH realizado en los SUH es eficiente. Método. Se realiza una revisión sistemática y metanálisis siguiendo la normativa PRISMA en la base de datos de Pubmed, Cochrane, LILACS, Scopus, EMBASE y WOS utilizando una combinación de términos MESH: “HIV Infections/ epidemiology”, “AIDS Serodiagnosis”, “Emergency Service, Hospital”, “Prevalence”, “Mass screening/methods”. Los criterios de la búsqueda se centraron en los últimos 5 años (2016-2020) y en los artículos publicados en inglés y en español. Se incluyeron los estudios de pruebas de cribado universal mediante test de cribado de VIH realizadas en los SUH. Para evaluar la calidad de los artículos se utilizó el cuestionario “Quality assessment tool for quantitative studies”. Resultado. Se identificaron un total de 273 artículos de los cuales se analizaron finalmente 12 que cumplían los criterios de inclusión. Los estudios incluidos representan un total de 103.731 muestras analizadas obteniéndose un total de 652 nuevos diagnósticos de VIH. La prevalencia conjunta obtenida a través del modelo de efectos aleatorios fue de 0,60% (IC 95%: 0,39-0,84) y el valor del I2 revela una presencia elevada de heterogeneidad (I2 90,02%; p < 0,001). La prevalencia conjunta en los estudios incluidos realizados en Europa, América y África fue de 0,48% (IC 95%: 0,13- 1,03), 0,54% (IC 95%: 0,33-0,40) y 5,6% (IC 95%: 3,37-9,2), respectivamente. La evaluación de la calidad de los estudios fue de moderada a fuerte. [...]


Background and objective. The rates of undiagnosed and late-diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are high. Screening for HIV infection in hospital emergency departments (EDs) could offer a way to increase the number of diagnoses. Our aim was to analyze whether universal hospital ED screening for HIV is efficient. Methods. We followed the guidelines for Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). PubMed, the Cochrane Library, LILACS, Scopus, EMBASE, and the Web of Science were searched using the following terms: “HIV infections/epidemiology,” “AIDS serodiagnosis,” “emergency service, hospital,” “prevalence,” and “mass screening/methods.” The searches were limited to a 5-year time frame (2016–2020); only publications in English or Spanish were collected. We included studies of universal HIV screening among hospital ED patients and evaluated them using the Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies. Results. A total of 273 articles were identified. Twelve met the inclusion criteria. The studies analyzed 103731 patient samples and yielded 652 new HIV diagnoses. A random effects model estimated an overall new-diagnosis prevalence of 0.60% (95% CI, 0.39%–0.84%). The heterogeneity statistic I2 was high, at 90.02% (P < .001). Estimates of prevalence based on studies carried out in Europe, the United States, and Africa were, respectively, 0.48% (95% CI, 0.13%–1.03%), 0.54% (95% CI, 0.33%–0.40%), and 5.6% (95% CI, 3.37%–9.2%). The studies received quality ratings of moderate or strong. Conclusion. Although the reviewed studies applied various screening strategies to identify new HIV diagnoses, our findings support the conclusion that universal screening is efficient.


Assuntos
Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , HIV , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Infecções por HIV , Diagnóstico Tardio
2.
BMC Womens Health ; 22(1): 240, 2022 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35717156

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Task shifting is a well-tested implementation strategy within low- and middle-income countries that addresses the shortage of trained mental health personnel. Task shifting can increase access to care for patients with mental illnesses. In Kenya, community health workers (CHWs) are a combination of community health assistants and community health volunteers and have played a crucial role on this front. In our study, we seek to assess the acceptability and feasibility of Group Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT-G) delivered by CHWs among depressed postpartum adolescents (PPAs) living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). METHOD: The study used theoretical framework of behaviour change including: Capability, Opportunity and Motivation (COM-B model) to help understand behavioural changes due to IPT-G intervention delivered by the CHWs. 24 PPAs were administered IPT-G by trained CHWs from two health centres. A two-arm study design (IPT-G intervention and treatment as usual) with an intent to treat was used to assess the acceptability and feasibility of IPT-G. With purposeful sampling, participants who scored > 10 on the Edinburgh postnatal depression scale and who were 6-12 weeks postpartum were eligible for the study. Participants were equally distributed into two groups: one group for intervention and another as a wait-listed group. This was achieved by randomly allocating numerical numbers and separating those with odd numbers (intervention group) and even numbers (wait-listed group). Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews ascertained the experiences and perceptions of the PPAs and the CHWs during IP-G delivery process. In addition to weekly face-to-face continuous supportive supervision for the CHWs, the researchers also utilized phone calls, short messages services and WhatsApp instant messaging services. RESULTS: The CHWs found the intervention useful for their own knowledge and skill-set. With regards to participation, 21 out of the 24 adolescents attended all sessions. Most of the adolescents reported an improvement in their interpersonal relationships with reduced distress and lessening of HIV-related stigma. Primary healthcare workers embraced the intervention by accommodating the sessions in their routine clinic activities. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates the possible benefits of task shifting in addressing mental health problems within low-resource settings in Kenya, and IPT-G is demonstrated to be both acceptable and feasible by health workers and adolescents receiving care.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Adolescente , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Feminino , HIV , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Humanos , Quênia
3.
AIDS Patient Care STDS ; 36(6): 208-218, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35687814

