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1.
Lancet HIV ; 7(10): e688-e698, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010242

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bioinformatically designed mosaic antigens increase the breadth of HIV vaccine-elicited immunity. This study compared the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of a newly developed, tetravalent Ad26 vaccine with the previously tested trivalent formulation. METHODS: This randomised, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, double-blind, phase 1/2a study (TRAVERSE) was done at 11 centres in the USA and one centre in Rwanda. Eligible participants were adults aged 18 to 50 years, who were HIV-uninfected, healthy at screening based on their medical history and a physical examination including laboratory assessment and vital sign measurements, and at low risk of HIV infection in the opinion of study staff, who applied a uniform definition of low-risk guidelines that was aligned across sites. Enrolled participants were randomly assigned at a 2:1 ratio to tetravalent and trivalent groups. Participants in tetravalent and trivalent groups were then further randomly assigned at a 5:1 ratio to adenovirus 26 (Ad26)-vectored vaccine and placebo subgroups. Randomisation was stratified by region (USA and Rwanda) and based on a computer-generated schedule using randomly permuted blocks prepared under the sponsor's supervision. We masked participants and investigators to treatment allocation throughout the study. On day 0, participants received a first injection of tetravalent vaccine (Ad26.Mos4.HIV or placebo) or trivalent vaccine (Ad26.Mos.HIV or placebo), and those injections were repeated 12 weeks later. At week 24, vaccine groups received a third dose of tetravalent or trivalent together with clade C gp140, and this was repeated at week 48, with placebos again administered to the placebo group. All study vaccines and placebo were administered by intramuscular injection in the deltoid muscle. We assessed adverse events in all participants who received at least one study injection (full analysis set) and Env-specific binding antibodies in all participants who received at least the first three vaccinations according to the protocol-specified vaccination schedule, had at least one measured post-dose blood sample collected, and were not diagnosed with HIV during the study (per-protocol set). This study is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT02788045. FINDINGS: Of 201 participants who were enrolled and randomly assigned, 198 received the first vaccination: 110 were in the tetravalent group, 55 in the trivalent group, and 33 in the placebo group. Overall, 185 (93%) completed two scheduled vaccinations per protocol, 180 (91%) completed three, and 164 (83%) completed four. Solicited, self-limiting local, systemic reactogenicity and unsolicited adverse events were similar in vaccine groups and higher than in placebo groups. All participants in the per-protocol set developed clade C Env binding antibodies after the second vaccination, with higher total IgG titres after the tetravalent vaccine than after the trivalent vaccine (10 413 EU/mL, 95% CI 7284-14 886 in the tetravalent group compared with 5494 EU/mL, 3759-8029 in the trivalent group). Titres further increased after the third and fourth vaccinations, persisting at least through week 72. Other immune responses were also higher with the tetravalent vaccine, including the magnitude and breadth of binding antibodies against a cross-clade panel of Env antigens, and the magnitude of IFNγ ELISPOT responses (median 521 SFU/106 peripheral blood mononuclear cells [PBMCs] in the tetravalent group and median 282 SFU/106 PBMCs in the trivalent group after the fourth vaccination) and Env-specific CD4+ T-cell response rates after the third and fourth vaccinations. No interference by pre-existing Ad26 immunity was identified. INTERPRETATION: The tetravalent vaccine regimen was generally safe, well-tolerated, and found to elicit higher immune responses than the trivalent regimen. Regimens that use this tetravalent vaccine component are being advanced into field trials to assess efficacy against HIV-1 infection. FUNDING: National Institutes of Health, Henry M Jackson Foundation for Advancement of Military Medicine and the US Department of Defense, Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT, & Harvard, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, and Janssen Vaccines & Prevention.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra a AIDS/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , HIV-1/imunologia , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Vacinas contra a AIDS/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra a AIDS/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Feminino , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Esquemas de Imunização , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento , Vacinação , Adulto Jovem
2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 727, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33023498