RESUMO

Men who have sex with men (MSM) initiating human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) may increase condomless anal sex (CAS) and number of partners, and, consequently, more often acquire sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Using data from the Amsterdam Cohort Studies, we compared sexual behavior and STI among MSM after PrEP-initiation with controls not initiating PrEP. The MSM reported on sexual behavior and were tested for HIV, chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis semi-annually. We matched MSM who initiated PrEP between January 1, 2015 and December 31, 2019 1:1 to MSM who did not use time-dependent propensity scores based on age, sexual behavior, and STI. Primary end-points were number of casual partners, and proportion with CAS and receptive CAS (rCAS) with casual partners, sexualized drug use (SDU), any STI, and anal STI. We modeled end-points during the 4 years before and 2 years after PrEP-initiation or matched PrEP-initiation timepoint by using logistic regression (dichotomous end-points) or negative binomial regression (count end-point), adjusted for calendar year. Two hundred twenty-eight out of the 858 (26.6%) MSM initiated PrEP. We matched 198 out of 228 (86.8%) to a control. Before PrEP-initiation, end-points increased over time in both groups, with no statistically significant difference. The odds of CAS, rCAS, and anal STI were on average higher after than before PrEP-initiation in PrEP initiators, whereas after versus before differences were not observed in controls. After PrEP-initiation, PrEP initiators had statistically significantly more casual partners, and higher odds of CAS, rCAS, SDU, any STI, and anal STI than controls. These findings support frequent STI screening and counseling in MSM using PrEP.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis , HIV , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Comportamento Sexual , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle
4.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 962022 May 25.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35642274

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Studies report a higher prevalence of HCV, HBV and HIV in the population with Alcohol Use Disorder. Our objective is to determine the seroprevalence for hepatitis B and C and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in patients with alcohol use disorder, as well as to determine if there is a correct serological screening of these. METHODS: Retrospective study of 204 patients with Alcohol Use Disorder followed up in the Addictive Behaviors Unit from Albacete. They started treatment from 2013-2014 onwards, the last patient was recruited in December of 2017. RESULTS: Our sample has 160 men (78.4%) and 44 women (21.6%). The median age is 46.2 years. 161 patients (78.9%) had HIV serology and it was negative in all. 146 patients (71.6%) had negative hepatitis B serology and 12 (5.9%) were vaccinated. 36 patients (17.6%) had no hepatitis B serology performed. In 10 patients, hepatitis B serology was positive (4.9%; 95% CI 1.9-7.9%). 159 patients (77.9%) had negative hepatitis C serology, and 37 patients had not performed it (18.1%). 8 patients had positive serology (prevalence of 3.9%; 95% CI 1.2-6.6%). Excluding patients who did not have serology, seroprevalence was 5.9% (95% CI 2.3-9.6%) and 4.8% (95% CI 1.5-8.1%) respectively. Failure to perform serologies was associated with older age and less weekly Standard Drink Units (SDUs) consumption. CONCLUSIONS: The seroprevalence of HBV and HCV in patients with alcohol use disorder is high. It should be ensured that 100% of patients with alcohol use disorder undergo HCV, HIV, HBV serology, reducing the loss of diagnostic opportunities.


OBJETIVO: Estudios relatan mayor prevalencia de VHC, VHB y VIH en población con Trastorno de Consumo de Alcohol. El objetivo de nuestro estudio fue determinar la seroprevalencia para Virus de Hepatitis B (VHB), Virus de Hepatitis C (VHC) y el Virus de la Inmunodeficiencia Humana (VIH) en pacientes con trastorno por consumo de alcohol, así como determinar si existe un correcto cribaje serológico de éstos. METODOS: Estudio retrospectivo de 204 pacientes con trastorno por consumo de alcohol seguidos en la unidad de conductas adictivas de Albacete, que iniciaron tratamiento desde el año 2013-2014 en adelante, el último paciente fue reclutado en diciembre de 2017. RESULTADOS: Nuestra muestra tiene 160 hombres (78,4%) y 44 mujeres (21,6%). La mediana de edad es 46,2 años. 161 pacientes (78,9%) tenían serología de VIH y fue negativa en todos. 146 pacientes (71,6%) tenían serología negativa de hepatitis B y 12 (5,9%) estaban vacunados. 36 pacientes (17,6%) no tenían serología realizada de hepatitis B. En 10 pacientes la serología de hepatitis B fue positiva (4,9%; IC95% 1,9-7,9%). 159 pacientes (77,9%) tenían serología negativa de hepatitis C, y 37 pacientes no la tenían realizada (18,1%). 8 pacientes tenían serología positiva (prevalencia de 3,9%; IC95% 1,2-6,6%). Excluyendo a los pacientes que no tenían serología la seroprevalencia fue de 5,9% (IC95% 2,3-9,6%) y de 4.8% (IC95% de 1,5-8,1%) respectivamente. La no realización de serologías se asoció a mayor edad y un menor consumo de Unidades de Bebida Estándar (UBEs) por semana. CONCLUSIONES: La seroprevalencia de VHB y VHC en pacientes con trastorno por consumo de alcohol es alta. Debería asegurarse que el 100% de pacientes con trastorno de consumo de alcohol, se realicen serologías de VHC, VIH, VHB disminuyendo pérdida de oportunidades diagnósticas.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Infecções por HIV , Hepatite B , Hepatite C , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Feminino , HIV , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Hepacivirus , Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Vírus da Hepatite B , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Espanha/epidemiologia
5.
East Asian Arch Psychiatry ; 32(2): 39-42, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35732479

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are at higher risk of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. We reviewed the literature for the prevalence and determinants of suicidal ideation and suicide attempt in people with HIV in Africa. METHODS: The PubMed, Scopus, and Google scholar were searched for original studies published in peer-reviewed journals in English language between January 2015 to July 2020, using the key words: 'suicidal behavior', 'suicidal attempt', 'suicidal ideation', 'HIV/AIDS', and/or 'Africa'. The quality of included studies was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. RESULTS: 12 cross-sectional studies published in the past 5 years in African countries were included. The quality of studies was high, with score ranging from 6 to 9. The prevalence of suicidal ideation ranged from 8.8% to 39%. The prevalence of suicide attempt ranged from 2.8% to 20.1%. The most common risk factors for suicidal behaviour were mental health-related problems. Other factors included high clinical stage of HIV, being unmarried, poor medication adherence, poorer quality of life, not taking highly active antiretroviral therapy, female sex, no education, substance use, low CD4 level, and opportunistic infection. CONCLUSION: Patients with HIV/AIDS have an increased risk of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Early screening, treatment, and referral of suicidal patients are necessary for HIV clinics.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Tentativa de Suicídio , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , HIV , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Prevalência , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores de Risco , Ideação Suicida
6.
Womens Health (Lond) ; 18: 17455057221103098, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35699104

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Black cisgender women in the United States experience a disproportionate burden of human immunodeficiency virus acquisition. Pre-exposure prophylaxis is an effective oral daily medication that reduces the risk of human immunodeficiency virus through sex by 99% when taken as prescribed. However, less than 2% of eligible Black cisgender women take pre-exposure prophylaxis. The purpose of this scoping review was to describe the types of research studies done in this area, gaps in knowledge, and potential areas of research needed to increase pre-exposure prophylaxis use among Black cisgender women in the United States. METHODS: We conducted our search in MEDLINE (PubMed), Embase (Elsevier), CINAHL (EBSCOhost), PsycINFO (EBSCOhost), and Scopus (Elsevier) using a combination of keywords and database-specific subject headings for the following concepts: pre-exposure prophylaxis, African American/Black or minority, and women. We used the Joanna Briggs Institute's Reviewers' Manual process for Scoping Reviews and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews to ensure comprehensive and standardized reporting of each part of the review. RESULTS: Fifty-nine studies were included in the final review. Results of the study were classified according to the three phases of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention Cascade-demand side, supply side, and adherence and retention. The majority of studies (n = 24, 41%) were cross-sectional quantitative surveys and 43 (34%) focused on the demand-side phase of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention Cascade. Fifty-eight percent of studies either assessed women's pre-exposure prophylaxis knowledge, attitudes, and intentions to use, or assessed perceived barriers and facilitators. Seven studies (12%) tested pre-exposure prophylaxis uptake and adherence among Black cisgender women. CONCLUSION: This review found multiple missed opportunities to increase women's demand for pre-exposure prophylaxis and health care provider screening and referral for pre-exposure prophylaxis. Additional studies are needed to effectively assess pre-exposure prophylaxis uptake and adherence among Black cisgender women.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Feminino , HIV , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição/métodos , Estados Unidos
7.
J Med Vasc ; 47(2): 71-81, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35691666