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Viral load (VL) testing is the gold-standard approach for monitoring human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment success and virologic failure, but uptake is suboptimal in resource-limited and rural settings. We conducted a cross-sectional study of risk factors for non-uptake of VL testing in rural Uganda. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of uptake of VL testing among randomly selected people with HIV (PWH) receiving anti-retroviral treatment (ART) for at least 6 months at all eight primary health centers in Gomba district, rural Uganda. Socio-demographic and clinical data were extracted from medical records for the period January to December 2017. VL testing was routinely performed 6 months after ART initiation and 12 months thereafter for PWH stable on ART. We used descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression to evaluate factors associated with non-uptake of VL testing (the primary outcome). RESULTS: Of 414 PWH, 60% were female, and the median age was 40 years (interquartile range [IQR] 31-48). Most (62.3%) had been on ART > 2 years, and the median duration of treatment was 34 months (IQR 14-55). Thirty three percent did not receive VL testing: 36% of women and 30% of men. Shorter duration of ART (≤2 years) (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.38; 95% CI:1.37-4.12; p = 0.002), younger age 16-30 years (AOR 2.74; 95% CI:1.44-5.24; p = 0.002) and 31-45 years (AOR 1.92; 95% CI 1.12-3.27; p = 0.017), and receipt of ART at Health Center IV (AOR 2.85; 95% CI: 1.78-4.56; p < 0.001) were significantly associated with non-uptake of VL testing. CONCLUSIONS: One-in-three PWH on ART missed VL testing in rural Uganda. Strategies to improve coverage of VL testing, such as VL focal persons to flag missed tests, patient education and demand creation for VL testing are needed, particularly for recent ART initiates and younger persons on treatment, in order to attain the third Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) 95-95-95 target - virologic suppression for 95% of PWH on ART.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , HIV-1/imunologia , População Rural , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Lactente , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco , Testes Sorológicos , Resposta Viral Sustentada , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 742, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036558

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The surge of methamphetamine use has been a complicating factor compounding the steeply increasing number of drug overdose deaths in the U.S. Infection from blood-borne viruses including hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV, related to methamphetamine use continue to grow. This study aims to examine the risk factors associated with HBV, HCV and HIV among people who used methamphetamine. METHODS: People who ever used methamphetamine were identified from five National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) cohorts, 2007 to 2016. The outcome was either positive or negative for blood-borne viruses as identified from laboratory tests. Weighted statistics for the combined ten years of data were calculated by multiplying the weighted variable for laboratory measurements by 0.2. We examined the association of sexual activities (sexual partners, sexual identity), drug use behaviors (poly-drug use, injection drug use, frequency of drug use, age started using methamphetamine), demographics, and socio-economic status with blood-borne viruses using bivariate and multivariable logistic regression models. RESULTS: There were 1132 participants representing approximately 11,996,319 persons who ever used methamphetamine in the U.S. Blood-borne viruses' positive rate was 13.0 per 100,000. Multivariable logistic regression analyses showed significant associations of blood-borne infections with age 40-49 years (vs. age 20-29 years, adjusted odds ratio 4.77, 95% CI 1.11-20.55), age 50-59 years (vs. age 20-29 years, 10.25, 2.40-43.82), living within poverty index 1-1.9 (vs. poverty index > = 2, 2.55; 1.19-5.49), living below the poverty threshold (vs. poverty index > = 2, 2.55; 1.11-5.86), having lower than high school education (vs. equal or higher than high school education, 3.13; 1.51-6.46), sexual identity as other than heterosexual (vs. heterosexual, 5.60; 1.72-18.28), using methamphetamine and heroin and cocaine (vs. using methamphetamine alone, 4.24; 1.06-16.92), injection drug use (vs. no injection drug use, 3.15; 1.61-6.16), and started using methamphetamine at age above 25 (vs. started using methamphetamine at age between 10 and 17, 2.09; 1.01-4.35). CONCLUSIONS: Among people who use methamphetamine, those who use polysubstance, or who inject substances, are in urgent need for vaccination and interventions to avoid further harm from blood borne infections.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , HIV-1/imunologia , HIV-2/imunologia , Hepacivirus/imunologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Metanfetamina , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Hepatite B/virologia , Hepatite C/virologia , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco , Assunção de Riscos , Testes Sorológicos , Comportamento Sexual , Parceiros Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
4.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(8): e1008753, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866207

RESUMO

The induction of broad and potent immunity by vaccines is the key focus of research efforts aimed at protecting against HIV-1 infection. Soluble native-like HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins have shown promise as vaccine candidates as they can induce potent autologous neutralizing responses in rabbits and non-human primates. In this study, monoclonal antibodies were isolated and characterized from rhesus macaques immunized with the BG505 SOSIP.664 trimer to better understand vaccine-induced antibody responses. Our studies reveal a diverse landscape of antibodies recognizing immunodominant strain-specific epitopes and non-neutralizing neo-epitopes. Additionally, we isolated a subset of mAbs against an epitope cluster at the gp120-gp41 interface that recognize the highly conserved fusion peptide and the glycan at position 88 and have characteristics akin to several human-derived broadly neutralizing antibodies.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra a AIDS/imunologia , Mapeamento de Epitopos , Epitopos/imunologia , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/imunologia , Proteína gp120 do Envelope de HIV/imunologia , Proteína gp41 do Envelope de HIV/imunologia , HIV-1/imunologia , Vacinas contra a AIDS/genética , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Murinos/imunologia , Epitopos/genética , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/genética , Proteína gp41 do Envelope de HIV/genética , HIV-1/genética , Macaca mulatta , Multimerização Proteica/genética , Multimerização Proteica/imunologia
5.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(9): e1008764, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881968

RESUMO

To augment HIV-1 pox-protein vaccine immunogenicity using a next generation adjuvant, a prime-boost strategy of recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara and multimeric Env gp145 was evaluated in macaques with either aluminum (alum) or a novel liposomal monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) formulation adsorbed to alum, ALFA. Binding antibody responses were robust and comparable between arms, while antibody-dependent neutrophil and monocyte phagocytotic responses were greatly enhanced by ALFA. Per-exposure vaccine efficacy against heterologous tier 2 SHIV mucosal challenge was 90% in ALFA-adjuvanted males (P = 0.002), while alum conferred no protection. Half of the ALFA-adjuvanted males remained uninfected after the full challenge series, which spanned seven months after the last vaccination. Antibody-dependent monocyte and neutrophil phagocytic responses both strongly correlated with protection. Significant sex differences in infection risk were observed, with much lower infection rates in females than males. In humans, MPLA-liposome-alum adjuvanted gp120 also increased HIV-1-specific phagocytic responses relative to alum. Thus, next-generation liposome-based adjuvants can drive vaccine elicited antibody effector activity towards potent phagocytic responses in both macaques and humans and these responses correlate with protection. Future protein vaccination strategies aiming to improve functional humoral responses may benefit from such adjuvants.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Formação de Anticorpos/imunologia , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra a SAIDS/uso terapêutico , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , HIV-1/imunologia , Humanos , Macaca mulatta , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vacinas contra a SAIDS/imunologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/imunologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/virologia , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4409, 2020 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879304

RESUMO

Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) develop in a subset of HIV-1 infected individuals over 2-3 years of infection. Infected infants develop plasma bnAbs frequently and as early as 1-year post-infection suggesting factors governing bnAb induction in infants are distinct from adults. Understanding viral characteristics in infected infants with early bnAb responses will provide key information about antigenic triggers driving B cell maturation pathways towards induction of bnAbs. Herein, we evaluate the presence of plasma bnAbs in a cohort of 51 HIV-1 clade-C infected infants and identify viral factors associated with early bnAb responses. Plasma bnAbs targeting V2-apex on the env are predominant in infant elite and broad neutralizers. Circulating viral variants in infant elite neutralizers are susceptible to V2-apex bnAbs. In infant elite neutralizers, multivariant infection is associated with plasma bnAbs targeting diverse autologous viruses. Our data provides information supportive of polyvalent vaccination approaches capable of inducing V2-apex bnAbs against HIV-1.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Produtos do Gene env do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/imunologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , HIV-1/imunologia , Humanos , Lactente , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Masculino , Vacinação
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(39): e22335, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991445