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The side effects of antiretroviral drugs and the chronic inflammation induced by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection contribute to the development of atherosclerotic arterial remodeling in people living with HIV (PLWH). OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency and factors associated with arterial remodeling in PLWH treated at the university hospital of Parakou. METHODS: It was a cross-sectional, descriptive, and analytic study. Data were collected from March to August 2019 at the university hospital of Parakou in Benin. PLWH aged at least 18years and consenting were included. The diagnosis of arterial remodeling was retained in the presence of at least one of the following criteria: carotid intima-media thickness≥1mm, anteroposterior diameter of the abdominal aorta≥25mm, ankle brachial index<0.9, presence of atheromatous plaque. Data were recorded and analyzed with R 3.5.1 software, and the threshold of significance was 5%. RESULTS: A total of 114 patients have undergone arterial Doppler ultrasound. The majority were women (71.9%). The patients' mean age was 43.2±10.2years with extremes of 18 and 67years. The frequency of arterial remodeling was 24.6%. The most common atherosclerotic lesion found was atheromatous overload (IMT≥1mm). Age≥50y (p=0.003; ORa=4.9[1.5-15.6]), male sex (p=0.037; ORa=4.1[1.3-13.4]), and a family history of hypertension and/or diabetes (p=0.027; ORa=3.6[1.1-12.8]) were significantly associated with atherosclerosis in PLWH. CONCLUSION: Arterial remodeling was frequent among PLWH in Parakou in 2019. The associated factors were the classic cardiovascular risk factors that should be systematically taken into account in the follow-up of these patients.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Infecções por HIV , Placa Aterosclerótica , Adulto , Aterosclerose/diagnóstico por imagem , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , HIV , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
8.
J Biomed Nanotechnol ; 18(3): 818-827, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35715913

RESUMO

To better deliver antiretroviral drugs for treating patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) with poor immune reconstitution, a novel nanopole capsule was designed in this study. Forty-eight patients with AIDS with poor immune reconstitution were chosen as subjects to test their immune state. CD4+ T and Regulatory T cells (Treg) infected with HIV were cultured to test polyethyleneimine (PEI) and polychitosan (PC) drug delivery system efficiency. The infiltration efficiency test was performed to study the drug delivery efficiency of the delivery systems, and the cell numbers of CD4+ T and Treg cells infected with HIV were calculated to evaluate the therapeutic effect. The results showed that patients with AIDS with poor immune reconstitution had lower CD4+ T cell count and higher Treg cell count. Furthermore, the infiltration efficiency of the PC drug delivery system was higher than that of the PEI drug delivery system, and the therapy efficiency of antiretroviral drugs was greatly improved in the PC group. Additionally, the improvement of CD4+ T and Treg cells damaged by HIV was greater in the PC group. Sequentially, the PC system can better deliver and release loaded antiretroviral drugs and may be a better choice for treating patients with AIDS with poor immune reconstitution in the future.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , Infecções por HIV , Reconstituição Imune , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , HIV , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Linfócitos T Reguladores
9.
Front Immunol ; 13: 899073, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35655778

RESUMO

Castleman disease (CD) is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder. The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is a key regulator of various cellular functions, which may be related with the potential mechanisms of CD occurrence. We retrospectively collected the clinical information of 60 CD patients diagnosed in the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University. And FFPE biopsy specimens were collected from 31 patients (12 unicentric CD patients and 19 multicentric CD patients) to detect the mTOR pathway protein expression. We are the first to demonstrate that thrombocytopenia and hypoalbuminemia are independent poor prognostic factors for CD. Moreover, mTOR activation was higher in CD compared to reactive lymphoid hyperplasia (used as a control group). This study offers some elucidation for the management and treatment of CD patients.


Assuntos
Hiperplasia do Linfonodo Gigante , Trombocitopenia , Hiperplasia do Linfonodo Gigante/diagnóstico , HIV , Humanos , Doenças Raras , Estudos Retrospectivos , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR
10.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(2): 187-192, maio-ago. 2022.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1372977

RESUMO

O vírus da imunodeficiência humana é o agente etiológico da AIDS, doença crônica que destrói o sistema imunológico e é caracterizada pela baixa contagem de células TCD4, alta contagem de partículas virais no sangue e manifestações clínicas da doença. O diagnóstico se dá com o aparecimento de infecções oportunistas, que levam a contagem de TCD4 a níveis menores que 200 céls/mm³. Os exames laboratoriais para o diagnóstico do HIV foram os principais avanços para o início do tratamento, reduzindo a transmissão. Detecção de anticorpos, detecção de antígenos e amplificação do genoma do vírus são alguns dos exames laboratoriais utilizados para diagnóstico. Os dois principais biomarcadores são os exames de contagem de células TCD4, que verifica o sistema imune, e a quantificação de carga viral, que informa a quantidade de partículas virais, mostrando a progressão da infecção. Quanto maior a carga viral, maior o dano ao sistema imune. Uma carga viral indetectável é inferior a 50 cópias/mL, mas valores menores ou iguais a 200 cópias/mL também impedem a transmissão. Uma declaração de consenso afirma que Indetectável é igual a Intransmissível. Portanto, quando indetectável, a transmissão inexiste. O presente estudo relata e discute o caso clínico de uma paciente diagnosticada com HIV/AIDS aos 28 anos, que sobreviveu, apesar do diagnóstico tardio, e sob presença de doença oportunista com um grave grau de diminuição de células TCD4 (22 cél/mm³). Por meio do diagnóstico, introdução e adesão correta da terapia antirretroviral e monitorização de exames laboratoriais, conseguiu evitar a morte e ter uma vida semelhante à de um HIV negativo. Ultrapassou a expectativa de vida que na descoberta era de 10 anos, com uma qualidade de vida considerável, não sendo transmissora do vírus, diminuindo assim o estigma e preconceito. O biomédico é peça fundamental nesse contexto, considerando que deve fornecer informações precisas e fidedignas, tão necessárias ao acompanhamento de pessoas vivendo com HIV, para que autoridades e profissionais de saúde adotem medidas adequadas, tanto na prevenção, quanto no diagnóstico e monitoramento da doença.


The human immunodeficiency virus is the etiological agent of AIDS, a chronic disease that destroys the immune system and is characterized by low TCD4 cell count, high viral particle count in blood and clinical manifestations of the disease. The diagnosis is due to the appearance of opportunistic infections, which lead to TCD4 counts below 200 cells / mm³. Laboratory tests for the diagnosis of HIV were the main advances in starting treatment, reducing transmission. Antibody detection, antigen detection and virus genome amplification are some of the laboratory tests used for diagnosis. The two main biomarkers are the TCD4 cell count tests, which checks the immune system, and viral load quantification, which reports the number of viral particles, showing the progression of infection. The higher the viral load, the greater the damage to the immune system. An undetectable viral load is less than 50 copies / mL, but values less than or equal to 200 copies / mL also prevent transmission. A consensus statement states that Undetectable equals Non-Transmissible. Therefore, when undetectable, transmission does not exist. The present study reports and discusses the clinical case of a patient diagnosed with HIV / AIDS at age 28, who survived despite late diagnosis and under the presence of opportunistic disease with a severe degree of TCD4 cell reduction (22 cells / mm³). Through the diagnosis, introduction and correct adherence of antiretroviral therapy and monitoring of laboratory tests, she was able to avoid death and have a life similar to that of an HIV negative. Exceeded the life expectancy that in the discovery was 10 years, with a considerable quality of life, not transmitting the virus, thus reducing the stigma and prejudice. The biomedical is a key player in this context, considering that he must provide accurate and reliable information, which is so necessary for the monitoring of people living with HIV, so that authorities and health professionals adopt appropriate measures, both in prevention, diagnosis and monitoring of the disease.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , HIV , Toxoplasmose/virologia , Nefropatia Associada a AIDS/virologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS , Carga Viral , Criptococose/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Febre/virologia , Cefaleia/virologia , Anemia/virologia , Meningite/virologia
11.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-203501