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) is an uncommon and aggressive large B-cell lymphoma commonly diagnosed in human immunodeficiency viruses -positive patients. Oral cavity is the most commonly PBL affected site. Most oral PBLs presented as asymptomatic swellings, frequently associated with ulcerations and bleeding. Most cases lacked B-symptoms, suggesting a more local involvement of the disease. No standard treatment is yet for oral PBL. Five-year survival rate recorded no more than 33.5%. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 39-year-old male presented to Dental Clinic with 1 month swelling of the oral cavity, in absence of any other symptoms or signs. He followed antibiotic therapy just on suspicion of an oral abscess and later oral surgical treatment on suspicion of bone neoplasm. DIAGNOSIS: Surgical specimen analysis highlighted a diffuse infiltrate of large-sized atypical cells with plasmablastic appearance and plasma cell phenotype. Oral cavity PBL was diagnosed. Blood tests recorded mild lymphopenia and positive human immunodeficiency viruses serology. INTERVENTIONS: Patient underwent chemotherapy including intrathecal methotrexate prophylaxis, in addition to a highly active antiretroviral therapy. OUTCOMES: At 12 months from diagnosis, patient recorded complete hematological remission. CONCLUSIONS: Oral PBL diagnosis requires a high level of suspicion and awareness both by physicians and pathologists. They should be aware of the extent of such disease which is often mistaken as oral abscess or infected tooth, thus leading to delay the most appropriate diagnostic evaluation. As PBL is an aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma, a delayed diagnosis might negatively impact on both treatment and survival.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/métodos , Boca/patologia , Linfoma Plasmablástico/tratamento farmacológico , Abscesso/diagnóstico , Abscesso/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Assistência ao Convalescente , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Edema/etiologia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Soropositividade para HIV/sangue , HIV-1/imunologia , Humanos , Injeções Espinhais , Linfoma não Hodgkin/patologia , Masculino , Metotrexato/administração & dosagem , Metotrexato/uso terapêutico , Plasmócitos/patologia , Linfoma Plasmablástico/diagnóstico por imagem , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238282, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915788

RESUMO

The number, intensity and order of emergence of HIV-1 specific antibodies in serum or plasma were associated with the stage of HIV-1 infection. In this study, we retrospectively analyzed the HIV-1 confirmatory results tested by western blot (WB) or recombination immunoblot assay (RIBA) in Wuhan, 2012-2018, to access the profiles of HIV-1 specific antibodies. A total of 14432 HIV-suspected serum or plasma samples collected from local hospitals and other HIV screening laboratories were further screened by two 4th generation enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits in our laboratory, of which 11068 specimens (76.69%) had at least one positive ELISA result and thereby were finally confirmed with WB or RIBA. RIBA had identified 652 (81.09%) positive and 13 (1.62%) indeterminate cases from July 1, 2014 to January 7, 2015, while WB had identified 8358 (81.43%) positive and 643 (6.26%) indeterminate cases in the other times during 2012-2018. The indeterminate rate of WB was significant higher than that of RIBA (p<0.001). Although the number of HIV-1 infected subjects increased significantly from 2012 (n = 911) to 2018 (n = 1578), the positive rate of HIV-1 antibodies decreased markedly from 70.08% in 2012 to 58.79% in 2018 (p<0.001). The most commonly observed antibody profile was gp160+gp120+p66+(p55+)p51+gp41+p31+p24+p17+ (4131, 49.43%) for WB-MP and gp160+gp120+gp41+p31+p24+p17+ (382, 58.59%) for RIBA-WANTAI, and the absence of reactivity to three possible serologic markers for recent HIV-1 infection, p31, p66, and p51, increased significantly from 2012 to 2018, with the overall rate of 17.03%, 9.40%, and 15.15%, respectively. The suspected acute HIV-1 infection was also observed to be increased in recent years, with an overall rate of 1.00%. Our results indicated the detection rate had decreased for HIV-1 infection, but increased for suspected recent and acute HIV-1 infection during 2012-2018, reflecting the efforts of intervention among high risk population.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Anti-HIV/sangue , Proteína gp120 do Envelope de HIV/imunologia , Proteína gp160 do Envelope de HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Soropositividade para HIV/epidemiologia , HIV-1/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/sangue , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , HIV-1/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Testes Sorológicos , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
11.
Monoclon Antib Immunodiagn Immunother ; 39(4): 107-111, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32762609