RESUMO

IntroducciónEl envejecimiento de la población infectada por VIH podría relacionarse con prescripciones de medicación potencialmente inadecuadas, interacciones medicamentosas y falta de adherencia terapéutica. Los criterios PIMDINAC buscan analizar conjuntamente estos problemas. El objetivo del estudio es determinar la prevalencia de los criterios PIMDINAC en una población VIH de edad avanzada.MétodosEstudio observacional, transversal y multicéntrico que incluyó pacientes mayores de 65 años en seguimiento farmacoterapéutico entre febrero-abril de 2020. La variable principal fue el porcentaje de cumplimiento de los criterios PIMDINAC.ResultadosSe incluyeron 47 pacientes, registrándose un PIMDINAC total en un 12,5%. De forma aislada, se detectó no adherencia al tratamiento concomitante en un 65,6% de los pacientes, medicación potencialmente inadecuada en un 48,9% e interacciones medicamentosas en un 25,2%. El número de fármacos y la polifarmacia se relacionaron con una mayor aparición de criterios PIMDINAC.ConclusiónLa prevalencia de criterios PIMDINAC en pacientes VIH de edad avanzada es elevada.


IntroductionAging of people living with HIV could be related to potentially inappropriate medication prescriptions, drugs interactions and lack of drugs adherence. PIMDINAC criteria seek to jointly analyze these problems. The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of PIMDINAC criteria in an elderly HIV population.MethodsObservational, cross-sectional, multicenter study that included patients older than 65 years in pharmacotherapeutic follow-up between February-April 2020. The main endpoint was the percentage of PIMDINAC criteria identified in the study population.ResultsForty-seven patientes were included, identifying total PIMDINAC in 12.5%. Non-adherence to concomitant treatment was detected in 65.6% of patients, potentially inappropriate medication in 48.9% and drugs interactions in 25.2%. The number of concomitant drugs and polypharmacy were associated with a higher appearance of PIMDINAC criteria.ConclusionThe prevalence of PIMDINAC criteria in elderly HIV patients is high.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Ciências da Saúde , HIV , Infecções por HIV , Envelhecimento , Pacientes , Terapêutica , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Polimedicação , Microbiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos de Casos e Controles
13.
Cancer Control ; 29: 10732748221103624, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35591798

RESUMO

People living with HIV (PLWH) have an increased risk of lung cancer compared to the general population. In 2013, the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) released their lung cancer screening (LCS) guidelines. However, the impact of these guidelines has not been well established in PLWH. The objective of this retrospective descriptive study is to evaluate the frequency of lung cancer screening referrals and factors associated with LCS referrals using the 2013 USPSTF screening guidelines in at-risk PLWH. We collected demographic and clinical information on PLWH from electronic medical records from July 2016 to July 2018. Descriptive statistics, chi-square tests, t-tests, Wilcoxon rank sum tests, and Fisher's exact tests were used for analysis. Only 14% of patients who met 2013 USPSTF screening guidelines were referred for screening. Patients who received a referral were more likely to have received tobacco cessation counseling. Patients who received and completed a referral were more likely to have hepatitis C infection. Quality improvement strategies are needed to improve rates of LCS in PLWH.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , HIV , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Programas de Rastreamento , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Estados Unidos
14.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0269250, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35639675

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Due to their common routes of transmission, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and/or hepatitis C virus (HCV) has become a major public health problem worldwide, particularly in Africa, where these viruses are endemic. Few systematic reviews report the epidemiological data of HBV and/or HCV coinfection with HIV in Africa, and none provided data on the case fatality rate (CFR) associated with this coinfection. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence and case fatality rate of HBV and/or HCV infections among people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) in Africa. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of published articles in PubMed, Web of Science, African Journal Online, and African Index Medicus up to January 2022. Manual searches of references from retrieved articles and grey literature were also performed. The meta-analysis was performed using a random-effects model. Sources of heterogeneity were investigated using subgroup analysis, while funnel plots and Egger tests were performed to assess publication bias. RESULTS: Of the 4388 articles retrieved from the databases, 314 studies met all the inclusion criteria. The overall HBV case fatality rate estimate was 4.4% (95% CI; 0.7-10.3). The overall seroprevalences of HBV infection, HCV infection, and HBV/HCV coinfection in PLHIV were 10.5% [95% CI = 9.6-11.3], 5.4% [95% CI = 4.6-6.2], and 0.7% [95% CI = 0.3-1.0], respectively. The pooled seroprevalences of current HBsAg, current HBeAg, and acute HBV infection among PLHIV were 10.7% [95% CI = 9.8-11.6], 7.0% [95% CI = 4.7-9.7], and 3.6% [95% CI = 0.0-11.0], respectively. Based on HBV-DNA and HCV-RNA detection, the seroprevalences of HBV and HCV infection in PLHIV were 17.1% [95% CI = 11.5-23.7] and 2.5% [95% CI = 0.9-4.6], respectively. Subgroup analysis showed substantial heterogeneity. CONCLUSIONS: In Africa, the prevalence of hepatotropic viruses, particularly HBV and HCV, is high in PLHIV, which increases the case fatality rate. African public health programs should emphasize the need to apply and comply with WHO guidelines on viral hepatitis screening and treatment in HIV-coinfected patients. REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO, CRD42021237795.