RESUMO

In this hypothesis, we address the biological/immunological pathway leading to severe disease or death after infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The underlying immune response is described with "original antigenic sin" (OAS) whereby previous infections influence the response to future virus encounters. We cite evidence for OAS-induced immunopathology in HIV-1 disease. We hypothesize that similar immune abnormalities can occur after infection with SARS-CoV-2. This hypothesis is supported by recent analysis of the antibodies in infected patients demonstrating serological and B cell abnormalities. The concept of symmetrical clonal regulation developed earlier for the immune network illustrates the pathway suggested by our hypothesis and may be helpful to develop strategies avoiding severe coronavirus disease 2019.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Evasão da Resposta Imune/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Reações Cruzadas/imunologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , HIV/imunologia , HIV-1/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Imunoglobulina M/imunologia , Memória Imunológica/imunologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/patologia
12.
Virology ; 548: 152-159, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32838936

RESUMO

Despite anti-retroviral therapy (ART) interventions for HIV+ pregnant mothers, over 43,000 perinatal infections occur yearly. Understanding risk factors that lead to mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV are critical. We evaluated maternal and infant plasma binding and neutralizing antibody responses in a drug-naïve, CRF01_AE infected MTCT cohort from Thailand to determine associations with transmission risk. Env V3-specific IgG and neutralizing antibody responses were significantly higher in HIV- infants, as compared to HIV+ infants. In fact, infant plasma neutralizing antibodies significantly associated with non-transmission. Conversely, increased maternal Env V3-specific IgG and neutralizing antibody responses were significantly associated with increased transmission risk, after controlling for maternal viral load. Our results highlight the importance of evaluating both maternal and infant humoral immune responses to better understand mechanisms of protection, as selective placental antibody transport may have a role in MTCT. This study further emphasizes the complex role of Env-specific antibodies in MTCT of CRF01_AE HIV.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , HIV-1/imunologia , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Virology ; 548: 73-81, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32838948

RESUMO

The host protein SERINC5 inhibits the infectivity of HIV-1 virions in an Env-dependent manner and is counteracted by Nef. The conformation of the Env trimer reportedly correlates with sensitivity to SERINC5. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the "open" conformation of the Env trimer revealed by sensitivity to the V3-loop specific antibody 447-52D directly correlates with sensitivity to SERINC5. Of five Envs tested, SF162 was the most sensitive to neutralization by 447-52D, but it was not the most sensitive to SERINC5; instead the Env of LAI was substantially more sensitive to SERINC5 than all the other Envs. Mutational opening of the trimer by substitution of two tyrosines that mediate interaction between the V2 and V3 loops sensitized the Envs of JRFL and LAI to 447-52D as previously reported, but only BaL was sensitized to SERINC5. These data suggest that trimer "openness" is not sufficient for sensitivity to SERINC5.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , HIV-1/imunologia , Proteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Produtos do Gene env do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/química , Produtos do Gene env do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/genética , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/química , HIV-1/genética , HIV-1/fisiologia , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana/química , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Mutação , Produtos do Gene env do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/genética
14.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(8): e1008752, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760121

RESUMO

Members of the family of pyrin and HIN domain containing (PYHIN) proteins play an emerging role in innate immunity. While absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) acts a cytosolic sensor of non-self DNA and plays a key role in inflammasome assembly, the γ-interferon-inducible protein 16 (IFI16) restricts retroviral gene expression by sequestering the transcription factor Sp1. Here, we show that the remaining two human PYHIN proteins, i.e. myeloid cell nuclear differentiation antigen (MNDA) and pyrin and HIN domain family member 1 (PYHIN1 or IFIX) share this antiretroviral function of IFI16. On average, knock-down of each of these three nuclear PYHIN proteins increased infectious HIV-1 yield from human macrophages by more than an order of magnitude. Similarly, knock-down of IFI16 strongly increased virus transcription and production in primary CD4+ T cells. The N-terminal pyrin domain (PYD) plus linker region containing a nuclear localization signal (NLS) were generally required and sufficient for Sp1 sequestration and anti-HIV-1 activity of IFI16, MNDA and PYHIN1. Replacement of the linker region of AIM2 by the NLS-containing linker of IFI16 resulted in a predominantly nuclear localization and conferred direct antiviral activity to AIM2 while attenuating its ability to form inflammasomes. The reverse change caused nuclear-to-cytoplasmic relocalization of IFI16 and impaired its antiretroviral activity but did not result in inflammasome assembly. We further show that the Zn-finger domain of Sp1 is critical for the interaction with IFI16 supporting that pyrin domains compete with DNA for Sp1 binding. Finally, we found that human PYHIN proteins also inhibit Hepatitis B virus and simian vacuolating virus 40 as well as the LINE-1 retrotransposon. Altogether, our data show that IFI16, PYHIN1 and MNDA restrict HIV-1 and other viral pathogens by interfering with Sp1-dependent gene expression and support an important role of nuclear PYHIN proteins in innate antiviral immunity.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , HIV-1/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição Sp1/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/virologia , Núcleo Celular/genética , DNA Viral/genética , Células HEK293 , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/patologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/genética , HIV-1/isolamento & purificação , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Inflamassomos/genética , Inflamassomos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/virologia , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Fator de Transcrição Sp1/genética , Replicação Viral
15.
Cells ; 9(9)2020 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32847031