Assuntos
Coinfecção , Infecções por HIV , Hepatite B , Hepatite C , África/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/complicações , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , HIV , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hepacivirus , Hepatite B/complicações , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Vírus da Hepatite B , Hepatite C/complicações , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Humanos
16.
Knee ; 36: 97-102, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35576782

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anti-retroviral therapy (ART) remains the cornerstone of decreasing morbidity and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients. However, a large study comparing HIV patients taking ART prior to total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is lacking. We sought to examine: (1) readmissions; (2) post-operative complications; and (3) revisions in ART-treated or untreated HIV patients compared with a non-HIV population. METHODS: We queried a national, all-payer database to identify TKA patients from 2010-2020 (n = 1,393,357). The presence or absence of ART was identified and matched with non-HIV patients based on age, sex, diabetes, obesity, and tobacco status resulting in 889 patients in each cohort. Readmissions, post-operative complications, and revisions were assessed. RESULTS: Readmissions were higher among all HIV patients and even higher in those not taking ART, as compared to the matching cohort (4.8 versus 1.6%, p < 0.01). Prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) at 1-year were higher among HIV patients who were either taking ART (4.0%; OR, 1.41 [0.82-2.45]) or not taking ART (5.1%; OR, 2.44 [1.42-4.21]) as compared to non-HIV patients (2.1%, all p < 0.03). Revision rates at 1-year trended higher in HIV patients who were taking ART (2.6%; Odds Ratio (OR), 1.94 [0.96-3.93]) and who did not take ART (3.1%; OR, 2.38 [1.20-4.70]), compared to non-HIV patients (1.3%, all p < 0.09). CONCLUSIONS: ART-treated HIV patients are associated with lower readmissions, post-operative complications, and revisions when compared to HIV patients not taking ART. The findings of this study underscore the utility of ART and patient optimization to reduce risk in HIV patients.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho , Infecções por HIV , Artroplastia do Joelho/efeitos adversos , HIV , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Reoperação/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
17.
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao ; 44(2): 221-226, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35538756

RESUMO

Objective To investigate the rate and correlates of receiving human immunodeficiency virus(HIV) serostatus disclosure from their most recent male sexual partners among men who have sex with men(MSM) aged 50 and above. Methods With a geosocial networking application,we recruited participants through online convenience sampling to collect the demographic variables,behavioral information,receiving HIV serostatus disclosure,etc.Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to interpret the associated factors of receiving HIV serostatus disclosure. Results Overall,38.4%(398/1037) of participants received HIV serostatus disclosure from their most recent male sexual partners.The multivariable analysis demonstrated that the following populations were less likely to receive HIV serostatus disclosure from their most recent male sexual partners:participants with junior high school degree or below(OR=0.660,95%CI=0.473-0.922, P=0.015) compared to those with senior high school degree or above;participants unemployed(OR=0.537,95%CI=0.322-0.896, P=0.017) and employed(OR=0.663,95%CI=0.466-0.944, P=0.022) compared to those retired;participants without knowledge about HIV or acquired immune deficiency syndrome(AIDS) compared to those with knowledge about HIV/AIDS(OR=0.636,95%CI=0.466-0.868, P=0.004);participants having ≥2 male sexual partners in the last year(OR=0.433,95%CI=0.320-0.586, P<0.001) compared to those having none or one male sexual partner;participants never been tested for HIV(OR=0.544,95%CI=0.403-0.734, P<0.001) compared to those ever been tested for HIV;participants ever been diagnosed to have sexually transmitted infection(STI)(OR=0.472,95%CI=0.349-0.637, P<0.001) compared to those never diagnosed to have STI;and participants with higher level of HIV stigma(OR=0.742,95%CI=0.604-0.912, P=0.005). Conclusions Our findings indicated that the MSM aged 50 and above had low possibility of receiving HIV serostatus disclosure from the most recent male sexual partners.Education,employment status,number of sexual partners,HIV/AIDS-related knowledge,HIV testing behaviors,STI infection history,and HIV stigma contributed to this result.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , Infecções por HIV , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Revelação , Feminino , HIV , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Sexual , Parceiros Sexuais , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/diagnóstico
18.
Microbiol Immunol ; 66(6): 317-323, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35510555