RESUMO

Following influenza infection, rs2248374-G ERAP2 expressing cells may transcribe an alternative spliced isoform: ERAP2/Iso3. This variant, unlike ERAP2-wt, is unable to trim peptides to be loaded on MHC class I molecules, but it can still dimerize with both ERAP2-wt and ERAP1-wt, thus contributing to profiling an alternative cellular immune-peptidome. In order to verify if the expression of ERAP2/Iso3 may be induced by other pathogens, PBMCs and MDMs isolated from 20 healthy subjects were stimulated with flu, LPS, CMV, HIV-AT-2, SARS-CoV-2 antigens to analyze its mRNA and protein expression. In parallel, Calu3 cell lines and PBMCs were in vitro infected with growing doses of SARS-CoV-2 (0.5, 5, 1000 MOI) and HIV-1BAL (0.1, 1, and 10 ng p24 HIV-1Bal/1 × 106 PBMCs) viruses, respectively. Results showed that: (1) ERAP2/Iso3 mRNA expression can be prompted by many pathogens and it is coupled with the modulation of several determinants (cytokines, interferon-stimulated genes, activation/inhibition markers, antigen-presentation elements) orchestrating the anti-microbial immune response (Quantigene); (2) ERAP2/Iso3 mRNA is translated into a protein (western blot); (3) ERAP2/Iso3 mRNA expression is sensitive to SARS-CoV-2 and HIV-1 concentration. Considering the key role played by ERAPs in antigen processing and presentation, it is conceivable that these enzymes may be potential targets and modulators of the pathogenicity of infectious diseases and further analyses are needed to define the role played by the different isoforms.


Assuntos
Aminopeptidases/genética , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Imunização/métodos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/virologia , Macrófagos/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Apresentação do Antígeno/genética , Doadores de Sangue , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Genótipo , Infecções por HIV/genética , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/imunologia , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Menor/genética , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética/imunologia
16.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(8): e1008678, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760119

RESUMO

GWAS, immune analyses and biomarker screenings have identified host factors associated with in vivo HIV-1 control. However, there is a gap in the knowledge about the mechanisms that regulate the expression of such host factors. Here, we aimed to assess DNA methylation impact on host genome in natural HIV-1 control. To this end, whole DNA methylome in 70 untreated HIV-1 infected individuals with either high (>50,000 HIV-1-RNA copies/ml, n = 29) or low (<10,000 HIV-1-RNA copies/ml, n = 41) plasma viral load (pVL) levels were compared and identified 2,649 differentially methylated positions (DMPs). Of these, a classification random forest model selected 55 DMPs that correlated with virologic (pVL and proviral levels) and HIV-1 specific adaptive immunity parameters (IFNg-T cell responses and neutralizing antibodies capacity). Then, cluster and functional analyses identified two DMP clusters: cluster 1 contained hypo-methylated genes involved in antiviral and interferon response (e.g. PARP9, MX1, and USP18) in individuals with high viral loads while in cluster 2, genes related to T follicular helper cell (Tfh) commitment (e.g. CXCR5 and TCF7) were hyper-methylated in the same group of individuals with uncontrolled infection. For selected genes, mRNA levels negatively correlated with DNA methylation, confirming an epigenetic regulation of gene expression. Further, these gene expression signatures were also confirmed in early and chronic stages of infection, including untreated, cART treated and elite controllers HIV-1 infected individuals (n = 37). These data provide the first evidence that host genes critically involved in immune control of the virus are under methylation regulation in HIV-1 infection. These insights may offer new opportunities to identify novel mechanisms of in vivo virus control and may prove crucial for the development of future therapeutic interventions aimed at HIV-1 cure.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Metilação de DNA , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , HIV-1/imunologia , Fatores Reguladores de Interferon/genética , Carga Viral , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/genética , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Fatores Reguladores de Interferon/metabolismo , Interferons/metabolismo , Masculino , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/imunologia , Replicação Viral
17.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(8): e1008696, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760139

RESUMO

HLA-B*35Px is associated with HIV-1 disease rapid progression to AIDS. However, the mechanism(s) underlying this deleterious effect of this HLA allele on HIV-1 infection outcome has not fully understood. CD8+ T cells play a crucial role to control the viral replication but impaired CD8+ T cells represent a major hallmark of HIV-1 infection. Here, we examined the effector functions of CD8+ T cells restricted by HLA-B*35Px (HLA-B*35:03 and HLA-B*35:02), HLA-B*27/B57 and non-HLA-B*27/B57 (e.g. HLA-A*01, A*02, A*03, A*11, A*24, A*26, B*40, B*08, B*38, B*44). CD8+ T cells restricted by HLA-B*35Px exhibited an impaired phenotype compared with those restricted by HLA-B*27/B57 and even non-HLA-B*27/B57. CD8+ T cells restricted by non-HLA-B*27/B57 when encountered their cognate epitopes upregulated TIM-3 and thus became suppressed by regulatory T cells (Tregs) via TIM-3: Galectin-9 (Gal-9). Strikingly, CD8+ T cells restricted by HLA-B*35Px expressed fewer TIM-3 and therefore did not get suppressed by Tregs, which was similar to CD8+ T cells restricted by HLA-B*27/B57. Instead, CD8+ T cells restricted by HLA-B*35Px upon recognition of their cognate epitopes upregulated CTLA-4. The transcriptional and impaired phenotype (e.g. poor effector functions) of HIV-specific CD8+ T cells restricted by HLA-B*35 was related to persistent CTLA-4, elevated Eomes and blimp-1 but poor T-bet expression. As such, anti-CTLA-4 antibody, Ipilimumab, reversed the impaired proliferative capacity of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells restricted by HLA-B*35Px but not others. This study supports the concept that CD8+ T resistance to Tregs-mediated suppression is related to allele restriction rather than the epitope specificity. Our results aid to explain a novel mechanism for the inability of HIV-specific CD8+ T cells restricted by HLA-B*35Px to control viral replication.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Antígeno CTLA-4/metabolismo , Epitopos de Linfócito T/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , HIV-1/imunologia , Antígeno HLA-B35/imunologia , Replicação Viral , Antígeno CTLA-4/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Infecções por HIV/metabolismo , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/metabolismo , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Fenótipo , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia
18.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(8): e1008679, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790802

RESUMO

Antiretroviral drugs that target various stages of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) life cycle have been effective in curbing the AIDS epidemic. However, drug resistance, off-target effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART), and varying efficacy in prevention underscore the need to develop novel and alternative therapeutics. In this study, we investigated whether targeting the signaling molecule Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) would inhibit HIV-1 infection and generation of the latent reservoir in primary CD4 T cells. We show that FTY720 (Fingolimod), an FDA-approved functional antagonist of S1P receptors, blocks cell-free and cell-to-cell transmission of HIV and consequently reduces detectable latent virus. Mechanistically, FTY720 impacts the HIV-1 life cycle at two levels. Firstly, FTY720 reduces the surface density of CD4, thereby inhibiting viral binding and fusion. Secondly, FTY720 decreases the phosphorylation of the innate HIV restriction factor SAMHD1 which is associated with reduced levels of total and integrated HIV, while reducing the expression of Cyclin D3. In conclusion, targeting the S1P pathway with FTY720 could be a novel strategy to inhibit HIV replication and reduce the seeding of the latent reservoir.