RESUMO

Improved diagnostic tests for tuberculosis (TB) among people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are urgently required. We hypothesized that methylation-driven genes (MDGs) of host blood could be used to diagnose patients co-infected with HIV/TB. In this study, we identified three MDGs among patients with HIV monoinfection and those with HIV/TB co-infection using the R package MethylMix. We then developed a deep learning model by screening these three MDGs, which distinguished HIV/TB co-infection from HIV monoinfection with a sensitivity of 95.2% and a specificity of 88.3%. On the two independent data sets, the sensitivity and specificity were 80%-92.8% and 72.7%-87.5%, respectively. Besides, our deep learning model accurately classified TB (sensitivity, 75.0%-100%; specificity, 91.3%-98.1%) and other respiratory disorders (sensitivity, 72.7%-75.0%; specificity, 70.9%-72.7%). This study will contribute to improve molecular diagnosis for HIV/TB co-infection.


Assuntos
Coinfecção , Aprendizado Profundo , Infecções por HIV , Tuberculose , Coinfecção/diagnóstico , HIV , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Humanos , Metilação , Tuberculose/diagnóstico
19.
Intern Med J ; 52(5): 868-871, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35538008

RESUMO

Australia has approximately 1.6 million Medicare-ineligible residents, of whom around 450 are living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV). We examined the outcomes in a cohort of 50 Medicare-ineligible patients presenting to our hospital network over a 15-year period: 31 women (62%) and 19 men. Twenty-four were newly diagnosed. Sixteen of 24 remained in Australia more than 1 year after diagnosis. Although the mean CD4 count at initial contact was 353 cells/mm3 (range 3-2228; standard deviation (SD) = 452.88), 13 people required treatment for opportunistic infections and 21 people required hospital admissions related to HIV, incurring total estimated hospital costs of $886 310. The mean number of contact years spent with the service was 2.2 (range 0-12; SD = 2.6) and 20 people remain under care. Twenty-seven PLHIV remain in Australia, seven have transferred care within Australia, two people are known to have died and eight are lost to follow up. The median number of admissions was 0 (range 0-4; SD = 1) and median length of admission was 5 days (range 0-73; SD = 19). Many people leave Australia shortly after a diagnosis of HIV, but most Medicare-ineligible PLHIV remain. Delays in diagnosing HIV and acquiring Medicare status are associated with a significant burden of disease and cost. Keeping people well, on therapy and out of hospital is likely to be cost-saving in addition to good clinical practice.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Idoso , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Feminino , HIV , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino
20.
Cell Rep ; 39(6): 110797, 2022 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35545034

RESUMO

The protein TRIM5α has multiple roles in antiretroviral defense, but the mechanisms underlying TRIM5α action are unclear. Here, we employ APEX2-based proteomics to identify TRIM5α-interacting partners. Our proteomics results connect TRIM5 to other proteins with actions in antiviral defense. Additionally, they link TRIM5 to mitophagy, an autophagy-based mode of mitochondrial quality control that is compromised in several human diseases. We find that TRIM5 is required for Parkin-dependent and -independent mitophagy pathways where TRIM5 recruits upstream autophagy regulators to damaged mitochondria. Expression of a TRIM5 mutant lacking ubiquitin ligase activity is unable to rescue mitophagy in TRIM5 knockout cells. Cells lacking TRIM5 show reduced mitochondrial function under basal conditions and are more susceptible to immune activation and death in response to mitochondrial damage than are wild-type cells. Taken together, our studies identify a homeostatic role for a protein previously recognized exclusively for its antiviral actions.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Mitofagia , Autofagia/fisiologia , HIV , Humanos , Proteínas/metabolismo , Proteínas com Motivo Tripartido , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo
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