Assuntos
Cloridrato de Fingolimode/farmacologia , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , HIV-1/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteína 1 com Domínio SAM e Domínio HD/antagonistas & inibidores , Moduladores do Receptor de Esfingosina 1 Fosfato/farmacologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Replicação Viral , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , HIV-1/imunologia , Humanos , Lisofosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Proteína 1 com Domínio SAM e Domínio HD/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Esfingosina/análogos & derivados , Esfingosina/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Latência Viral
19.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(8): e1008791, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841299

RESUMO

During antiretroviral therapy (ART) that suppresses HIV replication to below the limit-of-quantification, virions produced during ART can be detected at low frequencies in the plasma, termed residual viremia (RV). We hypothesized that a reservoir of HIV-infected cells actively produce and release virions during ART that are potentially infectious, and that following ART-interruption, these virions can complete full-cycles of replication and contribute to rebound viremia. Therefore, we studied the dynamics of RV sequence variants in 3 participants who initiated ART after ~3 years of infection and were ART-suppressed for >6 years prior to self-initiated ART-interruptions. Longitudinal RV C2V5env sequences were compared to sequences from pre-ART plasma, supernatants of quantitative viral outgrowth assays (QVOA) of cells collected during ART, post-ART-interruption plasma, and ART-re-suppression plasma. Identical, "putatively clonal," RV sequences comprised 8-84% of sequences from each timepoint. The majority of RV sequences were genetically similar to those from plasma collected just prior to ART-initiation, but as the duration of ART-suppression increased, an increasing proportion of RV variants were similar to sequences from earlier in infection. Identical sequences were detected in RV over a median of 3 years (range: 0.3-8.2) of ART-suppression. RV sequences were identical to pre-ART plasma viruses (5%), infectious viruses induced in QVOA (4%) and rebound viruses (5%) (total n = 21/154 (14%) across the 3 participants). RV sequences identical to ART-interruption "rebound" sequences were detected 0.1-7.4 years prior to ART-interruption. RV variant prevalence and persistence were not associated with detection of the variant among rebound sequences. Shortly after ART-re-suppression, variants that had been replicating during ART-interruptions were detected as RV (n = 5). These studies show a dynamic, virion-producing HIV reservoir that contributes to rekindling infection upon ART-interruption. The persistence of identical RV variants over years suggests that a subpopulation of HIV-infected clones frequently or continuously produce virions that may resist immune clearance; this suggests that cure strategies should target this active as well as latent reservoirs.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , HIV-1/imunologia , Plasma/virologia , Viremia/epidemiologia , Replicação Viral , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/virologia , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , HIV-1/genética , Humanos , Incidência , Plasma/efeitos dos fármacos , Plasma/imunologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Carga Viral , Viremia/virologia , Latência Viral , Suspensão de Tratamento
20.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(8): e1008665, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32780770

RESUMO

Two-component, self-assembling nanoparticles represent a versatile platform for multivalent presentation of viral antigens. Computational design of protein nanoparticles with differing sizes and geometries enables combination with antigens of choice to test novel multimerization concepts in immunization strategies where the goal is to improve the induction and maturation of neutralizing antibody lineages. Here, we describe detailed antigenic, structural, and functional characterization of computationally designed tetrahedral, octahedral, and icosahedral nanoparticle immunogens displaying trimeric HIV envelope glycoprotein (Env) ectodomains. Env trimers, based on subtype A (BG505) or consensus group M (ConM) sequences and engineered with SOSIP stabilizing mutations, were fused to an underlying trimeric building block of each nanoparticle. Initial screening yielded one icosahedral and two tetrahedral nanoparticle candidates, capable of presenting twenty or four copies of the Env trimer. A number of analyses, including detailed structural characterization by cryo-EM, demonstrated that the nanoparticle immunogens possessed the intended structural and antigenic properties. When the immunogenicity of ConM-SOSIP trimers presented on a two-component tetrahedral nanoparticle or as soluble proteins were compared in rabbits, the two immunogens elicited similar serum antibody binding titers against the trimer component. Neutralizing antibody titers were slightly elevated in the animals given the nanoparticle immunogen and were initially more focused to the trimer apex. Altogether, our findings indicate that tetrahedral nanoparticles can be successfully applied for presentation of HIV Env trimer immunogens; however, the optimal implementation to different immunization strategies remains to be determined.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Anti-HIV/imunologia , Antígenos HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , HIV-1/imunologia , Nanopartículas/química , Produtos do Gene env do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/química , Produtos do Gene env do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/imunologia , Animais , Epitopos/imunologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Imunização , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Coelhos , Produtos do Gene env do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/genética
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